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Sample records for paced breathing activity

  1. Paced respiration with end-expiration technique offers superior BOLD signal repeatability for breath-hold studies.

    PubMed

    Scouten, A; Schwarzbauer, C

    2008-11-01

    As a simple, non-invasive method of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal calibration, the breath-hold task offers considerable potential for the quantification of neuronal activity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements. With an aim to improve the precision of this calibration method, the impact of respiratory rate control on the BOLD signal achieved with the breath-hold task was investigated. In addition to self-paced breathing, three different computer-paced breathing rates were imposed during the periods between end-expiration breath-hold blocks. The resulting BOLD signal timecourses and statistical activation maps were compared in eleven healthy human subjects. Results indicate that computer-paced respiration produces a larger peak BOLD signal increase with breath-hold than self-paced breathing, in addition to lower variability between trials. This is due to the more significant post-breath-hold signal undershoot present in self-paced runs, a characteristic which confounds the definition of baseline and is difficult to accurately model. Interestingly, the specific respiratory rate imposed between breath-hold periods generally does not have a statistically significant impact on the BOLD signal change. This result can be explained by previous reports of humans adjusting their inhalation depth to compensate for changes in rate, with the end-goal of maintaining homeostatic ventilation. The advantage of using end-expiration relative to end-inspiration breath-hold is apparent in view of the high repeatability of the BOLD signal in the present study, which does not suffer from the previously reported high variability associated with uncontrolled inspiration depth when using the end-inspiration technique.

  2. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Slow Paced Breathing on Current Food Craving.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) involves slow paced breathing (approximately six breaths per minute), thereby maximizing low-frequent heart rate oscillations and baroreflex gain. Mounting evidence suggests that HRV-BF promotes symptom reductions in a variety of physical and mental disorders. It may also positively affect eating behavior by reducing food cravings. The aim of the current study was to investigate if slow paced breathing can be useful for attenuating momentary food craving. Female students performed paced breathing either at six breaths per minute (n = 32) or at nine breaths per minute (n = 33) while watching their favorite food on the computer screen. Current food craving decreased during a first resting period, increased during paced breathing, and decreased during a second resting period in both conditions. Although current hunger increased in both conditions during paced breathing as well, it remained elevated after the second resting period in the nine breaths condition only. Thus, breathing rate did not influence specific food craving, but slow paced breathing appeared to have a delayed influence on state hunger. Future avenues are suggested for the study of HRV-BF in the context of eating behavior.

  3. Effects of a facial nerve lesion on responses in forehead microvessels to conjunctival irritation and paced breathing.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D

    2012-08-16

    To investigate parasympathetic influences on the forehead microvasculature, blood flow was monitored bilaterally in seven participants with a unilateral facial nerve lesion during conjunctival irritation with Schirmer's strips and while breathing at 0.15 Hz. Blood flow and slow-wave frequency increased on the intact side of the forehead during Schirmer's test but did not change on the denervated side. However, a 0.15 Hz vascular wave strengthened during paced breathing, particularly on the denervated side. These findings indicate that parasympathetic activity in the facial nerve increases forehead blood flow during minor conjunctival irritation, but may interfere with the 0.15 Hz vascular wave. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heart rate autonomic regulation system at rest and during paced breathing among patients with CRPS as compared to age-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bartur, Gadi; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Raphaely-Beer, Noa; Peleg, Sara; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the autonomic nerve heart rate regulation system at rest and its immediate response to paced breathing among patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as compared with age-matched healthy controls. Quasiexperimental. Outpatient clinic. Ten patients with CRPS and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Participants underwent Holter ECG (NorthEast Monitoring, Inc., Maynard, MA, USA) recording during rest and biofeedback-paced breathing session. Heart rate variability (HRV), time, and frequency measures were assessed. HRV and time domain values were significantly lower at rest among patients with CRPS as compared with controls. A significant association was noted between pain rank and HRV frequency measures at rest and during paced breathing; although both groups reduced breathing rate significantly during paced breathing, HRV time domain parameters increased only among the control group. The increased heart rate and decreased HRV at rest in patients with CRPS suggest a general autonomic imbalance. The inability of the patients to increase HRV time domain values during paced breathing may suggest that these patients have sustained stress response with minimal changeability in response to slow-paced breathing stimuli. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ultra-short heart rate variability recording reliability: The effect of controlled paced breathing.

    PubMed

    Melo, Hiago M; Martins, Thiago C; Nascimento, Lucas M; Hoeller, Alexandre A; Walz, Roger; Takase, Emílio

    2018-06-04

    Recent studies have reported that Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices remain reliable even during recordings shorter than 5 min, suggesting the ultra-short recording method as a valuable tool for autonomic assessment. However, the minimum time-epoch to obtain a reliable record for all HRV domains (time, frequency, and Poincare geometric measures), as well as the effect of respiratory rate on the reliability of these indices remains unknown. Twenty volunteers had their HRV recorded in a seated position during spontaneous and controlled respiratory rhythms. HRV intervals with 1, 2, and 3 min were correlated with the gold standard period (6-min duration) and the mean values of all indices were compared in the two respiratory rhythm conditions. rMSSD and SD1 were more reliable for recordings with ultra-short duration at all time intervals (r values from 0.764 to 0.950, p < 0.05) for spontaneous breathing condition, whereas the other indices require longer recording time to obtain reliable values. The controlled breathing rhythm evokes stronger r values for time domain indices (r values from 0.83 to 0.99, p < 0.05 for rMSSD), but impairs the mean values replicability of domains across most time intervals. Although the use of standardized breathing increases the correlations coefficients, all HRV indices showed an increase in mean values (t values from 3.79 to 14.94, p < 0.001) except the RR and HF that presented a decrease (t = 4.14 and 5.96, p < 0.0001). Our results indicate that proper ultra-short-term recording method can provide a quick and reliable source of cardiac autonomic nervous system assessment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pattern Activity Clustering and Evaluation (PACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Banas, Christopher; Paul, Michael; Bussjager, Becky; Seetharaman, Guna

    2012-06-01

    With the vast amount of network information available on activities of people (i.e. motions, transportation routes, and site visits) there is a need to explore the salient properties of data that detect and discriminate the behavior of individuals. Recent machine learning approaches include methods of data mining, statistical analysis, clustering, and estimation that support activity-based intelligence. We seek to explore contemporary methods in activity analysis using machine learning techniques that discover and characterize behaviors that enable grouping, anomaly detection, and adversarial intent prediction. To evaluate these methods, we describe the mathematics and potential information theory metrics to characterize behavior. A scenario is presented to demonstrate the concept and metrics that could be useful for layered sensing behavior pattern learning and analysis. We leverage work on group tracking, learning and clustering approaches; as well as utilize information theoretical metrics for classification, behavioral and event pattern recognition, and activity and entity analysis. The performance evaluation of activity analysis supports high-level information fusion of user alerts, data queries and sensor management for data extraction, relations discovery, and situation analysis of existing data.

  7. Pacing and awareness: brain regulation of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A M; Polman, R C J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this current opinion article is to provide a contemporary perspective on the role of brain regulatory control of paced performances in response to exercise challenges. There has been considerable recent conjecture as to the role of the brain during exercise, and it is now broadly accepted that fatigue does not occur without brain involvement and that all voluntary activity is likely to be paced at some level by the brain according to individualised priorities and knowledge of personal capabilities. This article examines the role of pacing in managing and distributing effort to successfully accomplish physical tasks, while extending existing theories on the role of the brain as a central controller of performance. The opinion proposed in this article is that a central regulator operates to control exercise performance but achieves this without the requirement of an intelligent central governor located in the subconscious brain. It seems likely that brain regulation operates at different levels of awareness, such that minor homeostatic challenges are addressed automatically without conscious awareness, while larger metabolic disturbances attract conscious awareness and evoke a behavioural response. This supports the view that the brain regulates exercise performance but that the interpretation of the mechanisms underlying this effect have not yet been fully elucidated.

  8. Higher sympathetic nerve activity during ventricular (VVI) than during dual-chamber (DDD) pacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Morillo, C. A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We determined the short-term effects of single-chamber ventricular pacing and dual-chamber atrioventricular (AV) pacing on directly measured sympathetic nerve activity. BACKGROUND: Dual-chamber AV cardiac pacing results in greater cardiac output and lower systemic vascular resistance than does single-chamber ventricular pacing. However, it is unclear whether these hemodynamic advantages result in less sympathetic nervous system outflow. METHODS: In 13 patients with a dual-chamber pacemaker, we recorded the electrocardiogram, noninvasive arterial pressure (Finapres), respiration and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) during 3 min of underlying basal heart rate and 3 min of ventricular and AV pacing at rates of 60 and 100 beats/min. RESULTS: Arterial pressure was lowest and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was highest at the underlying basal heart rate. Arterial pressure increased with cardiac pacing and was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (change in mean blood pressure +/- SE: 10 +/- 3 vs. 2 +/- 2 mm Hg at 60 beats/min; 21 +/- 5 vs. 14 +/- 2 mm Hg at 100 beats/min; p < 0.05). Sympathetic nerve activity decreased with cardiac pacing and the decline was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (60 beats/min -40 +/- 11% vs. -17 +/- 7%; 100 beats/min -60 +/- 9% vs. -48 +/- 10%; p < 0.05). Although most patients showed a strong inverse relation between arterial pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity, three patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < or = 30%) showed no relation between arterial pressure and sympathetic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term AV pacing results in lower sympathetic nerve activity and higher arterial pressure than does ventricular pacing, indicating that cardiac pacing mode may influence sympathetic outflow simply through arterial baroreflex mechanisms. We speculate that the greater incidence of adverse outcomes in patients treated with single-chamber ventricular

  9. The effects of metronome breathing on the variability of autonomic activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, D; Dicicco, G

    2000-01-01

    Many chiropractors hypothesize that spinal manipulation affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, the ANS responses to chiropractic manipulative therapy are not well documented, and more research is needed to support this hypothesis. This study represents a step toward the development of a reliable method by which to document that chiropractic manipulative therapy does affect the ANS by exploring the use of paced breathing as a way to reduce the inherent variability in ANS measurements. To examine the hypothesis that the variability of ANS measurements would be reduced if breathing were paced to a metronome at 12 breaths/min. The study was performed at Parker College Research Institute. Eight normotensive subjects were recruited from the student body and staff. Respiration frequency was measured through a strain gauge. A 3-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was used to register the electric activity of the heart, and arterial tonometry monitors were used to record the left and right radial artery blood pressures. Signals were recorded on an IBM-compatible computer with a sampling frequency of 100 Hz. Normal breathing was used for the first 3 recordings, and breathing was paced to a metronome for the final 3 recordings at 12 breaths/min. Fourier analysis was performed on the beat-by-beat fluctuations of the ECG-determined R-R interval and systolic arterial pressure (SBP). Low-frequency fluctuations (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) reflected sympathetic activity, whereas high-frequency fluctuations (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) represented parasympathetic activity. Sympathovagal indices were determined from the ratio of the two bandwidths (LF/HF). The coefficient of variation (CV%) for autonomic parameters was calculated ([average/SD] x 100%) to compare breathing normally and breathing to a metronome with respect to variability. One-way analysis of variance was used to detect differences. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant; all results are presented as average

  10. Multi-Leu PACE4 Inhibitor Retention within Cells Is PACE4 Dependent and a Prerequisite for Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Kévin; Levesque, Christine; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Desjardins, Roxane; Guérin, Brigitte; Day, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression as well as the critical implication of the proprotein convertase PACE4 in prostate cancer progression has been previously reported and supported the development of peptide inhibitors. The multi-Leu peptide, a PACE4-specific inhibitor, was further generated and its capability to be uptaken by tumor xenograft was demonstrated with regard to its PACE4 expression status. To investigate whether the uptake of this inhibitor was directly dependent of PACE4 levels, uptake and efflux from cancer cells were evaluated and correlations were established with PACE4 contents on both wild type and PACE4-knockdown cell lines. PACE4-knockdown associated growth deficiencies were established on the knockdown HepG2, Huh7, and HT1080 cells as well as the antiproliferative effects of the multi-Leu peptide supporting the growth capabilities of PACE4 in cancer cells. PMID:26114115

  11. Active cycle of breathing technique for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mckoy, Naomi A; Wilson, Lisa M; Saldanha, Ian J; Odelola, Olaide A; Robinson, Karen A

    2016-07-05

    People with cystic fibrosis experience chronic airway infections as a result of mucus build up within the lungs. Repeated infections often cause lung damage and disease. Airway clearance therapies aim to improve mucus clearance, increase sputum production, and improve airway function. The active cycle of breathing technique (also known as ACBT) is an airway clearance method that uses a cycle of techniques to loosen airway secretions including breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises, and the forced expiration technique. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the clinical effectiveness of the active cycle of breathing technique with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 25 April 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled clinical studies, including cross-over studies, comparing the active cycle of breathing technique with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. Two review authors independently screened each article, abstracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each study. Our search identified 62 studies, of which 19 (440 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Five randomised controlled studies (192 participants) were included in the meta-analysis; three were of cross-over design. The 14 remaining studies were cross-over studies with inadequate reports for complete assessment. The study size ranged from seven to 65 participants. The age of the participants ranged from six to 63 years (mean age 22.33 years). In 13 studies, follow up lasted a single day. However, there were two long-term randomised controlled studies with follow up of one to three years. Most of the studies did not report on key quality items, and therefore, have an unclear risk of

  12. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts' Breathing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed. PMID:25558995

  13. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  14. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were "very likely" to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were "somewhat likely" or "very likely" to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise.

  15. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  16. Factorial Validity and Gender Invariance of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Tscherne, James; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Documented gender differences in physical activity rates during adolescence (Grunbaum et al., 2004) pose the question of whether physical activity enjoyment similarly differs between boys and girls. However, a necessary precursor to research on this topic is that the factor structure of the PACES be equivalent across gender. Although gender…

  17. Noninvasive imaging of three-dimensional cardiac activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-08-01

    Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms. This study sought to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of 3D intracardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE)-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in 13 healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computed tomography images were obtained to construct geometry models. The noninvasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterpart, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.04, and a relative error of 0.30 ± 0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from the imaged site of initial activation to the pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intracardiac mapping was ∼5 mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex. 3DCEI can noninvasively delineate important features of focal or multifocal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequences of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Noninvasive Imaging of Three-dimensional Cardiac Activation Sequence during Pacing and Ventricular Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Background Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms. Objective This study aims to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac electrical imaging (3-DCEI) technique with the aid of 3-D intra-cardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE) induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Methods Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in thirteen healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computer tomography images were obtained to construct geometry model. Results The non-invasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterparts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72±0.04, and a relative error of 0.30±0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from imaged site of initial activation to pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intra-cardiac mapping was ~5mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex. Conclusion 3-DCEI can non-invasively delineate important features of focal or multi-focal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequence of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms. PMID:21397046

  19. Effect of upper costal and costo-diaphragmatic breathing types on electromyographic activity of respiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Celhay, Isabel; Cordova, Rosa; Miralles, Rodolfo; Meza, Francisco; Erices, Pia; Barrientos, Camilo; Valenzuela, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in young-adult subjects with different breathing types. This study included 50 healthy male subjects with complete natural dentition, and no history of orofacial pain or craniomandibular-cervical-spinal disorders. Subjects were classified into two groups: upper costal breathing type, and costo-diaphragmatic breathing. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Electromyographic activity was recorded during the following tasks: (1) normal quiet breathing; (2) speaking the word 'Mississippi'; (3) swallowing saliva; and (4) forced deep breathing. Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity was not significantly different between breathing types, whereas diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal than costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P<0·05; Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test). Diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type.

  20. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaza, E.; Symonds-Tayler, R.; Collins, D. J.; McDonald, F.; McNair, H. A.; Scurr, E.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.

    2015-02-01

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  1. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator.

    PubMed

    Kaza, E; Symonds-Tayler, R; Collins, D J; McDonald, F; McNair, H A; Scurr, E; Koh, D-M; Leach, M O

    2015-02-21

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  2. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    PubMed Central

    Kaza, E; Symonds-Tayler, R; Collins, D J; McDonald, F; McNair, H A; Scurr, E; Koh, D-M; Leach, M O

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment. PMID:25633183

  3. WE-DE-209-02: Active Breathing Control

    SciTech Connect

    Comsa, D.

    Breast radiation therapy is associated with some risk of lung toxicity as well as cardiac toxicity for left-sided cases. Radiation doses to the lung and heart can be reduced by using the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique, in which the patient is simulated and treated during the deep inspiration phase of the breathing cycle. During DIBH, the heart is usually displaced posteriorly, inferiorly, and to the right, effectively expanding the distance between the heart and the breast/chest wall. As a result, the distance between the medial treatment field border and heart/lung is increased. Also, in a majority of DIBHmore » patients, the air drawn into the thoracic cavity increases the total lung volume. The DIBH was discussed by an AAPM Task Group 10 years ago in the AAPM TG 76 report. However, DIBH is still not the standard of care in many clinics, which may be partially due to challenges associated with its implementation. Therefore, this seccion will focus primarily on how to clinically implement four different DIBH techniques: (1) Active Breathing Control, (2) Spirometric Motion Management, (3) 3D Surface Image-Guided, and (4) Self-held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance. Learning Objectives: Describe the physical displacement of the heart and the change in lung volume during DIBH and discuss dosimetric consequences of those changes. Provide an overview of the technical aspects. Describe work flow for patient simulation and treatment. Give an overview of commissioning and routine. Provide practical tips for clinical implementation.« less

  4. Right ventricular septal pacing: the success of stylet-driven active-fixation leads.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Raphael; Teh, Andrew W; Medi, Caroline; Hung, Thuy To; Balasubramaniam, Richard; Mond, Harry G

    2010-01-01

    The detrimental effects of right ventricular (RV) apical pacing on left ventricular function has driven interest in alternative pacing sites and in particular the mid RV septum and RV outflow tract (RVOT). RV septal lead positioning can be successfully achieved with a specifically shaped stylet and confirmed by the left anterior oblique (LAO) fluoroscopic projection. Such a projection is neither always used nor available during pacemaker implantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate how effective is the stylet-driven technique in septal lead placement guided only by posterior-anterior (PA) fluoroscopic view. One hundred consecutive patients with an indication for single- or dual-chamber pacing were enrolled. RV septal lead positioning was attempted in the PA projection only and confirmed by the LAO projection at the end of the procedure. The RV lead position was septal in 90% of the patients. This included mid RV in 56 and RVOT in 34 patients. There were no significant differences in the mean stimulation threshold, R-wave sensing, and lead impedance between the two sites.In the RVOT, 97% (34/35) of leads were placed on the septum, whereas in the mid RV the value was 89% (56/63). The study confirms that conventional active-fixation pacing leads can be successfully and safely deployed onto the RV septum using a purposely-shaped stylet guided only by the PA fluoroscopic projection.

  5. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  6. Activation of the prefrontal cortex while performing a task at preferred slow pace and metronome slow pace: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kaori; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Katsuyama, Shiori; Tozato, Fusae

    2014-01-01

    Individuals have a preferred pace at which they perform voluntary repetitive movements. Previous studies have reported that greater activation of the prefrontal cortex was observed during self-initiated movements than during externally triggered movements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the activation of the prefrontal cortex induced when the subjects performed a peg-board task at their preferred slow pace (PSP, the self-initiated condition) with that induced when they performed the same task at metronome slow pace (MSP, the externally triggered condition) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Healthy subjects performed the task while sitting in a chair. By assessing the activated channels individually, we confirmed that all of the prefrontal regions of interest were activated by both tasks. In the second-level analyses, we found that the activation detected in the frontopolar cortex (FPPFC; Brodmann area 10) was higher during the PSP task than during the MSP task. The FPPFC is known to be at the top of prefrontal hierarchy, and specifically involved in evaluating self-generated information. In addition, the FPPFC plays a role in coordinating lateral prefrontal cortex. In the present study, the subjects evaluated and managed the internally generated PSP by coordinating the activity of other lower level prefrontal regions.

  7. Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex While Performing a Task at Preferred Slow Pace and Metronome Slow Pace: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    Individuals have a preferred pace at which they perform voluntary repetitive movements. Previous studies have reported that greater activation of the prefrontal cortex was observed during self-initiated movements than during externally triggered movements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the activation of the prefrontal cortex induced when the subjects performed a peg-board task at their preferred slow pace (PSP, the self-initiated condition) with that induced when they performed the same task at metronome slow pace (MSP, the externally triggered condition) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Healthy subjects performed the task while sitting in a chair. By assessing the activated channels individually, we confirmed that all of the prefrontal regions of interest were activated by both tasks. In the second-level analyses, we found that the activation detected in the frontopolar cortex (FPPFC; Brodmann area 10) was higher during the PSP task than during the MSP task. The FPPFC is known to be at the top of prefrontal hierarchy, and specifically involved in evaluating self-generated information. In addition, the FPPFC plays a role in coordinating lateral prefrontal cortex. In the present study, the subjects evaluated and managed the internally generated PSP by coordinating the activity of other lower level prefrontal regions. PMID:25436155

  8. Can Pacing Be Regulated by Post-Activation Potentiation? Insights from a Self-Paced 30 km Trial in Half-Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Sebastián; Barros, Edilberto; Tonello, Laís; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Behm, David G.; Foster, Carl; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given the co-existence of post-activation potentiation (PAP) and fatigue within muscle, it is not known whether PAP could influence performance and pacing during distance running by moderating fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of PAP on pacing, jumping and other physiological measures during a self-paced 30 km trial. Methods Eleven male endurance-trained runners (half-marathon runners) volunteered to participate in this study. Runners participated in a multi-stage 30 km trial. Before the trial started, determination of baseline blood lactate (bLa) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height was performed. The self-paced 30 km trial consisted of 6 × 5 km splits. At the end of each 5 km split (60 s break), data on time to complete the split, CMJ height, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were collected while heart rate was continuously monitored. Results There was a significant decrease in speed (e.g. positive pacing strategy after the 4th split, p<0.05) with a progressive increase in RPE throughout the trial. Compared with baseline, CMJ height was significantly (p<0.05) greater than baseline and was maintained until the end of the trial with an increase after the 5th split, concomitant with a significant reduction in speed and an increase in RPE. Significant correlations were found between ΔCMJ and ΔSPEED (r = 0.77 to 0.87, p<0.05) at different time points as well as between RPE and speed (r = -0.61 to -0.82, p<0.05). Conclusion Our results indicates that fatigue and potentiation co-exist during long lasting endurance events, and that the observed increase in jump performance towards the end of the trial could be reflecting a greater potentiation potentially perhaps counteracting the effects of fatigue and preventing further reductions in speed. PMID:26934357

  9. Changes in respiratory activity induced by mastication during oral breathing in humans.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effect of oral breathing on respiratory movements, including the number of respirations and the movement of the thoracic wall at rest and while chewing gum. Forty normal nose breathers were selected by detecting expiratory airflow from the mouth using a CO2 sensor. Chest measurements were recorded using a Piezo respiratory belt transducer, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and trapezius muscles were recorded at rest and while chewing gum during nasal or oral breathing. Oral breathing was introduced by completely occluding the nostrils with a nose clip. During oral breathing, the respiration rate was significantly lower while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). While chewing gum, the respiration rate was significantly lower during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). During oral breathing, thoracic movement was significantly higher while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). Thoracic movement was significantly greater during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). The trapezius muscle exhibited significant EMG activity when chewing gum during oral breathing. The activity of the trapezius muscle coincided with increased movement of the thoracic wall. Chewing food while breathing through the mouth interferes with and decreases the respiratory cycle and promotes unusual respiratory movement of the thoracic wall, which is directed by the activity of accessory muscles of respiration. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Pacing-induced palmar sweating evaluated by unique hygrometer: possible implications of sympathetic activation during tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, T; Yanaga, T; Makino, N

    2000-03-01

    Although reflex sympathetic activation is a major determinant of the haemodynamic tolerability of ventricular tachycardia (VT), the methods for evaluating this aspect during on-going VT remain invasive and complicated. Palmar sweating as an indirect but non-invasive measure of sympathetic activity was estimated by means of a unique hygrometer under right ventricular (RV) rapid pacing (up to 150 beats min-1) replicating VT, and concurrent monitoring of aortic blood pressure in five patients with various kinds of cardiac arrhythmias in our electrophysiological laboratory. The peak palmar sweating rate in arbitrary units was augmented as the RV pacing rate increased and was proportional to the pacing-induced fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP), with a correlation coefficient of more than 0.903 (P<0.006). The slope of linearity between the sweating rate and the fall in SBP varied among individual patients, with greater sweating amplitude in the younger patients even with the same extent of fall in SBP. This preliminary study suggests sympathetic acceleration caused by haemodynamic deterioration under simulated VT, and therefore this protocol may be able to predict the haemodynamic tolerability of sustained monomorphic VT.

  11. Effects of Reduced Strength on Self-Selected Pacing for Long-Duration Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; English, Kirk E.; Guined, Jamie R.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Strength and aerobic capacity are predictors of astronaut performance for extravehicular activities (EVA) during exploration missions. It is expected that astronauts will self-select a pace below their ventilatory threshold (VT). PURPOSE: To determine the percentage of VT that subjects self-select for prolonged occupational tasks. METHODS: Maximal aerobic capacity and a variety of lower-body strength and power variables were assessed in 17 subjects who climbed 480 rungs on a ladder ergometer and then completed 10 km on a treadmill as quickly as possible using a self-selected pace. The tasks were performed on 4 days, with a weighted suit providing 0% (suit fabric only), 40%, 60%, and 80% of additional bodyweight (BW), thereby altering the strength to BW ratio. Oxygen consumption and heart rate were continuously measured. Repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were performed on the percent of VT values under each suited condition. RESULTS: Subjects consistently self-paced at or below VT for both tasks and the pace was related to suit weight. At the midpoint for the ladder climb the 80% BW condition elicited the lowest metabolic cost (-19+/-14% below VT), significantly different than the 0% BW (-3+/-16%, P=0.002) and the 40% BW conditions (-5+/-22%, P=0.023). The 60% BW condition (-13+/-19%) was different than the 40% BW condition (P=0.034). Upon completion of the ladder task there were no differences among the conditions (0%BW: 3+/-18%; 40%BW: 3+/-21%; 60%BW: - 8+/-25%; 80%BW: -10+/-18%). All subjects failed to complete 5km at 80%BW. At the midpoint of the treadmill test the three remaining conditions were all significantly different (0%BW: -20+/-15%; 40%BW: - 33+/-15%; 60%BW: -41+/-19%). Upon completion of the treadmill test the 60% BW condition (-38+/-12%) was significantly different than the 40% BW (-28+/-15%, P=0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing relative strength results in progressive and disproportionate decreases (relative to VT) in self-selected pacing

  12. Effects of deep breathing on internal oblique and multifidus muscle activity in three sitting postures

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Min-Joo; Jung, Eun-Joo; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to investigate differences in the level of activity of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and multifidus (MF) muscles with deep breathing in three sitting postures. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy women were recruited. The muscle activity (EO, IO, MF) of all subjects was measured in three sitting postures (slumped, thoracic upright, and lumbo-pelvic upright sitting postures) using surface electromyography. The activity of the same muscles was then remeasured in the three sitting postures during deep breathing. [Results] Deep breathing significantly increased activity in the EO, IO, and MF compared with normal breathing. Comparing postures, the activity of the MF and IO muscles was highest in the lumbo-pelvic upright sitting posture. [Conclusion] An lumbo-pelvic upright sitting posture with deep breathing could increase IO and MF muscle activity, thus improving lumbo-pelvic region stability. PMID:29706695

  13. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, G; Yin, Y

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group,more » 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.« less

  14. Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES): First year process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Egan, Cate A; Webster, Collin; Weaver, R Glenn; Brian, Ali; Stodden, David; Russ, Laura; Nesbitt, Danielle; Vazou, Spyridoula

    2018-04-01

    Movement integration (MI) is a strategy within comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). School-university partnerships are recommended to leverage teachers' capacity to use MI. A mixed method process evaluation was conducted of the first year of implementing Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). Classroom teachers (N=12) from four schools participated. Data were collected in Fall 2014 (baseline) and Spring 2015 (∼ four months of intervention) using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions and semi-structured interviews. There were no significant differences between intervention classrooms and control classrooms MI promotion. Differences approaching significance (U=5, p=0.04, d=1.2) were observed when comparing classrooms that received two (community of practice, community-based participatory research) or three components (two components plus service learning) of the intervention and classrooms that received one (community of practice) or no components. Qualitative findings revealed that teachers in classrooms that were more successful responded more favorably to the intervention components than teachers in classrooms that were less successful. Quantitative and qualitative results supported the effectiveness of community-based participatory research as a component of PACES. This study provides information about MI process variables in the context of a CSPAP intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on pacing strategies during game-based activities.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Walker, Ben; Walker, Shane

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on the pacing strategies employed during game-based activities. Twelve semiprofessional team-sport athletes (mean ± SD age 22.8 ± 2.1 y) participated in this study. Players performed 3 small-sided games in random order. In one condition (Control), players were informed that they would play the small-sided game for 12 min and then completed the 12-min game. In a 2nd condition (Deception), players were told that they would play the small-sided game for 6 minutes, but after completing the 6-min game, they were asked to complete another 6 min. In a 3rd condition (Unknown), players were not told how long they would be required to play the small-sided game, but the activity was terminated after 12 min. Movement was recorded using a GPS unit sampling at 10 Hz. Post hoc inspection of video footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. Higher initial intensities were observed in the Deception (130.6 ± 3.3 m/min) and Unknown (129.3 ± 2.4 m/min) conditions than the Control condition (123.3 ± 3.4 m/min). Greater amounts of high-speed running occurred during the initial phases of the Deception condition, and more low-speed activity occurred during the Unknown condition. A moderately greater number of total skill involvements occurred in the Unknown condition than the Control condition. These findings suggest that during game-based activities, players alter their pacing strategy based on the anticipated endpoint of the exercise bout.

  16. Active Self-Paced Learning for Cost-Effective and Progressive Face Identification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang; Wang, Keze; Meng, Deyu; Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a novel cost-effective framework for face identification, which progressively maintains a batch of classifiers with the increasing face images of different individuals. By naturally combining two recently rising techniques: active learning (AL) and self-paced learning (SPL), our framework is capable of automatically annotating new instances and incorporating them into training under weak expert recertification. We first initialize the classifier using a few annotated samples for each individual, and extract image features using the convolutional neural nets. Then, a number of candidates are selected from the unannotated samples for classifier updating, in which we apply the current classifiers ranking the samples by the prediction confidence. In particular, our approach utilizes the high-confidence and low-confidence samples in the self-paced and the active user-query way, respectively. The neural nets are later fine-tuned based on the updated classifiers. Such heuristic implementation is formulated as solving a concise active SPL optimization problem, which also advances the SPL development by supplementing a rational dynamic curriculum constraint. The new model finely accords with the "instructor-student-collaborative" learning mode in human education. The advantages of this proposed framework are two-folds: i) The required number of annotated samples is significantly decreased while the comparable performance is guaranteed. A dramatic reduction of user effort is also achieved over other state-of-the-art active learning techniques. ii) The mixture of SPL and AL effectively improves not only the classifier accuracy compared to existing AL/SPL methods but also the robustness against noisy data. We evaluate our framework on two challenging datasets, which include hundreds of persons under diverse conditions, and demonstrate very promising results. Please find the code of this project at: http://hcp.sysu.edu.cn/projects/aspl/.

  17. Could persistency of current of injury forecast successful active-fixation pacing lead implantation?

    PubMed

    Shali, Shalaimaiti; Su, Yangang; Qin, Shengmei; Ge, Junbo

    2018-05-01

    Presence of adequate current of injury (COI) was recognized as a sign of favorable pacemaker lead outcome. Little is known regarding the value of its dynamic behavior. We sought to test whether persistency of COI could predict active-fixation pacing lead performance. COI was monitored up to 10min after right ventricular (RV) pacing electrode fixation. COI persistency was defined as the percentage of COI magnitude relative to its initial measurement. An unacceptable pacing threshold (≥1.0V in acute evaluation or ≥2.0V over 2-year follow-up) with or without lead dislodgement was considered as lead failure. Lead implantation was attempted for 217 times in 174 patients (age 66.3±7.8years, 78 female). Acute lead failures occurred 43 times. Independent predictors of acute lead failure were RV enlargement (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.11-2.04, P=0.033), absence of COI (OR 3.13, 95%CI 2.08-9.09, P=0.027), and COI persistency at 5min (OR 0.32, 95%CI 0.20-0.69, P=0.001) and 10min (OR 0.41, 95%CI 0.13-0.77, P=0.001). The optimal cutoffs were COI 5min persistency ≥50% (sensitivity 81.4%; specificity 81.9%) and COI 10min persistency ≥20% (sensitivity 86%; specificity 88.6%). There were 12 lead failures during 24.0±6.4months of follow-up. Patients with COI 5min persistency ≥50% had higher event-free survival compared to those with COI 5min persistency <50% (hazard ratio 3.54, 95% CI 1.04-12.06, P=0.043). COI persistency appears to be a valuable indicator for both acute and long-term outcome of active-fixation pacemaker leads. A precipitous decline in COI may require more attention to make sure of the lead performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Noninvasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional ventricular activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia in the rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias represent one of leading causes for sudden cardiac death, a significant problem in public health. Noninvasive imaging of cardiac electric activities associated with ventricular arrhythmias plays an important role in better our understanding of the mechanisms and optimizing the treatment options. The present study aims to rigorously validate a novel three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac electrical imaging (3-DCEI) technique with the aid of 3-D intra-cardiac mapping during paced rhythm and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in thirteen healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous norepinephrine (NE). The non-invasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterparts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 and a relative error of 0.30 averaged over all paced beats and NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. The averaged distance from imaged site of initial activation to measured site determined from intra-cardiac mapping was ∼5mm. These promising results suggest that 3-DCEI is feasible to non-invasively localize the origins and image activation sequence of focal ventricular arrhythmias.

  19. Selective vibration sensing: a new concept for activity-sensing rate-responsive pacing.

    PubMed

    Lau, C P; Stott, J R; Toff, W D; Zetlein, M B; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1988-09-01

    A clinically available model of an activity-sensing, rate-responsive pacemaker (Activitrax, Medtronic) utilizes body vibration during exercise as an indicator of the need for a rate increase. Although having the advantage of rapid onset of rate response, this system lacks specificity and the rate response does not closely correlate with the level of exertion. In addition, this pacemaker is susceptible to the effects of extraneous vibration. In this study involving 20 normal subjects fitted with an external Activitrax pacemaker, the rate responses to a variety of exercises were studied and were compared with the corresponding sinus rates. The vibration generated at the level of the pacemaker was also measured by accelerometers in three axes. Only a fair correlation (r = 0.51) was achieved between the pacemaker rate and the sinus rate. The total root mean square value of acceleration in either the anteroposterior or the vertical axes was found to have a better correlation (r = 0.8). As the main accelerations during physical activities were in the lower frequency range (0.1-4 Hz), a low-pass filter was used to reduce the influence of extraneous vibration. Selective sensing of the acceleration level may be usefully implemented in an algorithm for activity pacing.

  20. Activity Pacing Self-Management in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Eupen, Inge; Meirte, Jill; Van Cauwenbergh, Deborah; Moorkens, Greta; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an activity pacing self-management (APSM) intervention in improving performance of daily life activities in women with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHOD. A total of 33 women with CFS (age 41.1 ± 11.2 yr) were randomly allocated to APSM (experimental group; n = 16) or relaxation (control group; n = 17). Main outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM; primary) and Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). RESULTS. COPM scores changed significantly over time in both groups (p = .03). The change in Satisfaction scores showed a significant difference in favor only of APSM (effect size = 0.74 [0.11, 1.4]). CIS scores decreased significantly in the experimental group only (p < .01). CONCLUSION. APSM was found to be feasible and effective in optimizing participation in desired daily life activities in women with CFS. Replication in a larger sample with long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26356665

  1. Noninvasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional ventricular activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia in the canine heart.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Single-beat imaging of myocardial activation promises to aid in both cardiovascular research and clinical medicine. In the present study we validate a three-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of simultaneous 3D intracardiac mapping to assess its capability to localize endocardial and epicardial initiation sites and image global activation sequences during pacing and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the canine heart. Body surface potentials were measured simultaneously with bipolar electrical recordings in a closed-chest condition in healthy canines. Computed tomography images were obtained after the mapping study to construct realistic geometry models. Data analysis was performed on paced rhythms and VTs induced by norepinephrine (NE). The noninvasively reconstructed activation sequence was in good agreement with the simultaneous measurements from 3D cardiac mapping with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 ± 0.06, a relative error of 0.29 ± 0.05, and a root mean square error of 9 ± 3 ms averaged over 460 paced beats and 96 ectopic beats including premature ventricular complexes, couplets, and nonsustained monomorphic VTs and polymorphic VTs. Endocardial and epicardial origins of paced beats were successfully predicted in 72% and 86% of cases, respectively, during left ventricular pacing. The NE-induced ectopic beats initiated in the subendocardium by a focal mechanism. Sites of initial activation were estimated to be ∼7 mm from the measured initiation sites for both the paced beats and ectopic beats. For the polymorphic VTs, beat-to-beat dynamic shifts of initiation site and activation pattern were characterized by the reconstruction. The present results suggest that 3DCEI can noninvasively image the 3D activation sequence and localize the origin of activation of paced beats and NE-induced VTs in the canine heart with good accuracy. This 3DCEI technique offers the potential to aid interventional therapeutic procedures for

  2. Noninvasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional ventricular activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia in the canine heart

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Single-beat imaging of myocardial activation promises to aid in both cardiovascular research and clinical medicine. In the present study we validate a three-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of simultaneous 3D intracardiac mapping to assess its capability to localize endocardial and epicardial initiation sites and image global activation sequences during pacing and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the canine heart. Body surface potentials were measured simultaneously with bipolar electrical recordings in a closed-chest condition in healthy canines. Computed tomography images were obtained after the mapping study to construct realistic geometry models. Data analysis was performed on paced rhythms and VTs induced by norepinephrine (NE). The noninvasively reconstructed activation sequence was in good agreement with the simultaneous measurements from 3D cardiac mapping with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 ± 0.06, a relative error of 0.29 ± 0.05, and a root mean square error of 9 ± 3 ms averaged over 460 paced beats and 96 ectopic beats including premature ventricular complexes, couplets, and nonsustained monomorphic VTs and polymorphic VTs. Endocardial and epicardial origins of paced beats were successfully predicted in 72% and 86% of cases, respectively, during left ventricular pacing. The NE-induced ectopic beats initiated in the subendocardium by a focal mechanism. Sites of initial activation were estimated to be ∼7 mm from the measured initiation sites for both the paced beats and ectopic beats. For the polymorphic VTs, beat-to-beat dynamic shifts of initiation site and activation pattern were characterized by the reconstruction. The present results suggest that 3DCEI can noninvasively image the 3D activation sequence and localize the origin of activation of paced beats and NE-induced VTs in the canine heart with good accuracy. This 3DCEI technique offers the potential to aid interventional therapeutic procedures for

  3. Anatomic and Pathologic Variability During Radiotherapy for a Hybrid Active Breath-Hold Gating Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Gopan, Ellen; Department of Radiation Oncology Wayne State University, Detroit, MI

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung volume and position using a hybrid active breath-hold gating technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 159 repeat normal inspiration active breath-hold CTs were acquired weekly during radiotherapy for 9 lung cancer patients (12-21 scans per patient). A physician delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV), lungs, and spinal cord on the first breath-hold CT, and contours were propagated semiautomatically. Intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung position and volume were evaluated. Tumor centroid and border variability were quantified. Results: On average, intrafraction variability of lung and GTV centroidmore » position was <2.0 mm. Interfraction population variability was 3.6-6.7 mm (systematic) and 3.1-3.9 mm (random) for the GTV centroid and 1.0-3.3 mm (systematic) and 1.5-2.6 mm (random) for the lungs. Tumor volume regressed 44.6% {+-} 23.2%. Gross tumor volume border variability was patient specific and demonstrated anisotropic shape change in some subjects. Interfraction GTV positional variability was associated with tumor volume regression and contralateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Inter-breath-hold reproducibility was unaffected by time point in the treatment course (p > 0.1). Increases in free-breathing tidal volume were associated with increases in breath-hold ipsilateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The breath-hold technique was reproducible within 2 mm during each fraction. Interfraction variability of GTV position and shape was substantial because of tumor volume and breath-hold lung volume change during therapy. These results support the feasibility of a hybrid breath-hold gating technique and suggest that online image guidance would be beneficial.« less

  4. Changes in Breath Trihalomethane Levels Resulting from Household Water-Use Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sydney M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Ashley, David L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  5. Highly Selective and Rapid Breath Isoprene Sensing Enabled by Activated Alumina Filter.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Jan; Güntner, Andreas T; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2018-03-23

    Isoprene is a versatile breath marker for noninvasive monitoring of high blood cholesterol levels as well as for influenza, end-stage renal disease, muscle activity, lung cancer, and liver disease with advanced fibrosis. Its selective detection in complex human breath by portable devices (e.g., metal-oxide gas sensors), however, is still challenging. Here, we present a new filter concept based on activated alumina powder enabling fast and highly selective detection of isoprene at the ppb level and high humidity. The filter contains high surface area adsorbents that retain hydrophilic compounds (e.g., ketones, alcohols, ammonia) representing major interferants in breath while hydrophobic isoprene is not affected. As a proof-of-concept, filters of commercial activated alumina powder are combined with highly sensitive but rather nonspecific, nanostructured Pt-doped SnO 2 sensors. This results in fast (10 s) measurement of isoprene down to 5 ppb at 90% relative humidity with outstanding selectivity (>100) to breath-relevant acetone, ammonia, ethanol, and methanol, superior to state-of-the-art isoprene sensors. Most importantly, when exposed continuously to simulated breath mixtures (four analytes) for 8 days, this filter-sensor system showed stable performance. It can be incorporated readily into a portable breath isoprene analyzer promising for simple-in-use monitoring of blood cholesterol or other patho/physiological conditions.

  6. Comparing electro- and mechano-myographic muscle activation patterns in self-paced pediatric gait.

    PubMed

    Plewa, Katherine; Samadani, Ali; Chau, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is the standard modality for measuring muscle activity. However, the convenience and availability of low-cost accelerometer-based wearables makes mechanomyography (MMG) an increasingly attractive alternative modality for clinical applications. Literature to date has demonstrated a strong association between EMG and MMG temporal alignment in isometric and isokinetic contractions. However, the EMG-MMG relationship has not been studied in gait. In this study, the concurrence of EMG- and MMG-detected contractions in the tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris muscles were investigated in children during self-paced gait. Furthermore, the distribution of signal power over the gait cycle was statistically compared between EMG-MMG modalities. With EMG as the reference, muscular contractions were detected based on MMG with balanced accuracies between 88 and 94% for all muscles except the gastrocnemius. MMG signal power differed from that of EMG during certain phases of the gait cycle in all muscles except the biceps femoris. These timing and power distribution differences between the two modalities may in part be related to muscle fascicle length changes that are unique to muscle motion during gait. Our findings suggest that the relationship between EMG and MMG appears to be more complex during gait than in isometric and isokinetic contractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) labeling: study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthony J; Tuttle, Laura; Olsson, Emily; Gras-Najjar, Julie; Gizlice, Ziya; Hales, Derek; Linnan, Laura; Lin, Feng-Chang; Noar, Seth M; Ammerman, Alice

    2017-09-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal. In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity. Using a two-group interrupted time series cohort study design in three worksite cafeterias, one cafeteria was assigned to the intervention condition, and the other two served as controls. Calories from food purchased in the cafeteria were assessed by photographs of meals (accompanied by notes made on-site) using a standardized calorie database and portion size-estimation protocol. Primary outcomes will be average calories purchased and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by individuals in the cohorts. We will compare pre-post changes in study outcomes between study groups using piecewise generalized linear mixed model regressions (segmented regressions) with a single change point in our interrupted time-series study. The results of this project will provide evidence of the effectiveness of worksite cafeteria menu labeling, which could potentially inform policy intervention approaches. Labels that convey information in a more readily understandable manner may be more effective at motivating behavior change. Strengths of this study include its cohort design and its robust data capture methods using food photographs and accelerometry.

  8. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  9. Volatile organic compounds as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sydney M; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Callahan, Patrick J; Kenny, Donald V

    2002-07-01

    We used real-time breath measurement technology to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to tobacco smoke. Experiments were conducted with five smoker/nonsmoker pairs. The target VOCs included benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and the cigarette smoke biomarker 2,5-dimethylfuran. This study includes what we believe to be the first measurements of 1,3-butadiene in smokers' and nonsmokers' breath. The 1,3-butadiene and 2,5-dimethylfuran peak levels in the smokers' breath were similar (360 and 376 microg/m(3), respectively); the average benzene peak level was 522 microg/m(3). We found higher peak values of the target chemicals and shorter residence times in the body than previously reported, probably because of the improved time resolution made possible by the continuous breath measurement method. The real-time breath analyzer also showed the presence of the chemicals after exposure in the breath of the nonsmokers, but at greatly reduced levels. Single breath samples collected in evacuated canisters and analyzed independently with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of the target compounds in the postexposure breath of the nonsmokers but indicated that there was some contamination of the breath analyzer measurements. This was likely caused by desorption of organics from condensed tar in the analyzer tubing and on the quartz fiber filter used to remove particles. We used the decay data from the smokers to estimate residence times for the target chemicals. A two-compartment exponential model generally gave a better fit to the experimental decay data from the smokers than a single-compartment model. Residence times for benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,5-dimethylfuran ranged from 0.5 (1,3-butadiene) to 0.9 min (benzene) for tau1 and were essentially constant (14 min) for tau2. These findings

  10. The effects of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on chronic stroke patients' respiratory muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Hwan, Park Seung; Park, KwangYong

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on chronic stroke patients' respiratory muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] All experimental subjects performed exercises five times per week for four weeks. Thirty chronic stroke patients were randomly assign to an experimental group of 15 patients and a control group of 15 patients. The experimental group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise for 15 minutes and the control group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and auto-med exercise for 15 minutes. The activation levels of respiratory muscles were measured before and after the experiment using MP 150WSW to obtain the results of the experiment. [Results] In the present study, when the pulmonary functions of the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment were compared, whereas the experimental group showed significant differences in all sections. In the verification of intergroup differences between the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment. [Conclusion] The respiratory rehabilitation exercise is considered to be capable of inducing positive effects on stroke patients' respiratory muscles through diaphragm breathing exercise and lip puckering breathing exercise.

  11. Effect of pacing-induced myocardial ischemia on platelet activation and fibrin formation in the coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Nichols, A B; Gold, K D; Marcella, J J; Cannon, P J; Owen, J

    1987-07-01

    The effect of pacing-induced myocardial ischemia on platelet activation and fibrin formation was investigated in seven patients with severe proximal lesions of the left anterior descending coronary artery to determine if acute ischemia activates the coagulation system. Fibrin formation was assessed from plasma levels of fibrinopeptide A. Platelet activation was assessed by levels of platelet factor 4, beta-thromboglobulin and thromboxane B2. Plasma levels were measured before, during and after acute myocardial ischemia induced by rapid atrial pacing. Blood samples were collected from the ascending aorta and from the great cardiac vein through heparin-bonded catheters. The occurrence of anterior myocardial ischemia was established by electrocardiography and by myocardial lactate extraction. No significant transmyocardial gradients in the levels of fibrinopeptide A, platelet factor 4, beta-thromboglobulin or thromboxane B2 were found at rest, during ischemia or in the recovery period, and levels in the great cardiac vein did not change in response to ischemia. These data indicate that pacing-induced myocardial ischemia does not result in release of fibrinopeptide A, platelet factor 4, beta-thromboglobulin or thromboxane B2 into the coronary circulation, and imply that acute ischemia does not induce platelet activation or fibrin formation in the coronary circulation.

  12. Keeping Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the struggles of two tough moms who team up to start their own company. Fed up with a lack of stylish, properly-fitting shoes for their children with cerebral palsy, they established "Keeping Pace" which currently offers a selection of stylish girls' and boys' athletic sneakers and casual dress shoes for boys, all sold…

  13. Symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalopathy are not determined by activity pacing when measured by the chronic pain coping inventory.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D P; Antcliff, D; Woby, S R

    2018-03-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalopathy (CFS/ME) is a chronic illness which can cause significant fatigue, pain and disability. Activity pacing is frequently advocated as a beneficial coping strategy, however, it is unclear whether pacing is significantly associated with symptoms in people with CFS/ME. The first aim of this study was therefore to explore the cross-sectional associations between pacing and levels of pain, disability and fatigue. The second aim was to explore whether changes in activity pacing following participation in a symptom management programme were related to changes in clinical outcomes. Cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between pacing, pain, disability and fatigue (n=114) and pre-post treatment longitudinal study of a cohort of patients participating in a symptom management programme (n=35). Out-patient physiotherapy CFS/ME service. One-hundred and fourteen adult patients with CFS/ME. Pacing was assessed using the chronic pain coping inventory. Pain was measured using a Numeric Pain Rating Scale, fatigue with the Chalder Fatigue Scale and disability with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. No significant associations were observed between activity pacing and levels of pain, disability or fatigue. Likewise, changes in pacing were not significantly associated with changes in pain, disability or fatigue following treatment. Activity pacing does not appear to be a significant determinant of pain, fatigue or disability in people with CFS/ME when measured with the chronic pain coping index. Consequently, the utility and measurement of pacing require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pacing, Conventional Physical Activity and Active Video Games to Increase Physical Activity for Adults with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, Katia Elizabeth; Smith, Ashleigh E; Davison, Kade

    2017-08-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a serious illness of biological origin characterized by profound physical and cognitive exhaustion and postexertion malaise. Pacing is a common strategy used to manage available energy and complete activities of daily living; yet little research has investigated this as a strategy to increase physical activity levels. Typically, people living with ME/CFS are faced by unique barriers to physical activity participation and are less physically active than healthy peers. As such they are at increased risk of physical inactivity-related health consequences. Active video games may be a feasible and acceptable avenue to deliver physical activity intervention by overcoming many of the reported barriers to participation. The primary objective of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of active video games to increase physical activity levels of people with ME/CFS. The secondary aims are to explore the preliminary effectiveness of pacing and active video gaming to pacing alone and pacing plus conventional physical activity to increase the physical activity levels of adults with ME/CFS and explore the relationship between physical activity and cumulative inflammatory load (allostatic load). This study will use a mixed method design, with a 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial, exit interviews, and collection of feasibility and process data. A total of 30 adults with ME/CFS will be randomized to receive either (1) pacing, (2) pacing and conventional physical activity, or (3) pacing and active video gaming. The intervention duration will be 6 months, and participants will be followed up for 6 months postintervention completion. The intervention will be conducted in the participant's home, and activity intensity will be determined by continuously monitored heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion. Feasibility and acceptability and process data will be collected during and at the end

  15. Pacing, Conventional Physical Activity and Active Video Games to Increase Physical Activity for Adults with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashleigh E; Davison, Kade

    2017-01-01

    Background Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a serious illness of biological origin characterized by profound physical and cognitive exhaustion and postexertion malaise. Pacing is a common strategy used to manage available energy and complete activities of daily living; yet little research has investigated this as a strategy to increase physical activity levels. Typically, people living with ME/CFS are faced by unique barriers to physical activity participation and are less physically active than healthy peers. As such they are at increased risk of physical inactivity–related health consequences. Active video games may be a feasible and acceptable avenue to deliver physical activity intervention by overcoming many of the reported barriers to participation. Objective The primary objective of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of active video games to increase physical activity levels of people with ME/CFS. The secondary aims are to explore the preliminary effectiveness of pacing and active video gaming to pacing alone and pacing plus conventional physical activity to increase the physical activity levels of adults with ME/CFS and explore the relationship between physical activity and cumulative inflammatory load (allostatic load). Methods This study will use a mixed method design, with a 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial, exit interviews, and collection of feasibility and process data. A total of 30 adults with ME/CFS will be randomized to receive either (1) pacing, (2) pacing and conventional physical activity, or (3) pacing and active video gaming. The intervention duration will be 6 months, and participants will be followed up for 6 months postintervention completion. The intervention will be conducted in the participant’s home, and activity intensity will be determined by continuously monitored heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion. Feasibility and acceptability and process data will

  16. The effects of Pilates breathing trainings on trunk muscle activation in healthy female subjects: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Pilates breathing on trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy female adults were selected for this study. Participants’ trunk muscle activations were measured while they performed curl-ups, chest-head lifts, and lifting tasks. Pilates breathing trainings were performed for 60 minutes per each session, 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Post-training muscle activations were measured by the same methods used for the pre-training muscle activations. [Results] All trunk muscles measured in this study had increased activities after Pilates breathing trainings. All activities of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus significantly increased. [Conclusion] Pilates breathing increased activities of the trunk stabilizer muscles. Activation of the trunk muscle indicates that practicing Pilates breathing while performing lifting tasks will reduce the risk of trunk injuries. PMID:28265138

  17. The effects of Pilates breathing trainings on trunk muscle activation in healthy female subjects: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Pilates breathing on trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy female adults were selected for this study. Participants' trunk muscle activations were measured while they performed curl-ups, chest-head lifts, and lifting tasks. Pilates breathing trainings were performed for 60 minutes per each session, 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Post-training muscle activations were measured by the same methods used for the pre-training muscle activations. [Results] All trunk muscles measured in this study had increased activities after Pilates breathing trainings. All activities of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus significantly increased. [Conclusion] Pilates breathing increased activities of the trunk stabilizer muscles. Activation of the trunk muscle indicates that practicing Pilates breathing while performing lifting tasks will reduce the risk of trunk injuries.

  18. Peak fat oxidation during self-paced activities of daily life: influence of sex and body composition.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Kück, Momme; Haufe, Sven; Tegtbur, Uwe; Nelius, Anne-Katrin; Kerling, Arno

    2017-05-01

    Increasing physical activity is a cornerstone in the treatment of overweight individuals and self-selected exercise intensity leads to higher adherence to physical activity. However, information on differences in energy expenditure and fat oxidation between sexes regarding common self-paced activities of daily living are rare. We divided 33 subjects into normal weight (NW, N.=21) and overweight (OW, N.=12). Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation was measured during six self-paced physical activities of daily living using a portable spirometric system. We also determined maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) and estimated free-living physical activity with a multi-sensor device. For all six activities, total energy expenditure was not different between NW and OW subjects in both sexes. The peak fat oxidation during physical activities was reached at higher intensities for women (NW 57±15%; OW 53±8% of VO2max) compared to men (NW 41±8%; OW 42±9% of VO2max) with no differences between NW and OW subjects. The majority of OW (92%) but not NW (42%) subjects reached their highest fat oxidation during walking. The self-selected walking speed was not significantly different between NW and OW men (NW 5.25±0.48 km/h, OW 5.52±0.42 km/h) and NW and OW women (NW 5.16±0.89 km/h, OW 5.01±0.42 km/h). When physical activity aims to maximizing fat oxidation, women should exercise at higher relative intensities than men, regardless of being normal weight or overweight. Self-paced walking is a suitable activity for overweight subjects to achieve high rates of both total energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

  19. Use of Variable Pressure Suits, Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of variable pressure suits, intermittent recompression and Nitrox breathing mixtures to allow for multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a day. This new operational concept of multiple short EVAs requires short purge times and shorter prebreathes to assure rapid egress with a minimal loss of the vehicular air. Preliminary analysis has begun to evaluate the potential benefits of the intermittent recompression, and Nitrox breathing mixtures when used with variable pressure suits to enable reduce purges and prebreathe durations.

  20. Application of decision-making theory to the regulation of muscular work rate during self-paced competitive endurance activity.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Martin, Louise; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Successful participation in competitive endurance activities requires continual regulation of muscular work rate in order to maximise physiological performance capacities, meaning that individuals must make numerous decisions with regards to the muscular work rate selected at any point in time. Decisions relating to the setting of appropriate goals and the overall strategic approach to be utilised are made prior to the commencement of an event, whereas tactical decisions are made during the event itself. This review examines current theories of decision-making in an attempt to explain the manner in which regulation of muscular work is achieved during athletic activity. We describe rational and heuristic theories, and relate these to current models of regulatory processes during self-paced exercise in an attempt to explain observations made in both laboratory and competitive environments. Additionally, we use rational and heuristic theories in an attempt to explain the influence of the presence of direct competitors on the quality of the decisions made during these activities. We hypothesise that although both rational and heuristic models can plausibly explain many observed behaviours in competitive endurance activities, the complexity of the environment in which such activities occur would imply that effective rational decision-making is unlikely. However, at present, many proposed models of the regulatory process share similarities with rational models. We suggest enhanced understanding of the decision-making process during self-paced activities is crucial in order to improve the ability to understand regulation of performance and performance outcomes during athletic activity.

  1. Diaphragm Pacing.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Anthony F

    2018-06-01

    Diaphragm pacing (DP) is a useful and cost-effective alternative to mechanical ventilation in patients with ventilator-dependent spinal cord injury and central hypoventilation syndrome. Patients with SCI should be carefully screened to assess the integrity of their phrenic nerves. In eligible patients, DP improves mobility, speech, olfaction, and quality of life. The stigma of being attached to a mechanical device and risk of ventilator disconnection are eliminated. There is also some evidence that DP results in a reduction in the rate of respiratory tract infections. DP is associated with infrequent side effects and complications, such as wire breakage, radiofrequency failure, and infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prolonged dry apnoea: effects on brain activity and physiological functions in breath-hold divers and non-divers.

    PubMed

    Ratmanova, Patricia; Semenyuk, Roxana; Popov, Daniil; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Zelenkova, Irina; Napalkov, Dmitry; Vinogradova, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of voluntary breath-holding on brain activity and physiological functions. We hypothesised that prolonged apnoea would trigger cerebral hypoxia, resulting in a decrease of brain performance; and the apnoea's effects would be more pronounced in breath-hold divers. Trained breath-hold divers and non-divers performed maximal dry breath-holdings. Lung volume, alveolar partial pressures of O2 and CO2, attention and anxiety levels were estimated. Heart rate, blood pressure, arterial blood oxygenation, brain tissue oxygenation, EEG, and DC potential were monitored continuously during breath-holding. There were a few significant changes in electrical brain activity caused by prolonged apnoea. Brain tissue oxygenation index and DC potential were relatively stable up to the end of the apnoea in breath-hold divers and non-divers. We also did not observe any decrease of attention level or speed of processing immediately after breath-holding. Interestingly, trained breath-hold divers had some peculiarities in EEG activity at resting state (before any breath-holding): non-spindled, sharpened alpha rhythm; slowed-down alpha with the frequency nearer to the theta band; and untypical spatial pattern of alpha activity. Our findings contradicted the primary hypothesis. Apnoea up to 5 min does not lead to notable cerebral hypoxia or a decrease of brain performance in either breath-hold divers or non-divers. It seems to be the result of the compensatory mechanisms similar to the diving response aimed at centralising blood circulation and reducing peripheral O2 uptake. Adaptive changes during apnoea are much more prominent in trained breath-hold divers.

  3. Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing Reverses Low Fetal Activity Levels in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Blyton, Diane M.; Skilton, Michael R.; Edwards, Natalie; Hennessy, Annemarie; Celermajer, David S.; Sullivan, Colin E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Preeclampsia affects 5% to 7% of pregnancies, is strongly associated with low birth weight and fetal death, and is accompanied by sleep disordered breathing. We hypothesized that sleep disordered breathing may link preeclampsia with reduced fetal movements (a marker of fetal health), and that treatment of sleep disordered breathing might improve fetal activity during sleep. Design, Setting, and Participants: First, a method of fetal movement recording was validated against ultrasound in 20 normal third trimester pregnancies. Second, fetal movement was measured overnight with concurrent polysomnography in 20 patients with preeclampsia and 20 control subjects during third trimester. Third, simultaneous polysomnography and fetal monitoring was done in 10 additional patients with preeclampsia during a control night and during a night of nasal CPAP. Intervention: Overnight continuous positive airway pressure. Measurements and Results: Women with preeclampsia had inspiratory flow limitation and an increased number of oxygen desaturations during sleep (P = 0.008), particularly during REM sleep. Preeclampsia was associated with reduced total fetal movements overnight (319 [SD 32]) versus controls (689 [SD 160], P < 0.0001) and a change in fetal movement patterns. The number of fetal hiccups was also substantially reduced in preeclampsia subjects (P < 0.0001). Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increased the number of fetal movements and hiccups (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Conclusions: The effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure in improving fetal movements suggests a pathogenetic role for sleep disordered breathing in the reduced fetal activity and possibly in the poorer fetal outcomes associated with preeclampsia. Citation: Blyton DM; Skilton MR; Edwards N; Hennessy A; Celermajer DS; Sullivan CE. Treatment of sleep disordered breathing reverses low fetal activity levels in preeclampsia. SLEEP 2013;36(1):15–21

  4. Self-Paced Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Norma Jean

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of self-paced units. Development suggestions include determining the form of the units, including goals, responsibilities, and definitions of terms; keeping them short; including a variety of activities; and requiring that all lessons be completed at school. Contains sample units on climatology and meteorology, the sun, and…

  5. Physiologic pacing: new modalities and pacing sites.

    PubMed

    Padeletti, Luigi; Lieberman, Randy; Valsecchi, Sergio; Hettrick, Douglas A

    2006-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) apical pacing impairs left ventricular function by inducing dys-synchronous contraction and relaxation. Chronic RV apical pacing is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, morbidity, and even mortality. These observations have raised questions regarding the appropriate pacing mode and site, leading to the introduction of algorithms and new pacing modes to reduce the ventricular pacing burden in dual chamber devices, and a shift of the pacing site away from the RV apex. However, further investigations are required to assess the long-term results of pacing from alternative sites in the right ventricle, because long-term results so far are equivocal. The potential benefit of prophylactic biventricular, mono-chamber left ventricular, and bifocal RV pacing should be explored in selected patients with a narrow QRS complex, especially those with impaired left ventricular function. His bundle pacing is a promising and evolving technique that requires improvements in lead technology.

  6. The effect of deep and slow breathing on pain perception, autonomic activity, and mood processing--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Busch, Volker; Magerl, Walter; Kern, Uwe; Haas, Joachim; Hajak, Göran; Eichhammer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Deep and slow breathing (DSB) techniques, as a component of various relaxation techniques, have been reported as complementary approaches in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes, but the relevance of relaxation for alleviating pain during a breathing intervention was not evaluated so far. In order to disentangle the effects of relaxation and respiration, we investigated two different DSB techniques at the same respiration rates and depths on pain perception, autonomic activity, and mood in 16 healthy subjects. In the attentive DSB intervention, subjects were asked to breathe guided by a respiratory feedback task requiring a high degree of concentration and constant attention. In the relaxing DSB intervention, the subjects relaxed during the breathing training. The skin conductance levels, indicating sympathetic tone, were measured during the breathing maneuvers. Thermal detection and pain thresholds for cold and hot stimuli and profile of mood states were examined before and after the breathing sessions. The mean detection and pain thresholds showed a significant increase resulting from the relaxing DSB, whereas no significant changes of these thresholds were found associated with the attentive DSB. The mean skin conductance levels indicating sympathetic activity decreased significantly during the relaxing DSB intervention but not during the attentive DSB. Both breathing interventions showed similar reductions in negative feelings (tension, anger, and depression). Our results suggest that the way of breathing decisively influences autonomic and pain processing, thereby identifying DSB in concert with relaxation as the essential feature in the modulation of sympathetic arousal and pain perception. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Investigations on the influence of breathing on brain activity using optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mandavilli M.; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.

    1997-05-01

    In recent years investigation and understanding of the brain activity is receiving much attention. Such investigations are generally confined to few select premier research institutions where expensive and sophisticated facilities like EEG, PET, FMRI, etc. are available. Of late optical sensors are receiving much attention for biomedical applications because they are relatively simple in construction, easy to use and comparatively inexpensive. Among the biomedical optical sensors, photophlethysmographic (PPG) measuring systems have a unique position. They function as transcutaneous registration of blood volume changes in the near skin blood vessels. By recording the signals from the supply to the left and right lobes of the brain in the cerebral cortex. The oxygen content in the arterary blood flow to the brain will naturally have an important role to play in the activity of the brain. It is suggested that by positioning sensitive temperature sensors in the nostrils of a subject, one could monitor his breathing activity. By recording the outputs rom these temperature sensor for several hours, it has been noticed that the breathing activity of a subject will change from one nostril to another periodically. Besides, it has also been observed that any sudden fluctuations in the breathing pattern is accompanied by changes in the blood flow to the brain as monitored by PPG optical sensors mounted on the temples of a subject. An attempt is made to understand such events.

  8. Cardiac pacing and aviation.

    PubMed

    Toff, W D; Edhag, O K; Camm, A J

    1992-12-01

    Certain applicants with stable disturbances of rhythm or conduction requiring cardiac pacing, in whom no other disqualifying condition is present, may be considered fit for medical certification restricted to multi-crew operations. The reliability of modern pacing systems appears adequate to permit restricted certification even in pacemaker dependent subjects except for certain models of pacemakers and leads known to be at increased risk of failure. These are to be avoided. There is little evidence to suggest that newer devices are any more reliable than their predecessors. Single and dual chamber systems appear to have similar reliability up to 4 years, after which time significant attrition of dual chamber devices occurs, principally due to battery depletion. All devices require increased scrutiny as they approach their end of life as predicted from longevity data and pacing characteristics. Unipolar and bipolar leads are of similar reliability, apart from a number of specific bipolar polyurethane leads which have been identified. Atrial leads, particularly those without active fixation, are less secure than ventricular leads and applicants who are dependent on atrial sensing or pacing should be denied certification. Bipolar leads are to be preferred due to the lower risk of myopotential and exogenous EMI. Sensor-driven adaptive-rate pacing systems using active sensors may have reduced longevity and require close scrutiny. Activity-sensing devices using piezoelectric crystal sensors may be subject to significant rate rises in rotary wing aircraft. The impracticality of restricted certification in helicopters will, in any event, preclude certification. Such devices would best be avoided in hovercraft (air cushioned vehicle) pilots. Only minor rate rises are likely in fixed-wing aircraft which are unlikely to be of significance. Anti-tachycardia devices and implanted defibrillators are inconsistent with any form of certification to fly.

  9. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  10. Antiarrhythmic properties of atrial pacing.

    PubMed

    Kliś, Magdalena; Sławuta, Agnieszka; Gajek, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Bradycardia, atrial stretch and dilatation, autonomic nervous system disorders, and the presence of triggers such as atrial premature contractions, are factors which predispose a person to paroxysmal AF. Atrial pacing not only eliminates bradycardia but also prevents atrial premature contractions and dispersion of refractoriness, which are a substrate for atrial fibrillation. As the prolonged duration of atrial activation during pacing, especially from locations changing the physiological pattern of this activation (right atrium lateral wall, right atrium appendage), negatively influences both a mechanical and an electrical function of the atria, the atrial pacing site affects an atrial arrhythmogenesis. A conventional atrial lead location in the right atrium appendage causes non-physiological activation propagation, resulting in a prolongation of the activation time of both atria. This location is optimal according to a passive fixation of the atrial lead but the available contemporary active fixation leads could potentially be located in any area of the atrium. There is growing evidence of the benefit of pacing, imitating the physiological propagation of impulses within the atria. It seems that the Bachmann's bundle pacing is the best pacing site within the atria, not only positively influencing the atrial mechanical function but also best fulfilling the so-called atrial resynchronization function, in particular in patients with interatrial conduction delay. It can be effectively achieved using only one atrial electrode, and the slight shortening of atrioventricular conduction provides an additional benefit of this atrial pacing site.

  11. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  12. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  13. Air-breathing during activity in the fishes amia calva and lepisosteus oculatus

    PubMed

    Farmer; d

    1998-04-01

    Many osteichthyan fishes obtain oxygen from both air, using a lung, and water, using gills. Although it is commonly thought that fishes air-breathe to survive hypoxic aquatic habitats, other reasons may be more important in many species. This study was undertaken to determine the significance of air-breathing in two fish species while exercising in oxygen-rich water. Oxygen consumption from air and water was measured during mild activity in bowfin (Amia calva) and spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) by sealing a fish in an acrylic flume that contained an air-hole. At 19-23 degreesC, the rate of oxygen consumption from air in both species was modest at rest. During low-level exercise, more than 50 % of the oxygen consumed by both species was from the air (53.0+/-22.9 % L. oculatus; 66.4+/-8.3 % A. calva).

  14. Free-breathing diffusion-weighted imaging for the assessment of inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Shigeru; Dodanuki, Keiichi; Takao, Hidemasa; Watanabe, Makoto; Inoue, Yusuke; Takazoe, Masakazu; Sahara, Rikisaburo; Unuma, Kiyohito; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the application of free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to the assessment of disease activity in Crohn's disease. Thirty-one patients with Crohn's disease were investigated using free-breathing DWI without special patient preparation or IV or intraluminal contrast agent. The bowel was divided into seven segments, and disease activity was assessed visually on DWI. For quantitative analysis, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in each segment. The findings of a conventional barium study or surgery were regarded as the gold standard for evaluating the diagnostic ability of DWI to assess disease activity. Upon visual assessment, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of disease-active segments were 86.0, 81.4, and 82.4%, respectively. In the quantitative assessment, the ADC value in the disease-active area was lower than that in disease-inactive area in small and large bowels (1.61 +/- 0.44 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s versus 2.56 +/- 0.51 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s in small bowel and 1.52 +/- 0.43 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s versus 2.31 +/- 0.59 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s in large bowel, respectively, P<0.001). Free-breathing DWI is useful in the assessment of Crohn's disease. The accuracy of DWI is high in evaluating disease activity, especially in the small bowel, and the ADC may facilitate quantitative analysis of disease activity.

  15. Incorporating prosocial behavior to promote physical activity in older adults: rationale and design of the Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE).

    PubMed

    Foy, Capri G; Vitolins, Mara Z; Case, L Douglas; Harris, Susan J; Massa-Fanale, Carol; Hopley, Richard J; Gardner, Leah; Rudiger, Nicole; Yamamoto, Kathryn; Swain, Brittany; Goff, David C; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Booth, Deborah; Gaspari, Jamie

    2013-09-01

    Despite the benefits of regular physical activity among older adults, physical activity rates are low in this population. The Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two interventions on physical activity at 12 months among older adults. A total of 300 men and women aged 55 years or older will be randomized into either a healthy aging (HA) control intervention (n = 150), which is largely based upon educational sessions, or a prosocial behavior physical activity (PBPA) intervention (n = 150), which incorporates structured physical activity sessions, cognitive-behavioral counseling, and opportunities to earn food for donation to a regional food bank based on weekly physical activity and volunteering. The PBPA intervention is delivered at a local YMCA, and a regional grocery store chain donates the food to the food bank. Data will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is physical activity as assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include physical function and health-related quality of life. If successful, the PACE study will demonstrate that prosocial behavior and volunteerism may be efficaciously incorporated into interventions and will provide evidence for a novel motivating factor for physical activity. © 2013.

  16. Incorporating prosocial behavior to promote physical activity in older adults: Rationale and design of the Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE)☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Capri G.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Case, L. Douglas; Harris, Susan J.; Massa-Fanale, Carol; Hopley, Richard J.; Gardner, Leah; Rudiger, Nicole; Yamamoto, Kathryn; Swain, Brittany; Goff, David C.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Booth, Deborah; Gaspari, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of regular physical activity among older adults, physical activity rates are low in this population. The Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two interventions on physical activity at 12 months among older adults. A total of 300 men and women aged 55 years or older will be randomized into either a healthy aging (HA) control intervention (n = 150), which is largely based upon educational sessions, or a prosocial behavior physical activity (PBPA) intervention (n = 150), which incorporates structured physical activity sessions, cognitive-behavioral counseling, and opportunities to earn food for donation to a regional food bank based on weekly physical activity and volunteering. The PBPA intervention is delivered at a local YMCA, and a regional grocery store chain donates the food to the food bank. Data will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is physical activity as assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include physical function and health-related quality of life. If successful, the PACE study will demonstrate that prosocial behavior and volunteerism may be efficaciously incorporated into interventions and will provide evidence for a novel motivating factor for physical activity. PMID:23876672

  17. Neostigmine but not sugammadex impairs upper airway dilator muscle activity and breathing

    PubMed Central

    Eikermann, M.; Zaremba, S.; Malhotra, A.; Jordan, A. S.; Rosow, C.; Chamberlin, N. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cholinesterase inhibitor-based reversal agents, given in the absence of neuromuscular block, evoke a partial upper airway obstruction by decreasing skeletal upper airway muscle function. Sugammadex reverses neuromuscular block by encapsulating rocuronium. However, its effects on upper airway integrity and breathing are unknown. Methods Fifty-one adult male rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane, tracheostomized, and a femoral artery and vein were cannulated. First, we compared the efficacy of sugammadex 15 mg kg−1 and neostigmine 0.06 mg kg−1 to reverse respiratory effects of rocuronium-induced partial paralysis [train-of-four ratio (T4/T1)=0.5]. Subsequently, we compared the safety of sugammadex and neostigmine given after recovery of the T4/T1 to 1, by measuring phasic genioglossus activity and breathing. Results During partial paralysis (T4/T1=0.5), time to recovery of minute volume to baseline values was 10.9 (2), 75.8 (18), and 153 (54) s with sugammadex, neostigmine, and placebo, respectively (sugammadex was significantly faster than neostigmine and placebo, P<0.05). Recovery of T4/T1 was also faster for sugammadex than neostigmine and placebo. Neostigmine administration after complete recovery of T4/T1 decreased upper airway dilator muscle activity to 64 (30)% of baseline and decreased tidal volume (P<0.05 for both variables), whereas sugammadex had no effect on either variable. Conclusions In contrast to neostigmine, which significantly impairs upper airway dilator muscle activity when given after recovery from neuromuscular block, a reversal dose of sugammadex given under the same conditions does not affect genioglossus muscle activity and normal breathing. Human studies will be required to evaluate the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:18559352

  18. Human activities and climate variability drive fast-paced change across the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.; Abreu, Paulo C.; Carstensen, Jacob; Chauvaud, Laurent; Elmgren, Ragnar; Grall, Jacques; Greening, Holly; Johansson, John O.R.; Kahru, Mati; Sherwood, Edward T.; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong

    2016-01-01

    Time series of environmental measurements are essential for detecting, measuring and understanding changes in the Earth system and its biological communities. Observational series have accumulated over the past 2–5 decades from measurements across the world's estuaries, bays, lagoons, inland seas and shelf waters influenced by runoff. We synthesize information contained in these time series to develop a global view of changes occurring in marine systems influenced by connectivity to land. Our review is organized around four themes: (i) human activities as drivers of change; (ii) variability of the climate system as a driver of change; (iii) successes, disappointments and challenges of managing change at the sea-land interface; and (iv) discoveries made from observations over time. Multidecadal time series reveal that many of the world's estuarine–coastal ecosystems are in a continuing state of change, and the pace of change is faster than we could have imagined a decade ago. Some have been transformed into novel ecosystems with habitats, biogeochemistry and biological communities outside the natural range of variability. Change takes many forms including linear and nonlinear trends, abrupt state changes and oscillations. The challenge of managing change is daunting in the coastal zone where diverse human pressures are concentrated and intersect with different responses to climate variability over land and over ocean basins. The pace of change in estuarine–coastal ecosystems will likely accelerate as the human population and economies continue to grow and as global climate change accelerates. Wise stewardship of the resources upon which we depend is critically dependent upon a continuing flow of information from observations to measure, understand and anticipate future changes along the world's coastlines.

  19. Muscular patterns and activation levels of auxiliary breathing muscles and thorax movement in classical singing.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Viggo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the findings in seven studies exploring muscular patterns and muscle activation levels in selected muscles by classical singers. In addition, the relationship of these muscles to thorax (TX) movement was investigated. Loading levels and respiratory phasing of upper trapezius (TR), sternocleidomastoideus (STM) and the scalenes (SC) were investigated in vocalization tasks with variation in vocal loudness and pitch. Further, muscle activity in the posterior neck (PN) was investigated in inhalation and phonation and, finally, TR, intercostal (INT), lateral abdominal (OBL) and anterior abdominal (RC) muscle loading in student and professional singers was examined. Muscle activity was recorded by use of an ambulatory four-channel monitoring system (Physiometer PHY 400, Premed, Norway). TX movement was traced with two strain gauge sensors (RES-117) placed around the upper TX and lower TX. A phasing of upper TR activity to INT and OBL activity was discovered, all muscles supporting the expiration phase. During phonation, TR contributes in the compression of the upper TX, thus serving as an accessory muscle of expiration. TR activity is reduced with short breathing cycles and is mostly inactive in simplified speaking tasks. During phonation, professional opera singers activate the expiratory-phased TR, INT, OBL and RC muscles to higher levels than student singers do. STM and SC show correlated activity patterns during inhalation and phonation by classical singers. During demanding singing, expiratory-phased STM and SC activity peaks produce a counterforce to the compression of upper TX at high pitches. As breathing demands are lowered, STM and SC activity are reduced and attain inspiratory phasing. Substantial muscle activity is observed in PN during inhalation and phonation. EMG biofeedback performed on TR and STM have a secondary effect of lowering EMG activity in PN. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Sensors for rate responsive pacing

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Orto, Simonetta; Valli, Paolo; Greco, Enrico Maria

    2004-01-01

    Advances in pacemaker technology in the 1980s have generated a wide variety of complex multiprogrammable pacemakers and pacing modes. The aim of the present review is to address the different rate responsive pacing modalities presently available in respect to physiological situations and pathological conditions. Rate adaptive pacing has been shown to improve exercise capacity in patients with chronotropic incompetence. A number of activity and metabolic sensors have been proposed and used for rate control. However, all sensors used to optimize pacing rate metabolic demands show typical limitations. To overcome these weaknesses the use of two sensors has been proposed. Indeed an unspecific but fast reacting sensor is combined with a more specific but slower metabolic one. Clinical studies have demonstrated that this methodology is suitable to reproduce normal sinus behavior during different types and loads of exercise. Sensor combinations require adequate sensor blending and cross checking possibly controlled by automatic algorithms for sensors optimization and simplicity of programming. Assessment and possibly deactivation of some automatic functions should be also possible to maximize benefits from the dual sensor system in particular conditions. This is of special relevance in patient whose myocardial contractility is limited such as in subjects with implantable defibrillators and biventricular pacemakers. The concept of closed loop pacing, implementing a negative feedback relating pacing rate and the control signal, will provide new opportunities to optimize dual-sensors system and deserves further investigation. The integration of rate adaptive pacing into defibrillators is the natural consequence of technical evolution. PMID:16943981

  1. Magneto-impedance sensor for quasi-noncontact monitoring of breathing, pulse rate and activity status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corodeanu, S.; Chiriac, H.; Radulescu, L.; Lupu, N.

    2014-05-01

    Results on the development and testing of a novel magnetic sensor based on the detection of the magneto-impedance variation due to changes in the permeability of an amorphous wire are reported. The proposed application is the quasi-noncontact monitoring of the breathing frequency and heart rate for diagnosing sleep disorders. Patient discomfort is significantly decreased by transversally placing the sensitive element onto the surface of a flexible mattress in order to detect its deformation associated with cardiorespiratory activity and body movements. The developed sensor has a great application potential in monitoring the vital signs during sleep, with special advantages for children sleep monitoring.

  2. An Acute Bout of a Controlled Breathing Frequency Lowers Sympathetic Neural Outflow but not Blood Pressure in Healthy Normotensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    MCCLAIN, SHANNON L.; BROOKS, ALEXA M.; JARVIS, SARA S.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled or paced breathing is often used as a stress reduction technique but the impact on blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic outflow have not been consistently reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a controlled breathing (12 breaths/min, CB) rate would be similar to an individual’s spontaneous breathing (SB) rate. Secondly, would a CB rate of 12 breaths/min alter heart rate (HR), BP, and indices of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Twenty-one subjects (10 women, 11 men) performed two trials: SB, where the subject chose a comfortable breathing rate; and CB, where the subject breathed at a pace of 12 breaths/min. Each trial was 6 min during which respiratory waveforms, HR, BP (systolic, SBP; diastolic, DBP), and MSNA were recorded. During CB, the 6 min average breathing frequency (14±4 vs 12±1 breaths/min, P<0.05 for SB and CB, respectively), MSNA burst frequency (18±12 vs 14±10 bursts/min, P<0.01) and MSNA burst incidence (28±19 vs 21± 6 bursts/100 heart beats, P<0.01) were significantly lower than during SB. HR (66±9 vs 67±9 beats/min, P<0.05) was higher during CB. SBP (120±13 vs 121±15 mmHg, P=0.741), DBP (56±8 vs 57±9 mmHg, P=0.768), and MSNA total activity (166±94 vs 145±102 a.u./min, P=0.145) were not different between the breathing conditions. In conclusion, an acute reduction in breathing frequency such as that observed during CB elicited a decrease in indices of MSNA (burst frequency and incidence) with no change in BP. PMID:28344733

  3. An Acute Bout of a Controlled Breathing Frequency Lowers Sympathetic Neural Outflow but not Blood Pressure in Healthy Normotensive Subjects.

    PubMed

    McClain, Shannon L; Brooks, Alexa M; Jarvis, Sara S

    2017-01-01

    Controlled or paced breathing is often used as a stress reduction technique but the impact on blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic outflow have not been consistently reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a controlled breathing (12 breaths/min, CB) rate would be similar to an individual's spontaneous breathing (SB) rate. Secondly, would a CB rate of 12 breaths/min alter heart rate (HR), BP, and indices of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Twenty-one subjects (10 women, 11 men) performed two trials: SB, where the subject chose a comfortable breathing rate; and CB, where the subject breathed at a pace of 12 breaths/min. Each trial was 6 min during which respiratory waveforms, HR, BP (systolic, SBP; diastolic, DBP), and MSNA were recorded. During CB, the 6 min average breathing frequency (14±4 vs 12±1 breaths/min, P <0.05 for SB and CB, respectively), MSNA burst frequency (18±12 vs 14±10 bursts/min, P <0.01) and MSNA burst incidence (28±19 vs 21± 6 bursts/100 heart beats, P <0.01) were significantly lower than during SB. HR (66±9 vs 67±9 beats/min, P <0.05) was higher during CB. SBP (120±13 vs 121±15 mmHg, P =0.741), DBP (56±8 vs 57±9 mmHg, P =0.768), and MSNA total activity (166±94 vs 145±102 a.u./min, P =0.145) were not different between the breathing conditions. In conclusion, an acute reduction in breathing frequency such as that observed during CB elicited a decrease in indices of MSNA (burst frequency and incidence) with no change in BP.

  4. Dual effects of 5-HT(1a) receptor activation on breathing in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Andrea E; Commons, Kathryn G; Wu, Yuanming; Smith, Jeffrey C; Harris, Michael B; Richerson, George B

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory 5-HT(1a) receptors are located on serotonin (5-HT) neurons (autoreceptors) as well as neurons of the respiratory network (heteroreceptors). Thus, effects on breathing of 5-HT(1a) agonists, such as (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), could either be due to decreased firing of 5-HT neurons or direct effects on the respiratory network. Mice in which the transcription factor LMX1B is genetically deleted selectively in Pet1-1-expressing cells (Lmx1b(f/f/p)) essentially have complete absence of central 5-HT neurons, providing a unique opportunity to separate the effect of activation of downstream 5-HT(1a) heteroreceptors from that of autoreceptors. We used rhythmically active medullary slices from wild-type (WT) and Lmx1b(f/f/p) neonatal mice to differentiate autoreceptor versus heteroreceptor effects of 8-OH-DPAT on hypoglossal nerve respiratory output. 8-OH-DPAT transiently increased respiratory burst frequency in Lmx1b(f/f/p) preparations, but not in WT slices. This excitation was abolished when synaptic inhibition was blocked by GABAergic/glycinergic receptor antagonists. Conversely, after 10 min of application, frequency in Lmx1b(f/f/p) slices was not different from baseline, whereas it was significantly depressed in WT slices. In WT mice in vivo, subcutaneous injection of 8-OH-DPAT produced similar biphasic respiratory effects as in Lmx1b(f/f/p) mice. We conclude that 5-HT1a receptor agonists have two competing effects: rapid stimulation of breathing due to excitation of the respiratory network, and delayed inhibition of breathing due to autoreceptor inhibition of 5-HT neurons. The former effect is presumably due to inhibition of inhibitory interneurons embedded in the respiratory network.

  5. Dual Effects of 5-HT1a Receptor Activation on Breathing in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Commons, Kathryn G.; Wu, Yuanming; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Harris, Michael B.; Richerson, George B.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory 5-HT1a receptors are located on serotonin (5-HT) neurons (autoreceptors) as well as neurons of the respiratory network (heteroreceptors). Thus, effects on breathing of 5-HT1a agonists, such as (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), could either be due to decreased firing of 5-HT neurons or direct effects on the respiratory network. Mice in which the transcription factor LMX1B is genetically deleted selectively in Pet1-1-expressing cells (Lmx1bf/f/p) essentially have complete absence of central 5-HT neurons, providing a unique opportunity to separate the effect of activation of downstream 5-HT1a heteroreceptors from that of autoreceptors. We used rhythmically active medullary slices from wild-type (WT) and Lmx1bf/f/p neonatal mice to differentiate autoreceptor versus heteroreceptor effects of 8-OH-DPAT on hypoglossal nerve respiratory output. 8-OH-DPAT transiently increased respiratory burst frequency in Lmx1bf/f/p preparations, but not in WT slices. This excitation was abolished when synaptic inhibition was blocked by GABAergic/glycinergic receptor antagonists. Conversely, after 10 min of application, frequency in Lmx1bf/f/p slices was not different from baseline, whereas it was significantly depressed in WT slices. In WT mice in vivo, subcutaneous injection of 8-OH-DPAT produced similar biphasic respiratory effects as in Lmx1bf/f/p mice. We conclude that 5-HT1a receptor agonists have two competing effects: rapid stimulation of breathing due to excitation of the respiratory network, and delayed inhibition of breathing due to autoreceptor inhibition of 5-HT neurons. The former effect is presumably due to inhibition of inhibitory interneurons embedded in the respiratory network. PMID:24381267

  6. Oxygen control of breathing by an olfactory receptor activated by lactate

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andy J.; Ortega, Fabian E.; Riegler, Johannes; Madison, Daniel V.; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals have evolved homeostatic responses to changes in oxygen availability that act on different time scales. Although the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional pathway that controls long term responses to low oxygen (hypoxia) has been established1, the pathway that mediates acute responses to hypoxia in mammals is not well understood. Here we show that the olfactory receptor Olfr78 is highly and selectively expressed in oxygen-sensitive glomus cells of the carotid body, a chemosensory organ at the carotid artery bifurcation that monitors blood oxygen and stimulates breathing within seconds when oxygen declines2. Olfr78 mutants fail to increase ventilation in hypoxia but respond normally to hypercapnia. Glomus cells are present in normal numbers and appear structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced carotid body activity is diminished. Lactate, a metabolite that rapidly accumulates in hypoxia and induces hyperventilation3–6, activates Olfr78 in heterologous expression experiments, induces calcium transients in glomus cells, and stimulates carotid sinus nerve activity through Olfr78. We propose that in addition to its role in olfaction, Olfr78 acts as a hypoxia sensor in the breathing circuit by sensing lactate produced when oxygen levels decline. PMID:26560302

  7. Foreign Language Textbook Activities: Keeping Pace with Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aski, Janice M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in second language acquisition found that learners reached higher levels of achievement when grammar practice included the processing and negotiation of meaning. Explored the degree to which certain textbook activities reflected earlier findings. Activities for two grammar points from Italian texts still rely heavily on…

  8. Poster - Thur Eve - 26: Interfraction reproducibility of heart position during breast irradiation using Active Breathing Control.

    PubMed

    Comsa, D; Zhang, B; Mosely, D; Yeung, I

    2012-07-01

    The moderate deep-inspiration breath hold (mDIBH) technique using the Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) from Elekta is used in our clinic to lower the heart dose during left breast irradiations. The purpose of this work was to investigate the interfraction reproducibility of the heart to chest distance during these treatments and to evaluate the dosimetric effect of any changes in the heart position. Daily CBCT images were available for 5 patients who had been treated with ABC tangents and a cavity boost. On these images, one-dimensional measurements of the distance between the heart and the chest wall were taken at two anatomical locations corresponding roughly with the location where the radiation field most likely intercepts the heart. The average change in this distance was interpreted as a shift of the heart position. To assess the effect of this shift on the delivered heart dose, the heart contours in the clinical plans of the corresponding patients were shifted towards the treatment field using standard Pinnacle tools. Although the ABC device allows good reproducibility of the volume of air held, this does not warrant reproducibility of heart position for all patients during treatment. The largest average heart shift extracted from CBCT images in this study was 6.2mm. The heart dose reconstructed using this shift for the corresponding patient also showed the largest effect. However, even in the presence of a systematic heart shift of this magnitude, the ABC plan still showed superior heart dose reduction compared to the free-breathing plan. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Active Breathing Control for Hodgkin's Disease in Childhood and Adolescence: Feasibility, Advantages, and Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Claude, Line; Malet, Claude Phys.; Pommier, Pascal

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: The challenge in early Hodgkin's disease (HD) in children is to maintain good survival rates while sparing organs at risk. This study assesses the feasibility of active breathing control (ABC) in children, and compares normal tissue irradiation with and without ABC. Methods and Materials: Between May 2003 and June 2004, seven children with HD with mediastinal involvement, median age 15, were treated by chemotherapy and involved-field radiation therapy. A free-breathing computed tomography simulation scan and one additional scan during deep inspiration using ABC were performed. A comparison between planning treatment with clinical target volume including supraclavicular regions, mediastinum, andmore » hila was performed, both in free breathing and using ABC. Results: For a prescription of 36 Gy, pulmonary dose-volume histograms revealed a mean reduction in lung volume irradiated at more than 20 Gy (V20) and 30 Gy (V30) of 25% and 26%, respectively, using ABC (p = 0.016). The mean volume of heart irradiated at 30 Gy or more decreased from 15% to 12% (nonsignificant). The mean dose delivered to breasts in girls was small in both situations (less than 2 Gy) and stable with or without ABC. Considering axillary irradiation, the mean dose delivered to breasts remained low (<9 Gy), without significant difference using ABC or not. The mean radiation dose delivered to thyroid was stable using ABC or not. Conclusions: Using ABC is feasible in childhood. The use of ABC decreases normal lung tissue irradiation. Concerning heart irradiation, a minimal gain is also shown. No significant change has been demonstrated concerning breast and thyroid irradiation.« less

  10. Physical ACtivity facilitation for Elders (PACE): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gemma S; Haase, Anne M; Campbell, Rona; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-03-13

    As people live longer, their risk of disability increases. Disability affects quality of life and increases health and social care costs. Preventing or delaying disability is therefore an important objective, and identifying an effective intervention could improve the lives of many older people. Observational and interventional evidence suggests that physical activity may reduce the risk of age-related disability, as assessed by physical performance measures. However it is unclear what approach is the most cost-effective intervention in changing long-term physical activity behaviour in older adults. A new theory-driven behavioural intervention has been developed, with the aim of increasing physical activity in the everyday lives of older adults at risk of disability. This pilot study tests the feasibility and acceptability of delivering this intervention to older adults. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) design will be used in the pilot study. Sixty patients aged 65 years and older will be recruited from primary care practices. Patients will be eligible to participate if they are inactive, not disabled at baseline, are at risk of developing disability in the future (Short Physical Performance Battery score <10/12), and have no contraindications to physical activity. Following baseline measures, participants will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to the intervention or to a control arm and all participants will be followed-up after 6 months. Those randomised to the intervention arm will receive sessions with a trained Physical Activity Facilitator, delivering an intervention based on self-determination theory. Control participants receive a booklet on healthy ageing. The main outcomes of interest are recruitment, adherence, retention and acceptability. Data will also be collected on: self-report and accelerometer-recorded physical activity; physical performance; depression; wellbeing; cognitive function; social support; quality of life, healthcare use, and attitudes to

  11. Activity of Lower Limb Muscles During Squat With and Without Abdominal Drawing-in and Pilates Breathing.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandre C; Martins, Fábio M; Silva, Angélica F; Coelho, Ana C; Intelangelo, Leonardo; Vieira, Edgar R

    2017-11-01

    Barbosa, AC, Martins, FM, Silva, AF, Coelho, AC, Intelangelo, L, and Vieira, ER. Activity of lower limb muscles during squat with and without abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3018-3023, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing on the activity of lower limb muscles during squats. Adults (n = 13, 22 ± 3 years old) with some Pilates experience performed three 60° squats under each of the following conditions in a random order: (I) normal breathing, (II) drawing-in maneuver with normal breathing, and (III) drawing-in maneuver with Pilates breathing. Peak-normalized surface electromyography of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior during the knee flexion and extension phases of squat exercises was analyzed. There were significant differences among the conditions during the knee flexion phase for the rectus femoris (p = 0.001), biceps femoris (p = 0.038), and tibialis anterior (p = 0.001), with increasing activation from conditions I to III. For the gastrocnemius medialis, there were significant differences among the conditions during the knee extension phase (p = 0.023), with increased activity under condition I. The rectus and biceps femoris activity was higher during the extension vs. flexion phase under conditions I and II. The tibialis anterior activity was higher during the flexion compared with the extension phase under all conditions, and the medial gastrocnemius activity was higher during the extension phase under condition I. Doing squats with abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing resulted in increased rectus, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior activity during the flexion phase, increasing movement stability during squat exercises.

  12. The assessment of human health impact caused by industrial and civil activities in the Pace Valley of Messina.

    PubMed

    Morra, P; Lisi, R; Spadoni, G; Maschio, G

    2009-06-01

    The impact of industrial and civil activities on an agricultural and residential area is presented in a detailed and global analysis. The examined area is the Pace river valley situated in the northern zone of Messina (Italy). The sources of pollution present in the area are: a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator operating since 1979, a disused urban solid waste landfill which was used for 30 years, an urban solid waste treatment facility with heavy vehicles traffic, and two open pits for the production of bitumen. Large quantities of toxic, carcinogenic substances and criteria pollutants are released into the environment and represent potential hazards to human health. The analysis is performed using the EHHRA-GIS tool which employs an integrated, multimedia, multi-exposure pathways and multi-receptor risk assessment model that is able to manage all the steps which constitute the human health risk analysis in a georeferenced structure. The transport of pollutants in different environmental media is assessed applying models (AERMOD, GMS, CALINE) that take into account the particular three-dimensional morphology of the terrain. The results obtained, combined with a probabilistic risk assessment and a sensitivity analysis of calculation parameters, are a comprehensive assessment of the total human health risk in the area. Finally human health risks caused by toxic and carcinogenic substances are compared with acceptable legal limits in order to support environmental managers' decisions.

  13. Effects of controlled breathing, mental activity and mental stress with or without verbalization on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, L; Wdowczyk-Szulc, J; Valenti, C; Castoldi, S; Passino, C; Spadacini, G; Sleight, P

    2000-05-01

    To assess whether talking or reading (silently or aloud) could affect heart rate variability (HRV) and to what extent these changes require a simultaneous recording of respiratory activity to be correctly interpreted. Sympathetic predominance in the power spectrum obtained from short- and long-term HRV recordings predicts a poor prognosis in a number of cardiac diseases. Heart rate variability is often recorded without measuring respiration; slow breaths might artefactually increase low frequency power in RR interval (RR) and falsely mimic sympathetic activation. In 12 healthy volunteers we evaluated the effect of free talking and reading, silently and aloud, on respiration, RR and blood pressure (BP). We also compared spontaneous breathing to controlled breathing and mental arithmetic, silent or aloud. The power in the so called low- (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands in RR and BP was obtained from autoregressive power spectrum analysis. Compared with spontaneous breathing, reading silently increased the speed of breathing (p < 0.05), decreased mean RR and RR variability and increased BP. Reading aloud, free talking and mental arithmetic aloud shifted the respiratory frequency into the LF band, thus increasing LF% and decreasing HF% to a similar degree in both RR and respiration, with decrease in mean RR but with minor differences in crude RR variability. Simple mental and verbal activities markedly affect HRV through changes in respiratory frequency. This possibility should be taken into account when analyzing HRV without simultaneous acquisition and analysis of respiration.

  14. Reproducibility of lung tumor position and reduction of lung mass within the planning target volume using active breathing control (ABC).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Patrick C F; Sixel, Katharina E; Tirona, Romeo; Ung, Yee C

    2003-12-01

    The active breathing control (ABC) device allows for temporary immobilization of respiratory motion by implementing a breath hold at a predefined relative lung volume and air flow direction. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the ability of the ABC device to immobilize peripheral lung tumors at a reproducible position, increase total lung volume, and thereby reduce lung mass within the planning target volume (PTV). Ten patients with peripheral non-small-cell lung cancer tumors undergoing radiotherapy had CT scans of their thorax with and without ABC inspiration breath hold during the first 5 days of treatment. Total lung volumes were determined from the CT data sets. Each peripheral lung tumor was contoured by one physician on all CT scans to generate gross tumor volumes (GTVs). The lung density and mass contained within a 1.5-cm PTV margin around each peripheral tumor was calculated using CT numbers. Using the center of the GTV from the Day 1 ABC scan as the reference, the displacement of subsequent GTV centers on Days 2 to 5 for each patient with ABC applied was calculated in three dimensions. With the use of ABC inspiration breath hold, total lung volumes increased by an average of 42%. This resulted in an average decrease in lung mass of 18% within a standard 1.5-cm PTV margin around the GTV. The average (+/- standard deviation) displacement of GTV centers with ABC breath hold applied was 0.3 mm (+/- 1.8 mm), 1.2 mm (+/- 2.3 mm), and 1.1 mm (+/- 3.5 mm) in the lateral direction, anterior-posterior direction, and superior-inferior direction, respectively. Results from this study indicate that there remains some inter-breath hold variability in peripheral lung tumor position with the use of ABC inspiration breath hold, which prevents significant PTV margin reduction. However, lung volumes can significantly increase, thereby decreasing the mass of lung within a standard PTV.

  15. Perspective: Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breat...

  16. Functional connectivity in raphé-pontomedullary circuits supports active suppression of breathing during hypocapnic apnea

    PubMed Central

    Nuding, Sarah C.; Segers, Lauren S.; Iceman, Kimberly E.; O'Connor, Russell; Dean, Jay B.; Bolser, Donald C.; Baekey, David M.; Dick, Thomas E.; Shannon, Roger; Morris, Kendall F.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperventilation is a common feature of disordered breathing. Apnea ensues if CO2 drive is sufficiently reduced. We tested the hypothesis that medullary raphé, ventral respiratory column (VRC), and pontine neurons have functional connectivity and persistent or evoked activities appropriate for roles in the suppression of drive and rhythm during hyperventilation and apnea. Phrenic nerve activity, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, and other parameters were monitored in 10 decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly-blocked, and artificially ventilated cats. Multielectrode arrays recorded spiking activity of 649 neurons. Loss and return of rhythmic activity during passive hyperventilation to apnea were identified with the S-transform. Diverse fluctuating activity patterns were recorded in the raphé-pontomedullary respiratory network during the transition to hypocapnic apnea. The firing rates of 160 neurons increased during apnea; the rates of 241 others decreased or stopped. VRC inspiratory neurons were usually the last to cease firing or lose rhythmic activity during the transition to apnea. Mayer wave-related oscillations (0.04–0.1 Hz) in firing rate were also disrupted during apnea. Four-hundred neurons (62%) were elements of pairs with at least one hyperventilation-responsive neuron and a correlational signature of interaction identified by cross-correlation or gravitational clustering. Our results support a model with distinct groups of chemoresponsive raphé neurons contributing to hypocapnic apnea through parallel processes that incorporate disfacilitation and active inhibition of inspiratory motor drive by expiratory neurons. During apnea, carotid chemoreceptors can evoke rhythm reemergence and an inspiratory shift in the balance of reciprocal inhibition via suppression of ongoing tonic expiratory neuron activity. PMID:26203111

  17. Different regions of latest electrical activation during left bundle-branch block and right ventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy patients determined by coronary venous electro-anatomic mapping.

    PubMed

    Mafi Rad, Masih; Blaauw, Yuri; Dinh, Trang; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Current targeted left ventricular (LV) lead placement strategy is directed at the latest activated region during intrinsic activation. However, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is most commonly applied by simultaneous LV and right ventricular (RV) pacing without contribution from intrinsic conduction. Therefore, targeting the LV lead to the latest activated region during RV pacing might be more appropriate. We investigated the difference in LV electrical activation sequence between left bundle-branch block (LBBB) and RV apex (RVA) pacing using coronary venous electro-anatomic mapping (EAM). Twenty consecutive CRT candidates with LBBB underwent intra-procedural coronary venous EAM during intrinsic activation and RVA pacing using EnSite NavX. Left ventricular lead placement was aimed at the latest activated region during LBBB according to current recommendations. In all patients, LBBB was associated with a circumferential LV activation pattern, whereas RVA pacing resulted in activation from the apex of the heart to the base. In 10 of 20 patients, RVA pacing shifted the latest activated region relative to LBBB. In 18 of 20 patients, the LV lead was successfully positioned in the latest activated region during LBBB. For the whole study population, LV lead electrical delay, expressed as percentage of QRS duration, was significantly shorter during RVA pacing than during LBBB (72 ± 13 vs. 82 ± 5%, P = 0.035). Right ventricular apex pacing alters LV electrical activation pattern in CRT patients with LBBB, and shifts the latest activated region in a significant proportion of these patients. These findings warrant reconsideration of the current practice of LV lead targeting for CRT. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Science Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Biology, Chemistry, and Physical Science developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace relationships, learning activities with suggested…

  19. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength.

  20. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  1. Influence of forward leaning and incentive spirometry on inspired volumes and inspiratory electromyographic activity during breathing exercises in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thalita Vilaboim; Ruas, Gualberto; Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci; Volpe, Marcia Souza

    2012-12-01

    Breathing exercises (BE), incentive spirometry and positioning are considered treatment modalities to achieve lung re-expansion. This study evaluated the influence of incentive spirometry and forward leaning on inspired tidal volumes (V(T)) and electromyographic activity of inspiratory muscles during BE. Four modalities of exercises were investigated: deep breathing, spirometry using both flow and volume-oriented devices, and volume-oriented spirometry after modified verbal instruction. Twelve healthy subjects aged 22.7 ± 2.1 years were studied. Surface electromyography activity of diaphragm, external intercostals, sternocleidomastoid and scalenes was recorded. Comparisons among the three types of exercises, without considering spirometry after modified instruction, showed that electromyographic activity and V(T) were lower during volume-oriented spirometry (p = 0.000, p = 0.054, respectively). Forward leaning resulted in a lower V(T) when compared to upright sitting (p = 0.000), but electromyographic activity was not different (p = 0.606). Inspired V(T) and electromyographic activity were higher during volume-oriented spirometry performed after modified instruction when compared with the flow-oriented device (p = 0.027, p = 0.052, respectively). In conclusion BE using volume-oriented spirometry before modified instruction resulted in a lower work of breathing as a result of a lower V(T) and was not a consequence of the device type used. Forward leaning might not be assumed by healthy subjects during situations of augmented respiratory demand. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Slow Breathing and Hypoxic Challenge: Cardiorespiratory Consequences and Their Central Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Hugo D.; Nicotra, Alessia; Chiesa, Patrizia A.; Nagai, Yoko; Gray, Marcus A.; Minati, Ludovico; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Controlled slow breathing (at 6/min, a rate frequently adopted during yoga practice) can benefit cardiovascular function, including responses to hypoxia. We tested the neural substrates of cardiorespiratory control in humans during volitional controlled breathing and hypoxic challenge using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy volunteers were scanned during paced (slow and normal rate) breathing and during spontaneous breathing of normoxic and hypoxic (13% inspired O2) air. Cardiovascular and respiratory measures were acquired concurrently, including beat-to-beat blood pressure from a subset of participants (N = 7). Slow breathing was associated with increased tidal ventilatory volume. Induced hypoxia raised heart rate and suppressed heart rate variability. Within the brain, slow breathing activated dorsal pons, periaqueductal grey matter, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus and lateral and anterior insular cortices. Blocks of hypoxia activated mid pons, bilateral amygdalae, anterior insular and occipitotemporal cortices. Interaction between slow breathing and hypoxia was expressed in ventral striatal and frontal polar activity. Across conditions, within brainstem, dorsal medullary and pontine activity correlated with tidal volume and inversely with heart rate. Activity in rostroventral medulla correlated with beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate variability. Widespread insula and striatal activity tracked decreases in heart rate, while subregions of insular cortex correlated with momentary increases in tidal volume. Our findings define slow breathing effects on central and cardiovascular responses to hypoxic challenge. They highlight the recruitment of discrete brainstem nuclei to cardiorespiratory control, and the engagement of corticostriatal circuitry in support of physiological responses that accompany breathing regulation during hypoxic challenge. PMID:25973923

  3. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Effects of online cone-beam computed tomography with active breath control in determining planning target volume during accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhong, R; Wang, X; Ai, P; Henderson, F; Chen, N; Luo, F

    2017-04-01

    To test if active breath control during cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) could improve planning target volume during accelerated partial breast radiotherapy for breast cancer. Patients who were more than 40 years old, underwent breast-conserving dissection and planned for accelerated partial breast irradiation, and with postoperative staging limited to T1-2 N0 M0, or postoperative staging T2 lesion no larger than 3cm with a negative surgical margin greater than 2mm were enrolled. Patients with lobular carcinoma or extensive ductal carcinoma in situ were excluded. CBCT images were obtained pre-correction, post-correction and post-treatment. Set-up errors were recorded at left-right, anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions. The differences between these CBCT images, as well as calculated radiation doses, were compared between patients with active breath control or free breathing. Forty patients were enrolled, among them 25 had active breath control. A total of 836 CBCT images were obtained for analysis. CBCT significantly reduced planning target volume. However, active breath control did not show significant benefit in decreasing planning target volume margin and the doses of organ-at-risk when compared to free breathing. CBCT, but not active breath control, could reduce planning target volume during accelerated partial breast irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-time breath analysis with active capillary plasma ionization-ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bregy, Lukas; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Nudnova, Maryia M; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-06-01

    On-line analysis of exhaled human breath is a growing area in analytical science, for applications such as fast and non-invasive medical diagnosis and monitoring. In this work, we present a novel approach based on ambient ionization of compounds in breath and subsequent real-time mass spectrometric analysis. We introduce a plasma ionization source for this purpose, which has no need for additional gases, is very small, and is easily interfaced with virtually any commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (API-MS) without major modifications. If an API-MS instrument exists in a laboratory, the cost to implement this technology is only around [Formula: see text]500, far less than the investment for a specialized mass spectrometric system designed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis. In this proof-of-principle study we were able to measure mass spectra of exhaled human breath and found these to be comparable to spectra obtained with other electrospray-based methods. We detected over 100 VOCs, including relevant metabolites like fatty acids, with molecular weights extending up to 340 Da. In addition, we were able to monitor the time-dependent evolution of the peaks and show the enhancement of the metabolism after a meal. We conclude that this approach may complement current methods to analyze breath or other types of vapors, offering an affordable option to upgrade any pre-existing API-MS to a real-time breath analyzer.

  6. Within-Breath Control of Genioglossal Muscle Activation in Humans: Effect of Sleep-Wake State

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Robert B; Trinder, John; Malhotra, Atul; Stanchina, Michael; Edwards, Jill K; Schory, Karen E; White, David P

    2003-01-01

    Pharyngeal dilator muscles are clearly important in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Substantial data support the role of a local negative pressure reflex in modifying genioglossal activation across inspiration during wakefulness. Using a model of passive negative pressure ventilation, we have previously reported a tight relationship between varying intrapharyngeal negative pressures and genioglossal muscle activation (GGEMG) during wakefulness. In this study, we used this model to examine the slope of the relationship between epiglottic pressure (Pepi) and GGEMG, during stable NREM sleep and the transition from wakefulness to sleep. We found that there was a constant relationship between negative epiglottic pressure and GGEMG during both basal breathing (BB) and negative pressure ventilation (NPV) during wakefulness (slope GGEMG/Pepi 1.86 ± 0.3 vs. 1.79 ± 0.3 arbitrary units (a.u.) cmH2O−1). However, while this relationship remained stable during NREM sleep during BB, it was markedly reduced during NPV during sleep (2.27 ± 0.4 vs. 0.58 ± 0.1 a.u. cmH2O−1). This was associated with a markedly higher pharyngeal airflow resistance during sleep during NPV. At the transition from wakefulness to sleep there was also a greater reduction in peak GGEMG seen during NPV than during BB. These data suggest that while the negative pressure reflex is able to maintain GGEMG during passive NPV during wakefulness, this reflex is unable to do so during sleep. The loss of this protective mechanism during sleep suggests that an airway dependent upon such mechanisms (as in the patient with sleep apnoea) will be prone to collapse during sleep. PMID:12807995

  7. Guanylyl cyclase activation reverses resistive breathing-induced lung injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Glynos, Constantinos; Toumpanakis, Dimitris; Loverdos, Konstantinos; Karavana, Vassiliki; Zhou, Zongmin; Magkou, Christina; Dettoraki, Maria; Perlikos, Fotis; Pavlidou, Athanasia; Kotsikoris, Vasilis; Topouzis, Stavros; Theocharis, Stamatios E; Brouckaert, Peter; Giannis, Athanassios; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-06-01

    Inspiratory resistive breathing (RB), encountered in obstructive lung diseases, induces lung injury. The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway is down-regulated in chronic and acute animal models of RB, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Our objectives were to: (1) characterize the effects of increased concurrent inspiratory and expiratory resistance in mice via tracheal banding; and (2) investigate the contribution of the sGC/cGMP pathway in RB-induced lung injury. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice underwent RB achieved by restricting tracheal surface area to 50% (tracheal banding). RB for 24 hours resulted in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellularity and protein content, marked leukocyte infiltration in the lungs, and perturbed respiratory mechanics (increased tissue resistance and elasticity, shifted static pressure-volume curve right and downwards, decreased static compliance), consistent with the presence of acute lung injury. RB down-regulated sGC expression in the lung. All manifestations of lung injury caused by RB were exacerbated by the administration of the sGC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxodiazolo[4,3-]quinoxalin-l-one, or when RB was performed using sGCα1 knockout mice. Conversely, restoration of sGC signaling by prior administration of the sGC activator BAY 58-2667 (Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany) prevented RB-induced lung injury. Strikingly, direct pharmacological activation of sGC with BAY 58-2667 24 hours after RB reversed, within 6 hours, the established lung injury. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological targeting of the sGC-cGMP axis could be used to ameliorate lung dysfunction in obstructive lung diseases.

  8. Association between slow-wave activity, cognition and behaviour in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Weichard, Aidan J; Walter, Lisa M; Hollis, Samantha L; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Horne, Rosemary S C; Biggs, Sarah N

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that impaired dissipation of slow-wave activity (SWA) in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may be a potential mechanism for daytime dysfunction. We aimed to examine whether resolution of SDB resulted in normalisation of SWA dissipation and whether this was associated with improved cognition and behaviour. Children (aged 3-6 y) diagnosed with SDB and age-matched non-snoring control children were followed up for 3 y after a baseline study. At the follow-up, children were categorised into control (N = 13), resolved SDB (N = 15) and unresolved SDB (N = 14). Delta activity on the electroencephalogram over the sleep period was used to calculate SWA and a battery of cognitive assessments and behaviour questionnaires were conducted at both time points. There was no change in the average SWA between the baseline and follow-up and no differences between the groups. Cognitive and behavioural performance in the resolved group did not improve to control levels. However, decreased SWA at the beginning of the sleep period (β = -0.04, p = 0.002) and a decrease in obstructive apnoea-hypopnoea index (β = -2.2, p = 0.022) between the baseline and follow-up predicted improvements in measures of sustained attention. Increased SWA at the beginning of the sleep period between the baseline and follow-up predicted worsening of externalising behaviour (β = 0.02, p = 0.039). This study suggests that resolution of SDB is not associated with changes in the dissipation of SWA. However, the association between decreases in SWA and improvements in cognitive and behavioural outcomes suggest that irrespective of disease, children whose quantitative sleepiness improves have improved attention and reduced externalising behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of different proton pump inhibitors on activity of cytochrome P450 assessed by [(13)C]-aminopyrine breath test.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Chise; Uchida, Shinya; Yamade, Mihoko; Nishino, Masafumi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hishida, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2012-03-01

    Aminopyrine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver. The investigators evaluated influences of different PPIs on CYP activity as assessed by the [(13)C]-aminopyrine breath test ([(13)C]-ABT). Subjects were 15 healthy volunteers with different CYP2C19 status (5 rapid metabolizers [RMs], 5 intermediate metabolizers [IMs], and 5 poor metabolizers [PMs]). Breath samples were collected before and every 15 to 30 minutes for 3 hours after oral ingestion of [(13)C]-aminopyrine 100 mg on day 8 of each of the following regimens: control; omeprazole 20 mg and 80 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, and rabeprazole 20 mg. Changes in carbon isotope ratios in carbon dioxide ((13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2)) in breath samples were measured by infrared spectrometry and expressed as delta-over-baseline (DOB) ratios (‰). Mean areas under the curve of DOB from 0 to 3 h (AUC(0-3h) of DOB) were significantly decreased by omeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 30 mg but not by rabeprazole 20 mg. Conversely, higher PPI dose (ie, omeprazole 80 mg) seemed to further decrease AUC(0-3h) of DOB in RMs but increased it in PMs. Omeprazole and lansoprazole at the standard doses inhibit CYP activity but rabeprazole does not, whereas high-dose omeprazole seems to induce CYPs.

  10. Burbank conducts PACE Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-01

    ISS030-E-007417 (1 Dec. 2011) --- In the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE) at the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack / Fluids Combustion Facility (FIR/FCF). PACE is designed to investigate the capability of conducting high magnification colloid experiments with the LMM for determining the minimum size particles which can be resolved with it.

  11. Burbank conducts PACE Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-01

    ISS030-E-007418 (1 Dec. 2011) --- In the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE) at the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack / Fluids Combustion Facility (FIR/FCF). PACE is designed to investigate the capability of conducting high magnification colloid experiments with the LMM for determining the minimum size particles which can be resolved with it.

  12. Burbank conducts PACE Session

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-01

    ISS030-E-007419 (1 Dec. 2011) --- In the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, conducts a session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE) at the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack / Fluids Combustion Facility (FIR/FCF). PACE is designed to investigate the capability of conducting high magnification colloid experiments with the LMM for determining the minimum size particles which can be resolved with it.

  13. Polymorphic Variants 279R and 668Q Augment Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Breath Condensates of Children with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagórska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Litwiniuk, Malgorzata; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Kulus, Marek; Grzela, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is involved in pathophysiology of asthma, mainly asthma-associated airway remodeling. Exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of asthmatics contain increased amounts of MMP-9 with activity higher, than in healthy controls. The increased activity of MMP-9 may originate from its excessive production and activation, but may also result from variations in MMP-9 structure, which are determined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this pilot study we aimed to assess the possible influence of two functional MMP-9 polymorphisms, Q279R and R668Q, on enzymatic activity of MMP-9, measured in EBC of asthmatic children. The concentration and activity of MMP-9 were analyzed in EBC of 20 children with allergic asthma using specific standard ELISA and novel immunoenzymatic activity assay. The SNPs of MMP-9 were assessed using real-time PCR-based genotyping test. We have found that MMP-9 concentration in breath condensates of children with stable asthma was slightly higher in ELISA, than in the activity assay. Moreover, these results and activity-to-amount ratio have revealed some relationship with a presence of specific 279R and/or 668Q MMP-9 gene variants. Our observation suggests that at least in some patients MMP-9 hyperactivity may result from genetic predisposition, determined by polymorphic variants of MMP-9 gene. Moreover, it supports previous reports postulating significance of MMP-9 in pathogenesis of asthma. However, this issue still requires further studies.

  14. Canine left ventricle electromechanical behavior under different pacing modes.

    PubMed

    Vo Thang, Thanh-Thuy; Thibault, Bernard; Finnerty, Vincent; Pelletier-Galarneau, Matthieu; Khairy, Paul; Grégoire, Jean; Harel, François

    2012-10-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy may improve survival and quality of life in patients suffering from heart failure with left ventricular (LV) contraction dyssynchrony. While several studies have investigated electrical or mechanical determinants of synchronous contraction, few have focused on activation contraction coupling at a macroscopic level. The objective of the study was to characterize LV electromechanical behavior and response to pacing in a heart failure model. We analyzed data from 3D electroanatomic non-contact mapping and blood pool SPECT for 12 dogs with right ventricular (RV) tachycardia pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. Surfaces generated by the two modalities were registered. Electrical signals were analyzed, and endocardial wall displacement curves were portrayed. Rapid pacing decreased the mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) to 20.9 % and prolonged the QRS duration to 79 ± 10 ms (normal range: 40-50 ms). QRS duration remained unchanged with biventricular pacing (88.5 ms), while single site pacing further prolonged the QRS duration (113.3 ms for RV pacing and 111.6 ms for LV pacing). No trend was observed in LV systolic function. Activation duration time was significantly increased with all pacing modes compared to baseline. Finally, electromechanical delay, as defined by the delay between electrical activation and mechanical response, was increased by single site pacing (172.9 ms for RV pacing and 174.6 ms for LV pacing) but not by biventricular pacing (162.4 ms). Combined temporal and spatial coregistration electroanatomic maps and baseline gated blood pool SPECT imaging allowed us to quantify activation duration time, electromechanical delay, and LVEF for different pacing modes. Even if pacing modes did not significantly modify LVEF or activation duration, they produced alterations in electromechanical delay, with biventricular pacing significantly decreasing the electromechanical delay as measured by surface tracings and endocardial

  15. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Septal Pacing Is Superior to Right Ventricular Apical Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Cao; Song, Jianping; Li, Hui; Huang, Xingmei; Liu, Yuping; Zhao, Caiming; Shi, Xin; Yang, Xiangjun

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) and right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) septal pacing on atrial and ventricular electrophysiology have not been thoroughly compared. Methods and Results To identify a more favorable pacing strategy with fewer adverse effects, 80 patients who had complete atrioventricular block with normal cardiac function and who were treated with either RVAP (n=42) or RVOT septal pacing (n=38) were recruited after an average of 2 years of follow‐up. The data from electrocardiography and echocardiography performed before pacemaker implantation and at the end of follow‐up were collected. The patients in the RVOT septal pacing and RVAP groups showed similar demographic and clinical characteristics before pacing treatments. After a mean follow‐up of 2 years, the final maximum P‐wave duration; P‐wave dispersion; Q‐, R‐, and S‐wave complex duration; left atrial volume index; left ventricular end‐systolic diameter; ratio of transmitral early diastolic filling velocity to mitral annular early diastolic velocity; and interventricular mechanical delay in the RVOT septal pacing group were significantly less than those in the RVAP group (P<0.05). The final left ventricular ejection fraction of the RVOT septal pacing group was significantly higher than that of the RVAP group (P<0.05). Conclusions Compared with RVAP, RVOT septal pacing has fewer adverse effects regarding atrial electrical activity and structure in patients with normal cardiac function. PMID:25896891

  16. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003075.htm Breathing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  17. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... drain their stomach. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... Is there a specific odor (such as fish, ammonia, fruit, feces, or alcohol)? Have you recently eaten ...

  18. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  19. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  20. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  1. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot, you may need to visit your dentist or doctor . What Causes Bad Breath? Here are ... particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist twice a year for regular checkups and cleanings. ...

  2. Breathing Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequently during the night (insomnia) Difficulty lying flat ALS and your lungs Breathing in and out is ... improve effective coughing. Techniques are explained in The ALS Association’s Living with ALS manual #6 “Adapting to ...

  3. Synthesis of ¹³C-lidocaine as a probe of breath test for the evaluation of cytochrome P450 activity.

    PubMed

    Mitome, Hidemichi; Sugiyama, Erika; Sato, Hitoshi; Akira, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    (13)C-Labeled lidocaine, 2-di[1-(13)C]ethylamino-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide (1), was synthesized from [1-(13)C]acetic acid in six steps, as a probe for a breath test to evaluate in vivo cytochrome P450 activity. The measurement of (13)CO2 in breath was successfully performed following oral administration of (13)C-lidocaine 1 to mice.

  4. Oxygen-18 isotope of breath CO2 linking to erythrocytes carbonic anhydrase activity: a biomarker for pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chiranjit; Banik, Gourab D.; Maity, Abhijit; Som, Suman; Chakraborty, Arpita; Selvan, Chitra; Ghosh, Shibendu; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Pradhan, Manik

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA), a well-characterized metalloenzyme, is associated with oxygen-18 ( 18O)-isotopic fractionations of CO2. To investigate how CA activity links the 18O of breath CO2 to pre-diabetes (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) during metabolism, we studied pre- and post-dose CA activities in erythrocytes with simultaneous monitoring of 18O/ 16O-isotope ratios of breath CO2 and thereafter elucidated potential metabolic pathways underlying CA alteration in the pathogenesis of T2D. Here we show that the post-dose CA activity in both T2D and PD was markedly enhanced, whereas the non-diabetic controls (NDC) exhibited a considerable reduction in post-dose CA activity when compared with their basal CA activities. However, T2D and PD exhibited isotopic enrichments of 18O in breath CO2, while a marked depletion of 18O in CO2 was manifested in NDC. Thus, the isotopic enrichments and depletions of 18O in breath CO2 were well correlated with the changes in CA activities for controls, PD and T2D. Our findings suggest the changes in CA activities in erythrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D and the breath C 18O 16O regulated by the CA activity as a potential biomarker for non-invasive assessment of T2D, and thus may open a new method for treating T2D. PMID:25633556

  5. Intracellular calcium dynamics and acetylcholine-induced triggered activity in the pulmonary veins of dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chung-Chuan; Nguyen, Bich Lien; Tan, Alex Y.; Chang, Po-Cheng; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Fun-Chung; Yeh, San-Jou; Fishbein, Michael C.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Wu, Delon; Wen, Ming-Shien; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Heart failure increases autonomic nerve activities and changes intracellular calcium (Cai) dynamics. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that abnormal Cai dynamics are responsible for triggered activity in the pulmonary veins (PVs) during acetylcholine infusion in a canine model of heart failure. METHODS Simultaneous optical mapping of and membrane Cai potential was performed in isolated Langendorff-perfused PV–left atrial (LA) preparations from nine dogs with ventricular pacing-induced heart failure. Mapping was performed at baseline, during acetylcholine (1 μmol/L) infusion (N = 9), and during thapsigargin and ryanodine infusion (N = 6). RESULTS Acetylcholine abbreviated the action potential. In four tissues, long pauses were followed by elevated diastolic Cai, late phase 3 early afterdepolarizations, and atrial fibrillation (AF). The incidence of PV focal discharges during AF was increased by acetylcholine from 2.4 ± 0.6 beats/s (N = 4) to 6.5 ± 2.2 beats/s (N = 8; P = .003). PV focal discharge and PV–LA microreentry coexisted in 6 of 9 preparations. The spatial distribution of dominant frequency demonstrated a focal source pattern, with the highest dominant frequency areas colocalized with PV focal discharge sites in 35 (95%) of 37 cholinergic AF episodes (N = 8). Thapsigargin and ryanodine infusion eliminated focal discharges in 6 of 6 preparations and suppressed the inducibility of AF in 4 of 6 preparations. PVs with focal discharge have higher densities of parasympathetic nerves than do PVs without focal discharges (P = .01), and periodic acid–Schiff (PAS)-positive cells were present at the focal discharge sites. CONCLUSION Cai dynamics are important in promoting triggered activity during acetylcholine infusion in PVs from pacing-induced heart failure. PV focal discharge sites have PAS-positive cells and high densities of parasympathetic nerves. PMID:18554987

  6. Breath Activity Monitoring With Wearable UWB Radars: Measurement and Analysis of the Pulses Reflected by the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Pittella, Erika; Pisa, Stefano; Cavagnaro, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Measurements of ultrawideband (UWB) pulses reflected by the human body are conducted to evidence the differences in the received signal time behaviors due to respiration phases, and to experimentally verify previously obtained numerical results on the body's organs responsible for pulse reflection. Two experimental setups are used. The first one is based on a commercially available impulse radar system integrated on a single chip, while the second one implements an indirect time-domain reflectometry technique using a vector network analyzer controlled by a LabVIEW virtual instrument running on a laptop. When the UWB source is placed close to the human body, a small reflection due to the lung boundaries is present in the received pulse well distanced in time from the reflection due to the air-skin interface; this reflection proved to be linked to the different respiration phases. The changes in the reflected pulse could be used to detect, through wearable radar systems, lung movements associated with the breath activity. The development of a wearable radar system is of great importance because it allows the breath activity sensing without interfering with the subject daily activities.

  7. Transfer function analysis of the autonomic response to respiratory activity during random interval breathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Stevenson, K.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    We report a new method for the noninvasive characterization of the frequency response of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in mediating fluctuations in heart rate (HR). The approach entails computation of the transfer function magnitude and phase between instantaneous lung volume and HR. Broad band fluctuations in lung volume were initiated when subjects breathed on cue to a sequence of beeps spaced randomly in time. We studied 10 subjects in both supine and standing positions. The transfer function, averaged among all the subjects, showed systematic differences between the two postures, reflecting the differing frequency responses of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.

  8. Effects of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on muscle activity in inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the influence of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Twelve men with COPD participated in the study. Inductive respiratory plethysmography and surface electromyography were used to simultaneously measure TV, RR, and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles [the scalenus (SM), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), and pectoralis major (PM) muscles] during quiet natural breathing (QB) and pursed-lips breathing (PLB) in three sitting postures: neutral position (NP), with armm support (WAS), and with arm and head support (WAHS). Results Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was employed. In a comparison of breathing patterns, PLB significantly increased TV and decreased RR compared to QB. Muscle activity in the SM and SCM increased significantly in PLB compared to QB. In a comparison of sitting postures, the muscle activity of the SM, SCM, and PM increased in the forward-leaning position. Conclusions The results suggest that in COPD, PLB induced a favorable breathing pattern (increased TV and reduced RR) compared to QB. Additionally, WAS and WAHS positions increased muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles during inspiration versus NP. Differential involvement of accessory respiratory muscles can be readily studied in COPD patients, allowing monitoring of respiratory load during pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:22958459

  9. Dirty breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisham, M.

    2017-12-01

    Breathing issues befall most asthmatics. However, the symptoms are not caused randomly. Particulate matter is a cause that has been collected and sampled at several bus stops. The following experiment provides the results of collected particulate matter in several locations around LSU.

  10. Transferring PACE Assessments Upon Home Sale

    SciTech Connect

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Coughlin, Jason; Fuller, Merrian

    A significant barrier to investing in renewable energy and comprehensive energy efficiency improvements to homes across the country is the initial capital cost. Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing this upfront cost issue. Recently, the White House cited PACE programs as an important element of its 'Recovery through Retrofit' plan. The residential PACE model involves the creation of a special clean energy financing district that homeowners elect to opt into. Once opted in, the local government (usually at the city or county level) finances the upfrontmore » investment of the renewable energy installation and/or energy efficiency improvements. A special lien is attached to the property and the assessment is paid back as a line item on the property tax bill. As of April 2010, 17 states have passed legislation to allow their local governments to create PACE programs, two already have the authority to set up PACE programs, and over 10 additional states are actively developing enabling legislation. This policy brief analyzes one of the advantages of PACE, which is the transferability of the special assessment from one homeowner to the next when the home is sold. This analysis focuses on the potential for the outstanding lien to impact the sales negotiation process, rather than the legal nature of the lien transfer itself. The goal of this paper is to consider what implications a PACE lien may have on the home sales negotiation process so that it can be addressed upfront rather than risk a future backlash to PACE programs. If PACE programs do expand at a rapid rate, the chances are high that there will be other cases where prospective buyers uses PACE liens to negotiate lower home prices or require repayment of the lien as a condition of sale. As a result, PACE programs should highlight this issue as a potential risk factor for the sake of full disclosure. A good example

  11. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  12. Immediate effect of slow pace bhastrika pranayama on blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Tapas; Sharma, Hari Om; Mishra, Suchita; Mishra, Anurag; Prajapati, Rajesh; Singh, Smriti

    2009-03-01

    heart rate was observed in volunteers who performed the same breathing exercise for the same duration following oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide. Pranayama increases frequency and duration of inhibitory neural impulses by activating pulmonary stretch receptors during above tidal volume inhalation as in Hering Bruer reflex, which bring about withdrawal of sympathetic tone in the skeletal muscle blood vessels, leading to widespread vasodilatation, thus causing decrease in peripheral resistance and thus decreasing the diastolic blood pressure. After hyoscine-N-butylbromide, the parasympathetic blocker, it was observed that blood pressure was not decreased significantly as a result of pranayama, as it was observed when no drug was administered. Vagal cardiac and pulmonary mechanisms are linked, and improvement in one vagal limb might spill over into the other. Baroreceptor sensitivity can be enhanced significantly by slow breathing (supported by a small reduction in the heart rate observed during slow breathing and by reduction in both systolic and diastolic pressure). Slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min) exercise thus shows a strong tendency to improving the autonomic nervous system through enhanced activation of the parasympathetic system.

  13. TCP Pacing Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) was conceived and designed to run over a variety of communication links, including wireless and high-bandwidth links. However, with recent technological advances in satellite and fiber-optic networks, researchers are reevaluating the flexibility of TCP. The TCP pacing and packet pair probing implementation may help overcome two of the major obstacles identified for efficient bandwidth utilization over communication links with large delay-bandwidth products.

  14. Measuring Ventilatory Activity with Structured Light Plethysmography (SLP) Reduces Instrumental Observer Effect and Preserves Tidal Breathing Variability in Healthy and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Niérat, Marie-Cécile; Dubé, Bruno-Pierre; Llontop, Claudia; Bellocq, Agnès; Layachi Ben Mohamed, Lila; Rivals, Isabelle; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-01-01

    variables were significantly different between the SLP and SLP+PNT conditions and CVs were significantly lower when COPD patients were assessed in the SLP+PNT condition. Measuring ventilatory activity with SLP preserves resting tidal breathing variability, reduces instrumental observer effect and avoids any disruptions in breathing pattern induced by the use of PNT-mouthpiece-nose-clip combination. PMID:28572773

  15. Measuring Ventilatory Activity with Structured Light Plethysmography (SLP) Reduces Instrumental Observer Effect and Preserves Tidal Breathing Variability in Healthy and COPD.

    PubMed

    Niérat, Marie-Cécile; Dubé, Bruno-Pierre; Llontop, Claudia; Bellocq, Agnès; Layachi Ben Mohamed, Lila; Rivals, Isabelle; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-01-01

    variables were significantly different between the SLP and SLP+PNT conditions and CVs were significantly lower when COPD patients were assessed in the SLP+PNT condition. Measuring ventilatory activity with SLP preserves resting tidal breathing variability, reduces instrumental observer effect and avoids any disruptions in breathing pattern induced by the use of PNT-mouthpiece-nose-clip combination.

  16. Right atrial pacing impairs cardiac function during resynchronization therapy: acute effects of DDD pacing compared to VDD pacing.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Alain; Ammann, Peter; Sticherling, Christian; Burger, Peter; Schaer, Beat; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans Peter; Eckstein, Jens; Kiencke, Stephanie; Kaiser, Christoph; Linka, Andre; Buser, Peter; Pfisterer, Matthias; Osswald, Stefan

    2005-05-03

    We aimed to compare the hemodynamic effects of right-atrial-paced (DDD) and right-atrial-sensed (VDD) biventricular paced rhythm on cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves hemodynamics in patients with severe heart failure and left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. However, the impact of active right atrial pacing on resynchronization therapy is unknown. Seventeen CRT patients were studied 10 months (range: 1 to 46 months) after implantation. At baseline, the programmed atrioventricular delay was optimized by timing LV contraction properly at the end of atrial contraction. In both modes the acute hemodynamic effects were assessed by multiple Doppler echocardiographic parameters. Compared to DDD pacing, VDD pacing resulted in much better improvement of intraventricular dyssynchrony assessed by the septal-to-posterior wall motion delay (VDD 106 +/- 83 ms vs. DDD 145 +/- 95 ms; p = 0.001), whereas the interventricular mechanical delay (difference between onset of pulmonary and aortic outflow) did not differ (VDD 20 +/- 21 ms vs. DDD 18 +/- 17 ms; p = NS). Furthermore, VDD pacing significantly prolonged the rate-corrected LV filling period (VDD 458 +/- 123 ms vs. DDD 371 +/- 94 ms; p = 0.0001) and improved the myocardial performance index (VDD 0.60 +/- 0.18 vs. DDD 0.71 +/- 0.23; p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that avoidance of right atrial pacing results in a higher degree of LV resynchronization, in a substantial prolongation of the LV filling period, and in an improved myocardial performance. Thus, the VDD mode seems to be superior to the DDD mode in CRT patients.

  17. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: the PACE project.

    PubMed

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E; Beresford, Shirley A A; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. In a large worksite randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95 % CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95 % CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95 % CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95 % CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m(2)). This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity.

  18. Effects of Mat Pilates training and habitual physical activity on thoracoabdominal expansion during quiet and vital capacity breathing in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jeniffer L; Vancini, Rodrigo L; Zanoni, Graziely R; Barbosa DE Lira, Claudio A; Santos Andrade, Marilia; Sarro, Karine J

    2017-10-27

    Pilates is a body/mind method that requires different types of exercise (balance, endurance, strength, and flexibility) and attention to muscle control, posture, and breathing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of Mat Pilates training and habitual physical activity on thoracoabdominal motion of healthy and physically active women. Thirty-five women without experience in Pilates exercise, aged between 18 and 35 years, participated in the study (habitual physical activity group, n=14; and Mat Pilates group, n=21). Three- dimensional kinematic analysis was used to evaluate total and separate thoracoabdominal compartments' expansion (superior and inferior thorax and abdomen), contribution of each compartment to total thoracoabdominal expansion, and coordination between thoracoabdominal compartments. After 12 weeks of Mat Pilates training, thoracoabdominal expansion during quiet breathing was improved by increasing the expansion of abdomen by about 33% (P=0.01). Moreover, expansion of superior (P=0.04) and inferior thorax (P=0.02) and abdomen (P=0.01) was also improved in Pilates (35%, 33% and 37%, respectively) compared to the habitual physical activity group, after the experimental protocol. Finally, the habitual physical activity group presented a decrease of 13% in the expansion of abdomen (P = 0.002). The results suggest the capability of Mat Pilates in improving the action of respiratory and abdominal muscles during breathing and, thus, its benefits to breathing mechanics.

  19. Reduced lung dose during radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal carcinoma: VMAT combined with active breathing control for moderate DIBH.

    PubMed

    Gong, Guanzhong; Wang, Ruozheng; Guo, Yujie; Zhai, Deyin; Liu, Tonghai; Lu, Jie; Chen, Jinhu; Liu, Chengxin; Yin, Yong

    2013-12-20

    Lung radiation injury is a critical complication of radiotherapy (RT) for thoracic esophageal carcinoma (EC). Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility and dosimetric effects of reducing the lung tissue irradiation dose during RT for thoracic EC by applying volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) combined with active breathing control (ABC) for moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH). Fifteen patients with thoracic EC were randomly selected to undergo two series of computed tomography (CT) simulation scans with ABC used to achieve mDIBH (representing 80% of peak DIBH value) versus free breathing (FB). Gross tumor volumes were contoured on different CT images, and planning target volumes (PTVs) were obtained using different margins. For PTV-FB, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was designed with seven fields, and VMAT included two whole arcs. For PTV-DIBH, VMAT with three 135° arcs was applied, and the corresponding plans were named: IMRT-FB, VMAT-FB, and VMAT-DIBH, respectively. Dosimetric differences between the different plans were compared. The heart volumes decreased by 19.85%, while total lung volume increased by 52.54% in mDIBH, compared to FB (p < 0.05). The mean conformality index values and homogeneity index values for VMAT-DIBH (0.86, 1.07) were slightly worse than those for IMRT-FB (0.90, 1.05) and VMAT-FB (0.90, 1.06) (p > 0.05). Furthermore, compared to IMRT-FB and VMAT-FB, VMAT-DIBH reduced the mean total lung dose by 18.64% and 17.84%, respectively (p < 0.05); moreover, the V5, V10, V20, and V30 values for IMRT-FB and VMAT-FB were reduced by 10.84% and 10.65% (p > 0.05), 12.5% and 20% (p < 0.05), 30.77% and 33.33% (p < 0.05), and 50.33% and 49.15% (p < 0.05), respectively. However, the heart dose-volume indices were similar between VMAT-DIBH and VMAT-FB which were lower than IMRT-FB without being statistically significant (p > 0.05). The monitor units and treatment time of VMAT-DIBH were also the lowest (p

  20. Pacing for neurally mediated syncope: is placebo powerless?

    PubMed

    Brignole, M; Sutton, R

    2007-01-01

    After two recent controlled trials failed to prove superiority of cardiac pacing over placebo in patients affected by neurally mediated syncope, a widely accepted opinion is that cardiac pacing therapy is not very effective and that a strong placebo effect exists. To measure the effect of placebo pacing therapy. We compared the recurrence rate of syncope during placebo vs. no treatment in controlled trials of drug or pacing therapy. Syncope recurred in 38% of 252 patients randomized to placebo pooled from five trials vs. 34% of 881 patients randomized to no treatment pooled from eight trials. The corresponding recurrence rate with active cardiac pacing was 15% in 203 patients from six trials. Placebo is not an effective therapy for neurally mediated syncope. Different selection criteria in patients who are candidates for cardiac pacing-for example, presence, absence, or severity of the cardioinhibitory reflex may separate positive from negative trials.

  1. Description of an Audio-Based Paced Respiration Intervention for Vasomotor Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Debra S.; Drews, Michael R.; Carpenter, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Millions of women experience menopause-related hot flashes or flushes that may have a negative effect on their quality of life. Hormone therapy is an effective treatment, however, it may be contraindicated or unacceptable for some women based on previous health complications or an undesirable risk–benefit ratio. Side effects and the unacceptability of hormone therapy have created a need for behavioral interventions to reduce hot flashes. A variety of complex, multimodal behavioral, relaxation-based interventions have been studied with women (n = 88) and showed generally favorable results. However, currently extensive resource commitments reduce the translation of these interventions into standard care. Slow, deep breathing is a common component in most interventions and may be the active ingredient leading to reduced hot flashes. This article describes the content of an audio-based program designed to teach paced breathing to reduce hot flashes. Intervention content was based on skills training theory and music entrainment. The audio intervention provides an efficient way to deliver a breathing intervention that may be beneficial to other clinical populations. PMID:23914283

  2. Sleepiness and activity in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and central sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Atalla, Angela; Carlisle, Thomas W; Simonds, Anita K; Cowie, Martin R; Morrell, Mary J

    2017-06-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are typically not sleepy, unlike patients without heart failure. Previous work in HF patients with obstructive SDB suggested that sleepiness was associated with a reduction in daytime activity. The consequences of predominately central SDB on sleepiness in HF are less well understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that subjective sleepiness is associated with reduced daytime activity in HF patients with central SDB, compared to those without SDB. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), nocturnal polysomnography, and 14 days of wrist watch actigraphy were used to assess subjective daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep and breathing, and 24-h activity levels, respectively. A total of 54 patients with HF were studied, nine had obstructive SDB and were removed from further analysis. Of the patients, 23 had HF with predominantly central SDB (HF-CSA; apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) median 20.6 (IQR 12.9-40.2)/h), and 22 had noSDB (HF-noSDB; AHI 3.7 (2.5-5.9)/h). The median patient age was 68 years (range 59-73 years). There were no significant differences either in ESS score (HF-CSA; 8 [4-10] vs. HF-noSDB; 8 (6-12); p = 0.49) or in duration of daytime activity (HF-CSA 14.5 (14.1-15.2) and HF-noSDB 15.1 (14.4-15.3) hours; p = 0.10) between the groups. HF patients with predominately central SDB are not subjectively sleepy compared to those without SDB, despite reduced sleep quality. We speculate that the lack of sleepiness (based on ESS score) may be due to increased sympathetic nerve activity, although further studies are needed due to the small number (n = 5) of sleepy HF-CSA patients. Daytime activity was not different between HF-noSDB and HF-CSA patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. SU-F-P-14: Oxygen Inhalation Should Be the Conventional Approach in the Treatment of Thoracic and Abdominal Cancer by Radiotherapy with Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, G; Guo, Y; Yin, Y

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential benefit of oxygen inhalation (OI) during radiotherapy applying an active breathing control (ABC) device, by analyzing the blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the instantaneous heart rate (IHR) variation in breath holding with OI and oxygen non-inhalation (ONI). Methods: The 27 healthy volunteers (16 males, 11 females) who were involved in this trial were all required to hold their breath for 10 times, non-inhaling and inhaling oxygen successively. The breath-holding time (BHT), rest time (RT), SpO2 and IHR under different oxygen status were recorded and compared. Results: The volunteers were divided into two groupsmore » according to SpO2 variations in breath-holding: group A (12 cases), with less than2% decline of SpO2; group B (15 cases), with a decline that surpassed 2%, and which could reach 3–6%. The BHT of group A, without inhaling oxygen, was significantly longer than that of group B (mean 33.77s Vs 30.51s, p<0.05); and was extended by 26.6% and 27.85%, after inhaling oxygen, in groups A and B, respectively. The SpO2 decreased in all volunteers during RT with ONI, to an extent that could reach up to 6%. The IHR of all volunteers showed the fast-slow-fast variation rule, and the oxygen had little effect. More than 70% of the volunteers stated that oxygen made them feel more comfortable and were more cooperative when ABC was used. Conclusion: The SpO2 declines during breath holding and RT could not be ignored while applying ABC, oxygen inhalation should become a conventional method with lengthening BHT and shortening RT, which yielded the benefit of improving the stability and reproducibility.« less

  4. Farewell to the Chairman - Marine Gen. Peter Pace

    Science.gov Websites

    oath of office from Marine Gen. Peter Pace, who retired after more than 40 years active duty military wife Lynne after giving the general his retirement certificate. Defense Dept. photo by Cherie A solutions, Marine Gen. Peter Pace said here today as he retired from the Marine Corps after more than 40

  5. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and taking big breaths can be uncomfortable. A device called an incentive spirometer can help you take deep breaths correctly. If you do not have this device, you can still practice deep breathing on your ...

  6. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ...

  7. The Role of Apamin Sensitive Calcium Activated Small Conductance Potassium Currents on the Mechanisms of Ventricular Fibrillation in Pacing Induced Failing Rabbit Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dechun; Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Wu, Adonis Zhi-Yang; Jiang, Zhaolei; Chan, Yi-Hsin; Xu, Dongzhu; Yang, Na; Shen, Changyu; Chen, Zhenhui; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Everett, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ventricular fibrillation (VF) during heart failure is characterized by stable reentrant spiral waves (rotors). Apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium activated potassium currents (IKAS) are heterogeneously up-regulated in failing hearts. We hypothesized that IKAS influences the location and stability of rotors during VF. Methods and Results Optical mapping was performed on 9 rabbit hearts with pacing induced heart failure. The epicardial RV and LV were simultaneously mapped in a Langendorff preparation. At baseline and after apamin (100 nmol/L) infusion, the APD80 was determined and VF was induced. Areas with a greater than 50% increase in the maximum APD (ΔAPD) after apamin were considered to have a high IKAS distribution. At baseline, the distribution density of phase singularities (PS) during VF in high IKAS distribution areas was higher than in other areas (0.0035±.0011 vs 0.0014±0.0010 PS/pixel, P=0.004). In addition, high dominant frequencies (DF) also co-localized to high IKAS distribution areas (26.0 vs 17.9 Hz, P=0.003). These correlations were eliminated during VF after apamin infusion, as the number of PS (17.2 versus 11.0, P=0.009), and DFs (22.1 vs 16.2 Hz, P=0.022), were all significantly decreased. In addition, reentrant spiral waves became unstable after apamin infusion and the duration of VF decreased. Conclusions The IKAS current influences the mechanism of VF in failing hearts as PS, high DFs, and reentrant spiral waves all correlated to areas of high IKAS. Apamin eliminated this relationship and reduced VF vulnerability. PMID:28213506

  8. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  9. A rapid non invasive L-DOPA-¹³C breath test for optimally suppressing extracerebral AADC enzyme activity - toward individualizing carbidopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease.

    PubMed

    Modak, Anil; Durso, Raymon; Josephs, Ephraim; Rosen, David

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral carbidopa (CD) levels directly impact on central dopamine (DA) production in Parkinson disease (PD) through extracerebral inhibition of dopa decarboxylase (AADC) resulting in an increase in levodopa (LD) bioavailability. Recent data suggests that higher CD doses than those presently used in PD treatment may result in improved clinical response. Optimizing CD doses in individual patients may, therefore, result in ideal individualized treatment. A single center, randomized, double-blind study was carried out recruiting 5 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients already on LD/CD and 1 treatment näve PD patient using stable isotope labeled LD-1-¹³C as a substrate for a noninvasive breath test to evaluate individual AADC enzyme activity. Each patient was studied five times, receiving 200 mg LD-¹³C at each visit along with one of five randomized CD doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg). The metabolite ¹³CO₂ in breath was measured for evaluating AADC enzyme activity and plasma metabolite levels for LD-¹³C and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured for 4 hours. HVA in plasma and ¹³CO₂ in breath are metabolic products of LD. We found a significant positive correlation of ¹³CO₂ DOB AUC0-240 with serum HVA AUC0-240 following the oral dose of LD-1-¹³C for all 5 doses of CD (r² = 0.9378). With increasing inhibition of AADC enzyme activity with CD, we observed an increase in the plasma concentration of LD.We found an inverse correlation of the 13CO2 DOB AUC with serum LD-¹³C AUC. Our studies indicate the optimal dose of CD for maximal suppression of AADC enzyme activity can be determined for each individual from ¹³CO₂ generation in breath. The LD-breath test can be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluation of AADC enzyme activity using the biomarker ¹³CO₂ in breath, a first step in personalizing CD doses for PD patients.

  10. Design of a new artificial breathing system for simulating the human respiratory activities.

    PubMed

    Essoukaki, Elmaati; Rattal, Mourad; Ben Taleb, Lhoucine; Harmouchi, Mohammed; Assir, Abdelhadi; Mouhsen, Azeddine; Lyazidi, Aissam

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the conception and implementation of an artificial active respiratory system that allows the simulation of human respiratory activities. The system consists of two modules, mechanical and electronical. The first one represents a cylindrical lung adjustable in resistance and compliance. This lung is located inside a transparent thoracic box, connected to a piston that generates variable respiratory efforts. The parameters of the system, which are pressure, flow and volume, are measured by the second module. A computer application was developed to control the whole system, and enables the display of the parameters. A series of tests were made to evaluate the respiratory efforts, resistances and compliances. The results were compared to the bibliographical studies, allowing the validation of the proposed system.

  11. Towards a system-paced near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface: differentiating prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and mental singing from the no-control state.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah D; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) for individuals with severe motor impairments. For the most part, previous research has investigated the development of NIRS-BCIs operating under synchronous control paradigms, which require the user to exert conscious control over their mental activity whenever the system is vigilant. Though functional, this is mentally demanding and an unnatural way to communicate. An attractive alternative to the synchronous control paradigm is system-paced control, in which users are required to consciously modify their brain activity only when they wish to affect the BCI output, and can remain in a more natural, 'no-control' state at all other times. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one intentional control (IC) state corresponding to the performance of either mental arithmetic or mental singing. In particular, this involved determining if these tasks could be distinguished, individually, from the unconstrained 'no-control' state. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while eight able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a six-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 71.2% across participants was achieved for the mental arithmetic versus no-control classification problem. While the mental singing versus no-control classification was less successful across participants (62.7% on average), four participants did attain accuracies well in excess of chance, three of which were above 70%. Analyses were performed offline. Collectively, these results are encouraging, and demonstrate the potential of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one IC state corresponding to

  12. Towards a system-paced near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface: differentiating prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and mental singing from the no-control state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Sarah D.; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) for individuals with severe motor impairments. For the most part, previous research has investigated the development of NIRS-BCIs operating under synchronous control paradigms, which require the user to exert conscious control over their mental activity whenever the system is vigilant. Though functional, this is mentally demanding and an unnatural way to communicate. An attractive alternative to the synchronous control paradigm is system-paced control, in which users are required to consciously modify their brain activity only when they wish to affect the BCI output, and can remain in a more natural, 'no-control' state at all other times. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one intentional control (IC) state corresponding to the performance of either mental arithmetic or mental singing. In particular, this involved determining if these tasks could be distinguished, individually, from the unconstrained 'no-control' state. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while eight able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a six-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 71.2% across participants was achieved for the mental arithmetic versus no-control classification problem. While the mental singing versus no-control classification was less successful across participants (62.7% on average), four participants did attain accuracies well in excess of chance, three of which were above 70%. Analyses were performed offline. Collectively, these results are encouraging, and demonstrate the potential of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one IC state corresponding to

  13. Selective optogenetic stimulation of the retrotrapezoid nucleus in sleeping rats activates breathing without changing blood pressure or causing arousal or sighs

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Peter G. R.; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Combined optogenetic activation of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN; a CO2/proton-activated brainstem nucleus) with nearby catecholaminergic neurons (C1 and A5), or selective C1 neuron stimulation, increases blood pressure (BP) and breathing, causes arousal from non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and triggers sighs. Here we wished to determine which of these physiological responses are elicited when RTN neurons are selectively activated. The left rostral RTN and nearby A5 neurons were transduced with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2+) using a lentiviral vector. Very few C1 cells were transduced. BP, breathing, EEG, and neck EMG were monitored. During non-REM sleep, photostimulation of ChR2+ neurons (20s, 2-20 Hz) instantly increased V̇e without changing BP (13 rats). V̇e and BP were unaffected by light in nine control (ChR2−) rats. Photostimulation produced no sighs and caused arousal (EEG desynchronization) more frequently in ChR2+ than ChR2− rats (62 ± 5% of trials vs. 25 ± 2%; P < 0.0001). Six ChR2+ rats then received spinal injections of a saporin-based toxin that spared RTN neurons but destroyed surrounding catecholaminergic neurons. Photostimulation of the ChR2+ neurons produced the same ventilatory stimulation before and after lesion, but arousal was no longer elicited. Overall (all ChR2+ rats combined), ΔV̇e correlated with the number of ChR2+ RTN neurons whereas arousal probability correlated with the number of ChR2+ catecholaminergic neurons. In conclusion, RTN neurons activate breathing powerfully and, unlike the C1 cells, have minimal effects on BP and have a weak arousal capability at best. A5 neuron stimulation produces little effect on breathing and BP but does appear to facilitate arousal. PMID:25858492

  14. Unintended Outcomes of University-Community Partnerships: Building Organizational Capacity with PACE International Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Kate; Clark, Lindie; Hammersley, Laura; Baker, Michaela; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; D'ath, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University provides experiential opportunities for students and staff to contribute to more just, inclusive and sustainable societies by engaging in activities with partner organizations. PACE International offers a range of opportunities with partners overseas. Underpinning PACE is a…

  15. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects in experimental group I that respiratory exercise of diaphragm and 15 subjects in experimental group II that feedback respiratory exercise were randomly selected among COPD patients to find the effective intervention method for COPD patients. And intervention program was conducted for 5 weeks, three times a week, once a day and 30 minutes a session. They were measured with BODE index using respiratory muscle activity, pulmonary function, the six-minute walking test, dyspnea criteria and BMI Then the results obtained were compared and analyzed. [Results] There was a significant difference in sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalene muscle and in 6-minute walk and BODE index for body function. Thus the group performing feedback respiratory had more effective results for mild COPD patients. [Conclusion] Therefore, the improvement was significant regarding the activity of respiratory muscles synergists when breathing before doing breathing exercise. Although, it is valuable to reduce too much mobilization of respiratory muscles synergists through the proper intervention it is necessary to study body function regarding improvement of respiratory function for patients with COPD.

  16. The impact of breathing rate on the cardiac autonomic dynamics among children with cerebral palsy compared to typically developed controls.

    PubMed

    Amichai, Taly; Eylon, Sharon; Berger, Itai; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2018-02-06

    To describe the immediate effect of breathing rate on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and a control group of typically developed (TD) age and gender-matched children. Twenty children with CP at gross motor function classification system levels I-III and 20 TD children aged 6-11 participated in the study. HR was monitored at rest and during paced breathing with biofeedback. Respiratory measures were assessed by KoKo spirometry. Children with CP have lower spirometry and HRV values at rest compared to TD children. The mean reduction of breathing rate during paced breathing among children with CP was significantly smaller. Nonetheless, while practicing paced breathing, both groups reduced their breathing rate and increased their HRV. The results of the current work present the immediate effect of paced breathing on HRV parameters in CP and TD children. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of long-term treatment focusing on paced breathing for children with CP.

  17. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) measures and reports the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. It is nearing its end of life and there are a limited number remaining. Meanwhile, the next generation advanced portable life support system (PLSS) now being developed requires CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed to address both applications by Vista Photonics, Inc. Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. Version 1.0 devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Version 2.0 devices with improved electronics and significantly reduced wetted volumes were delivered to JSC in 2012. A version 2.5 upgrade recently implemented wavelength stabilized operation, better humidity measurement, and much faster data analysis/reporting. A wholly reconfigured version 3.0 will maintain the demonstrated performance of earlier versions while being backwards compatible with the EMU and offering a radiation tolerant architecture.

  18. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  19. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  20. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently the gold standard for cardiac pacing. However, it is invasive and nonspecific for cardiac tissues. We recently developed a noninvasive cardiac pacing technique using optogenetic tools, which are widely used in neuroscience. Optogenetic pacing of the heart provides high spatial and temporal precisions, is specific for cardiac tissues, avoids artifacts associated with electrical stimulation, and therefore promises to be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research. We demonstrated optogenetic control of heart rhythm in a well-established model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. We developed transgenic flies expressing a light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), specifically in their hearts and demonstrated successful optogenetic pacing of ChR2-expressing Drosophila at different developmental stages, including the larva, pupa, and adult stages. A high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy imaging system that is capable of providing images at a rate of 130 frames/s with axial and transverse resolutions of 1.5 and 3.9 μm, respectively, was used to noninvasively monitor Drosophila cardiac function and its response to pacing stimulation. The development of a noninvasive integrated optical pacing and imaging system provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology. PMID:26601299

  1. Interaction between spiral and paced waves in cardiac tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agladze, Konstantin; Kay, Matthew W.; Krinsky, Valentin; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of lethal arrhythmias, patients at risk receive implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, which use high-frequency antitachycardia pacing (ATP) to convert tachycardias to a normal rhythm. One of the suggested ATP mechanisms involves paced-induced drift of rotating waves followed by their collision with the boundary of excitable tissue. This study provides direct experimental evidence of this mechanism. In monolayers of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in which rotating waves of activity were initiated by premature stimuli, we used the Ca2+-sensitive indicator fluo 4 to observe propagating wave patterns. The interaction of the spiral tip with a paced wave was then monitored at a high spatial resolution. In the course of the experiments, we observed spiral wave pinning to local heterogeneities within the myocyte layer. High-frequency pacing led, in a majority of cases, to successful termination of spiral activity. Our data show that 1) stable spiral waves in cardiac monolayers tend to be pinned to local heterogeneities or areas of altered conduction, 2) overdrive pacing can shift a rotating wave from its original site, and 3) the wave break, formed as a result of interaction between the spiral tip and a paced wave front, moves by a paced-induced drift mechanism to an area where it may become unstable or collide with a boundary. The data were complemented by numerical simulations, which was used to further analyze experimentally observed behavior. PMID:17384124

  2. Pacing: a concept analysis of the chronic pain intervention.

    PubMed

    Jamieson-Lega, Kathryn; Berry, Robyn; Brown, Cary A

    2013-01-01

    The intervention of pacing is regularly recommended for chronic pain patients. However, pacing is poorly defined and appears to be interpreted in varying, potentially contradictory manners within the field of chronic pain. This conceptual lack of clarity has implications for effective service delivery and for researchers' ability to conduct rigorous study. An examination of the background literature demonstrates that while pacing is often one part of a multidisciplinary pain management program, outcome research is hindered by a lack of a clear and shared definition of this currently ill-defined construct. To conduct a formal concept analysis of the term 'pacing'. A standardized concept analysis process (including literature scoping to identify all uses of the concept, analysis to determine defining attributes of the concept and identification of model, borderline and contrary cases) was used to determine what the concept of pacing does and does not represent within the current evidence base. A conceptual model including the core attributes of action, time, balance, learning and self-management emerged. From these attributes, an evidence-based definition for pacing was composed and distributed to stakeholders for review. After consideration of stakeholder feedback, the emergent definition of pacing was finalized as follows: "Pacing is an active self-management strategy whereby individuals learn to balance time spent on activity and rest for the purpose of achieving increased function and participation in meaningful activities". The findings of the present concept analysis will help to standardize the use and definition of the term pacing across disciplines for the purposes of both pain management and research.

  3. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Exacerbates Muscle Vasoconstriction and Sympathetic Neural Activation in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Denise M L; Trevizan, Patricia F; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Oliveira, Patricia A; Piveta, Rafael B; Almeida, Dirceu R; Mady, Charles; Bocchi, Edimar A; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study. Forty-one patients were enrolled: NoSDB (n=13, 46 [39-53] years) and SDB (n=28, 57 [54-61] years). SDB was characterized by apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per hour (polysomnography). Peripheral (10% O 2 and 90% N 2 , with CO 2 titrated) and central (7% CO 2 and 93% O 2 ) chemoreceptors were stimulated for 3 minutes. Forearm and calf blood flow were evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography, MSNA by microneurography, and blood pressure by beat-to-beat noninvasive technique. Baseline forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance were similar between groups. MSNA was higher in the SDB group. During hypoxia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.01 to all comparisons). Similarly, during hypercapnia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.001 to all comparisons). MSNA were higher in response to hypoxia (P=0.024) and tended to be higher to hypercapnia (P=0.066) in the SDB group. Patients with HF and SDB have more severe muscle vasoconstriction during hypoxia and hypercapnia than HF patients without SDB, which seems to be

  4. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage primary lung cancer, is an active breath coordinator necessary? An audit from a tertiary cancer care center.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, R; Renilmon, P S; Nair, H M; Lal, A; Nair, S S; Unnikrishnan, U G; Makuny, D

    2017-01-01

    The hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a safe and effective treatment modality for early-stage nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. An audit SBRT in primary lung cancer treated in our center with and without an active breath coordinator (ABC) was undertaken to evaluate its impact on target volumes and clinical outcomes. This was an observational study. Nine patients with lung carcinoma were treated from January 2014 to August 2016. Five patients were simulated using ABC and four patients with free breathing. Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were generated using Monaco treatment planning software. Three patients were treated with a dose of 54 Gy in three fractions and six patients with a dose of 48 Gy in four fractions. The statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier survival. The mean planning target volumes (PTV) in ABC and free breathing groups were 42.19cc and 60.17cc, respectively. The mean volume of lung receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy (V20, V10and V5) in ABC group were 5.37cc, 10.49cc, and 18.45cc whereas in free breathing 6.63cc, 12.74cc, and 20.64cc, respectively. At a median follow-up of 18 months, there were three local recurrences. No significant toxicity occurred in our series. Our initial results show that SBRT is well tolerated with good local control. Although the PTV volume and irradiated normal lung volume was higher in this group compared to ABC group, this did not translate to any added clinical toxicity.

  5. Direct His bundle pacing post AVN ablation.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanadoss, Umashankar; Aggarwal, Ashim; Huang, David T; Daubert, James P; Shah, Abrar

    2009-08-01

    Atrioventricular nodal (AVN) ablation with concomitant pacemaker implantation is one of the strategies that reduce symptoms in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long-term adverse effects of right ventricular (RV) apical pacing have led to the search for alternating sites of pacing. Biventricular pacing produces a significant improvement in functional capacity over RV pacing in patients undergoing AVN ablation. Another alternative site for pacing is direct His bundle to reduce the adverse outcome of RV pacing. Here, we present a case of direct His bundle pacing using steerable lead delivery system in a patient with symptomatic paroxysmal AF with concurrent AVN ablation.

  6. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hyperventilation as well as factors like emotional stress, overexertion, habitual postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach pursed-lip breathing. This ...

  7. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; Emphysema - travel ... you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath ... doctor if you plan to travel in a place at a high altitude (such ...

  8. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Kraft M. Approach to the patient with respiratory disease. In: ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83. McGee S. Respiratory rate and ...

  9. Presentation Time Concerning System-Paced Multimedia Instructions and the Superiority of Learner Pacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Klaus D.; Petzold, Kirstin; Zinnbauer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The superiority of learner-paced over system-paced instructions was demonstrated in multiple experiments. In these experiments, the system-paced presentations were highly speeded, causing cognitive overload, while the learner-paced instructions allowed adjustments of the presentational flow to the learner's needs by pacing facilities, mostly…

  10. Interatrial septum pacing decreases atrial dyssynchrony on strain rate imaging compared with right atrial appendage pacing.

    PubMed

    Yasuoka, Yoshinori; Abe, Haruhiko; Umekawa, Seiko; Katsuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Norio; Araki, Ryo; Imanaka, Takahiro; Matsutera, Ryo; Morisawa, Daisuke; Kitada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Susumu; Noda, Yoshiki; Adachi, Hidenori; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Miyatake, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Interatrial septum pacing (IAS-P) decreases atrial conduction delay compared with right atrial appendage pacing (RAA-P). We evaluate the atrial contraction with strain rate of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) during sinus activation or with IAS-P or RAA-P. Fifty-two patients with permanent pacemaker for sinus node disease were enrolled in the study. Twenty-three subjects were with IAS-P and 29 with RAA-P. The time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate was measured and corrected with RR interval on electrocardiogram. It was defined as the time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate (TSRc), and the balance between maximum and minimum TSRc at three sites (ΔTSRc) was compared during sinus activation and with pacing rhythm in each group. There were no significant differences observed in general characteristics and standard echocardiographic parameters except the duration of pacing P wave between the two groups. The duration was significantly shorter in the IAS-P group compared with the RAA-P group (95 ± 34 vs 138 ± 41; P = 0.001). TSRc was significantly different between sinus activation and pacing rhythm (36.3 ± 35.7 vs 61.6 ± 36.3; P = 0.003) in the RAA-P group, whereas no significant differences were observed in the IAS-P group (25.4 ± 12.1 vs 27.7 ± 14.7; NS). During the follow-up (mean 2.4 ± 0.7 years), the incidence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) conversion to permanent AF was not significantly different between the two groups. IAS-P decreased the contraction delay on atrial TDI compared to RAA-P; however, it did not contribute to the reduction of AF incidence in the present study. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Alternative right ventricular pacing sites.

    PubMed

    Łuciuk, Dariusz; Łuciuk, Marek; Gajek, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The main adverse effect of chronic stimulation is stimulation-induced heart failure in case of ventricular contraction dyssynchrony. Because of this fact, new techniques of stimulation should be considered to optimize electrotherapy. One of these methods is pacing from alternative right ventricular sites. The purpose of this article is to review currently accumulated data about alternative sites of cardiac pacing. Medline and PubMed bases were used to search English and Polish reports published recently. Recent studies report a deleterious effect of long term apical pacing. It is suggested that permanent apical stimulation, by omitting physiological conduction pattern with His-Purkinie network, may lead to electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony of heart muscle contraction. In the long term this pathological situation can lead to severe heart failure and death. Because of this, scientists began to search for some alternative sites of cardiac pacing to reduce the deleterious effect of stimulation. Based on current accumulated data, it is suggested that the right ventricular outflow tract, right ventricular septum, direct His-bundle or biventricular pacing are better alternatives due to more physiological electrical impulse propagation within the heart and the reduction of the dyssynchrony effect. These methods should preserve a better left ventricular function and prevent the development of heart failure in permanent paced patients. As there is still not enough, long-term, randomized, prospective, cross-over and multicenter studies, further research is required to validate the benefits of using this kind of therapy. The article should pay attention to new sites of cardiac stimulation as a better and safer method of treatment.

  12. Usefulness of rectally administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate for breath test in patients with active and quiescent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kimitoshi; Ishii, Yukimoto; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Sugitani, Masahiko; Asai, Satoshi; Kohno, Tadashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Komuro, Sachiko; Iwamoto, Maho; Miyamoto, Shunpachi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arakawa, Yasuyuki

    2007-02-01

    Impaired butyrate metabolism plays a part in ulcerative colitis (UC). To assess the usefulness of measuring butyrate metabolism as an indication of inflammatory activity, we investigated the rate of butyrate metabolism by breath test after administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate rectally to patients with UC. Thirty-eight UC patients (22 active, 16 quiescent) and 15 healthy controls were given [1-(13)C]-butyrate enemas. The (13)CO2 production rate was measured by breath test using an infrared spectrometric analyzer. The quantity of expired (13)CO2 was significantly lower in the active than in the quiescent UC and control groups. Cumulative (13)CO2 production at 240 min showed significant negative correlations with the clinical activity index (r=-0.65, p<0.0001), endoscopic activity index (r=-0.63, p=0.0001) and histology (r=-0.71, p<0.0001) in the active UC group. The (13)CO2 production rate was significantly increased in the quiescent stage as compared with the active stage in six UC patients, in whom clinical remission was achieved, in accordance with improvements in the clinical activity index, the endoscopic activity index, histology and fecal butyrate concentrations. Significant inverse correlations between the cumulative (13)CO2 production rate and these three parameters were seen in these six UC patients assessed in both the active and quiescent stages. Measurement of expired (13)CO2 after rectally administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate in active and quiescent UC appears to be a promising and reliable method for evaluating disease activity and metabolic changes associated with amelioration of inflammation.

  13. Pacing: A concept analysis of a chronic pain intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson-Lega, Kathryn; Berry, Robyn; Brown, Cary A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intervention of pacing is regularly recommended for chronic pain patients. However, pacing is poorly defined and appears to be interpreted in varying, potentially contradictory manners within the field of chronic pain. This conceptual lack of clarity has implications for effective service delivery and for researchers’ ability to conduct rigorous study. An examination of the background literature demonstrates that while pacing is often one part of a multidisciplinary pain management program, outcome research is hindered by a lack of a clear and shared definition of this currently ill-defined construct. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a formal concept analysis of the term ‘pacing’. METHODS: A standardized concept analysis process (including literature scoping to identify all uses of the concept, analysis to determine defining attributes of the concept and identification of model, borderline and contrary cases) was used to determine what the concept of pacing does and does not represent within the current evidence base. RESULTS: A conceptual model including the core attributes of action, time, balance, learning and self-management emerged. From these attributes, an evidence-based definition for pacing was composed and distributed to stakeholders for review. After consideration of stakeholder feedback, the emergent definition of pacing was finalized as follows: “Pacing is an active self-management strategy whereby individuals learn to balance time spent on activity and rest for the purpose of achieving increased function and participation in meaningful activities”. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present concept analysis will help to standardize the use and definition of the term pacing across disciplines for the purposes of both pain management and research. PMID:23717825

  14. Mathematics Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.; Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Algebra 1, Geometry, Math for Technology, Mathematical Problem Solving, and Pre-Algebra developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace…

  15. The PACE evaluation: initial findings.

    PubMed

    Branch, L G; Coulam, R F; Zimmerman, Y A

    1995-06-01

    As of mid-1994 there were nine replications of the On Lok model operating under dual capitation payments as sites in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). A tenth site had begun operating under capitation, but was unable to remain viable. The present descriptive study documents the growth and development of the first seven of these sites, all that had been operating under capitation during 1992. Comparisons among these sites and with On Lok are presented in the areas of organizational structure, client characteristics, approaches to case management, service delivery options, and financing. There is considerable variability in the implementation of the PACE model. Combined Medicare and Medicaid capitation monthly payments range from $2,147 to $5,973. These seven PACE sites (excluding On Lok) served a total of 888 current clients at the end of 1992, after a cumulative 136 months of experience under capitation. The very slow enrollment rates may imply that the target clients are less enthusiastic about this model than are its architects. The client selection process may suggest niche-marketing or skimming, but not the full representation of the nursing home population in their states. Given both the slow enrollment and the niche-marketing (the benevolent term) or skimming (the pejorative term) that has occurred, caution about the long-term viability of the PACE model may be warranted.

  16. Pace slows in northern Rockies

    SciTech Connect

    Stremel, K.

    1984-03-01

    This paper deals with recent natural gas development and production in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Because of restricted gas markets, the pace has slowed construction of gas processing and gathering facilities. The gas and oil companies which are planning or building new projects are discussed.

  17. PACE: A Browsable Graphical Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beheshti, Jamshid; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes PACE (Public Access Catalogue Extension), an alternative interface designed to enhance online catalogs by simulating images of books and library shelves to help users browse through the catalog. Results of a test in a college library against a text-based online public access catalog, including student attitudes, are described.…

  18. Aerophagia as a cause of ineffective phrenic nerve pacing in high tetraplegia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Colachis, Sam C; Kadyan, Vivek

    2003-05-01

    We report an unusual case of aerophagia after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), which shows the profound effects of abdominal distension on respiratory ability in such individuals. In this case, abdominal distension resulting from aerophagia reduced the effectiveness of phrenic nerve pacing on diaphragm function necessitating greater use of positive-pressure ventilatory (PPV) support. Reduction of postprandial gastric air and abdominal distension with insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube ameliorated the condition and allowed for more effective phrenic nerve pacing and greater PPV-free breathing. We are unaware of a similar case involving an individual with an SCI.

  19. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  20. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively.

  1. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a breathing metabolic simulator (BMS) is reported. This BMS simulates all of the breathing and metabolic parameters required for complete evaluation and test of life support and resuscitation equipment. It is also useful for calibrating and validating mechanical and gaseous pulmonary function test procedures. Breathing rate, breathing depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide release are all variable over wide ranges simulating conditions from sleep to hard work with respiratory exchange ratios covering the range from hypoventilation. In addition, all of these parameters are remotely controllable to facilitate use of the device in hostile or remote environments. The exhaled breath is also maintained at body temperature and a high humidity. The simulation is accurate to the extent of having a variable functional residual capacity independent of other parameters.

  2. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE...

  3. Indications for permanent pacing and pacing mode prescription from 1989 to 2006. Experience of a single academic centre in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Styliadis, Ioannis H; Mantziari, Aggeliki P; Gouzoumas, Nikolaos I; Vassilikos, Vasilios P; Paraskevaidis, Stelios A; Mochlas, Sotirios T; Boufidou, Amalia I; Parcharidis, Georgios E

    2008-01-01

    Indications for pacing and pacing mode prescription have changed in the past decades following advances in pacemaker technology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in indications for pacing and pacing modes during the years 1989-2006 in a single academic pacemaker centre in Northern Greece. Archives of permanent pacemaker implantation procedures were studied retrospectively and data from all implants, first or replacements, were retrieved. Data from 2078 procedures were found, 78.7% of which were first implantations. Patients were 54% male with mean age 72.5 years. Main indications for pacing were atrioventricular block (AVB, 45.7%), sick sinus syndrome (SSS, 32.8%), and atrial fibrillation (12.1%). Almost half (48.9%) of the AVB cases were complete AVB, while the most common types of SSS were tachy-brady syndrome (44.1%) and asystole (27.1%). Rare indications for pacing were carotid sinus syndrome (5.0%), heart failure (3.3%) and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (1.0%). The two most frequently used pacing modes were VVI (38.5%) and DDD (25.8%). However, pacing modes have changed greatly over the years, with a marked increase in dual-chamber pacing after 1997 and a preference for rate responsive units after 2002. Biventricular systems were also used in selected patients with heart failure from 2002 on. Indications for pacing and pacing mode prescription in our centre are similar to other pacemaker registries and reflect the global trend in pacing for mimicking the physiological activity of the heart and for addressing problems other than symptomatic bradycardia.

  4. Constant DI pacing suppresses cardiac alternans formation in numerical cable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlochiver, S.; Johnson, C.; Tolkacheva, E. G.

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac repolarization alternans describe the sequential alternation of the action potential duration (APD) and can develop during rapid pacing. In the ventricles, such alternans may rapidly turn into life risking arrhythmias under conditions of spatial heterogeneity. Thus, suppression of alternans by artificial pacing protocols, or alternans control, has been the subject of numerous theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies. Yet, previous attempts that were inspired by chaos control theories were successful only for a short spatial extent (<2 cm) from the pacing electrode. Previously, we demonstrated in a single cell model that pacing with a constant diastolic interval (DI) can suppress the formation of alternans at high rates of activation. We attributed this effect to the elimination of feedback between the pacing cycle length and the last APD, effectively preventing restitution-dependent alternans from developing. Here, we extend this idea into cable models to study the extent by which constant DI pacing can control alternans during wave propagation conditions. Constant DI pacing was applied to ventricular cable models of up to 5 cm, using human kinetics. Our results show that constant DI pacing significantly shifts the onset of both cardiac alternans and conduction blocks to higher pacing rates in comparison to pacing with constant cycle length. We also demonstrate that constant DI pacing reduces the propensity of spatially discordant alternans, a precursor of wavebreaks. We finally found that the protective effect of constant DI pacing is stronger for increased electrotonic coupling along the fiber in the sense that the onset of alternans is further shifted to higher activation rates. Overall, these results support the potential clinical applicability of such type of pacing in improving protocols of implanted pacemakers, in order to reduce the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias. Future research should be conducted in order to experimentally validate

  5. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; Chronic respiratory failure - pursed lip breathing ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  6. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement is...

  7. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement is...

  8. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    PubMed

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  9. Effect of oxygen-breathing during a decompression-stop on bubble-induced platelet activation after an open-sea air dive: oxygen-stop decompression.

    PubMed

    Pontier, J-M; Lambrechts, K

    2014-06-01

    We highlighted a relationship between decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet micro-particle (PMP) release after a scuba air-dive. It is known that decompression protocol using oxygen-stop accelerates the washout of nitrogen loaded in tissues. The aim was to study the effect of oxygen deco-stop on bubble formation and cell-derived MP release. Healthy experienced divers performed two scuba-air dives to 30 msw for 30 min, one with an air deco-stop and a second with 100% oxygen deco-stop at 3 msw for 9 min. Bubble grades were monitored with ultrasound and converted to the Kisman integrated severity score (KISS). Blood samples for cell-derived micro-particle analysis (AnnexinV for PMP and CD31 for endothelial MP) were taken 1 h before and after each dive. Mean KISS bubble score was significantly lower after the dive with oxygen-decompression stop, compared to the dive with air-decompression stop (4.3 ± 7.3 vs. 32.7 ± 19.9, p < 0.001). After the dive with an air-breathing decompression stop, we observed an increase of the post-dive mean values of PMP (753 ± 245 vs. 381 ± 191 ng/μl, p = 0.003) but no significant change in the oxygen-stop decompression dive (329 ± 215 vs. 381 +/191 ng/μl, p = 0.2). For the post-dive mean values of endothelial MP, there was no significant difference between both the dives. The Oxygen breathing during decompression has a beneficial effect on bubble formation accelerating the washout of nitrogen loaded in tissues. Secondary oxygen-decompression stop could reduce bubble-induced platelet activation and the pro-coagulant activity of PMP release preventing the thrombotic event in the pathogenesis of decompression sickness.

  10. Keeping pace with Capitol Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, C.

    2007-01-01

    At the Capitol Hill, the legislative branch of the United States government, the work is always at pace. Working with Congress is a tough job yet, rewarding. The Congress worked hard together to serve the public interest but many big issues are one small part of what Congress does. However, many US news media do not report what the government does instead, the media report what the government argues about. The media reports the conflicts but story is always incomplete. In order for the people know what is happening to the government, contact the congressional representative to know the complete story.

  11. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  12. Left heart pacing lead implantation using subxiphoid videopericardioscopy.

    PubMed

    Zenati, Marco A; Bonanomi, Gianluca; Chin, Albert K; Schwartzman, David

    2003-09-01

    Recent clinical data support the utility of left heart pacing. The transvenous approach for left heart pacing lead implantation is imperfect. A direct epicardial approach may have advantages, but heretofore its utility has been limited because of the requirement for thoracotomy. We sought to examine the feasibility of a method for epicardial lead implantation that did not require thoracotomy. In five large swine, percutaneous access to the epicardium was achieved with subxiphoid videopericardioscopy, using a device that marries endoscopy with a port through which pacing leads could be introduced. In each animal, standard, active fixation pacing leads were implanted onto the left atrium and ventricle. The atrial lead was implanted at the base of the appendage. The ventricular lead was implanted on the anterior, lateral, and inferior walls. Continuous direct visualization of the epicardium provided guidance for lead localization and fixation, including avoidance of complications such as trauma to epicardial coronary vessels. Capture thresholds were uniformly low. Postmortem examination demonstrated anatomically accurate, uncomplicated lead fixation. Using subxiphoid videopericardioscopy, uncomplicated, anatomically accurate left heart epicardial pacing lead implantation can be achieved without thoracotomy.

  13. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

  14. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

  15. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

  16. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

  17. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable...

  18. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  19. Classifying geometric variability by dominant eigenmodes of deformation in regressing tumours during active breath-hold lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Ahmed M.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Sleeman, William C., IV; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a lung tumour interfraction geometric variability classification scheme as a means to guide adaptive radiotherapy and improve measurement of treatment response. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to generate statistical shape models of the gross tumour volume (GTV) for 12 patients with weekly breath hold CT scans. Each eigenmode of the PCA model was classified as ‘trending’ or ‘non-trending’ depending on whether its contribution to the overall GTV variability included a time trend over the treatment course. Trending eigenmodes were used to reconstruct the original semi-automatically delineated GTVs into a reduced model containing only time trends. Reduced models were compared to the original GTVs by analyzing the reconstruction error in the GTV and position. Both retrospective (all weekly images) and prospective (only the first four weekly images) were evaluated. The average volume difference from the original GTV was 4.3% ± 2.4% for the trending model. The positional variability of the GTV over the treatment course, as measured by the standard deviation of the GTV centroid, was 1.9 ± 1.4 mm for the original GTVs, which was reduced to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm for the trending-only model. In 3/13 cases, the dominant eigenmode changed class between the prospective and retrospective models. The trending-only model preserved GTV and shape relative to the original GTVs, while reducing spurious positional variability. The classification scheme appears feasible for separating types of geometric variability by time trend.

  20. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  1. The impact of active breathing control on internal mammary lymph node coverage and normal tissue exposure in breast cancer patients planned for left-sided postmastectomy radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Barry, Aisling; Rock, Kathy; Sole, Claudio; Rahman, Mohammad; Pintilie, Melania; Lee, Grace; Fyles, Anthony; Koch, C Anne

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the active breathing control (ABC) technique on IMN coverage and organs at risk in patients planned for postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), with the inclusion of the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs). The effect of body mass index (BMI) on recorded dosimetric parameters was examined in the same patient cohort. Fifty left-sided postmastectomy patients with breast cancer who underwent free-breathing (FB) and ABC-Elekta CT simulation scans were selected at random from an institutional breast cancer database between 2008 and 2014. The ABC plans were directly compared with FB plans from the same patient. The IMN planning target volume coverage met dosimetric criteria for coverage of receiving more than 90% of the prescribed dose (V90) >90%, although it decreased with ABC compared with FB (94.5% vs 98%, P < .001). Overall, ABC significantly reduced doses to all measured heart and left anterior descending coronary artery parameters, ipsilateral lung V20, and mean lung dose compared with FB (P < .001). There was no difference seen between the ABC and FB plans with respect to the dose to contralateral lung or contralateral breast. There was no correlation identified between BMI and any of the dosimetric parameters recorded from the ABC and FB plans. Our results suggest that ABC reduces IMN coverage in left-sided breast cancer patients planned for PMRT; however, dosimetric criteria for IMN coverage were still met, suggesting that this is not likely to be clinically significant. ABC led to significant sparing of organs at risk compared with FB conditions and was not affected by BMI. Collectively, the results support the use of ABC for breast cancer patients undergoing left-sided PMRT requiring regional nodal irradiation that includes the IMNs. Further prospective clinical studies are required to determine the impact of these results on late normal tissue effects. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. Comparison of DDD versus VVIR pacing modes in elderly patients with atrioventricular block.

    PubMed

    Kılıçaslan, Barış; Vatansever Ağca, Fahriye; Kılıçaslan, Esin Evren; Kınay, Ozan; Tigen, Kürşat; Cakır, Cayan; Nazlı, Cem; Ergene, Oktay

    2012-06-01

    Dual-chamber pacing is believed to have an advantage over single-chamber ventricular pacing. The aim of this study was to determine whether elderly patients who have implanted pacemakers for complete atrioventricular block gain significant benefits from dual-chamber (DDD) pacemakers compared with single chamber ventricular (VVIR) pacemakers. This study was designed as a randomized, two-period crossover study-each pacing mode was maintained for 1 month. Thirty patients (16 men, mean age 68.87 ± 6.89 years) with implanted DDD pacemakers were submitted to a standard protocol, which included an interview, pacemaker syndrome assessment, health related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires assessed by an SF-36 test, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and transthoracic echocardiographic examinations. All of these parameters were obtained on both DDD and VVIR mode pacing. Paired data were compared. HRQoL scores were similar, and 6MWT results did not differ between the two groups. VVIR pacing elicited significant enlargement of the left atrium and impaired left ventricular diastolic functions as compared with DDD pacing. Two patients reported subclinical pacemaker syndrome, but this was not statistically significant. Our study revealed that in active elderly patients with complete heart block, DDD pacing and VVIR pacing yielded similar improvements in QoL and exercise performance. However, after a short follow-up period, we noted that VVIR pacing caused significant left atrial enlargement and impaired left ventricular diastolic functions.

  4. Pacing in Olympic track races: competitive tactics versus best performance strategy.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Christian; Foster, Carl; Banzer, Winfried; De Koning, Jos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe pacing strategies in the 800 to 10,000-m Olympic finals. We asked 1) if Olympic finals differed from World Records, 2) how variable the pace was, 3) whether runners faced catastrophic events, and 4) for the winning strategy. Publically available data from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games gathered by four transponder antennae under the 400-m track were analysed to extract descriptors of pacing strategies. Individual pacing patterns of 133 finalists were visualised using speed by distance plots. Six of eight plots differed from the patterns reported for World Records. The coefficient of running speed variation was 3.6-11.4%. In the long distance finals, runners varied their pace every 100 m by a mean 1.6-2.7%. Runners who were 'dropped' from the field achieved a stable running speed and displayed an endspurt. Top contenders used variable pacing strategies to separate themselves from the field. All races were decided during the final lap. Olympic track finalists employ pacing strategies which are different from World Record patterns. The observed micro- and macro-variations of pace may have implications for training programmes. Dropping off the pace of the leading group is an active step, and the result of interactive psychophysiological decision making.

  5. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Opportunities Research Conference Recruit for Clinical Trials Research Publications Spinraza Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Care Packages Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ...

  6. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    ... orthopnea Images Breathing References Davis JL, Murray JF. History and physical examination. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  7. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  8. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  9. Breath test refusals

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-11-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has found that the percentage of people who refuse to provide breath samples when arrested for Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) varies considerably across States, and this creates a concern in the cri...

  10. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  11. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clots in the legs or pelvis (deep venous thrombosis), debilitating medical conditions, immobility, or inherited ... it hard for a person to take a deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon ...

  12. Web Tools: Keeping Learners on Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosloski, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching technology and engineering is pacing. Some students grasp new technological concepts quickly, while others need repetition and may struggle to keep pace. This poses an obstacle for the technology and engineering teacher, and is particularly true when teaching students to build a website. However, there…

  13. Consistency of Students' Pace in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the consistency of students' behavior regarding their pace of actions over sessions within an online course. Pace in a session is defined as the number of logged actions divided by session length (in minutes). Log files of 6,112 students were collected, and datasets were constructed for examining pace…

  14. Nitric oxide rectifies acid-base disturbance and modifies thyroid hormone activity during net confinement of air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch).

    PubMed

    Peter, Valsa S

    2013-01-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), a short-lived freely diffusible radical gas that acts as an important biological signal, regulates an impressive spectrum of physiological functions in vertebrates including fishes. The action of NO, however, on thyroid hormone status and its role in the integration of acid-base, osmotic and metabolic balances during stress are not yet delineated in fish. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, was employed in the present study to investigate the role of NO in the stressed air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus. Short-term SNP treatment (1 mM; 30 min) interacted negatively with thyroid axis, as evident in the fall of plasma thyroxine in both stressed and non-stressed fish. In contrast, the cortisol responsiveness to NO was negligible. SNP challenge produced systemic alkalosis, hypocapnia and hyperglycemia in non-stressed fish. Remarkable acid-base compensation was found in fish kept for 60 min net confinement where a rise in blood pH and HCO(3) content occurred with a reduction in PCO(2) content. SNP challenge in these fish, on the contrary, produced a rise in oxygen load together with hypocapnia but without an effect on HCO(3) content, indicating a modulator role of NO in respiratory gas transport during stress response. SNP treatment reduced Na(+), K(+) ATPase activity in the gill, intestine and liver of both stressed and non-stressed fish, and this suggests that stress state has little effect on the NO-driven osmotic competence of these organs. On the other hand, a modulatory effect of NO was found in the kidney which showed a differential response to SNP, emphasizing a key role of NO in kidney ion transport and its sensitivity to stressful condition. H(+)-ATPase activity, an index of H(+) secretion, downregulated in all the organs of both non-stressed and stressed fish except in the gill of non-stressed fish and this supports a role for NO in promoting alkalosis. The data indicate that, (1) NO interacts antagonistically with T(4), (2) modifies

  15. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false PACE organizational structure. 460.60 Section 460.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A PACE...

  17. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare payment to PACE organizations. 460.180... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Payment § 460.180 Medicare payment to PACE organizations. (a) Principle of payment. Under a PACE program agreement, CMS makes a prospective monthly payment to the PACE organization...

  18. Modulation of redox regulatory molecules and electron transport chain activity in muscle of air breathing fish Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure stress.

    PubMed

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Responses of redox regulatory system to long-term survival (>18 h) of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in air are not yet understood. Lipid and protein oxidation level, oxidant (H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of respiratory complexes (I, II, III and IV) in mitochondria were investigated in muscle of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25 °C). The increased levels of both H2O2 and tissue oxidation were observed due to the decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in muscle under water deprivation condition. However, ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups were the highest at 18 h air exposure time. A linear increase in complex II activity with air exposure time and an increase up to 12 h followed by a decrease in activity of complex I at 18 h were observed. Negative correlation was observed for complex III and V activity with exposure time. Critical time to modulate the above parameters was found to be 3 h air exposure. Dehydration induced oxidative stress due to modulation of electron transport chain and redox metabolizing enzymes in muscle of H. fossilis was clearly observed. Possible contribution of redox regulatory system in muscle tissue of the fish for long-term survival in air is elucidated. Results of the present study may be useful to understand the redox metabolism in muscle of fishes those are exposed to air in general and air breathing fishes in particular.

  19. Advances in chemical sensing technologies for VOCs in breath for security/threat assessment, illicit drug detection, and human trafficking activity.

    PubMed

    Giannoukos, S; Agapiou, A; Taylor, S

    2018-01-17

    On-site chemical sensing of compounds associated with security and terrorist attacks is of worldwide interest. Other related bio-monitoring topics include identification of individuals posing a threat from illicit drugs, explosive manufacturing, as well as searching for victims of human trafficking and collapsed buildings. The current status of field analytical technologies is directed towards the detection and identification of vapours and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some VOCs are associated with exhaled breath, where research is moving from individual breath testing (volatilome) to cell breath (microbiome) and most recently to crowd breath metabolites (exposome). In this paper, an overview of field-deployable chemical screening technologies (both stand-alone and those with portable characteristics) is given with application to early detection and monitoring of human exposome in security operations. On-site systems employed in exhaled breath analysis, i.e. mass spectrometry (MS), optical spectroscopy and chemical sensors are reviewed. Categories of VOCs of interest include (a) VOCs in human breath associated with exposure to threat compounds, and (b) VOCs characteristic of, and associated with, human body odour (e.g. breath, sweat). The latter are relevant to human trafficking scenarios. New technological approaches in miniaturised detection and screening systems are also presented (e.g. non-scanning digital light processing linear ion trap MS (DLP-LIT-MS), nanoparticles, mid-infrared photo-acoustic spectroscopy and hyphenated technologies). Finally, the outlook for rapid and precise, real-time field detection of threat traces in exhaled breath is revealed and discussed.

  20. Toward Anatomical Simulation for Breath Training in Mind/Body Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Benjamin; Dilorenzo, Paul; Zordan, Victor; Bakal, Donald

    The use of breath in healing is poorly understood by patients and professionals alike. Dysfunctional breathing is a characteristic of many unexplained symptoms and mind/body medical professionals seek methods for breath training to alleviate such problems. Our approach is to re-purpose and evolve a recently developed anatomically inspired respiration simulation which was created for synthesizing motion in entertainment for the use of visualization in breath training. In mind/body medicine, problems are often created from patients being advised to breathe according to some standard based on pace or volume. However, a breathing pattern that is comfortable and effortless for one person may not have the same benefits for the next person. The breathing rhythm which is most effortless for each person needs to be dynamically identified. To this end, in this chapter, we employ optimization to modify a generic model of respiration to fit the breath patterns of specific individuals. In practice, the corresponding visualization which is specific to individual patients could be used to train proper breath behavior, both by showing specific (abnormal) practice and recommended modification(s).

  1. Simulating PACE Global Ocean Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA PACE mission is a hyper-spectral radiometer planned for launch in the next decade. It is intended to provide new information on ocean biogeochemical constituents by parsing the details of high resolution spectral absorption and scattering. It is the first of its kind for global applications and as such, poses challenges for design and operation. To support pre-launch mission development and assess on-orbit capabilities, the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has developed a dynamic simulation of global water-leaving radiances, using an ocean model containing multiple ocean phytoplankton groups, particulate detritus, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOC) along with optical absorption and scattering processes at 1 nm spectral resolution. The purpose here is to assess the skill of the dynamic model and derived global radiances. Global bias, uncertainty, and correlation are derived using available modern satellite radiances at moderate spectral resolution. Total chlorophyll, PIC, and the absorption coefficient of CDOC (aCDOC), are simultaneously assimilated to improve the fidelity of the optical constituent fields. A 5-year simulation showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) comparisons of chlorophyll (r = 0.869), PIC (r = 0.868), and a CDOC (r =0.890) with satellite data. Additionally, diatoms (r = 0.890), cyanobacteria (r = 0.732), and coccolithophores (r = 0.716) were significantly correlated with in situ data. Global assimilated distributions of optical constituents were coupled with a radiative transfer model (Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model, OASIM) to estimate normalized water-leaving radiances at 1 nm for the spectral range 250-800 nm. These unassimilated radiances were within 0.074 mW/sq cm/micron/sr of MODIS-Aqua radiances at 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm. This difference represented a bias of 10.4% (model low). A mean correlation of 0.706 (P < 0.05) was found with global

  2. Changes in cytochrome P4501A activity during development in common tern chicks fed polychlorinated biphenyls, as measured by the caffeine breath test

    SciTech Connect

    Feyk, L.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2000-03-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) activity is often used as a biomarker of exposure of wildlife to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons and is usually measured ex vivo in liver tissue. A caffeine breath test (CBT) with radiolabeled substrate ({sup 14}C-caffeine) was used to measure in vivo CYP1A activity twice during development in 14 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks treated with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons. Tern hatchlings were fed fish spiked with 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) such that the diet contained an average of 23, 99, or 561 pg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents per gram of fish for 21 d. Sixteen additionalmore » common tern chicks were similarly dosed with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons but were not subjected to the CBT procedure. In weeks 1 and 2, caffeine N-demethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity on day 21 were elevated in birds that received the greatest PCB dose. There was less constitutive and greater induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity than caffeine N-demethylation. The {sup 14}C-CBT was less invasive than the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay. Only one morphological parameter differed significantly between CBT subjects and no-CBT subjects fed the same level of PCBs. Bursa weight was significantly less in control CBT subjects than in control no-CBT subjects, but bursa weights did not differ among CBT and no-CBT birds from the two PCB treatment groups. No alterations of survival or growth occurred in CBT subjects compared with no-CBT subjects.« less

  3. Bachmann's Bundle Pacing not Only Improves Interatrial Conduction but Also Reduces the Need for Ventricular Pacing.

    PubMed

    Sławuta, Agnieszka; Kliś, Magdalena; Skoczyński, Przemysław; Bańkowski, Tomasz; Moszczyńska-Stulin, Joanna; Gajek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Patients treated for sick sinus syndrome may have interatrial conduction disorder leading to atrial fibrillation. This study was aimed to assess the influence of the atrial pacing site on interatrial and atrioventricular conduction as well as the percentage of ventricular pacing in patients with sick sinus syndrome implanted with atrioventricular pacemaker. The study population: 96 patients (58 females, 38 males) aged 74.1 ± 11.8 years were divided in two groups: Group 1 (n = 44) with right atrial appendage pacing and group 2 (n = 52) with Bachmann's area pacing. We assessed the differences in atrioventricular conduction in sinus rhythm and atrial 60 and 90 bpm pacing, P-wave duration and percentage of ventricular pacing. No differences in baseline P-wave duration in sinus rhythm between the groups (102.4 ± 17 ms vs. 104.1 ± 26 ms, p = ns.) were noted. Atrial pacing 60 bpm resulted in longer P-wave in group 1 vs. group 2 (138.3 ± 21 vs. 106.1 ± 15 ms, p < 0.01). The differences between atrioventricular conduction time during sinus rhythm and atrial pacing at 60 and 90 bpm were significantly longer in patients with right atrial appendage vs. Bachmann's pacing (44.1 ± 17 vs. 9.2 ± 7 ms p < 0.01 and 69.2 ± 31 vs. 21.4 ± 12 ms p < 0.05, respectively). The percentage of ventricular pacing was higher in group 1 (21 vs. 4%, p < 0.01). Bachmann's bundle pacing decreases interatrial and atrioventricular conduction delay. Moreover, the frequency-dependent atrioventricular conduction lengthening is much less pronounced during Bachmann's bundle pacing. Right atrial appendage pacing in sick sinus syndrome patients promotes a higher percentage of ventricular pacing.

  4. The Pace of Cultural Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Today, humans inhabit most of the world’s terrestrial habitats. This observation has been explained by the fact that we possess a secondary inheritance mechanism, culture, in addition to a genetic system. Because it is assumed that cultural evolution occurs faster than biological evolution, humans can adapt to new ecosystems more rapidly than other animals. This assumption, however, has never been tested empirically. Here, I compare rates of change in human technologies to rates of change in animal morphologies. I find that rates of cultural evolution are inversely correlated with the time interval over which they are measured, which is similar to what is known for biological rates. This correlation explains why the pace of cultural evolution appears faster when measured over recent time periods, where time intervals are often shorter. Controlling for the correlation between rates and time intervals, I show that (1) cultural evolution is faster than biological evolution; (2) this effect holds true even when the generation time of species is controlled for; and (3) culture allows us to evolve over short time scales, which are normally accessible only to short-lived species, while at the same time allowing for us to enjoy the benefits of having a long life history. PMID:23024804

  5. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For purposes...

  6. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For purposes...

  7. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A previously...

  8. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of PACE...

  9. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of PACE...

  10. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Payment § 460.180 Medicare payment to PACE organizations. (a) Principle of...

  11. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A previously...

  12. Could transient hypoxia be associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in sleep bruxism in the absence of sleep-disordered breathing? A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Dumais, I E; Lavigne, G J; Carra, M C; Rompré, P H; Huynh, N T

    2015-11-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth during sleep. Sleep bruxism activity is characterised by rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Many but not all RMMA episodes are associated with sleep arousal. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transient oxygen saturation level change can be temporally associated with genesis of RMMA/SB. Sleep laboratory or home recordings data from 22 SB (tooth grinding history in the absence of reported sleep-disordered breathing) and healthy subjects were analysed. A total of 143 RMMA/SB episodes were classified in four categories: (i) no arousal + no body movement; (ii) arousal + no body movement; (iii) no arousal + body movement; (iv) arousal + body movement. Blood oxygen levels (SaO2 ) were assessed from finger oximetry signal at the baseline (before RMMA), and during RMMA. Significant variation in SaO2 over time (P = 0·001) was found after RMMA onset (+7 to +9 s). No difference between categories (P = 0·91) and no interaction between categories and SaO2 variation over time (P = 0·10) were observed. SaO2 of six of 22 subjects (27%) remained equal or slight increase after the RMMA/SB onset (+8 s) compared to baseline; 10 subjects (45%) slightly decreased (drop 0·01-1%) and the remaining (27%) decreased between 1% and 2%. These preliminary findings suggest that a subgroup of SB subjects had (i) a minor transient hypoxia potentially associated with the onset of RMMA episodes, and this (ii) independently of concomitant sleep arousal or body movements. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Breath-collection device for delayed breath-alcohol analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-12-01

    The report includes the details of a study to develop, evaluate, and validate a breath collection device (BCD) for delayed breath-alcohol analysis. Primary applications of the BCD include collection of breath-alcohol samples for field surveys or for ...

  14. Risk perception influences athletic pacing strategy.

    PubMed

    Micklewright, Dominic; Parry, David; Robinson, Tracy; Deacon, Greg; Renfree, Andrew; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Matthews, William J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine risk taking and risk perception associations with perceived exertion, pacing, and performance in athletes. Two experiments were conducted in which risk perception was assessed using the domain-specific risk taking (DOSPERT) scale in 20 novice cyclists (experiment 1) and 32 experienced ultramarathon runners (experiment 2). In experiment 1, participants predicted their pace and then performed a 5-km maximum effort cycling time trial on a calibrated Kingcycle mounted bicycle. Split times and perceived exertion were recorded every kilometer. In experiment 2, each participant predicted their split times before running a 100-km ultramarathon. Split times and perceived exertion were recorded at seven checkpoints. In both experiments, higher and lower risk perception groups were created using median split of DOSPERT scores. In experiment 1, pace during the first kilometer was faster among lower risk perceivers compared with higher risk perceivers (t(18) = 2.0, P = 0.03) and faster among higher risk takers compared with lower risk takers (t(18) = 2.2, P = 0.02). Actual pace was slower than predicted pace during the first kilometer in both the higher risk perceivers (t(9) = -4.2, P = 0.001) and lower risk perceivers (t(9) = -1.8, P = 0.049). In experiment 2, pace during the first 36 km was faster among lower risk perceivers compared with higher risk perceivers (t(16) = 2.0, P = 0.03). Irrespective of risk perception group, actual pace was slower than predicted pace during the first 18 km (t(16) = 8.9, P < 0.001) and from 18 to 36 km (t(16) = 4.0, P < 0.001). In both experiments, there was no difference in performance between higher and lower risk perception groups. Initial pace is associated with an individual's perception of risk, with low perceptions of risk being associated with a faster starting pace. Large differences between predicted and actual pace suggest that the performance template lacks accuracy, perhaps indicating

  15. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P < .05) longer while breathing through the mouth. There was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate (%) for each chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P < .05) lower while breathing through the mouth. However, there was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate for 5-minute chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P < .05) lower during mouth breathing. It takes a longer amount of time to complete chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  16. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  17. Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  18. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  19. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  20. Portable Breathing Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Jacobs Test and Operations Support Contract, or TOSC, technicians fill portable breathing apparatuses, or PBAS. The PBAs are to be use on board the International Space Staton to provide astronauts with breathable air in the event of a fire or other emergency situation.

  1. Bad Breath - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Bad Breath - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese, Traditional ( ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 23 May 2018

  2. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 2 May 2018

  3. Conservation law for self-paced movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-08-02

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called "drive," that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control.

  4. Breath-Hold Diving.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  5. DDD versus VVIR pacing in patients, ages 70 and over, with complete heart block.

    PubMed

    Ouali, Sana; Neffeti, Elyes; Ghoul, Karima; Hammas, Sami; Kacem, Slim; Gribaa, Rim; Remedi, Fahmi; Boughzela, Essia

    2010-05-01

    Dual-chamber pacing is believed to have an advantage over single-chamber ventricular pacing. The aim of the study was to determine whether elderly patients with implanted pacemaker for complete atrioventricular block gain significant benefit from dual-chamber (DDD) compared with single-chamber ventricular demand (VVIR). The study was designed as a double-blind randomized two-period crossover study-each pacing mode was maintained for 3 months. Thirty patients (eight men, mean age 76.5 +/- 4.3 years) with implanted PM were submitted to a standard protocol, which included an interview, functional class assessment, quality of life (QoL) questionnaires, 6-minute walk test, and transthoracic echocardiographic examinations. QoL was measured by the SF-36. All these parameters were obtained on DDD mode pacing and VVIR mode pacing. Paired data were compared. QoL was significantly different between the two groups and showed the best values in DDD. Overall, no patient preferred VVIR mode, 18 preferred DDD mode, and 12 expressed no preference. No differences in mean walking distances were observed between patients with single-chamber and dual-chamber pacing. VVI pacing elicited marked decrease in left ventricle ejection fraction and significant enlargement of the left atrium. DDD pacing resulted in significant increase of the peak systolic velocities in lateral mitral annulus and septal mitral annulus. Early diastolic velocities on both sides of mitral annulus did not change. In active elderly patients with complete heart block, DDD pacing is associated with improved quality of life and systolic ventricular function compared with VVI pacing.

  6. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  7. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  8. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  9. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  10. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  11. Altering Pace Control and Pace Regulation: Attentional Focus Effects during Running.

    PubMed

    Brick, Noel E; Campbell, Mark J; Metcalfe, Richard S; Mair, Jacqueline L; Macintyre, Tadhg E

    2016-05-01

    To date, there are no published studies directly comparing self-controlled (SC) and externally controlled (EC) pace endurance tasks. However, previous research suggests pace control may impact on cognitive strategy use and effort perceptions. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulating perception of pace control on attentional focus, physiological, and psychological outcomes during running. The secondary aim was to determine the reproducibility of self-paced running performance when regulated by effort perceptions. Twenty experienced endurance runners completed four 3-km time trials on a treadmill. Subjects completed two SC pace trials, one perceived exertion clamped (PE) trial, and one EC pace time trial. PE and EC were completed in a counterbalanced order. Pacing strategy for EC and perceived exertion instructions for PE replicated the subjects' fastest SC time trial. Subjects reported a greater focus on cognitive strategies such as relaxing and optimizing running action during EC than during SC. The mean HR was 2% lower during EC than that during SC despite an identical pacing strategy. Perceived exertion did not differ between the three conditions. However, increased internal sensory monitoring coincided with elevated effort perceptions in some subjects during EC and a 10% slower completion time for PE (13.0 ± 1.6 min) than that for SC (11.8 ± 1.2 min). Altering pace control and pace regulation impacted on attentional focus. External control over pacing may facilitate performance, particularly when runners engage attentional strategies conducive to improved running efficiency. However, regulating pace based on effort perceptions alone may result in excessive monitoring of bodily sensations and a slower running speed. Accordingly, attentional focus interventions may prove beneficial for some athletes to adopt task-appropriate attentional strategies to optimize performance.

  12. The Manipulation of Pace within Endurance Sport

    PubMed Central

    Skorski, Sabrina; Abbiss, Chris R.

    2017-01-01

    In any athletic event, the ability to appropriately distribute energy is essential to prevent premature fatigue prior to the completion of the event. In sport science literature this is termed “pacing.” Within the past decade, research aiming to better understand the underlying mechanisms influencing the selection of an athlete's pacing during exercise has dramatically increased. It is suggested that pacing is a combination of anticipation, knowledge of the end-point, prior experience and sensory feedback. In order to better understand the role each of these factors have in the regulation of pace, studies have often manipulated various conditions known to influence performance such as the feedback provided to participants, the starting strategy or environmental conditions. As with all research there are several factors that should be considered in the interpretation of results from these studies. Thus, this review aims at discussing the pacing literature examining the manipulation of: (i) energy expenditure and pacing strategies, (ii) kinematics or biomechanics, (iii) exercise environment, and (iv) fatigue development. PMID:28289392

  13. Positive pacing in elite IRONMAN triathletes.

    PubMed

    Angehrn, Nicole; Rüst, Christoph A.; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-12-31

    Pacing is known to influence athletic performance. For the Ironman triathlon program, a positive pacing strategy, i.e., the continuous decrease of speed over time was recommended. By analyzing split times, we assessed the pacing strategies of the top 100 finishers of the cycling part of 13 Ironman races and of the running part of 11 Ironman races taking place in 2014. Furthermore, sex-associated differences in performance and pacing strategies were calculated. We analyzed 7,687 cycling and 11,894 running split times of 1,392 triathletes (1,263 men, 129 women). Changes in speed were assessed using mixed-effects regression analyses. A continuous decrease in speed was observed during cycling in 10/13 races, and during running in 11/11 races. In 6/13 races, women decreased their speed during cycling significantly more than men. The running part showed no significant difference of changes in speed between the sexes. In summary, in the Ironman races evaluated, a positive pacing strategy was adopted in most races. Women were slower than men in 6/13 cycling races, but there was no difference between men and women in the run splits. Women used the same pacing strategy as men.

  14. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    PubMed

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  15. Simulating PACE Global Ocean Radiances

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cécile S.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA PACE mission is a hyper-spectral radiometer planned for launch in the next decade. It is intended to provide new information on ocean biogeochemical constituents by parsing the details of high resolution spectral absorption and scattering. It is the first of its kind for global applications and as such, poses challenges for design and operation. To support pre-launch mission development and assess on-orbit capabilities, the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has developed a dynamic simulation of global water-leaving radiances, using an ocean model containing multiple ocean phytoplankton groups, particulate detritus, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOC) along with optical absorption and scattering processes at 1 nm spectral resolution. The purpose here is to assess the skill of the dynamic model and derived global radiances. Global bias, uncertainty, and correlation are derived using available modern satellite radiances at moderate spectral resolution. Total chlorophyll, PIC, and the absorption coefficient of CDOC (aCDOC), are simultaneously assimilated to improve the fidelity of the optical constituent fields. A 5-year simulation showed statistically significant (P <0.05) comparisons of chlorophyll (r = 0.869), PIC (r = 0.868), and aCDOC (r = 0.890) with satellite data. Additionally, diatoms (r = 0.890), cyanobacteria (r = 0.732), and coccolithophores (r = 0.716) were significantly correlated with in situ data. Global assimilated distributions of optical constituents were coupled with a radiative transfer model (Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model, OASIM) to estimate normalized water-leaving radiances at 1 nm for the spectral range 250–800 nm. These unassimilated radiances were within −0.074 mW cm−2 μm1 sr−1 of MODIS-Aqua radiances at 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm. This difference represented a bias of −10.4% (model low). A mean correlation of 0.706 (P < 0.05) was found with

  16. SPECT Analysis of Cardiac Perfusion Changes After Whole-Breast/Chest Wall Radiation Therapy With or Without Active Breathing Coordinator: Results of a Randomized Phase 3 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Zellars, Richard, E-mail: zellari@jhmi.edu; Bravo, Paco E.; Tryggestad, Erik

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Cardiac muscle perfusion, as determined by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), decreases after breast and/or chest wall (BCW) irradiation. The active breathing coordinator (ABC) enables radiation delivery when the BCW is farther from the heart, thereby decreasing cardiac exposure. We hypothesized that ABC would prevent radiation-induced cardiac toxicity and conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating myocardial perfusion changes after radiation for left-sided breast cancer with or without ABC. Methods and Materials: Stages I to III left breast cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation therapy (XRT) were randomized to ABC or No-ABC. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by SPECT scans (before andmore » 6 months after BCW radiation) using 2 methods: (1) fully automated quantitative polar mapping; and (2) semiquantitative visual assessment. The left ventricle was divided into 20 segments for the polar map and 17 segments for the visual method. Segments were grouped by anatomical rings (apical, mid, basal) or by coronary artery distribution. For the visual method, 2 nuclear medicine physicians, blinded to treatment groups, scored each segment's perfusion. Scores were analyzed with nonparametric tests and linear regression. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 57 patients were enrolled and 43 were available for analysis. The cohorts were well matched. The apical and left anterior descending coronary artery segments had significant decreases in perfusion on SPECT scans in both ABC and No-ABC cohorts. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, controlling for pretreatment perfusion score, age, and chemotherapy, ABC was not significantly associated with prevention of perfusion deficits. Conclusions: In this randomized controlled trial, ABC does not appear to prevent radiation-induced cardiac perfusion deficits.« less

  17. Time course of EEG slow-wave activity in pre-school children with sleep disordered breathing: a possible mechanism for daytime deficits?

    PubMed

    Biggs, Sarah N; Walter, Lisa M; Nisbet, Lauren C; Jackman, Angela R; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Trinder, John; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2012-09-01

    Daytime deficits in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are theorized to result from hypoxic insult to the developing brain or fragmented sleep. Yet, these do not explain why deficits occur in primary snorers (PS). The time course of slow wave EEG activity (SWA), a proxy of homeostatic regulation and cortical maturation, may provide insight. Clinical and control subjects (N=175: mean age 4.3±0.9 y: 61% male) participated in overnight polysomnography (PSG). Standard sleep scoring and power spectral analyses were conducted on EEG (C4/A1; 0.5-<3.9Hz). Univariate ANOVA's evaluated group differences in sleep stages and respiratory parameters. Repeated-measures ANCOVA evaluated group differences in the time course of SWA. Four groups were classified: controls (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; no clinical history); PS (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; clinical history); mild OSA (OAHI=1-5 events/h); and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA: OAHI>5 events/h). Group differences were found in the percentage of time spent in NREM Stages 1 and 4 (p<0.001) and in the time course of SWA. PS and Mild OSA children had higher SWA in the first NREM period than controls (p<0.05). All SDB groups had higher SWA in the fourth NREM period (p<0.01). These results suggest enhanced sleep pressure but impaired restorative sleep function in pre-school children with SDB, providing new insights into the possible mechanism for daytime deficits observed in all severities of SDB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimal pacing for right ventricular and biventricular devices: minimizing, maximizing, and right ventricular/left ventricular site considerations.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The results from numerous clinical studies provide guidance for optimizing outcomes related to RV or biventricular pacing in the pacemaker and ICD populations. (1) Programming algorithms to minimize RV pacing is imperative in patients with dual-chamber pacemakers who have intrinsic AV conduction or intermittent AV conduction block. (2) Dual-chamber ICDs should be avoided in candidates without an indication for bradycardia pacing. (3) Alternate RV septal pacing sites may be considered at the time of pacemaker implantation. (4) Biventricular pacing may be beneficial in some patients with mild LV dysfunction. (5) LV lead placement at the site of latest LV activation is desirable. (6) Programming CRT systems to achieve biventricular/LV pacing >98.5% is important. (7) Protocols for AV and VV optimization in patients with CRT are not recommended after device implantation but may be considered for CRT nonresponders. (8) Novel algorithms to maximize the benefit of CRT are in evolution further.

  19. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible.

  20. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R; Nilsson, Göran E; Stecyk, Jonathan A W

    2014-12-15

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake (Ṁ(O₂)) in normoxia (19.8 kPa P(O₂)) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard Ṁ(O₂) in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum Ṁ(O₂) and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard Ṁ(O₂) was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard Ṁ(O₂) in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain Ṁ(O₂) through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard Ṁ(O₂) was reduced by ∼30-50%. P(crit) was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in P(crit), gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Stecyk, Jonathan A. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake () in normoxia (19.8 kPa PO2) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard was reduced by ∼30–50%. Pcrit was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in Pcrit, gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. PMID:25394628

  3. Influence of atrial substrate on local capture induced by rapid pacing of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Alexandru; Jacquemet, Vincent; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Virag, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Preliminary studies showed that the septum area was the only location allowing local capture of both the atria during rapid pacing of atrial fibrillation (AF) from a single site. The present model-based study investigated the influence of atrial substrate on the ability to capture AF when pacing the septum. Three biophysical models of AF with an identical anatomy from human atria but with different AF substrates were used: (i) AF based on multiple wavelets, (ii) AF based on heterogeneities in vagal activation, (iii) AF based on heterogeneities in repolarization. A fourth anatomical model without Bachmann's bundle (BB) was also implemented. Rapid pacing was applied from the septum at pacing cycle lengths in the range of 50-100% of AF cycle length. Local capture was automatically assessed with 24 pairs of electrodes evenly distributed on the atrial surface. The results were averaged over 16 AF simulations. In the homogeneous substrate, AF capture could reach 80% of the atrial surface. Heterogeneities degraded the ability to capture during AF. In the vagal substrate, the capture tended to be more regular and the degradation of the capture was not directly related to the spatial extent of the heterogeneities. In the third substrate, heterogeneities induced wave anchorings and wavebreaks even in areas close to the pacing site, with a more dramatic effect on AF capture. Finally, BB did not significantly affect the ability to capture. Atrial fibrillation substrate had a significant effect on rapid pacing outcomes. The response to therapeutic pacing may therefore be specific to each patient.

  4. Cardiac optogenetic pacing in drosophila melanogaster using red-shifted opsins (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Electrical pacing is the current gold standard for investigation of mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, this method requires an invasive surgical procedure to implant the pacing electrodes. Recently, optogenetic pacing has been developed as an alternative, non-invasive method for heartbeat pacing in animals. It induces heartbeats by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins which in turn activate light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we expressed recently engineered red-shifted opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in the heart of a well-developed animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, for the first time. Optogenetic pacing was successfully conducted in both ReaChR and CsChrimson flies at their larval, pupal, and adult stages using 617 nm excitation light pulse, enabling a much deeper tissue penetration compared to blue stimulation light. A customized high speed and ultrahigh resolution OCM system was used to non-invasively monitor the heartbeat pacing in Drosophila. Compared to previous studies on optogenetic pacing of Drosophila, higher penetration depth of optogenetic excitation light was achieved in opaque late pupal flies. Lower stimulating power density is needed for excitation at each developmental stage of both groups, which improves the safety of this technique for heart rhythm studies.

  5. Pacing from the right ventricular septum: is there a danger to the coronary arteries?

    PubMed

    Teh, Andrew W; Medi, Caroline; Rosso, Raphael; Lee, Geoffrey; Gurvitch, Ronen; Mond, Harry G

    2009-07-01

    Pacing from right ventricular (RV) septal sites has been suggested as an alternative to RV apical pacing in an attempt to avoid long-term adverse consequences on left ventricular function. Concern has been raised as to the relationship of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to pacing leads in these positions. We retrospectively analyzed three cases in which patients with RV active-fixation leads in situ also had coronary angiography. Multiple fluoroscopic views were used to determine the relationship of the lead tip at various pacing sites to the coronary arteries. A lead placed on the anterior wall was in close proximity to the LAD, whereas septal and free wall positioning was not. Placement of RV active-fixation leads on the septum avoids potential coronary artery compromise.

  6. Lunar plasma measurement by MAP-PACE onboard KAGUYA (SELENE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi

    ion sensors also discovered that ions are rarefied over the magnetic anomaly on the lunar surface while electrons are heated. MAP-PACE has been revealing unexpectedly active plasma environment around the Moon.

  7. [Role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein in ventricular pacing induced cardiac electrical remodeling in a canine model].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuesi; Chen, Xingxing; Cheng, Junhua; Hong, Jun; Zheng, Cheng; Zhao, Jinglin; Li, Jin; Lin, Jiafeng

    2015-04-01

    This project is designed to explore the potential role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) in cardiac electrical remodeling induced by pacing at different ventricular positions in dogs. An animal model by implanting the pacemakers in beagles was established. According to the different pacing positions, the animals were divided into 4 groups:conditional control group (n=6), left ventricle pacing group (n=6), right ventricle pacing group (n=6) and bi-ventricle pacing group (n=6). Cardiac and electrical remodeling were observed by echocardiography, electrocardiogram and plasma BNP. Myocardial pathology and protein expression of extracellular regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2), P38 mitogen activated protein kinases (P38 MAPK) and CREB were examined at 4 weeks post pacing. Cardiac structure and plasma BNP level were similar among 4 groups (all P>0.05). Electrocardiogram derived Tp-Te interval was significantly prolonged post pacing (92±11, 91±10, and 79±13 ms vs. 60±12 ms), and the Tp-Te interval in bi-ventricle pacing group was shorter than in left or right ventricle pacing group (P < 0.05). Western blot results showed that the expression of p-ERK1/2 in left ventricular myocardium of left ventricle pacing group, right ventricular myocardium of right ventricle pacing group and bi-ventricular myocardium of bi-ventricle pacing group was 2.7±0.4, 2.4±0.2, 1.7±0.1 and 1.9±0.2, respectively, the expression of p-P38 MAPK was 1.9±0.3, 1.7±0.2, 0.8±0.1 and 1.1±0.1, respectively, and the expression of p-CREB was 2.1±0.2, 2.0±0.2, 2.7±0.4 and 2.6±0.3, respectively. The p-ERK1/2 and p-P38 MAPK expression of bi-ventricle pacing group was lower,but the p-CREB expression was higher compared to the other pacing groups (P < 0.05). Ventricular pacing could induce electrical remodeling evidenced by prolonged Tp-Te interval and increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK and reduced phosphorylation of CREB. Compared with

  8. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mandy; Harvey, Alex; Marston, Louise; O'Connell, Neil E

    2013-05-31

    Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tremor and paraesthesia. DB/HVS has an estimated prevalence of 9.5% in the general adult population, however, there is little consensus regarding the most effective management of this patient group. (1) To determine whether breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS have beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices (2) To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and four other databases. The latest search was in February 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which breathing exercises, or a combined intervention including breathing exercises as a key component, were compared with either no treatment or another therapy that did not include breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS. Observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion.We considered any type of breathing exercise for inclusion in this review, such as breathing control, diaphragmatic breathing, yoga breathing, Buteyko breathing, biofeedback-guided breathing modification, yawn/sigh suppression. Programs where exercises were either supervised or unsupervised were eligible as were relaxation techniques and acute-episode management, as long as it was clear that breathing exercises were a key component of the intervention.We excluded any intervention without breathing exercises or

  9. A Simulation Study of Paced TCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulik, Joanna; Coulter, Robert; Rockwell, Dennis; Partridge, Craig

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of paced TCP, a modified version of TCP designed especially for high delay- bandwidth networks. In typical networks, TCP optimizes its send-rate by transmitting increasingly large bursts, or windows, of packets, one burst per round-trip time, until it reaches a maximum window-size, which corresponds to the full capacity of the network. In a network with a high delay-bandwidth product, however, Transmission Control Protocol's (TCPs) maximum window-size may be larger than the queue size of the intermediate routers, and routers will begin to drop packets as soon as the windows become too large for the router queues. The TCP sender then concludes that the bottleneck capacity of the network has been reached, and it limits its send-rate accordingly. Partridge proposed paced TCP as a means of solving the problem of queueing bottlenecks. A sender using paced TCP would release packets in multiple, small bursts during a round-trip time in which ordinary TCP would release a single, large burst of packets. This approach allows the sender to increase its send-rate to the maximum window size without encountering queueing bottlenecks. This paper describes the performance of paced TCP in a simulated network and discusses implementation details that can affect the performance of paced TCP.

  10. Pacing threshold changes after transvenous catheter countershock.

    PubMed

    Yee, R; Jones, D L; Klein, G J

    1984-02-01

    The serial changes in pacing threshold and R-wave amplitude were examined after insertion of a countershock catheter in 12 patients referred for management of recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In 6 patients, values before and immediately after catheter countershock were monitored. Pacing threshold increased (from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.4 +/- 0.5 V, mean +/- standard error of the mean, p less than 0.05) while the R-wave amplitude decreased (bipolar R wave from 5.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.4 +/- 0.7 mV, p less than 0.01; unipolar R wave recorded from the distal ventricular electrode from 8.9 +/- 1.8 to 4.6 +/- 1.2 mV, p less than 0.01; and proximal ventricular electrode from 7.7 +/- 1.5 to 5.0 +/- 1.0 mV, p less than 0.01). A return to control values occurred within 10 minutes. In all patients, pacing threshold increased by 154 +/- 30% (p less than 0.001) during the first 7 days that the catheter was in place. It is concluded that catheter countershock causes an acute increase in pacing threshold and decrease in R-wave amplitude. A catheter used for countershock may not be acceptable as a backup pacing catheter.

  11. Spatial resolution of pace mapping of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia/ectopy originating in the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Bogun, Frank; Taj, Majid; Ting, Michael; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Reich, Stephen; Good, Eric; Jongnarangsin, Krit; Chugh, Aman; Pelosi, Frank; Oral, Hakan; Morady, Fred

    2008-03-01

    Pace mapping has been used to identify the site of origin of focal ventricular arrhythmias. The spatial resolution of pace mapping has not been adequately quantified using currently available three-dimensional mapping systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial resolution of pace mapping in patients with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia or premature ventricular contractions originating in the right ventricular outflow tract. In 16 patients with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia/ectopy from the right ventricular outflow tract, comparisons and classifications of pace maps were performed by two observers (good pace map: match >10/12 leads; inadequate pace map: match < or =10/12 leads) and a customized MATLAB 6.0 program (assessing correlation coefficient and normalized root mean square of the difference (nRMSd) between test and template signals). With an electroanatomic mapping system, the correlation coefficient of each pace map was correlated with the distance between the pacing site and the effective ablation site. The endocardial area within the 10-ms activation isochrone was measured. The ablation procedure was effective in all patients. Sites with good pace maps had a higher correlation coefficient and lower nRMSd than sites with inadequate pace maps (correlation coefficient: 0.96 +/- 0.03 vs 0.76 +/- 0.18, P <.0001; nRMSd: 0.41 +/- 0.16 vs 0.89 +/- 0.39, P <.0001). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, appropriate cutoff values were >0.94 for correlation coefficient (sensitivity 81%, specificity 89%) and < or =0.54 for nRMSd (sensitivity 76%, specificity 80%). Good pace maps were located a mean of 7.3 +/- 5.0 mm from the effective ablation site and had a mean activation time of -24 +/- 7 ms. However, in 3 (18%) of 16 patients, the best pace map was inadequate at the effective ablation site, with an endocardial activation time at these sites of -25 +/- 12 ms. Pace maps with correlation coefficient > or =0.94 were confined to an

  12. North American Veterinary Licensing Examination pacing study.

    PubMed

    Subhiyah, Raja G; Boyce, John R

    2010-01-01

    The National Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners was interested in the possible effects of word count on the outcomes of the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of increasing word count on the pacing of examinees during each section of the examination and on the performance of examinees on the items. Specifically, the authors analyzed the effect of item word count on the average time spent on each item within a section of the examination, the average number of items omitted at the end of a section, and the average difficulty of items as a function of presentation order. The average word count per item increased from 2001 to 2008. As expected, there was a relationship between word count and time spent on the item. No significant relationship was found between word count and item difficulty, and an analysis of omitted items and pacing patterns showed no indication of overall pacing problems.

  13. Pacing in Swimming: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, Katie E; Pyne, D B; Shephard, M E; Thompson, K G

    2018-03-20

    Pacing strategy, or how energy is distributed during exercise, can substantially impact athletic performance and is considered crucial for optimal performance in many sports. This is particularly true in swimming given the highly resistive properties of water and low mechanical efficiency of the swimming action. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the pacing strategies utilised by competitive swimmers in competition and their reproducibility, and to examine the impact of different pacing strategies on kinematic, metabolic and performance variables. This will provide valuable and practical information to coaches and sports science practitioners. The databases Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched for published articles up to 1 August 2017. A total of 23 studies examining pool-based swimming competitions or experimental trials in English-language and peer-reviewed journals were included in this review. In short- and middle-distance swimming events maintenance of swimming velocity is critical, whereas in long-distance events a low lap-to-lap variability and the ability to produce an end spurt in the final lap(s) are key. The most effective strategy in the individual medley (IM) is to conserve energy during the butterfly leg to optimise performance in subsequent legs. The pacing profiles of senior swimmers remain relatively stable irrespective of opponents, competition stage or type, and performance time. Implementing event-specific pacing strategies should benefit the performance of competitive swimmers. Given differences between swimmers, there is a need for greater individualisation when considering pacing strategy selection across distances and strokes.

  14. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  15. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test

    PubMed Central

    YUASA, Hisashi; KUMITA, Mikio; HONDA, Takeshi; KIMURA, Kazushi; NOZAKI, Kosuke; EMI, Hitoshi; OTANI, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker’s respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

  16. Acute Effects of Cannabis on Breath-Holding Duration

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Metrik, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual’s perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a bio-behavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress post-cannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7–3.0 % delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath-holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were non-treatment seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed breath-holding task. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly lower breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration x frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may be exacerbating distress intolerance (via breath-holding duration). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis’ acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. PMID:27454678

  17. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K., E-mail: markus.krug@uni-graz.at; Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  18. Dosimetric comparison of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chi, F; Wu, S; Zhou, J; Li, F; Sun, J; Lin, Q; Lin, H; Guan, X; He, Z

    2015-05-01

    This study determined the dosimetric comparison of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold using active breathing control and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after breast-conserving surgery for left-sided breast cancer. Thirty-one patients were enrolled. One free breathe and two moderate deep inspiration breath-hold images were obtained. A field-in-field-IMRT free-breathing plan and two field-in-field-IMRT moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans were compared in the dosimetry to target volume coverage of the glandular breast tissue and organs at risks for each patient. The breath-holding time under moderate deep inspiration extended significantly after breathing training (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the free-breathing and moderate deep inspiration breath-holding in the target volume coverage. The volume of the ipsilateral lung in the free-breathing technique were significantly smaller than the moderate deep inspiration breath-holding techniques (P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the two moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans. There were no significant differences in target volume coverage between the three plans for the field-in-field-IMRT (all P>0.05). The dose to ipsilateral lung, coronary artery and heart in the field-in-field-IMRT were significantly lower for the free-breathing plan than for the two moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans (all P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the two moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans. The whole-breast field-in-field-IMRT under moderate deep inspiration breath-hold with active breathing control after breast-conserving surgery in left-sided breast cancer can reduce the irradiation volume and dose to organs at risks. There are no significant differences between various moderate deep inspiration breath-holding states in the dosimetry of irradiation to the field-in-field-IMRT target volume

  19. Ocean-atmosphere science from the NASA Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werdell, J.

    2016-12-01

    The new NASA Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission is a strategic climate continuity activity that will not only extend key heritage ocean color, cloud, and aerosol data records, but also enable new insight into oceanographic and atmospheric responses to Earth's changing climate. The primary PACE instrument will be a spectroradiometer that spans the ultraviolet to shortwave infrared region at 5 nm resolution with a ground sample distance of 1 km at nadir. This payload will likely be complemented by a multi-angle polarimeter with a similar spectral range. Scheduled for launch in 2022, this PACE instrument pair will revolutionize studies of global biogeochemistry and carbon cycles in the ocean-atmosphere system. Here, I present a PACE mission overview, with focus on instrument characteristics, core and advanced data products, and overarching science objectives.

  20. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  1. PACE4 regulates proliferation, migration and invasion in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feifei; Wang, Lin; Pan, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    PACE4 is one of the proprotein convertases (PC) that participate in the post-translational activation of inactive proteins, leading to mature, biologically active proteins. The processing reactions occur in pairs of basic amino acids. PACE4 is an extracellular PC that binds to growth factors and several components of the extracellular matrix contributing to tumor progression. In the present study, the PACE4 gene was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the knockdown human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells showed significantly reduced proliferation, migration and invasion rates. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that downregulation of PACE4 increases the percentage of cells arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, the expression of genes involved in cell growth, invasion and adhesion, i.e., IGF-2, MMP9 and MPZL2 was significantly decreased following siRNA-mediated silencing of PACE4. Taken together, these results indicate that PACE4 plays an important role in human breast cancer, and that it might represent a novel target for breast cancer therapy.

  2. Changes of serum neurohormone after renal sympathetic denervation in dogs with pacing-induced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingyan; Huang, He; Wang, Xule; Wang, Xiaozhan; Dai, Zixuan; Wan, Peixing; Guo, Zongwen; Yu, Shengbo; Tang, Yanhong; Huang, Congxin

    2014-01-01

    Neurohormonal activation is a commonly cited array of phenomena in the body's physiologic response to heart failure (HF). The aim of the present study was to determine the change law of serum neurohormones after renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) in dogs with pacing-induced HF. Twenty-eight beagles were randomly divided into control group, RSD group, HF group and HF + RSD group. The control group was implanted pacemakers without pacing; the RSD group underwent renal artery ablation without pacing; the HF group was implanted pacemakers with ventricular pacing at 240 bpm for 3 weeks; and HF + RSD group underwent renal artery ablation and with ventricular pacing at 240 bpm for 3 weeks. Blood samples were taken at baseline, and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 days in all the dogs for neurohormones measurement. After 3 weeks, the systolic femoral artery pressures in the HF and HF + RSD groups were reduced after pacing 3 weeks. There was an increase significantly in BNP, angiotensin II, aldosterone, endothelin-1 and decrease in renalase after 3 weeks when compared with baseline in HF group. RSD significantly suppressed the changes of plasma neurohormones concentration in experimental HF, but RSD had not obviously impact on the levels of plasma neurohormones during 3 weeks in RSD group. RSD attenuates the changes of levels of plasma neurohormones in the activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) but had not obviously effect in the normal physiology of RAAS.

  3. Validation of electromechanical wave imaging in a canine model during pacing and sinus rhythm.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Julien; Costet, Alexandre; Bunting, Ethan; Gambhir, Alok; Garan, Hasan; Wan, Elaine; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2016-11-01

    Accurate determination of regional areas of arrhythmic triggers is of key interest to diagnose arrhythmias and optimize their treatment. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is an ultrasound technique that can image the transient deformation in the myocardium after electrical activation and therefore has the potential to detect and characterize location of triggers of arrhythmias. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between the electromechanical and the electrical activation of the left ventricular (LV) endocardial surface during epicardial and endocardial pacing and during sinus rhythm as well as to map the distribution of electromechanical delays. In this study, 6 canines were investigated. Two external electrodes were sutured onto the epicardial surface of the LV. A 64-electrode basket catheter was inserted through the apex of the LV. Ultrasound channel data were acquired at 2000 frames/s during epicardial and endocardial pacing and during sinus rhythm. Electromechanical and electrical activation maps were synchronously obtained from the ultrasound data and the basket catheter, respectively. The mean correlation coefficient between electromechanical and electrical activation was 0.81 for epicardial anterior pacing, 0.79 for epicardial lateral pacing, 0.69 for endocardial pacing, and 0.56 for sinus rhythm. The electromechanical activation sequence determined by EWI follows the electrical activation sequence and more specifically in the case of pacing. This finding is of key interest in the role that EWI can play in the detection of the anatomical source of arrhythmias and the planning of pacing therapies such as cardiovascular resynchronization therapy. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of Electromechanical Wave Imaging in a canine model during pacing and sinus rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Grondin, Julien; Costet, Alexandre; Bunting, Ethan; Gambhir, Alok; Garan, Hasan; Wan, Elaine; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate determination of regional areas of arrhythmic triggers is of key interest to diagnose arrhythmias and optimize their treatment. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is an ultrasound technique that can image the transient deformation in the myocardium following electrical activation and therefore has the potential to detect and characterize location of triggers of arrhythmias. Objectives The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between electromechanical and electrical activation of the left-ventricular (LV) endocardial surface during epicardial and endocardial pacing as well as during sinus rhythm and also to investigate the distribution of electromechanical delays. Methods In this study, six canines were investigated. Two external electrodes were sutured onto the epicardial surface of the left ventricle (LV). A 64-electrode basket catheter was inserted through the apex of the LV. Ultrasound channel data were acquired at 2000 frames/s during epicardial and endocardial pacing as well as during sinus rhythm. Electromechanical and electrical activation maps were synchronously obtained from the ultrasound data and the basket catheter respectively. Results The mean correlation coefficient between electromechanical and electrical activation was R=0.81 for epicardial anterior pacing, R=0.79 for epicardial lateral pacing, R=0.69 for endocardial pacing and R=0.56 for sinus rhythm. Conclusions The electromechanical activation sequence determined by EWI follows the electrical activation sequence and more specifically in the case of pacing. This finding is of key interest in the role that EWI can play in the detection of the anatomical source of arrhythmias and the planning of pacing therapies such as cardiovascular resynchronization therapy. PMID:27498277

  5. Self-Paced Physics, Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Samples of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this collection for dissemination purposes. Descriptions are included of course objectives, characteristics, structures, and content. As a two-semester course of study for science and engineering sophomores, most topics are on a level comparable to that of classical physics by…

  6. The Platform-Aware Compilation Environment (PACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    The PACE Project provided full or partial support for the following graduate students: 1. Raj Barik (Rice) 2. Thomas Barr (Rice) 3...University, Houston, TX, Technical Report CS TR11-03, October 20, 2011. [7] Rajkishore Barik , Jisheng Zhao, and Vivek Sarkar, "Efficient Selection

  7. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  8. Setting the Pace: Experiments with Keller's PSI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purao, Sandeep; Sein, Maung; Nilsen, Hallgeir; Larsen, Even Åby

    2017-01-01

    The ideal of self-paced learning, which was introduced nearly 50 years ago by Keller in his Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), has not yet been widely adopted. In spite of its perceived promise of helping students to learn at the speed aligned to their individual backgrounds, motivation, and skills, PSI has been challenging to implement.…

  9. A Self-Paced Physical Geology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a self-paced geology course utilizing a diversity of instructional techniques, including maps, models, samples, audio-visual materials, and a locally developed laboratory manual. Mechanical features are laboratory exercises, followed by unit quizzes; quizzes are repeated until the desired level of competence is attained. (Author/JN)

  10. Indonesian drilling maintains steady pace

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Offshore drilling activity in Indonesia increased nominally the first quarter of 1985 to an average 29 rigs. Barring any further problems with oil prices and markets, operators are expected to maintain essentially the current general level of appraisal/development work for the rest of this year. There are still a number of prospective regions to be explored in Southeast Asia. Regional developments are described for the South China Sea area, the Java Sea, South Sumatra, Kalimantan, Irian Jaya and the Malacca Strait.

  11. Effects of generation mode in fMRI adaptations of semantic fluency: Paced production and overt speech

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Surina; Palmer, Erica D.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2007-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a widely used neuropsychological paradigm. In fMRI implementations, conventional unpaced (self-paced) versions are suboptimal due to uncontrolled timing of responses, and overt responses carry the risk of motion artifact. We investigated the behavioral and neurofunctional effects of response pacing and overt speech in semantic category-driven word generation. Twelve right-handed adults (8 female) ages 21–37 were scanned in four conditions each: Paced-Overt, Paced-Covert, Unpaced-Overt, and Unpaced-Covert. There was no significant difference in the number of exemplars generated between overt versions of the paced and unpaced conditions. Imaging results for category-driven word generation overall showed left-hemispheric activation in inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Direct comparison of generation modes revealed significantly greater activation for the paced compared to unpaced conditions in right superior temporal, bilateral middle frontal, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, including regions associated with sustained attention, motor planning, and response inhibition. Covert (compared to overt) conditions showed significantly greater effects in right parietal and anterior cingulate, as well as left middle temporal and superior frontal regions. We conclude that paced overt paradigms are useful adaptations of conventional semantic fluency in fMRI, given their superiority with regard to control over and monitoring of behavioral responses. However, response pacing is associated with additional non-linguistic effects related to response inhibition, motor preparation, and sustained attention. PMID:17292926

  12. Electrical latency predicts the optimal left ventricular endocardial pacing site: results from a multicentre international registry.

    PubMed

    Sieniewicz, Benjamin J; Behar, Jonathan M; Sohal, Manav; Gould, Justin; Claridge, Simon; Porter, Bradley; Niederer, Steve; Gamble, James H P; Betts, Tim R; Jais, Pierre; Derval, Nicolas; Spragg, David D; Steendijk, Paul; van Gelder, Berry M; Bracke, Frank A; Rinaldi, Christopher A

    2018-04-23

    The optimal site for biventricular endocardial (BIVENDO) pacing remains undefined. Acute haemodynamic response (AHR) is reproducible marker of left ventricular (LV) contractility, best expressed as the change in the maximum rate of LV pressure (LV-dp/dtmax), from a baseline state. We examined the relationship between factors known to impact LV contractility, whilst delivering BIVENDO pacing at a variety of LV endocardial (LVENDO) locations. We compiled a registry of acute LVENDO pacing studies from five international centres: Johns Hopkins-USA, Bordeaux-France, Eindhoven-The Netherlands, Oxford-United Kingdom, and Guys and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London-UK. In all, 104 patients incorporating 687 endocardial and 93 epicardial pacing locations were studied. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 24.6 ± 7.7% and mean QRS duration of 163 ± 30 ms. In all, 50% were ischaemic [ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM)]. Scarred segments were associated with worse haemodynamics (dp/dtmax; 890 mmHg/s vs. 982 mmHg/s, P < 0.01). Delivering BiVENDO pacing in areas of electrical latency was associated with greater improvements in AHR (P < 0.01). Stimulating late activating tissue (LVLED >50%) achieved greater increases in AHR than non-late activating tissue (LVLED < 50%) (8.6 ± 9.6% vs. 16.1 ± 16.2%, P = 0.002). However, the LVENDO pacing location with the latest Q-LV, was associated with the optimal AHR in just 62% of cases. Identifying viable LVENDO tissue which displays late electrical activation is crucial to identifying the optimal BiVENDO pacing site. Stimulating late activating tissue (LVLED >50%) yields greater improvements in AHR however, the optimal location is frequently not the site of latest activation.

  13. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  14. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. PMID:27542677

  15. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    PubMed

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  17. Hydrogen breath test in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Douwes, A C; Schaap, C; van der Klei-van Moorsel, J M

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of negative hydrogen breath tests due to colonic bacterial flora which are unable to produce hydrogen was determined after oral lactulose challenge in 98 healthy Dutch schoolchildren. There was a negative result in 9.2%. The probability of a false normal lactose breath test (1:77) was calculated from these results together with those from a separate group of children with lactose malabsorption (also determined by hydrogen breath test). A study of siblings and mothers of subjects with a negative breath test did not show familial clustering of this condition. Faecal incubation tests with various sugars showed an increase in breath hydrogen greater than 100 parts per million in those with a positive breath test while subjects with a negative breath test also had a negative faecal incubation test. The frequency of a false negative hydrogen breath test was higher than previously reported, but this does not affect the superiority of this method of testing over the conventional blood glucose determination. PMID:4004310

  18. Time course and degree of hyperinflation with metronome-paced tachypnea in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Weigt, S Samuel; Abrazado, Marlon; Kleerup, Eric C; Tashkin, Donald P; Cooper, Christopher B

    2008-10-01

    In COPD patients, tachypnea should increase (dynamic) hyperinflation by shortening expiratory time. We developed a method to evaluate the time course and degree of dynamic hyperinflation during metronome-paced tachypnea. Fourteen patients with stable COPD (FEV(1) 43 +/- 13% predicted) were studied. Inspiratory capacity (IC) was measured breathing through a flow transducer. Subjects paced their respiratory rate (f(R)) at 20/min, 30/min and 40/min for 60-second periods in response to audible tones generated by a computer. IC measurements were obtained at baseline and after 30 and 60 seconds at each f(R). End-tidal carbon dioxide was monitored and f(R) was allowed to return to baseline between periods of tachypnea. Tachypnea produced reductions in IC of 200 +/- 240 ml, 380 +/- 330 ml and 540 +/- 300 ml after 30 seconds at 20/min, 30/min and 40/min, respectively. IC reduction at 60 seconds was similar to 30 seconds for each f(R). In patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, the dynamic hyperinflation induced by metronome-paced tachypnea was shown to occur rapidly and be complete by 30 seconds for a given f(R). Controlled increments in f(R) produced stepwise increases in dynamic hyperinflation. This standardized method could be a useful and easier method of assessing dynamic hyperinflation in COPD patients before and after therapeutic interventions.

  19. Determination of the optimal atrioventricular interval in sick sinus syndrome during DDD pacing.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaya; Dote, Keigo; Sasaki, Shota; Goto, Kenji; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Habara, Seiji; Hasegawa, Daiji; Matsuda, Osamu

    2005-09-01

    Although the AAI pacing mode has been shown to be electromechanically superior to the DDD pacing mode in sick sinus syndrome (SSS), there is evidence suggesting that during AAI pacing the presence of natural ventricular activation pattern is not enough for hemodynamic benefit to occur. Myocardial performance index (MPI) is a simply measurable Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AAI pacing mode is electromechanically superior to the DDD mode in patients with SSS by using Doppler-derived MPI. Thirty-nine SSS patients with dual-chamber pacing devices were evaluated by using Doppler echocardiography in AAI mode and DDD mode. The optimal atrioventricular (AV) interval in DDD mode was determined and atrial stimulus-R interval was measured in AAI mode. The ratio of the atrial stimulus-R interval to the optimal AV interval was defined as relative AV interval (rAVI) and the ratio of MPI in AAI mode to that in DDD mode was defined as relative MPI (rMPI). The rMPI was significantly correlated with atrial stimulus-R interval and rAVI (r = 0.57, P = 0.0002, and r = 0.67, P < 0.0001, respectively). A cutoff point of 1.73 for rAVI provided optimum sensitivity and specificity for rMPI >1 based on the receiver operator curves. Even though the intrinsic AV conduction is moderately prolonged, some SSS patients with dual-chamber pacing devices benefit from the ventricular pacing with optimal AV interval. MPI is useful to determine the optimal pacing mode in acute experiment.

  20. Effect of right ventricular pacing on cardiac apex rotation assessed by a gyroscopic sensor.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Emanuela; Cercenelli, Laura; Parlapiano, Mario; Fumero, Roberto; Bagnoli, Paola; Costantino, Maria Laura; Plicchi, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    To quantify cardiac apex rotation (CAR), the authors recently proposed the use of a Coriolis force sensor (gyroscope) as an alternative to other complex techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of right ventricular (RV) pacing on CAR. A sheep heart was initially paced from the right atrium to induce a normal activation sequence at a fixed heart rate (AAI mode) and then an atrioventricular pacing was performed (DOO mode, AV delay = 60 ms). A small gyroscope was epicardially glued on the cardiac apex to measure the angular velocity (Ang V). From AAI to DOO pacing mode, an increase (+9.2%, p < 0.05) of the maximum systolic twisting velocity (Ang VMAX) and a marked decrease (-19.9%, p < 0.05) of the maximum diastolic untwisting velocity (Ang VMIN) resulted. RV pacing had negligible effects (-3.1%, p = 0.09) on the maximum angle of CAR, obtained by integrating Ang V. The hemodynamic parameters of systolic (LVdP/dtMAX) and diastolic (LVdP/dtMIN) cardiac function showed slight variations (-3.8%, p < 0.05 and +3.9%, p < 0.05, respectively). Results suggest that cardiac dyssynchrony induced by RV pacing can alter the normal physiological ventricular twist patterns, particularly affecting diastolic untwisting velocity.

  1. Breath of hospitality.

    PubMed

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  2. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  3. Breathe Easy at Home

    PubMed Central

    Rosofsky, Anna; Reid, Margaret; Sandel, Megan; Zielenbach, Molly; Murphy, Johnna; Scammell, Madeleine K.

    2016-01-01

    The Breathe Easy at Home Program enables clinicians to refer asthmatic patients to Boston Inspectional Services Department (ISD) if they suspect housing conditions trigger symptoms. The authors conducted one-on-one interviews with clinicians (n = 10) who referred patients, and focus groups with inspectors from the ISD (n = 9) and a variety of stakeholders (n = 13), to gain insight into program function and implementation. Clinician interviews revealed inconsistencies in enrollment approaches, dissatisfaction with the web-based system, and patient follow-up difficulties. Inspectors identified barriers to working effectively with residents and landlords, and the stakeholder focus group highlighted successes of an unusual institutional collaboration. Interviews and focus groups identified strong and personal rapport between clinicians, inspectors, and patients as key to program retention, and that participating families required additional support throughout the process. Despite recommendations for improvement in program implementation, clinicians, inspectors, and stakeholders felt that the program overall improved both the home environment and asthma outcomes. PMID:28462348

  4. DefenseLink Special: Travels with Pace, March 2006

    Science.gov Websites

    Us Travels with Pace Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Marine Gen. Peter Pace U.S. Marine Gen . Peter Pace, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, speaks to students attending the Turkish War College U.S. Air Force Staff Sgt. D. Myles Cullen Hi-Res Pace Wraps Up Visit to Allied Nations WASHINGTON

  5. Efficacy of Precordial Percussion Pacing Assessed in a Cardiac Standstill Microminipig Model.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji; Cao, Xin; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Ando, Kentaro; Honda, Mitsuru; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Nakazato, Yuji; Lurie, Keith G; Sugiyama, Atsushi

    2017-07-25

    Potential cardiovascular benefits of precordial percussion pacing (PPP) during cardiac standstill are unknown.Methods and Results:A cardiac standstill model in amicrominipigwas created by inducing complete atrioventricular block with a catheter ablation technique (n=7). Next, the efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by standard chest compressions (S-CPR), PPP and ventricular electrical pacing in this model were analyzed in series (n=4). To assess the mechanism of PPP, a non-selective, stretch-activated channel blocker, amiloride, was administered during PPP (n=3). Peak systolic and diastolic arterial pressures during S-CPR, PPP and ventricular electrical pacing were statistically similar. However, the duration of developed arterial pressure with PPP was comparable to that with ventricular electrical pacing, and significantly greater than that with S-CPR. Amiloride decreased the induction rate of ventricular electrical activity by PPP in a dose-related manner. Each animal survived without any neurological deficit at 24, 48 h and 1 week, even with up to 2 h of continuous PPP. In amicrominipigmodel of cardiac standstill, PPP can become a novel means to significantly improve physiological outcomes after cardiac standstill or symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the absence of cardiac pacing. Activation of the non-selective stretch-activated channels may mediate some of the mechanophysiological effects of PPP. Further study of PPP by itself and together with S-CPR is warranted using cardiac arrest models of atrioventricular block and asystole.

  6. Effects of hypercapnia and hypoxemia on fetal breathing after decortication.

    PubMed

    Ioffe, S; Jansen, A H; Chernick, V

    1986-09-01

    The effects of hypercapnia and hypoxemia on breathing movements were studied in 12 chronically decorticated fetal sheep, 127-140 days gestation. The fetal state of consciousness was defined in terms of activity of the lateral rectus and nuchal muscles. Arterial blood pressure was monitored. Fetal breathing was determined by integrated diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMG) and analyzed in terms of inspiratory time (TI), expiratory time (TE), electrical equivalent of tidal volume (EVT), breath interval (TT), duty cycle (TI/TT), mean inspiratory flow equivalent (EVT/TI), and instantaneous ventilation equivalent (EVT/TT). Fetal breathing occurred only during episodes of rapid-eye movements, and the response to hypercapnia consisted of an increase in EVT, TI, EVE, and EVT/TI and a decrease in the coefficient of variation of all measured parameters. Induction of hypoxia during episodes of spontaneous fetal breathing produced a decrease in the rate of breathing and an increase in EVT and TI with no change in the variability of all parameters studied. Since similar responses to hypercapnia and hypoxemia are seen in the intact fetus, we conclude that the cerebral cortex has no obvious effect on the chemical control of fetal breathing.

  7. Pacing, Pixels, and Paper: Flexibility in Learning Words from Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Kara; Rausch, Joseph; Quirk, Abigail; Halladay, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on how self-control over pace might help learners successfully extract information from digital learning aids. Past research has indicated that too much control over pace can be overwhelming, but too little control over pace can be ineffective. Within the popular self-testing domain of flashcards, we sought to elucidate…

  8. PACE (Revised). Resource Guide. Research & Development Series No. 240D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This resource guide contains information on the Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE) materials, a glossary, and listings of sources of information. Introductory materials include a description of PACE, information on use of PACE materials, and objectives of the 18 units for all three levels at which they are developed. An…

  9. Determinants of dynamic hyperinflation during metronome-paced tachypnea in COPD and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C B; Calligaro, G L; Quinn, M M; Eshaghian, P; Coskun, F; Abrazado, M; Bateman, E D; Raine, R I

    2014-01-01

    In COPD, dynamic hyperinflation (DH) occurs during exercise and during metronome-paced tachypnea (MPT). We investigated the relationship of DH with breathing pattern and ventilation (V˙E) in COPD and normal subjects (NS). In 35 subjects with moderate COPD and 17 younger healthy volunteers we measured inspiratory capacity (IC), breathing frequency (fR), expiratory time (TE), ventilation (V˙E) and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2) at baseline and after 30s of MPT at 40breaths/min with metronome-defined I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2. A reduction in IC (ΔIC) was taken to indicate DH. In COPD subjects, DH correlated with TE but not with V˙E or PETCO2, and was best predicted by total lung capacity. NS also showed DH (although less than in COPD), which correlated with PETCO2 but not with fR, TE or V˙E. We conclude that MPT evokes DH in both NS and patients with COPD. TE is the most important determinant of DH during MPT in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaudi, L. R.; Rossi, E.; Mántaras, M. C.; Perrone, M. S.; Siri, L. Nicola

    2007-11-01

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  11. Social relations and breath odour.

    PubMed

    McKeown, L

    2003-11-01

    In this retrospective qualitative study, the researcher reviewed 55 client records of The Breath Odour Clinic. The purpose was to determine if individuals attended a clinic specialised in treating oral malodour for medical or social reasons. The study focused on the psychosocial and breath odour history. Clients had agreed to the use of information for research purposes. Society uses odour as a means to define and interact with the world. The olfactory, smelling experience is intimate, emotionally charged and connects us with the world. It follows that the smell from mouth breath odour can connect or disconnect a person from their social environment and intimate relationships. How one experiences one's own body is very personal and private but also very public. Breath odour is public as it occurs within a social and cultural context and personal as it affects one's body image and self-confidence. Body image, self-image and social relations mesh, interact and impact upon each other. Breath odour is a dynamic and interactive aspect of the self-image. In addition, breath odour may be value-coded as 'bad'. In 75% of the cases reviewed, decreased self-confidence and insecurity in social and intimate relations led clients to seek treatment at the specialised breath odour clinic. Their doctor, dental hygienist or dentist had treated medical and oral conditions but not resolved their breath odour problem. When a person perceives a constant bad breath problem, she/he uses defence techniques, and may avoid social situations and social relations. This affects a person's well-being.

  12. Pacing Visual Attention: Temporal Structure Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    of perception and motor action: Ideomotor compatibility and interference in divided attention . Journal of Motor Behavior, 2, (3), 155-162. Kwak, H...1993 Dissertation, Jun 89 - Jun 93 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Pacing Visual Attention : Temporal Structure Effects PE - 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S...that persisting temporal relationships may be an important factor in the external (exogenous) control of visual attention , at least to some extent, was

  13. Pre-Packaged Commercial PACE Financing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallander, Michael

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a more streamlined method for facilitating commercial property assessed clean energy (PACE) retrofits. The Recipient aimed to prove that energy efficiency performance of simple, pre-packaged technologies (e.g., lighting and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)) can be accurately estimated without the need for a detailed energy audit. A successful project would inspire consumer confidence in undertaking cost-effective retrofits.

  14. Leadless Pacing: Current State and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Matthias; Grotherr, Philipp; Radzewitz, Andrea; Schmitt, Claus

    2017-12-01

    Leadless pacing is now an established alternative to conventional pacing with subcutaneous pocket and transvenous lead for patients with class I or II single-chamber pacing indication. Available 12-month follow-up data shows a 48% fewer major complication rate in patients with Micra™ compared to a historical control group in a nonrandomized study [1]. There is one system with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and two with the Communauté Européenne (CE) mark. The OPS code for the implantation is 8-83d.3 and the procedure has recently been rated as a "new Examination and Treatment Method (NUB)" in the German DRG system, meaning adequate reimbursement is negotiable with health insurance providers. The systems offer similar generator longevity and programming possibilities as conventional pacemaker systems, including rate response, remote monitoring, and MRI safety. The biggest downsides to date are limitations to single-chamber stimulation, lack of long-time data, and concerns of handling of the system at the end of its life span. However, implant procedure complication rates and procedure times do not exceed conventional pacemaker operations, and proper training and patient selection is provided.

  15. Pacing Strategy in Short Cycling Time Trials.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jelle; van der Meijden, Linda; Hamby, Simone; Suckow, Samantha; Dodge, Christopher; de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl

    2015-11-01

    To reach top performance in cycling, optimizing distribution of energy resources is crucial. The purpose of this study was to investigate power output during 250-m, 500-m, and 1000-m cycling time trials and the characteristics of the adopted pacing strategy. Nine trained cyclists completed an incremental test and 3 time trials that they were instructed to finish as quickly as possible. Preceding the trials, peak power during short sprints (PP sprint) and gross efficiency (GE) were measured. During the trials, power output and oxygen consumption were measured to calculate the contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy sources. After the trial GE was measured again. Peak power during all trials (PPTT) was lower than PP sprint. In the 250-m trial the PPTT was higher in the 1000-m trial (P = .008). The subjects performed a significantly longer time at high intensity in the 250-m than in the 1000-m (P = .029). GE declined significantly during all trials (P < .01). Total anaerobically attributable work was less in the 250-m than in the 500-m (P = .015) and 1000-m (P < .01) trials. The overall pacing pattern in the 250-m trial appears to follow an all-out strategy, although peak power is still lower than the potential maximal power output. This suggests that a true all-out pattern of power output may not be used in fixed-distance events. The 500-m and 1000-m had a more conservative pacing pattern and anaerobic power output reached a constant magnitude.

  16. A Leadless Intracardiac Transcatheter Pacing System.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Dwight; Duray, Gabor Z; Omar, Razali; Soejima, Kyoko; Neuzil, Petr; Zhang, Shu; Narasimhan, Calambur; Steinwender, Clemens; Brugada, Josep; Lloyd, Michael; Roberts, Paul R; Sagi, Venkata; Hummel, John; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Knops, Reinoud E; Ellis, Christopher R; Gornick, Charles C; Bernabei, Matthew A; Laager, Verla; Stromberg, Kurt; Williams, Eric R; Hudnall, J Harrison; Ritter, Philippe

    2016-02-11

    A leadless intracardiac transcatheter pacing system has been designed to avoid the need for a pacemaker pocket and transvenous lead. In a prospective multicenter study without controls, a transcatheter pacemaker was implanted in patients who had guideline-based indications for ventricular pacing. The analysis of the primary end points began when 300 patients reached 6 months of follow-up. The primary safety end point was freedom from system-related or procedure-related major complications. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with low and stable pacing capture thresholds at 6 months (≤2.0 V at a pulse width of 0.24 msec and an increase of ≤1.5 V from the time of implantation). The safety and efficacy end points were evaluated against performance goals (based on historical data) of 83% and 80%, respectively. We also performed a post hoc analysis in which the rates of major complications were compared with those in a control cohort of 2667 patients with transvenous pacemakers from six previously published studies. The device was successfully implanted in 719 of 725 patients (99.2%). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the rate of the primary safety end point was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.9 to 97.3; P<0.001 for the comparison with the safety performance goal of 83%); there were 28 major complications in 25 of 725 patients, and no dislodgements. The rate of the primary efficacy end point was 98.3% (95% CI, 96.1 to 99.5; P<0.001 for the comparison with the efficacy performance goal of 80%) among 292 of 297 patients with paired 6-month data. Although there were 28 major complications in 25 patients, patients with transcatheter pacemakers had significantly fewer major complications than did the control patients (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.75; P=0.001). In this historical comparison study, the transcatheter pacemaker met the prespecified safety and efficacy goals; it had a safety profile similar to that of a transvenous system

  17. Role of the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle in forced breathing in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Z; Kogo, M; Senoo, H; Iida, S; Ishii, S; Matsuya, T

    2000-03-01

    Respiratory-related electromyographic (EMG) activity of the superior pharyngeal constrictor (SPC) muscle was analyzed during the early stage of forced breathing. Four adult dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital were used. In the first part of the study, oral and nasal breathing tubes were placed into the respective cavities, and a tracheotomy tube was placed in the second part of the study. Two conditions, the presence (oral-nasal tube breathing) and absence (tracheotomy breathing) of airflow in the upper airway, were achieved in each dog. Following quiet breathing, animals were connected to a closed breathing system, first by an oral-nasal tube and then by a tracheotomy tube. We proposed to induce a forced breathing condition mechanically by using this system for 1 minute. We increased resistance to airflow during forced breathing by means of connecting tubes and a bag. Our aim was not to produce chemical drive but to produce a forced respiration by increasing the resistance to airflow. Tidal volume, breathing frequency, minute volume, chest wall movement, and EMG activity of the SPC muscle were measured and analyzed. During quiet breathing through an oral-nasal or tracheotomy tube, low-amplitude EMG activity of the SPC muscle corresponding to the expiratory cycle of the respiration was observed. In both study conditions, phasic expiratory EMG activity increased immediately after the advent of the breathing from the closed system. Tidal volumes and frequencies also increased rapidly during forced breathing. An increase in the resistance to airflow increased the activity of the SPC muscle. This augmented respiratory activity probably assists the patency of the upper airway. The augmented respiratory activity was independent of the local reflex pathways. Respiratory-related activity of the SPC muscle may help dilate and stiffen the pharyngeal airway, promoting airway patency.

  18. Immune defense and reproductive pace of life in Peromyscus mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lynn B; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2007-10-01

    Immune activity is variable within and among vertebrates despite the potentially large fitness costs of pathogens to their hosts. From the perspective of life history theory, immunological variability may be the consequence of counterbalancing investments in immune defense against other expensive physiological processes, namely, reproduction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that immune defense among captive-bred, disease-free Peromyscus mice would be influenced by their reproductive life history strategies. Specifically, we expected that small species that reproduce prolifically and mature rapidly (i.e., fast pace of life) would favor inexpensive, nonspecific immune defenses to promote reproductive proclivity. Alternatively, we expected that large species that mature slowly and invest modestly in reproduction over multiple events (i.e., slow pace of life) would favor developmentally expensive, specific immune defenses and avoid cheap, nonspecific ones because such defenses are predisposed to self-damage. We found that species exhibited either strong ability to kill (gram-negative) bacteria, a developmentally inexpensive defense, or strong ability to produce antibodies against a novel protein, a developmentally expensive defense, but not both. Cell-mediated inflammation also varied significantly among species, but in a unique fashion relative to bacteria killing or antibody production; wound healing was comparatively similar among species. These results indicate that Peromyscus species use immune strategies that are constrained to a dominant axis, but this axis is not determined solely by reproductive pace of life. Further comparisons, ideally with broader phylogenetic coverage, could identify what ecological and evolutionary forces produce the pattern we detected. Importantly, our study indicates that species may not be differentially immunocompetent; rather, they use unique defense strategies to prevent infection.

  19. Neuropeptides and breathing in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Zając, Dominika; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Kogut, Ewelina; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2018-02-01

    Regulatory neuropeptides control and regulate breathing in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While they have been identified in the neurons of major respiratory areas, they can be active not only at the central level, but also at the periphery via chemoreceptors, vagal afferents, or locally within lungs and airways. Some neuropeptides, such as leptin or substance P, are respiratory stimulants; others, such as neurotensin, produce variable effects on respiration depending on the site of application. Some neuropeptides have been implicated in pathological states, such as obstructive sleep apnea or asthma. This article provides a concise review of the possible role and functions of several selected neuropeptides in the process of breathing in health and disease and in lung pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement. (a...

  1. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a Medicare...

  2. Practice It: Deep Conscious Breathing Exercise

    Cancer.gov

    No time to sit and breathe? No problem; take your breathing practice with you! Deep conscious breathing can also be done with the eyes open wherever you happen to be—simply pause and take two to three full deep breaths (inhale deeply and exhale completely).

  3. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  4. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  5. Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... and assist in the use of oxygen. Oxygen therapy is sometimes prescribed for breathing problems. Treatment can ...

  6. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000471.htm Palliative care - shortness of breath To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses ...

  7. NICMOS Focus and HST Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, A.; Hershey, J.

    1998-09-01

    The program 7608 monitored on a biweekly basis NICMOS camera foci from June 9, 1997, through February 18, 1998. Each of the biweekly observations included 17 measurements of focus position (focus sweeps), individually for each of the three cameras. The measurements for camera 1 and camera 3 foci covered one or two HST orbital periods. Comparison of these measurements with the predictions of the three OTA focus breathing models has shown the following. (1). Focus variations seen in NICMOS focus sweeps correlate well with the OTA focus thermal breathing as predicted by breathing models (“4- temperature”, “full-temperature”, and “attitude” models). Thus they can be attributed mostly to the HST orbital temperature variation. (2). The amount of breathing (breathing amplitude) has been found to be on average larger in the first orbit after a telescope slew to a new target. This is explained as being due to additional thermal perturbations caused by the change in the HST attitude as the telescope repoints to a new target. (3). In the first orbit, the amount of focus change predicted by the 4-temperature model is about the same as that seen in the focus sweeps data (breathing scale factor ~1). However the full-temperature model predicts a two times smaller breathing amplitude (breathing scale factor ~1.7). This suggests that the light shield temperatures are more responsive to the attitude change than temperatures from the other temperature sensors. The results of this study may help to better understand the HST thermal cycles and to improve the models describing the impact of those on both the OTA and NICMOS focus.

  8. Breathing strategy of the adult horse (Equus caballus) at rest.

    PubMed

    Koterba, A M; Kosch, P C; Beech, J; Whitlock, T

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying the polyphasic airflow pattern of the equine species, we recorded airflow, tidal volum, rib cage and abdominal motion, and the sequence of activation of the diaphragm, intercostal, and abdominal muscles during quiet breathing in nine adult horses standing at rest. In addition, esophageal, abdominal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures were simultaneously recorded using balloon-tipped catheters. Analysis of tidal flow-volume loops showed that, unlike humans, the horse at rest breathes around, rather than from, the relaxed volume of the respiratory system (Vrx). Analysis of the pattern of electromyographic activities and changes in generated pressures during the breathing cycle indicate that the first part of expiration is passive, as in humans, with deflation toward Vrx, but subsequent abdominal activity is responsible for a second phase of expiration: active deflation to below Vrx. From this end-expiratory volume, passive inflation occurs toward Vrx, followed by a second phase of inspiration: active inflation to above Vrx, brought about by inspiratory muscle contraction. Under these conditions the abdominal muscles appear to share the principal pumping duties with the diaphragm. Adoption of this breathing strategy by the horse may relate to its peculiar thoracoabdominal anatomic arrangement and to its very low passive chest wall compliance. We conclude that there is a passive and active phase to both inspiration and expiration due to the coordinated action of the respiratory pump muscles responsible for the resting adult horse's biphasic inspiratory and expiratory airflow pattern. This unique breathing pattern perhaps represents a strategy of minimizing the high elastic work of breathing in this species, at least at resting breathing frequencies.

  9. Deodorization of garlic breath volatiles by food and food components.

    PubMed

    Munch, Ryan; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-04-01

    The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Neural control of breathing and CO2 homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, P.G.; Bayliss, D.A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state-dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, “central command” and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation. PMID:26335642

  11. Respiratory mechanics and breathing pattern in the neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Koterba, A M; Kosch, P C

    1987-01-01

    Breathing pattern, respiratory muscle activation pattern, lung volumes and volume-pressure characteristics of the respiratory system of normal, term, neonatal foals on Days 2 and 7 of age were determined to test the hypothesis that the foal actively maintains end-expiratory lung volume (EEV) greater than the relaxation volume of the respiratory system (Vrx) because of a highly compliant chest wall. Breathing pattern was measured in the awake, unsedated foal during quiet breathing in lateral and standing positions. The typical neonatal foal breathing pattern was characterized by a monophasic inspiratory and expiratory flow pattern. Both inspiration and expiration were active, with onset of Edi activity preceding onset of inspiratory flow, and phasic abdominal muscle activity detectable throughout most of expiration. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the normal, term neonatal foal actively maintains EEV greater than Vrx. In the neonatal foal, normalized lung volume and lung compliance values were similar to those reported for neonates of other species, while normalized chest wall compliance was considerably lower. We conclude that the chest wall of the term neonatal foal is sufficiently rigid to prevent a low Vrx. This characteristic probably prevents the foal from having to use a breathing strategy which maintains an EEV greater than Vrx.

  12. Comparing dynamic hyperinflation and associated dyspnea induced by metronome-paced tachypnea versus incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Calligaro, Gregory L; Raine, Richard I; Bateman, Mary E; Bateman, Eric D; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during exercise is associated with both dyspnea and exercise limitation in COPD. Metronome-paced tachypnoea (MPT) is a simple alternative for studying DH. We compared MPT with exercise testing (XT) as methods of provoking DH, and assessed their relationship with dyspnea. We studied 24 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 59 ± 9% predicted) after inhalation of ipratropium/salbutamol combination or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design. Inspiratory capacity (IC) was measured at baseline and after 30 seconds of MPT with breathing frequencies (fR) of 20, 30 and 40 breaths/min and metronome-defined I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2, in random sequence, followed by incremental cycle ergometry with interval determinations of IC. DH was defined as a decline in IC from baseline (∆IC) for both methods. Dyspnea was assessed using a Borg CR-10 scale. ∆IC during MPT was greater with higher fR and I:E ratio of 1:1 versus 1:2, and less when patients were treated with bronchodilator rather than placebo (P = 0.032). DH occurred during 19 (40%) XTs, and during 35 (73%) tests using MPT. Eleven of 18 (61%) non-congruent XTs (where DH occurred on MPT but not XT) terminated before fR of 40 breaths/min was reached. Although greater during XT, the intensity of dyspnea bore no relationship to DH during either MPT and XT. MPT at 40 breaths/min and I:E of 1:1 elicits the greatest ∆IC, and is a more sensitive method for demonstrating DH. The relationship between DH and dyspnea is complex and not determined by DH alone.

  13. Effects of slow breathing rate on heart rate variability and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Chang, Qinghua; Zhang, Jia; Chai, Wenshu

    2018-05-01

    This study is to investigate the effects of slow breathing on heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in essential hypertension.We studied 60 patients with essential hypertension and 60 healthy controls. All subjects underwent controlled breathing at 8 and 16 breaths per minute. Electrocardiogram, respiratory, and blood pressure signals were recorded simultaneously. We studied effects of slow breathing on heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory peak, high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power, and LF/HF ratio of HRV with traditional and corrected spectral analysis. Besides, we tested whether slow breathing was capable of modifying baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects.Slow breathing, compared with 16 breaths per minute, decreased the heart rate and blood pressure (all P < .05), and shifted respiratory peak toward left (P < .05). Compared to 16 breaths/minute, traditional spectral analysis showed increased LF power and LF/HF ratio, decreased HF power of HRV at 8 breaths per minute (P < .05). As breathing rate decreased, corrected spectral analysis showed increased HF power, decreased LF power, LF/HF ratio of HRV (P < .05). Compared to controls, resting baroreflex sensitivity decreased in hypertensive subjects. Slow breathing increased baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects (from 59.48 ± 6.39 to 78.93 ± 5.04 ms/mm Hg, P < .05) and controls (from 88.49 ± 6.01 to 112.91 ± 7.29 ms/mm Hg, P < .05).Slow breathing can increase HF power and decrease LF power and LF/HF ratio in essential hypertension. Besides, slow breathing increased baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive subjects. These demonstrate slow breathing is indeed capable of shifting sympatho-vagal balance toward vagal activities and increasing baroreflex sensitivity, suggesting a safe, therapeutic approach for essential hypertension.

  14. The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marc A.; Santarelli, Danielle M.; O’Rourke, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Slow breathing practices have been adopted in the modern world across the globe due to their claimed health benefits. This has piqued the interest of researchers and clinicians who have initiated investigations into the physiological (and psychological) effects of slow breathing techniques and attempted to uncover the underlying mechanisms. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of normal respiratory physiology and the documented physiological effects of slow breathing techniques according to research in healthy humans. The review focuses on the physiological implications to the respiratory, cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory and autonomic nervous systems, with particular focus on diaphragm activity, ventilation efficiency, haemodynamics, heart rate variability, cardiorespiratory coupling, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and sympathovagal balance. The review ends with a brief discussion of the potential clinical implications of slow breathing techniques. This is a topic that warrants further research, understanding and discussion. Key points Slow breathing practices have gained popularity in the western world due to their claimed health benefits, yet remain relatively untouched by the medical community. Investigations into the physiological effects of slow breathing have uncovered significant effects on the respiratory, cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory and autonomic nervous systems. Key findings include effects on respiratory muscle activity, ventilation efficiency, chemoreflex and baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, blood flow dynamics, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiorespiratory coupling, and sympathovagal balance. There appears to be potential for use of controlled slow breathing techniques as a means of optimising physiological parameters that appear to be associated with health and longevity, and that may extend to disease states; however, there is a dire need for further research into the area. Educational aims To provide

  15. The Cellular Building Blocks of Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, J.M.; Doi, A.; Garcia, A.J.; Elsen, F.P.; Koch, H.; Wei, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory brainstem neurons fulfill critical roles in controlling breathing: they generate the activity patterns for breathing and contribute to various sensory responses including changes in O2 and CO2. These complex sensorimotor tasks depend on the dynamic interplay between numerous cellular building blocks that consist of voltage-, calcium-, and ATP-dependent ionic conductances, various ionotropic and metabotropic synaptic mechanisms, as well as neuromodulators acting on G-protein coupled receptors and second messenger systems. As described in this review, the sensorimotor responses of the respiratory network emerge through the state-dependent integration of all these building blocks. There is no known respiratory function that involves only a small number of intrinsic, synaptic, or modulatory properties. Because of the complex integration of numerous intrinsic, synaptic, and modulatory mechanisms, the respiratory network is capable of continuously adapting to changes in the external and internal environment, which makes breathing one of the most integrated behaviors. Not surprisingly, inspiration is critical not only in the control of ventilation, but also in the context of “inspiring behaviors” such as arousal of the mind and even creativity. Far-reaching implications apply also to the underlying network mechanisms, as lessons learned from the respiratory network apply to network functions in general. PMID:23720262

  16. Analysis of exhaled breath by laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrall, Karla D.; Toth, James J.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of our work is two fold: (1) to develop a portable rapid laser based breath analyzer for monitoring metabolic processes, and (2) predict these metabolic processes through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Small infrared active molecules such as ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethane are present in exhaled breath and can be readily detected by laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition, many of the stable isotopomers of these molecules can be accurately detected, making it possible to follow specific metabolic processes. Potential areas of applications for this technology include the diagnosis of certain pathologies (e.g. Helicobacter Pylori infection), detection of trauma due to either physical or chemical causes and monitoring nutrient uptake (i.e., malnutrition). In order to understand the origin and elucidate the metabolic processes associated with these small molecules, we are employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A PBPK model is founded on known physiological processes (i.e., blood flow rates, tissue volumes, breathing rate, etc.), chemical-specific processes (i.e., tissue solubility coefficients, molecular weight, chemical density, etc.), and on metabolic processes (tissue site and rate of metabolic biotransformation). Since many of these processes are well understood, a PBPK model can be developed and validated against the more readily available experimental animal data, and then by extrapolating the parameters to apply to man, the model can predict chemical behavior in humans.

  17. Maine PACE Program Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Dana; Adamson, Joy M

    The ARRA EECBG BetterBuilding helped augment the existing Home Energy Savings Programs (HESP) and incentives with financing through a subordinate lien PACE and HUD PowerSaver programs. The program was designed to document innovative techniques to dramatically increase the number of homes participating in weatherization programs in participating towns. Maine will support new energy efficiency retrofit pilots throughout the state, designed to motivate a large number of homeowners to invest in comprehensive home energy efficiency upgrades to bring real solutions to market.

  18. LD-PACE II: a new cardiomyostimulator for cardiac bioassist.

    PubMed

    Chekanov, V S; Chachques, J C; Brum, F; Arzuaga, J; Arzuaga, P; Krum, D P; Hare, J W; Maternowski, M A; Tchekanov, G V; Fiandra, O; Hammond, R; Melamed, V; Chiu, R C; Stephenson, L W

    2001-01-01

    The LD-PACE II was designed for use in cardiomyoplasty, aortomyoplasty, and skeletal muscle ventricles. All parameters specified as programmable can be changed in a noninvasive manner (using a programming interface wand connected to a computer using the Windows 95/98 environment). Two new functions may be very useful clinically, based on experimental research. 1. Work-rest regimen. The LD-PACE II is able to deliver alternating periods of muscle contractions and rest. Work and rest periods may be programmed independently between 1 and 120 minutes in increments of 1 minute. The work-rest regimen may be useful clinically if muscle contractions are needed for cardiac assist postoperatively. 2. Night/day regimen. This feature allows for a change in the ratio of muscle contractions according to a patient's activity level. During the day the cardiosynchronization ratio may be set from 1:1 to 1:4, and during the night it may be set for 1:8 to 1:16. This allows the muscle to have a long rest period, prevents overuse, and prolongs battery life. These two new features make this cardiomyostimulator very attractive for cardiomyoplasty in particular. The addition of the work-rest and night-day regimens allow the muscle to rest for periods during the day to prevent overuse, subsequent damage, and potential atrophy.

  19. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  20. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  1. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  2. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  3. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  4. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  5. Long pacing pulses reduce phrenic nerve stimulation in left ventricular pacing.

    PubMed

    Hjortshøj, Søren; Heath, Finn; Haugland, Morten; Eschen, Ole; Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Riahi, Sam; Toft, Egon; Struijk, Johannes Jan

    2014-05-01

    Phrenic nerve stimulation is a major obstacle in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Activation characteristics of the heart and phrenic nerve are different with higher chronaxie for the heart. Therefore, longer pulse durations could be beneficial in preventing phrenic nerve stimulation during CRT due to a decreased threshold for the heart compared with the phrenic nerve. We investigated if long pulse durations decreased left ventricular (LV) thresholds relatively to phrenic nerve thresholds in humans. Eleven patients, with indication for CRT and phrenic nerve stimulation at the intended pacing site, underwent determination of thresholds for the heart and phrenic nerve at different pulse durations (0.3-2.9 milliseconds). The resulting strength duration curves were analyzed by determining chronaxie and rheobase. Comparisons for those parameters were made between the heart and phrenic nerve, and between the models of Weiss and Lapicque as well. In 9 of 11 cases, the thresholds decreased faster for the LV than for the phrenic nerve with increasing pulse duration. In 3 cases, the thresholds changed from unfavorable for LV stimulation to more than a factor 2 in favor of the LV. The greatest change occurred for pulse durations up to 1.5 milliseconds. The chronaxie of the heart was significantly higher than the chronaxie of the phrenic nerve (0.47 milliseconds vs. 0.22 milliseconds [P = 0.029, Lapicque] and 0.79 milliseconds vs. 0.27 milliseconds [P = 0.033, Weiss]). Long pulse durations lead to a decreased threshold of the heart relatively to the phrenic nerve and may prevent stimulation of the phrenic nerve in a clinical setting. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An inappropriate pacing threshold increase after repeated electrical storm in a patient with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ye; Gu, Xiang; Xu, Chao

    2017-10-16

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are capable of effectively terminating malignant ventricular arrhythmia and are the most effective way to prevent sudden cardiac death. However, some evidences demonstrated that both anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) and ICD shock can also bring adverse prognosis. A 66-year-old Han Chinese man with prior ICD implantation was admitted to our hospital because of frequent ICD shocks. Although intravenous amiodarone and esmolol succinate were administered daily, the patient suffered 155 episodes of VT/VF during 8 weeks after implantation. After repeated discharge of the device, the pacing threshold of the patient increased gradually. Considering the inappropriate increase of the pacing threshold, we decided to reposition the right ventricular (RV) lead with good sensing and threshold parameters confirmed. Subsequent 22 months interrogation follow-up revealed a stable lead position and electrical specifications. Furthermore, antiarrhythmic drugs were maximally increased, while ATP burst was remarkably decreased and the inappropriate ICD shock never occurred until now. An inappropriate pacing threshold was increased secondary to repeated ICD electrical storm. A timely active lead position adjustment reduced the pacing threshold and eliminated the risk of premature battery depletion.

  7. Non-invasive red light optogenetic pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging for drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac pacing could be a powerful tool for investigating mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, traditional electrical pacing using pacemaker requires an invasive surgical procedure. Electrical currents from the implanted electrodes can also cause damage to heart tissue, further restricting its utility. Optogenetic pacing has been developed as a promising, non-invasive alternative to electrical stimulation for controlling animal heart rhythms. It induces heart contractions by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins, which in turn activate the light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins in optogenetic pacing, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we performed optogenetic pacing by expression of recently engineered red-shifted microbial opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in a well-established animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, using the 617 nm stimulation light pulses. The OCM technique enables non-invasive optical imaging of animal hearts with high speed and ultrahigh axial and transverse resolutions. We integrated a customized OCM system with the optical stimulation system to monitor the optogenetic pacing noninvasively. The use of red-sifted opsins enabled deeper penetration of simulating light at lower power, which is promising for applications of optogenetic pacing in mammalian cardiac pathology studies or clinical treatments in the future.

  8. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  9. Moving into the 21st Century: Curriculum Strategies for Children's Physical Education. PACE VI Presentation Handouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belka, David E., Ed.

    The handouts from the Ohio conference PACE (Positive Approaches to Children's Education) VI are presented. Among them are: (1) "Hugs" (submitted by A. Braselton); (2) "Rhythmic Activities for 2001" (L. Hardman); (3) "A Strategy for Cognitive Development in Physical Education" (C. Regimal); (4) "It's the Kids That…

  10. Ethical Practice in Learning through Participation: Showcasing and Evaluating the PACE Ethical Practice Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michaela; Beale, Alison; Hammersley, Laura; Lloyd, Kate; Semple, Anne-Louise; White, Karolyn

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, Macquarie University instituted the Participation and Community Engagement (PACE) initiative. This initiative embeds units in the curriculum that involve learning through participation (LTP) that is mutually beneficial to the student, the University and the organisation or community in which student participation activities take place.…

  11. Introduction to Industry Services. Self-Paced Instructional Module. Module Number I-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kent

    One of 33 self-paced instructional modules categorized under 13 major headings, which have been prepared for training industry services leaders to provide guidance in the performance of industry service tasks, this module is an introduction for those who need basic information about the concepts and activities of industry services programs.…

  12. The Dynamics of Instruction Systems: Feedback Control on Individually-Paced Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, William; And Others

    Feedback management in an individually-paced instruction system can be mathematically analyzed by the use of computer simulation models. Because of the student "down time" or waiting time associated with individualized instruction situations, reinforcement activities have been reduced to less than ideal levels. By proper time management the…

  13. Does rhinoplasty improve nasal breathing?

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rui

    2010-08-01

    Rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure that aims to improve nasal aesthetics and nasal breathing. The aesthetic improvement of the nose is usually judged subjectively by the patient and the surgeon, but the degree of improvement of nasal obstruction is difficult to assess by clinical examination only. The measurement of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) is a reliable tool that has been shown to correlate with other objective methods of assessing nasal breathing and with patients' symptoms of nasal obstruction. Twenty-three consecutive patients undergoing rhinoplasty have been evaluated by measurement of PNIF before and after surgery. All but three patients had an increase in PNIF after surgery. The mean preoperative PNIF was 86.5 L/min and the mean postoperative PNIF was 123.0 L/min ( P < 0.001). Not surprisingly, the greatest improvement in PNIF was achieved when bilateral spreader grafts were used. This study suggests that rhinoplasty does improve nasal breathing. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers

  14. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Devashree

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  15. Predictors of temporary epicardial pacing wires use after valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although temporary cardiac pacing is infrequently needed, temporary epicardial pacing wires are routinely inserted after valve surgery. As they are associated with infrequent, but life threatening complications, and the decreased need for postoperative pacing in a group of low risk patients; this study aims to identify the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing after valve surgery. Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively on 400 consecutive valve surgery patients between May 2002 and December 2012 was performed. Patients were grouped according to avoidance or insertion of temporary pacing wires, and were further subdivided according to temporary cardiac pacing need. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing. Results 170 (42.5%) patients did not have insertion of temporary pacing wires and none of them needed temporary pacing. 230 (57.5%) patients had insertion of temporary pacing wires and among these, only 55 (23.9%) required temporary pacing who were compared with the remaining 175 (76.1%) patients in the main analysis. The determinants of temporary cardiac pacing (adjusted odds ratios; 95% confidence interval) were as follows: increased age (1.1; 1.1, 1.3, p = 0.002), New York Heart Association class III- IV (5.6; 1.6, 20.2, p = 0.008) , pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 50 mmHg (22.0; 3.4, 142.7, p = 0.01), digoxin use (8.0; 1.3, 48.8, p = 0.024), multiple valve surgery (13.5; 1.5, 124.0, p = 0.021), aorta cross clamp time ≥ 60 minutes (7.8; 1.6, 37.2, p = 0.010), and valve annulus calcification (7.9; 2.0, 31.7, p = 0.003). Conclusion Although limited by sample size, the present results suggest that routine use of temporary epicardial pacing wires after valve surgery is only necessary for high risk patients. Preoperative identification and aggressive management of predictors of temporary cardiac pacing and the possible modulation of

  16. Tumor, Lymph Node, and Lymph Node-to-Tumor Displacements Over a Radiotherapy Series: Analysis of Interfraction and Intrafraction Variations Using Active Breathing Control (ABC) in Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Elisabeth, E-mail: eweiss@mcvh-vcu.edu; Robertson, Scott P.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate errors in soft tissue-based image guidance due to relative changes between primary tumor (PT) and affected lymph node (LN) position and volume, and to compare the results with bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs and LNs during radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Weekly repeated breath-hold computed tomography scans were acquired in 17 lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PTs and affected LNs were manually contoured on all scans after rigid registration. Interfraction and intrafraction displacements in the centers of mass of PTs and LNs relative to bone, as well as LNs relative to PTs (LN-PT), were calculated.more » Results: The mean volume after 5 weeks was 65% for PTs and 63% for LNs. Systematic and random interfraction displacements were 2.6 to 4.6 mm and 2.7 to 2.9 mm, respectively, for PTs; 2.4 to 3.8 mm and 1.4 to 2.7 mm, respectively, for LNs; and 2.3 to 3.9 mm and 1.9 to 2.8 mm, respectively, for LN-PT. Systematic and random intrafraction displacements were less than 1 mm except in the superoinferior direction. Interfraction LN-PT displacements greater than 3 mm were observed in 67% of fractions and require a safety margin of 12 mm in the lateral direction, 11 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and 9 mm in the superoinferior direction. LN-PT displacements displayed significant time trends (p < 0.0001) and depended on the presence of pathoanatomic conditions of the ipsilateral lung, such as atelectasis. Conclusion: Interfraction LN-PT displacements were mostly systematic and comparable to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs or LNs alone. Time trends, large volume changes, and the influence of pathoanatomic conditions underline the importance of soft tissue-based image guidance and the potential of plan adaptation.« less

  17. Hypobaric decompression prebreathe requirements and breathing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce incidence of decompression sickness (DCS), prebreathing 100 percent oxygen to denitrogenate is required prior to hypobaric decompressions from a sea level pressure breathing environment to pressures lower than 350 mm Hg (20,000 ft; 6.8 psia). The tissue ratio (TR) of such exposures equals or exceeds 1.7; TR being the tissue nitrogen pressure prior to decompression divided by the total pressure after decompression (((0.781)(14.697))/6.758). Designing pressure suits capable of greater pressure differentials, lower TR's, and procedures which limit the potential for DCS occurrence would enhance operational efficiency. The current 10.2 psia stage decompression prior to extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Shuttle in the 100 percent oxygen, 4.3 psia suit, results in a TR of 1.65 and has proven to be relatively free of DCS. Our recent study of zero-prebreathe decompressions to 6.8 psia breathing 100 percent oxygen (TR = 1.66) also resulted in no DCS (N = 10). The level of severe, Spencer Grades 3 or 4, venous gas emboli (VGE) increased from 0 percent at 9.5 psia to 40 percent at 6.8 psia yielding a Probit curve of VGE risk for the 51 male subjects who participated in these recent studies. Earlier, analogous decompressions using a 50 percent oxygen, 50 percent nitrogen breathing mixture resulted in one case of DCS and significantly higher levels of severe VGE, e.g., at 7.8 psia, the mixed gas breathing environment resulted in a 56 percent incidence of severe VGE versus 10 percent with use of 100 percent oxygen. The report of this study recommended use of 100 percent oxygen during zero-prebreathe exposure to 6.8 psia if such a suit could be developed. For future, long-term missions, we suggest study of the effects of decompression over several days to a breathing environment of 150 mmHg O2 and approximately 52 mmHg He as a means of eliminating DCS and VGE hazards during subsequent excursions. Once physiologically adapted to a 4 psia vehicle, base, or space

  18. Austin chalk maintains brisk drilling pace

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    Horizontal drilling in the Cretaceous Austin chalk trend of South Texas continues to set a fast pace. The Texas Railroad Commission has issued nearly 900 permits to drill horizontal wells in the Pearsall field area alone from 1984 through February 1991. TRC issued 1,485 permits for horizontal wells statewide during that period, including 1,285 since Jan. 1, 1990. Statewide, operators have reported completion of 685 horizontal wells. That includes 472 in Pearsall field, where TRC has issued 882 permits, and 121 in Giddings field, where 305 permits have been issued. Frio County, site of Pearsall field, led Texas counties withmore » 494 permits and 278 horizontal completions. Oil drilling and reentry work is under way in many areas, and horizontal Austin chalk gas/condensate completions have been reported in Dimmit and Burleson counties.« less

  19. Non-selective His bundle pacing with a biphasic waveform: enhancing septal resynchronization.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Daniel F; Barja, Luis D; Logarzo, Emilio; Mangani, Nicolas; Paolucci, Analia; Bonomini, Maria P

    2018-05-01

    His bundle pacing has shown to prevent detrimental effects from right ventricular apical pacing (RVA) and proved to resynchronize many conduction disturbances cases. However, the extent of His bundle pacing resynchronization is limited. An optimized stimulation waveform could expand this limit when implemented in His bundle pacing sets. In this work, we temporarily implemented RVA and Non-selective His bundle pacing with a biphasic anodal-first waveform (AF-nHB) and compared their effects against sinus rhythm (SR). Fifteen patients referred for electrophysiologic study with conduction disturbances, cardiomyopathy and ejection fraction below 35% were enrolled for the study. The following acute parameters were measured: QRS duration, left ventricular activation (RLVT), time of isovolumic contraction (IVCT), ejection fraction (EF), and dP/dtmax. QRS duration and RLVT decreased markedly under AF-nHB (SR: 169 ± 34 ms vs. nHB: 116 ± 31 ms, P < 0.0005) while RVA significantly increased QRS duration (SR: 169 ms vs. RVA: 198 ms, P < 0.05) and did not change RLVT (P = NS). Consistently, IVCT moderately decreased under AF-nHB (SR: 238 ms vs. RVA: 184 ms, P < 0.05 vs. SR) and dP/dtmax showed a 93.35 [mmHg] average increase under AF-nHB against SR. Also, T-wave inversions were observed during AF-nHB immediately after SR and RVA pacing suggesting the occurrence of cardiac memory. AF-nHB corrected bundle branch blocks in patients with severe conduction disturbances, even in those with dilated cardiomiopathy, outstanding from RVA. Also, the occurrence of cardiac memory during AF-nHB turned up as an observational finding of this study.

  20. Relationship between left atrium catheter contact force and pacing threshold.

    PubMed

    Barrio-López, Teresa; Ortiz, Mercedes; Castellanos, Eduardo; Lázaro, Carla; Salas, Jefferson; Madero, Sergio; Almendral, Jesús

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between contact force (CF) and pacing threshold in left atrium (LA). Six to ten LA sites were studied in 28 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing pulmonary vein isolation. Median CF, bipolar and unipolar electrogram voltage, impedance, and bipolar and unipolar thresholds for consistent constant capture and for consistent intermittent capture were measured at each site. Pacing threshold measurements were performed at 188 LA sites. Both unipolar and bipolar pacing thresholds correlated significantly with median CF; however, unipolar pacing threshold correlated better (unipolar: Pearson R -0.45; p < 0.001; Spearman Rho -0.62; p < 0.001, bipolar: Pearson R -0.39; p < 0.001; Spearman Rho -0.52; p < 0.001). Consistent constant capture threshold had better correlation with median CF than consistent intermittent capture threshold for both unipolar and bipolar pacing (Pearson R -0.45; p < 0.001 and Spearman Rho -0.62; p < 0.001 vs. Pearson R -0.35; p < 0.001; Spearman Rho -0.52; p < 0.001). The best pacing threshold cutoff point to detect a good CF (>10 g) was 3.25 mA for unipolar pacing with 69% specificity and 73% sensitivity. Both increased to 80% specificity and 74% sensitivity for sites with normal bipolar voltage and a pacing threshold cutoff value of 2.85 mA. Pacing thresholds correlate with CF in human not previously ablated LA. Since the combination of a normal bipolar voltage and a unipolar pacing threshold <2.85 mA provide reasonable parameters of validity, pacing threshold could be of interest as a surrogate for CF in LA.

  1. Cardiorespiratory and autonomic interactions during snoring related resistive breathing.

    PubMed

    Mateika, J H; Mitru, G

    2001-03-15

    We hypothesized that blood pressure (BP) is less during snoring as compared to periods of non-snoring in non-apneic individuals. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this reduction may be accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in sympathetic (SNSA) and parasympathetic (PNSA) nervous system activity and an increase in heart rate (HR). N/A. N/A. N/A. The variables mentioned above in addition to breathing frequency were measured in 9 subjects during NREM sleep. In addition, the lowest systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) during inspiration and the highest SBP and DBP during expiration was determined breath-by-breath from segments selected from each NREM cycle. Heart rate variability was used as a marker of autonomic nervous system activity. Our results showed that BP during snoring decreased compared to non-snoring and the breath-by-breath BP analysis suggested that this difference may have been mediated by changes in intrathoracic pressure. In conjunction with the decrease in BP, SNSA decreased and HR increased however PNSA remained constant. Thus, a decrease in PNSA was likely not the primary mechanism responsible for the HR response. We conclude that BP responses and SNSA during snoring are similar to that reported previously in non-snoring individuals. However, the causal mechanisms maybe different and manifested in other measures such as HR. Thus, nocturnal cardiovascular and autonomic function maybe uniquely different in non-apneic snoring individuals.

  2. SU-E-T-426: Feasibility of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) with Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Jackson, J; Davies, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: SBRT shows excellent tumor control and toxicity rates for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (PCA). Herein, we evaluate the feasibility of using VMAT with ABC for PCA SBRT. Methods: Nine PCA patients previously treated via SBRT utilizing 11-beam step-and-shoot IMRT technique in our center were retrospectively identified, among whom eight patients received 3300cGy in 5 fractions while one received 3000cGy in 5 fractions. A VMAT plan was generated on each patient’s planning CT in Pinnacle v9.8 on Elekta Synergy following the same PCA SBRT clinical protocol. Three partial arcs (182°–300°, 300°-60°, and 60°-180°) with 2°/4° control-point spacing weremore » used. The dosimetric difference between the VMAT and the original IMRT plans was analyzed. IMRT QA was performed for the VMAT plans using MapCheck2 in MapPHAN and the total delivery time was recorded. To mimic the treatment situation with ABC, where patients hold their breath for 20–30 seconds, the delivery was intentionally interrupted every 20–30 seconds. For each plan, the QA was performed with and without beam interruption. Gamma analysis (2%/2mm) was used to compare the planned and measured doses. Results: All VMAT plans with 2mm dose grid passed the clinic protocol with similar PTV coverage and OARs sparing, where PTV V-RxDose was 92.7±2.1% (VMAT) vs. 92.1±2.6% (IMRT), and proximal stomach V15Gy was 3.60±2.69 cc (VMAT) vs. 4.80±3.13 cc (IMRT). The mean total MU and delivery time of the VMAT plans were 2453.8±531.1 MU and 282.1±56.0 seconds. The gamma passing rates of absolute dose were 94.9±3.4% and 94.5±4.0% for delivery without and with interruption respectively, suggesting the dosimetry of VMAT delivery with ABC for SBRT won’t be compromised. Conclusion: This study suggests that PCA SBRT using VMAT with ABC is a feasible technique without compromising plan dosimetry. The combination of VMAT with ABC will potentially reduce the SBRT treatment time.« less

  3. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  4. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  5. Achievement Monitoring of Individually Paced Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Paul D.

    A study was made to monitor achievement of individually paced instruction. The project concentrated on designing testing procedures in group paced instructional programs to provide information to student, teachers, parents and administrators which could be used in both a formative and summative evaluation. The three objectives of the project were:…

  6. The efficacy of self-paced study in multitrial learning.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Mario; Tabbers, Huib K; Pecher, Diane; Jang, Yoonhee; Zeelenberg, René

    2015-05-01

    In 2 experiments we investigated the efficacy of self-paced study in multitrial learning. In Experiment 1, native speakers of English studied lists of Dutch-English word pairs under 1 of 4 imposed fixed presentation rate conditions (24 × 1 s, 12 × 2 s, 6 × 4 s, or 3 × 8 s) and a self-paced study condition. Total study time per list was equated for all conditions. We found that self-paced study resulted in better recall performance than did most of the fixed presentation rates, with the exception of the 12 × 2 s condition, which did not differ from the self-paced condition. Additional correlational analyses suggested that the allocation of more study time to difficult pairs than to easy pairs might be a beneficial strategy for self-paced learning. Experiment 2 was designed to test this hypothesis. In 1 condition, participants studied word pairs in a self-paced fashion without any restrictions. In the other condition, participants studied word pairs in a self-paced fashion but total study time per item was equated. The results showed that allowing self-paced learners to freely allocate study time over items resulted in better recall performance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Social Interaction in Self-Paced Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Upton, Lorne; Dron, Jon; Malone, Judi; Poelhuber, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a case study of a self-paced university course that was originally designed to support independent, self-paced study at distance. We developed a social media intervention, in design-based research terms, that allows these independent students to contribute archived content to enhance the course, to engage in discussions…

  8. A review of optical pacing with infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, S. M.; Watanabe, M.; Jenkins, M. W.

    2018-02-01

    Optical pacing (OP) uses pulsed infrared light to initiate heartbeats in electrically excitable cardiac tissues without employing exogenous agents. OP is an alternative approach to electrical pacing that may overcome some its disadvantages for some applications. In this review, we discuss the initial demonstrations, mechanisms, safety, advantages and applications of OP.

  9. Is Self-Paced Instruction Really Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, J. A.; Crowe, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a self-paced, learning-for-mastery course in undergraduate fluid mechanics. Includes the method of course assessment, method of student evaluation, and a description of the instructor's role and work load. Summarizes aspects of self-paced instruction considered favorable and unfavorable. (GS)

  10. 77 FR 3958 - Mortgage Assets Affected by PACE Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... of home improvement projects (e.g., home insulation, solar panels, geothermal energy units, etc... (``ANPR'') concerning mortgage assets affected by Property Assessed Clean Energy (``PACE'') programs and... February 28, 2011, that deal with property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs.'' In response to and...

  11. Influence of automatic frequent pace-timing adjustments on effective left ventricular pacing during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Varma, Niraj; Stadler, Robert W; Ghosh, Subham; Kloppe, Axel

    2017-05-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) requires effective left ventricular (LV) pacing (i.e. sufficient energy and appropriate timing to capture). The AdaptivCRT™ (aCRT) algorithm serves to maintain ventricular fusion during LV or biventricular pacing. This function was tested by comparing the morphological consistency of ventricular depolarizations and percentage effective LV pacing in CRT patients randomized to aCRT vs. echo-optimization. Continuous recordings (≥20 h) of unipolar LV electrograms from aCRT (n = 38) and echo-optimized patients (n = 22) were analysed. Morphological consistency was determined by the correlation coefficient between each beat and a template beat. Effective LV pacing of paced beats was assessed by algorithmic analysis of negative initial EGM deflection in each evoked response. The %CRT pacing delivered, %effective LV pacing (i.e. % of paced beats with effective LV pacing), and overall %effective CRT (i.e. product of %CRT pacing and %effective LV pacing) were compared between aCRT and echo-optimized patients. Demographics were similar between groups. The mean correlation coefficient between individual beats and template was greater for aCRT (0.96 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.13, P = 0.07). Although %CRT pacing was similar for aCRT and echo-optimized (median 97.4 vs. 98.6%, P = 0.14), %effective LV pacing was larger for aCRT [99.6%, (99.1%, 99.9%) vs. 94.3%, (24.3%, 99.8%), P=0.03]. For aCRT vs. echo-optimized groups, the proportions of patients with ≥90% effective LV pacing was 92 vs. 55% (P = 0.002), and with ≥90% effective CRT was 79 vs. 45%, respectively (P = 0.018). AdaptivCRT™ significantly increased effective LV pacing over echo-optimized CRT. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Rate-dependent Loss of Capture during Ventricular Pacing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfeng; Chen, Haiyan; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old patient who had undergone atrial septal defect surgical repair received implantation of a single chamber VVI pacemaker for long RR intervals during atrial fibrillation. One week later, an intermittent loss of capture and sensing failure was detected at a pacing rate of 70 beats/min. However, a successful capture was observed during rapid pacing. Consequently, the pacing rate was temporarily adjusted to 90 beats/min. At the 3-month follow-up, the pacemaker was shown to be functioning properly independent of the pacing rate. An echocardiogram showed that the increased pacing rates were accompanied by a reduction in the right ventricular outflow tract dimension. The pacemaker was then permanently programmed at a lower rate of 60 beats/min.

  13. Reliable quantification of BOLD fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity despite poor breath-hold performance.

    PubMed

    Bright, Molly G; Murphy, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) can be mapped using BOLD fMRI to provide a clinical insight into vascular health that can be used to diagnose cerebrovascular disease. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges. This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges (10, 15, or 20 s duration) interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data. Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability (ICC<0.4) in several regions analysed. In contrast, the end-tidal CO2 regressors resulted in "excellent" repeatability (ICC=0.82) in the average grey matter data, and resulted in acceptable repeatability in all smaller regions tested (ICC>0.4). Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain (ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation) supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance. We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable

  14. Comparison of spontaneous vs. metronome-guided breathing on assessment of vagal modulation using RR variability.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, D M; Magnano, A; Bigger, J T; Rivadeneira, H; Parides, M; Steinman, R C

    2001-03-01

    R-R interval variability (RR variability) is increasingly being used as an index of autonomic activity. High-frequency (HF) power reflects vagal modulation of the sinus node. Since vagal modulation occurs at the respiratory frequency, some investigators have suggested that HF power cannot be interpreted unless the breathing rate is controlled. We hypothesized that HF power during spontaneous breathing would not differ significantly from HF power during metronome-guided breathing. We measured HF power during spontaneous breathing in 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with heart disease. Each subject's spontaneous breathing rate was determined, and the calculation of HF power was repeated with a metronome set to his or her average spontaneous breathing rate. There was no significant difference between the logarithm of HF power measured during spontaneous and metronome-guided breathing [4.88 +/- 0.29 vs. 5.29 +/- 0.30 ln(ms(2)), P = 0.32] in the group as a whole and when patients and healthy subjects were examined separately. We did observe a small (9.9%) decrease in HF power with increasing metronome-guided breathing rates (from 9 to 20 breaths/min). These data indicate that HF power during spontaneous and metronome-guided breathing differs at most by very small amounts. This variability is several logarithmic units less than the wide discrepancies observed between healthy subjects and cardiac patients with a heterogeneous group of cardiovascular disorders. In addition, HF power is relatively constant across the range of typical breathing rates. These data indicate that there is no need to control breathing rate to interpret HF power when RR variability (and specifically HF power) is used to identify high-risk cardiac patients.

  15. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of Particles Emitted from Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...

  17. Spike-Timing of Orbitofrontal Neurons Is Synchronized With Breathing.

    PubMed

    Kőszeghy, Áron; Lasztóczi, Bálint; Forro, Thomas; Klausberger, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in a multiplicity of complex brain functions, including representations of expected outcome properties, post-decision confidence, momentary food-reward values, complex flavors and odors. As breathing rhythm has an influence on odor processing at primary olfactory areas, we tested the hypothesis that it may also influence neuronal activity in the OFC, a prefrontal area involved also in higher order processing of odors. We recorded spike timing of orbitofrontal neurons as well as local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice, together with the breathing rhythm. We observed that a large majority of orbitofrontal neurons showed robust phase-coupling to breathing during immobility and running. The phase coupling of action potentials to breathing was significantly stronger in orbitofrontal neurons compared to cells in the medial prefrontal cortex. The characteristic synchronization of orbitofrontal neurons with breathing might provide a temporal framework for multi-variable processing of olfactory, gustatory and reward-value relationships.

  18. Fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing is more sensitive than phrenic nerve stimulation for detection of right phrenic nerve injury during cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Markus; Nielson, Annika; Andrié, René P; Mittmann-Braun, Erica L; Stöckigt, Florian; Kreuz, Jens; Nickenig, Georg; Schrickel, Jan W; Lickfett, Lars M

    2014-08-01

    Right phrenic nerve palsy (PNP) is a typical complication of cryoballoon ablation of the right-sided pulmonary veins (PVs). Phrenic nerve function can be monitored by palpating the abdomen during phrenic nerve pacing from the superior vena cava (SVC pacing) or by fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing. We sought to compare the sensitivity of these 2 techniques during cryoballoon ablation for detection of PNP. A total of 133 patients undergoing cryoballoon ablation were monitored with both SVC pacing and fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing during ablation of the right superior PV. PNP occurred in 27/133 patients (20.0%). Most patients (89%) had spontaneous recovery of phrenic nerve function at the end of the procedure or on the following day. Three patients were discharged with persistent PNP. All PNP were detected first by fluoroscopic observation of diaphragm movement during spontaneous breathing, while diaphragm could still be stimulated by SVC pacing. In patients with no recovery until discharge, PNP occurred at a significantly earlier time (86 ± 34 seconds vs. 296 ± 159 seconds, P < 0.001). No recovery occurred in 2/4 patients who were ablated with a 23 mm cryoballoon as opposed to 1/23 patients with a 28 mm cryoballoon (P = 0.049). Fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragm movement during spontaneous breathing is more sensitive for detection PNP as compared to SVC pacing. PNP as assessed by fluoroscopy is frequent (20.0%) and carries a high rate of recovery (89%) until discharge. Early onset of PNP and use of 23 mm cryoballoon are associated with PNP persisting beyond hospital discharge. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An Undergraduate Intern Program at PACES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) established the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) in 1995 to conduct basic and applied research that contributes to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. Specifically, PACES provides a repository of remote sensing and other information that supports investigations into an improved understanding of geological, ecological and environmental processes occurring in the southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Approximately 85% of UTEP's students come from El Paso County, a fast growing urban region representative of many large cities in the Southwest that have, or will soon have, a majority of their population composed of groups currently underrepresented in the scientific and technical workforce. UTEP's student population has an ethnic distribution (63% Hispanic, 32% Anglo, 3% African American, 1.5 % Asian American, and less than 1% Native American) that closely matches the demographics of the region it serves. Thus, UTEP has a mission to serve a multicultural population where minority students comprise the majority. Most Hispanic students at UTEP are primarily of Mexican origin. A large number are first or second-generation U.S. citizens. Characteristics that unite Hispanic students, in particular those of Mexican-origin, are a strong sense of family loyalty and a belief that all family members are responsible for contributing to the economic stability and well-being of the family. Most of their families are larger in number than the national average, and a variety of generations live together or share considerable resources. Thus, many young people feel an obligation and a desire to go to work at a young age and to continue working while in college, thereby assisting their parents and other family members. Older siblings understand that they have responsibilities to do household chores, to aid their younger siblings economically, and to assist elderly family members. This "work ethic" within the

  20. Dynamic and dual-site atrial pacing in the prevention of atrial fibrillation: The STimolazione Atrial DInamica Multisito (STADIM) Study.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Antonio; Senatore, Gaetano; Donnici, Giovanni; Turco, Pietro; Romano, Enrico; Gazzola, Carlo; Stabile, G

    2007-01-01

    The impact of new algorithms to consistently pace the atrium on the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unclear. Our randomized, crossover study compared the efficacy of single- and dual-site atrial pacing, with versus without dynamic atrial overdrive pacing in preventing AF. We studied 72 patients (mean age = 69.6 +/- 6.5 years, 34 men) with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and paroxysmal or persistent AF, who received dual-chamber pacemakers (PM) equipped with an AF prevention algorithm and two atrial leads placed in the right atrial appendage (RAA), by passive fixation, and in the coronary sinus ostium (CS), by active fixation, respectively. At implant, the patients were randomly assigned to unipolar CS versus RAA pacing. The PM was programmed in DDDR mode 1 month after implant. Each patient underwent four study phases of equal duration: (1) unipolar, single site (CS or RAA) pacing with the AF algorithm ON (atrial lower rate = 0 ppm); (2) unipolar, single site pacing with the AF algorithm OFF (atrial lower rate = 70 bpm); (3) bipolar, dual-site pacing with AF algorithm ON; (4) bipolar, dual-site pacing with the AF algorithm OFF. Among 40 patients (56%), who completed the follow-up (15 +/- 4 months) no difference was observed in the mean number of automatic mode switch (AMS) corrected for the duration of follow-up, in unipolar (5.6 +/- 22.8 vs 2.6 +/- 5.5) or bipolar mode (3.3 +/- 12.7 vs 2.1 +/- 4.9) with, respectively, the algorithm OFF or ON. With the AF prevention algorithm ON, the percentage of atrial pacing increased significantly from 78.7 +/- 22.1% to 92.4 +/- 4.9% (P < 0.001), while the average ventricular heart rate was significantly lower with the algorithm ON (62.4 +/- 17.5 vs 79.9 +/- 3 bpm (P < 0.001). The AF prevention algorithm increased the percentage of atrial pacing significantly, regardless of the atrial pulse configuration and pacing site, while maintaining a slower ventricular heart rate. It had no impact on the number of AMS in the

  1. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  2. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    PubMed

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  3. Cardiac or Other Implantable Electronic Devices and Sleep-disordered Breathing - Implications for Diagnosis and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fox, Henrik; Bitter, Thomas; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen; Horstkotte, Dieter; Oldenburg, Olaf

    2014-08-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is of growing interest in cardiology because SDB is a highly prevalent comorbidity in patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of SDB is particularly high in patients with cardiac dysrhythmias and/or heart failure. In this setting, many patients now have implantable cardiac devices, such as pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators or implanted cardiac resynchronisation therapy devices (CRT). Treatment of SDB using implantable cardiac devices has been studied previously, with atrial pacing and CRT being shown not to bring about satisfactory results in SDB care. The latest generations of these devices have the capacity to determine transthoracic impedance, to detect and quantify breathing efforts and to identify SDB. The capability of implantable cardiac devices to detect SDB is of potential importance for patients with cardiovascular disease, allowing screening for SDB, monitoring of the course of SDB in relation to cardiac status, and documenting of the effects of treatment.

  4. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in membrane cholesterol affect caveolin-1 localization and ICC-pacing in mouse jejunum.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Bodie, Gregory; Mannarino, Marco; Boddy, Geoffrey; Cho, Woo-Jung

    2004-07-01

    Pacing of mouse is dependent on the spontaneous activity of interstitial cells of Cajal in the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP). These ICC, as well as intestinal smooth muscle, contain small membrane invaginations called caveolae. Caveolae are signaling centers formed by insertions of caveolin proteins in the inner aspect of the plasma membrane. Caveolins bind signaling proteins and thereby negatively modulate their signaling. We disrupted caveolae by treating intestinal segments with methyl beta-clodextrin (CD) to remove cholesterol or with water-soluble cholesterol (WSC) to load cholesterol. Both of these treatments reduced pacing frequencies, and these effects were reversed by the other agent. These treatments also inhibited paced contractions, but complete reversal was not observed. To evaluate the specificity of the effects of CD and WSC, additional studies were made of their effects on responses to carbamoyl choline and to stimulation of cholinergic nerves. Neither of these treatments affected these sets of responses compared with their respective time controls. Immunochemical and ultrastructural studies showed that caveolin 1 was present in smooth muscle membranes and ICC-MP. CD depleted both caveolin 1 and caveolae, whereas WSC increased the amount of caveolin 1 immunoreactivity and altered its distribution but failed to increase the number of caveolae. The effects of each agent were reversed in major part by the other. We conclude that signaling through caveolae may play a role in pacing by ICC but does not affect responses to acetylcholine from nerves or when added exogenously.

  6. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable minimum grade requirements for Type I gaseous air set forth in the Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1, 1966 (Grade D or...

  7. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable minimum grade requirements for Type I gaseous air set forth in the Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1, 1966 (Grade D or...

  8. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable minimum grade requirements for Type I gaseous air set forth in the Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1, 1966 (Grade D or...

  9. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the applicable minimum grade requirements for Type I gaseous air set forth in the Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1, 1966 (Grade D or...

  10. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (i) Be employed on Type C supplied-air respirators of the demand and pressure-demand class; and (ii... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume...

  16. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  17. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  18. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  19. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks...

  20. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  1. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks...

  2. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks...

  3. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  4. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72 Section 84.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  5. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks...

  6. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  7. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks...

  8. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  9. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  10. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self...

  11. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number of...

  12. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number of...

  13. The effect of proton pump inhibitors on the CYP2C19 enzyme activity evaluated by the pantoprazole-13C breath test in GERD patients: clinical relevance for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Modak, Anil S; Klyarytska, Iryna; Kriviy, Valerij; Tsapyak, Tatjana; Rabotyagova, Yliya

    2016-12-17

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are routinely prescribed one of the six FDA approved proton pump inhibitors (PPI). All of these PPI are inhibitors of CYP2C19 enzyme to varying degrees. The phenotype pantoprazole- 13 C breath test (Ptz-BT) was used to identify patients who are poor metabolizers (PM) and the extent of phenoconversion of CYP2C19 enzyme activity caused by four PPI (omeprazole, esomprazole pantoprazole and rabeprazole) in 54 newly diagnosed GERD patients prior to initiating randomly selected PPI therapy and 30 d after PPI therapy. The phenoconversion after 30 d of PPI therapy in GERD patients was statistically significant (p  =0.001) with omeprazole/esomeprazole (n  =  27) strong CYP2C19 inhibitors, while there was no change in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (p  =  0.8) with pantoprazole/ rabeprazole (n  =  27), weak CYP2C19 inhibitors. The concommitant use of omeprazole/esomeprazole, therefore, could have critical clinical relevance in individualizing medications metabolized primarily by CYP2C19 such as PPI, clopidogrel, phenytoin, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, citalopram, clonazepam, diazepam, proguanil, tivantinib etc. The rapid (30 min), in vivo, and non-invasive phenotype Ptz-BT can evaluate CYP2C19 enzyme activity. More importantly, it can identify GERD patients with low CYP2C19 enzyme activity (PM), caused by PPI or other concomitant medications, who would benefit from dose adjustments to maintain efficacy and avoid toxicity. The existing CYP2C19 genotype tests cannot predict the phenotype nor can it detect phenoconversion due to non genetic factors.

  14. Interatrial septum pacing guided by three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Szili-Torok, Tamas; Kimman, Geert Jan P; Scholten, Marcoen F; Ligthart, Jurgen; Bruining, Nico; Theuns, Dominic A M J; Klootwijk, Peter J; Roelandt, Jos R T C; Jordaens, Luc J

    2002-12-18

    Currently, the interatrial septum (IAS) pacing site is indirectly selected by fluoroscopy and P-wave analysis. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel approach for IAS pacing using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). Interatrial septum pacing may be beneficial for the prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Cross-sectional images are acquired during a pull-back of the ICE transducer from the superior vena cava into the inferior vena cava by an electrocardiogram- and respiration-gated technique. Both atria are then reconstructed using three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Using an "en face" view of the IAS, the desired pacing site is selected. Following lead placement and electrical testing, another 3D reconstruction is performed to verify the final lead position. Twelve patients were included in this study. The IAS pacing was achieved in all patients including six suprafossal (SF) and six infrafossal (IF) lead locations all confirmed by 3D imaging. The mean duration times of atrial lead implantation and fluoroscopy were 70 +/- 48.9 min and 23.7 +/- 20.6 min, respectively. The IAS pacing resulted in a significant reduction of the P-wave duration as compared to sinus rhythm (98.9 +/- 19.3 ms vs. 141.3 +/- 8.6 ms; p < 0.002). The SF pacing showed a greater reduction of the P-wave duration than IF pacing (59.4 +/- 6.6 ms vs. 30.2 +/- 13.6 ms; p < 0.004). Three-dimensional ICE is a feasible tool for guiding IAS pacing.

  15. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a time-reversal (TR)-based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multiperson breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TR-BREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 s of measurement, a mean accuracy of can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight scenario and a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation of nine people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 s of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  16. Breathing Mode in Complex Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Henning, C.; Ludwig, P.; Bonitz, M.; Melzer, A.; Vitkalov, S.

    2007-11-01

    The breathing mode is a fundamental normal mode present in Coulomb systems, and may have utility in identifying particle charge and the Debye length of certain systems. The question remains whether this mode can be extended to strongly coupled Yukawa balls [1]. These systems are characterized by particles confined within a parabolic potential well and interacting through a shielded Coulomb potential [2,3]. The breathing modes for a variety of systems in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions are computed by solving the eigenvalue problem given by the dynamical (Hesse) matrix. These results are compared to theoretical investigations that assume a strict definition for a breathing mode within the system, and an analysis is made of the most fitting model to utilize in the study of particular systems of complex plasmas [1,4]. References [1] T.E. Sheridan, Phys. of Plasmas. 13, 022106 (2006)[2] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006)[3] M. Bonitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006)[4] C. Henning et al., submitted for publication

  17. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  18. The Small Breathing Amplitude at the Upper Lobes Favors the Attraction of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lesions and Helps to Understand the Evolution toward Active Disease in An Individual-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Prats, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB). In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which favor enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM) (known as “TBPATCH”) using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favor the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (BAM) (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively), which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analyzed play some role, the small BAM is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB. PMID:27065951

  19. The Small Breathing Amplitude at the Upper Lobes Favors the Attraction of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lesions and Helps to Understand the Evolution toward Active Disease in An Individual-Based Model.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Prats, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB). In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which favor enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM) (known as "TBPATCH") using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favor the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (BAM) (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively), which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analyzed play some role, the small BAM is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB.

  20. How Termite Mounds Breath?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Saurabh; Yaghoobian, Neda

    2017-11-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae that are extensively found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and south East Asia are one species of termites that collectively build massive, uninhabited, complex structures. These structures, which are much larger than the size of an individual termite, effectively use natural wind and solar energies and the energy embodied in colony's metabolic activity to maintain the necessary condition for termite survival. These mounds enclose a subterranean nest, where the termite live and cultivate fungus, as well as a complex network of tunnels consisting of a large, vertically oriented central chimney, surface conduits, and lateral connectives that connect the chimney and the surface conduits. In this study, we use computational modeling to explore the combined interaction of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity with the external turbulent wind and solar radiation to investigate the physical principles and fundamental aero-thermodynamics underlying the controlled and stable climate of termite mounds. Exploitation of natural resources of wind and solar energies in these natural systems for the purpose of ventilation will lead to new lessons for improving human habitats conditions.

  1. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  2. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    PubMed

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs <40°C) on pace and % OFF . Larger %BML was associated with faster finish times (R 2 =0.19, p=0.018), faster average pace (R 2 =0.29, p=0.012), and a greater % OFF (R 2 =0.15, p=0.033). % OFF during the first mile (1.61km) significantly predicted overall finish time (R 2 =0.64, p<0.001) while % OFF during the second mile (3.22km) (R 2 change=0.18, p<0.001) further added to the model (R 2 =0.82, p<0.001). Body temperature (pre race T GI and post race T GI ) was not predictive of overall finish time (p>0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Validation of PACE4 as a Target in Prostate Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    D'Anjou, François; Routhier, Sophie; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Latil, Alain; Bonnel, David; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel; Day, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains the single most prevalent cancer in men. Standard therapies are still limited and include androgen ablation that initially causes tumor regression. However, tumor cells eventually relapse and develop into a hormone-refractory prostate cancer. One of the current challenges in this disease is to define new therapeutic targets, which have been virtually unchanged in the past 30 years. Recent studies have suggested that the family of enzymes known as the proprotein convertases (PCs) is involved in various types of cancers and their progression. The present study examined PC expression in prostate cancer and validates one PC, namely PACE4, as a target. The evidence includes the observed high expression of PACE4 in all different clinical stages of human prostate tumor tissues. Gene silencing studies targeting PACE4 in the DU145 prostate cancer cell line produced cells (cell line 4-2) with slower proliferation rates, reduced clonogenic activity, and inability to grow as xenografts in nude mice. Gene expression and proteomic profiling of the 4-2 cell line reveals an increased expression of known cancer-related genes (e.g., GJA1, CD44, IGFBP6) that are downregulated in prostate cancer. Similarly, cancer genes whose expression is decreased in the 4-2 cell line were upregulated in prostate cancer (e.g., MUC1, IL6). The direct role of PACE4 in prostate cancer is most likely through the upregulated processing of growth factors or through the aberrant processing of growth factors leading to sustained cancer progression, suggesting that PACE4 holds a central role in prostate cancer. PMID:21633671

  4. The downside of downtime: The prevalence and work pacing consequences of idle time at work.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Andrew; Amabile, Teresa M

    2018-05-01

    Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for time that employees spend idle. Studies 2a-3b experimentally demonstrate that there are also collateral consequences of idle time; when workers expect idle time following a task, their work pace declines and their task completion time increases. This decline reverses the well-documented deadline effect, producing a deadtime effect, whereby workers slow down as a task progresses. Our analyses of work pace patterns provide evidence for a time discounting mechanism: workers discount idle time when it is relatively distant, but act to avoid it increasingly as it becomes more proximate. Finally, Study 4 demonstrates that the expectation of being able to engage in leisure activities during posttask free time (e.g., surfing the Internet) can mitigate the collateral work pace losses due to idle time. Through examination and discussion of the effects of idle time at work, we broaden theory on work pacing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Towards Development of a 3-State Self-Paced Brain-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Bashashati, Ali; Ward, Rabab K.; Birch, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    Most existing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) detect specific mental activity in a so-called synchronous paradigm. Unlike synchronous systems which are operational at specific system-defined periods, self-paced (asynchronous) interfaces have the advantage of being operational at all times. The low-frequency asynchronous switch design (LF-ASD) is a 2-state self-paced BCI that detects the presence of a specific finger movement in the ongoing EEG. Recent evaluations of the 2-state LF-ASD show an average true positive rate of 41% at the fixed false positive rate of 1%. This paper proposes two designs for a 3-state self-paced BCI that is capable of handling idle brain state. The two proposed designs aim at detecting right- and left-hand extensions from the ongoing EEG. They are formed of two consecutive detectors. The first detects the presence of a right- or a left-hand movement and the second classifies the detected movement as a right or a left one. In an offline analysis of the EEG data collected from four able-bodied individuals, the 3-state brain-computer interface shows a comparable performance with a 2-state system and significant performance improvement if used as a 2-state BCI, that is, in detecting the presence of a right- or a left-hand movement (regardless of the type of movement). It has an average true positive rate of 37.5% and 42.8% (at false positives rate of 1%) in detecting right- and left-hand extensions, respectively, in the context of a 3-state self-paced BCI and average detection rate of 58.1% (at false positive rate of 1%) in the context of a 2-state self-paced BCI. PMID:18288260

  6. Long-term thresholds of nonsteroidal permanent pacing leads: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Gumbrielle, T P; Bourke, J P; Sinkovic, M; Tynan, M; Kittpawong, P; Gold, R G

    1996-05-01

    The present commercial market supports many nonsteroidal endocardial pacing leads of differing construction. In order to compare the performance of these configurations, we studied the long-term pacing properties of three representative lead types by randomized clinical trial in 99 patients undergoing a first elective VVI implant. Thirty-one patients received sintered platinum leads, 36 activated pyrolytic carbon leads, and 32 vitreous carbon leads. All received generators capable of noninvasive threshold testing. Acute sensing parameters were R wave amplitude and ST segment elevation measured from the endocardial electrogram. Noninvasive voltage thresholds were measured at implantation, 2 days, 1, 3, and 6 months, and yearly thereafter for 5 years. There were no significant differences between leads in pacing or sensing capabilities at implantation. All three demonstrated similar increases in thresholds, peaking at 1 month, then falling to a plateau by 6 months and did not vary significantly thereafter. There were no significant differences in thresholds between leads during 5 years of follow-up. The lowest mean threshold at 5 years was 0.93 V at 0.5 ms. This study suggests that: (1) although these lead types all perform well, none offers any particular clinical advantage over another; (2) the degree of early threshold peaking precludes immediate postimplant output reduction, but later thresholds are sufficiently low to enable reductions in pacing output; (3) safe low energy pacing requires greater attention to the lead-generator combinations; (4) data obtained at subsequent annual follow-up provided no additional useful clinical information to that obtained at 1 year; and (5) in the absence of other differences, cost can be the deciding factor in lead selection.

  7. Estimation of the effects of multipoint pacing on battery longevity in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Akerström, Finn; Narváez, Irene; Puchol, Alberto; Pachón, Marta; Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Arias, Miguel A

    2017-09-23

    Multipoint pacing (MPP) permits simultaneous multisite pacing of the left ventricle (LV); initial studies suggest haemodynamic and clinical benefits over conventional (single LV site) cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of MPP activation on battery longevity in routine clinical practice. Patient (n = 46) and device data were collected from two centres at least 3 months after MPP-CRT device implantation. Multipoint pacing programming was based on the maximal possible anatomical LV1/LV2 separation according to three predefined LV pacing capture threshold (PCT) cut-offs (≤1.5 V; ≤4.0 V; and ≤6.5 V). Estimated battery longevity was calculated using the programmed lower rate limit, lead impedances, outputs, and pacing percentages. Relative to the longevity for conventional CRT using the lowest PCT (8.9 ± 1.2 years), MPP activation significantly shortened battery longevity for all three PCT cut-offs (≤1.5 V, -5.6%; ≤4.0 V, -16.9%; ≤6.5 V, -21.3%; P's <0.001). When compared with conventional CRT based on longest right ventricle-LV delay (8.3 ± 1.3 years), battery longevity was significantly shortened for the MPP ≤ 4.0 V and ≤6.5 V cut-offs (-10.8 and -15.7%, respectively; P's <0.001). Maximal LV1/LV2 spacing was possible in 23.9% (≤1.5 V), 56.5% (≤4.0 V), and 69.6% (≤6.5 V) of patients. Multipoint pacing activation significantly reduces battery longevity compared with that for conventional CRT configuration. When reasonable MPP LV vector PCTs (≤4.0 V) are achieved, the decrease in battery longevity is relatively small which may prompt the clinician to activate MPP. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. DefenseLink Special: Travels with Pace, June 2006

    Science.gov Websites

    here today to discuss regional security issues in this strategic nation that, with its 1.1 billion where we are on our moral compass." Story Pace Visits Guam to Assess Infrastructure ANDERSEN AIR

  9. The PACES Summer Science Trek: A Pre-College Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michelle B.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) received five-year funding to form the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) in July 1995. PACES has as its goals to conduct research contributing to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth and to develop skilled scientists and engineers. PACES seeks to gain a more comprehensive understanding of geological, ecological and environmental processes and changes taking place in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico region. The PACES center has collaborative ties with two NASA field center (Goddard Space Flight Center and Ames Research Center) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The original proposal contained no provision for outreach programs. However, at a meeting in the fall of 1995, Dan Goldin, NASA Administrator, issued the challenge that in order to accomplish NASA's goals to educate more of the citizenry in science and engineering, the Centers should take a broader perspective aimed at younger children.

  10. A Flexible Self-Paced Course in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Franklin G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which has been taught by a self-paced instructional method at Howard University, Washington, D.C. The instructional method, course description, and students' grades are also discussed. (HM)

  11. Climatic pacing of Mediterranean fire histories from lake sedimentary microcharcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R.; Roberts, N.; Jones, M. D.

    2008-10-01

    The microcharcoal content (particles < 180 µm) of overlapping sedimentary sequences from two crater lake basins in central Turkey are used to reconstruct the regional fire history of the East Mediterranean oak-grass parkland zone from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present-day. These results are correlated with stable isotope and pollen data from the same cores in order to assess the changing role of climate, vegetation and human activity in landscape burning. This indicates that climatically-induced variation in biomass availability was the main factor controlling the timing of regional fire activity during the Last Glacial-Interglacial climatic transition, and again during Mid-Holocene times, with fire frequency and magnitude increasing during wetter climatic phases. Spectral analysis of the Holocene part of the record from Eski Acıgöl indicates significant cyclicity with a periodicity of ~ 1500 years that may be linked with large-scale climate forcing. Although proto-agricultural societies were established in this region as early as 10,000 years ago, it is only during the last two to three millennia that the pacing of wildfire cycles appears to have become decoupled from climate and linked instead to human-induced changes in land cover and fuel load availability.

  12. The Efficacy of Self-Paced Study in Multitrial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jonge, Mario; Tabbers, Huib K.; Pecher, Diane; Jang, Yoonhee; Zeelenberg, René

    2015-01-01

    In 2 experiments we investigated the efficacy of self-paced study in multitrial learning. In Experiment 1, native speakers of English studied lists of Dutch-English word pairs under 1 of 4 imposed fixed presentation rate conditions (24 × 1 s, 12 × 2 s, 6 × 4 s, or 3 × 8 s) and a self-paced study condition. Total study time per list was equated for…

  13. Adapting the Training Site to Training Needs. Self-Paced Instructional Module. Module Number VII-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sylvester; Brooks, Kent

    One of 33 self-paced instructional modules for training industry services leaders to provide guidance in the performance of manpower services by public agencies to new and expanding private industry, this module contains three sequential learning activities on adapting the training site to training needs. The first learning activity is designed to…

  14. Impact of Breathing 100% Oxygen on Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Payne, Valerie; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Walb, Matthew C.; Munley, Michael T.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2015-01-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O2 for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O2) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O2 received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O2 was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  15. Feasibility of Leadless Cardiac Pacing Using Injectable Magnetic Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Menahem Y.; Gabay, Hovav; Etzion, Yoram; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    A noninvasive, effective approach for immediate and painless heart pacing would have invaluable implications in several clinical scenarios. Here we present a novel strategy that utilizes the well-known mechano-electric feedback of the heart to evoke cardiac pacing, while relying on magnetic microparticles as leadless mechanical stimulators. We demonstrate that after localizing intravenously-injected magnetic microparticles in the right ventricular cavity using an external electromagnet, the application of magnetic pulses generates mechanical stimulation that provokes ventricular overdrive pacing in the rat heart. This temporary pacing consistently managed to revert drug-induced bradycardia, but could only last up to several seconds in the rat model, most likely due to escape of the particles between the applied pulses using our current experimental setting. In a pig model with open chest, MEF-based pacing was induced by banging magnetic particles and has lasted for a longer time. Due to overheating of the electromagnet, we intentionally terminated the experiments after 2 min. Our results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of external leadless temporary pacing, using injectable magnetic microparticles that are manipulated by an external electromagnet. This new approach can have important utilities in clinical settings in which immediate and painless control of cardiac rhythm is required. PMID:27091192

  16. Did recent world record marathon runners employ optimal pacing strategies?

    PubMed

    Angus, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    We apply statistical analysis of high frequency (1 km) split data for the most recent two world-record marathon runs: Run 1 (2:03:59, 28 September 2008) and Run 2 (2:03:38, 25 September 2011). Based on studies in the endurance cycling literature, we develop two principles to approximate 'optimal' pacing in the field marathon. By utilising GPS and weather data, we test, and then de-trend, for each athlete's field response to gradient and headwind on course, recovering standardised proxies for power-based pacing traces. The resultant traces were analysed to ascertain if either runner followed optimal pacing principles; and characterise any deviations from optimality. Whereas gradient was insignificant, headwind was a significant factor in running speed variability for both runners, with Runner 2 targeting the (optimal) parallel variation principle, whilst Runner 1 did not. After adjusting for these responses, neither runner followed the (optimal) 'even' power pacing principle, with Runner 2's macro-pacing strategy fitting a sinusoidal oscillator with exponentially expanding envelope whilst Runner 1 followed a U-shaped, quadratic form. The study suggests that: (a) better pacing strategy could provide elite marathon runners with an economical pathway to significant performance improvements at world-record level; and (b) the data and analysis herein is consistent with a complex-adaptive model of power regulation.

  17. PACE and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA)

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    The FHFA regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On June 18, 2009, James B. Lockhart III, then Director of FHFA, released a letter expressing concern about the negative impact of energy loan tax assessment programs (ELTAPs) - also known as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs - on both the housing finance system and homeowner program participants. Subsequently, a number of PACE proponents responded to the concerns laid out in the FHFA letter. In early Fall 2009, word circulated that FHFA was planning to follow its June letter withmore » guidance to other agencies, possibly including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, discouraging them from buying loans on properties subject to PACE-type assessment liens. This triggered a second round of stakeholder letters, several of which were addressed to President Obama. On October 18, 2009, the White House, in what some believe was an attempt to obviate the need for FHFA guidance, released a Policy Framework for PACE Financing Programs that outlined best practices guidance for homeowner and lender protection. As of February 2010, FHFA and the GSEs have agreed to monitor PACE programs and work with stakeholders and the Administration to consider additional guidance beyond the Policy Framework and to collect more information on PACE program efficacy and risks. A summary of the communications timeline and highlights of the communications are provided.« less

  18. The Pace of Perceivable Extreme Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.; Gan, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    When will the signal of obvious changes in extreme climate emerge over climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key question for planning and implementing measures to mitigate the potential impact of climate change to natural and human systems that are generally adapted to potential changes from current variability. We estimated ToEs for the magnitude, duration and frequency of global extreme climate represented by 24 extreme climate indices (16 for temperature and 8 for precipitation) with different thresholds of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio based on projections of CMIP5 global climate models under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 for the 21st century. The uncertainty of ToE is assessed by using 3 different methods to calculate S/N for each extreme index. Results show that ToEs of the projected extreme climate indices based on the RCP4.5 climate scenarios are generally projected to happen about 20 years later than that for the RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Under RCP8.5, the projected magnitude, duration and frequency of extreme temperature on Earth will all exceed 2 standard deviations by 2100, and the empirical 50th percentile of the global ToE for the frequency and magnitude of hot (cold) extreme are about 2040 and 2054 (2064 and 2054) for S/N > 2, respectively. The 50th percentile of global ToE for the intensity of extreme precipitation is about 2030 and 2058 for S/N >0.5 and S/N >1, respectively. We further evaluated the exposure of ecosystems and human societies to the pace of extreme climate change by determining the year of ToE for various extreme climate indices projected to occur over terrestrial biomes, marine realms and major urban areas with large populations. This was done by overlaying terrestrial, ecoregions and population maps with maps of ToE derived, to extract ToEs for these regions. Possible relationships between GDP per person and ToE are also investigated by relating the mean ToE for each country and its average value of GDP per person.

  19. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Izci Balserak, Bilgay

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses.Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m(-2)) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy.SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy.Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations.There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population.To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy.To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the

  20. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the

  1. Increased cardiac output elicits higher V̇O2max in response to self-paced exercise.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; McMillan, David William; Edmunds, Ross Montgomery; Sanchez, Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a self-paced protocol demonstrated higher maximal oxygen uptake versus the traditional ramp protocol. The primary aim of the current study was to further explore potential differences in maximal oxygen uptake between the ramp and self-paced protocols using simultaneous measurement of cardiac output. Active men and women of various fitness levels (N = 30, mean age = 26.0 ± 5.0 years) completed 3 graded exercise tests separated by a minimum of 48 h. Participants initially completed progressive ramp exercise to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake followed by a verification test to confirm maximal oxygen uptake attainment. Over the next 2 sessions, they performed a self-paced and an additional ramp protocol. During exercise, gas exchange data were obtained using indirect calorimetry, and thoracic impedance was utilized to estimate hemodynamic function (stroke volume and cardiac output). One-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to determine differences in maximal oxygen uptake and cardiac output between ramp and self-paced testing. Results demonstrated lower (p < 0.001) maximal oxygen uptake via the ramp (47.2 ± 10.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) versus the self-paced (50.2 ± 9.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) protocol, with no interaction (p = 0.06) seen for fitness level. Maximal heart rate and cardiac output (p = 0.02) were higher in the self-paced protocol versus ramp exercise. In conclusion, data show that the traditional ramp protocol may underestimate maximal oxygen uptake compared with a newly developed self-paced protocol, with a greater cardiac output potentially responsible for this outcome.

  2. A feasible approach for direct his-bundle pacing using a new steerable catheter to facilitate precise lead placement.

    PubMed

    Zanon, Francesco; Baracca, Enrico; Aggio, Silvio; Pastore, Gianni; Boaretto, Graziano; Cardano, Paola; Marotta, Tiziana; Rigatelli, Gianluca; Galasso, Mariapaola; Carraro, Mauro; Zonzin, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Much clinical evidence has shown that right ventricular (RV) apical pacing is detrimental to left ventricular function. Preservation of the use of the His-Purkinje (H-P) system may be ideal in heart block that is restricted to the AV node, but may be of no benefit when H-P disease exists. To investigate the feasibility of direct His-bundle pacing (DHBP) using a new system consisting of a steerable catheter and a new 4.1 F screw-in lead. Between May and December 2004, 26 patients (19 male, mean age: 77 +/- 5 years) with a standard pacemaker (PM) indication and preserved His-bundle conduction were enrolled and DHBP was attempted. DHBP was achieved in 24 patients (92%); two patients were paced in the His area, but the paced QRS morphology and duration were different from the native QRS. The mean time for lead positioning was 19 +/- 17 minutes, the mean fluoroscopy time was 11 +/- 8 minutes, and the total procedure time (skin-to-skin including positioning of a quadripolar diagnostic catheter for His recording) was 75 +/- 18 minutes. In DHBP pacing, the acute pacing threshold was 2.3 +/- 1.0 V at a pulse duration of 0.5 msec, and the sensed potentials were 2.9 +/- 2.0 mV. At a 3-month follow-up examination, the same QRS duration and morphology recorded on implantation were observed in all patients. The pacing threshold was 2.8 +/- 1.4 V, and sensed potentials were 2.5 +/- 1.8 mV; the sensing configuration was changed from bipolar to unipolar in 6 patients to resolve undersensing issues. No major complications were observed. This feasibility study shows that DHBP can be accomplished with a new system consisting of a steerable catheter and an active fixation lead in 92% of the patients in whom it was attempted.

  3. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  4. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... system. Other components of the respiratory system conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) ... and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and fills the lungs. During expiration, ...

  5. The importance of a normal breathing pattern for an effective abdominal-hollowing maneuver in healthy people: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-min; Kwon, Oh-yun; Kim, Su-jung; Choung, Sung-dae

    2014-02-01

    A normal breathing pattern while performing the abdominal-hollowing (AH) maneuver or spinal-stabilization exercise is essential for the success of rehabilitation programs and exercises. In previous studies, subjects were given standardized instructions to control the influence of respiration during the AH maneuver. However, the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness during the AH maneuver has not been investigated. To compare abdominal-muscle thickness in subjects performing the AH maneuver under normal and abnormal breathing-pattern conditions and to investigate the effect of breathing pattern on the preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of the transverse abdominis. Comparative, repeated-measures experimental study. University research laboratory. 16 healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) from a university population. A real-time ultrasound scanner was used to measure abdominal-muscle thickness during normal and abnormal breathing patterns. A paired t test was used to assess the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness and PCR. Muscle thickness in the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles was significantly greater under the normal breathing pattern than under the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The PCR of the transverse abdominis was significantly higher under the normal breathing pattern compared with the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The results indicate that a normal breathing pattern is essential for performance of an effective AH maneuver. Thus, clinicians should ensure that patients adopt a normal breathing pattern before performing the AH maneuver and monitor transverse abdominis activation during the maneuver.

  6. Evaluation of innovative state and community alcohol projects : breath alcohol testing program effectiveness, impact and transferability

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-03-01

    Breath Alcohol Testing (BAT) programs in Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico are evaluated in regard to effectiveness, impact, and transferability of the special DWI enforcement squads and their use of BAT Mobiles. Squad activity effectiveness is me...

  7. Influence of the upper airway on breathing pattern and expiratory time constant in unanesthetized dog pups.

    PubMed

    England, S J; Stogryn, H A

    1986-11-01

    Unanesthetized dog pups (2 to 31 days old) respond to sudden opening of a tracheal cannula to atmospheric pressure with a marked increase in breathing frequency. This response is achieved with a 25% decrease in inspiratory and 40% decrease in expiratory times. Expiratory thyroarytenoid muscle activity increased concomitantly, while inspiratory diaphragmatic and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle activities were reduced. These responses are interpreted as a compensatory mechanism for maintenance of an elevated end-expiratory lung volume with functional loss of the upper airway. The changes in expiratory time and thyroarytenoid muscle activity were not observed when positive pressure was applied at the trachea. The expiratory time constant was assessed during spontaneous breathing. The mean value was twice as long during nasal breathing than during tracheal breathing. The nasal value was substantially increased when the thyroarytenoid muscle was active during expiration.

  8. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  9. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Fang, Dian-Chun; Li, Qian-Wei; Sun, Nian-Xu; Long, Qing-Lin; Sui, Jian-Feng; Gan, Lu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level. METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into: experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope 99mTc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs. RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35 ± 2.99 min to 79.42 ± 1.91 min (P < 0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64.94 ± 1.75 min (P < 0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCIII (interdigestive myoelectrical complex, IMCIII) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29 ± 9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09 ± 17.22 pg/ml; P < 0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55 ± 11.20 pg/ml; P < 0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing. Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r = 0.867, P < 0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r = -0.733, P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve

  10. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  11. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  12. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. 460.90 Section 460.90 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a Medicare...

  13. Optimal pacing modes after cardiac transplantation: is synchronisation of recipient and donor atria beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Gareth; Malbut, Katie; Dark, John H; Bexton, Rodney S

    1992-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the response of the transplanted heart to different pacing modes and to synchronisation of the recipient and donor atria in terms of cardiac output at rest. Design—Doppler derived cardiac output measurements at three pacing rates (90/min, 110/min and 130/min) in five pacing modes: right ventricular pacing, donor atrial pacing, recipient-donor synchronous pacing, donor atrial-ventricular sequential pacing, and synchronous recipient-donor atrial-ventricular sequential pacing. Patients—11 healthy cardiac transplant recipients with three pairs of epicardial leads inserted at transplantation. Results—Donor atrial pacing (+11% overall) and donor atrial-ventricular sequential pacing (+8% overall) were significantly better than right ventricular pacing (p < 0·001) at all pacing rates. Synchronised pacing of recipient and donor atrial segments did not confer additional benefit in either atrial or atrial-ventricular sequential modes of pacing in terms of cardiac output at rest at these fixed rates. Conclusions—Atrial pacing or atrial-ventricular sequential pacing appear to be appropriate modes in cardiac transplant recipients. Synchronisation of recipient and donor atrial segments in this study produced no additional benefit. Chronotropic competence in these patients may, however, result in improved exercise capacity and deserves further investigation. PMID:1389737

  14. Atrial septal pacing in small dogs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ashley E; Estrada, Amara H; Pariaut, Romain; Sosa-Samper, Ivan; Shih, Andre C; Mincey, Brandy D; Moïse, N Sydney

    2014-09-01

    To determine the feasibility of atrial septal pacing via a delivery catheter-guided small non-retracting helix pacing lead. Six healthy beagles (8.3-12.9 kg). Using single plane fluoroscopic guidance, Medtronic(®) 3830 SelectSecure leads were connected to the atrial septum via Medtronic® Attain Select® II standard 90 Left Heart delivery catheter. Pacing threshold and lead impedance were measured at implantation. The Wenckebach point was tested via atrial pacing up to 220 paced pulses per minute (ppm). Thoracic radiographs were performed following implantation to identify the lead position, and repeated at 24 h, 1 month, and 3 months post-operatively. Macro-lead dislodgement occurred in two dogs at 24 h and in three dogs at one-month post-implantation. Lead impedance, measured at the time of implantation, ranged from 583 to 1421 Ω. The Wenckebach point was >220 ppm in four of the six dogs. The remaining two dogs had Wenckebach points of 120 and 190 ppm. This pilot study suggests the selected implantation technique and lead system were inadequate for secure placement in the atrial septum of these dogs. The possible reasons for inadequate stability include unsuitable lead design for this location, inadequate lead slack at the time of implantation and inadequate seating of the lead as evidenced by low impedance at the time of implantation. Other implantation techniques and/or pacing leads should be investigated to determine the optimal way of pacing the atria in small breed dogs that are prone to sinus node dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  16. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  17. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  18. Prevention of atrial fibrillation by inter-atrial septum pacing guided by electrophysiological testing, in patients with delayed interatrial conduction.

    PubMed

    Manolis, A G; Katsivas, A G; Vassilopoulos, C; Koutsogeorgis, D; Louvros, N E

    2002-04-01

    Interatrial septum (IAS) pacing seems efficient in synchronizing atrial depolarization in patients (pts) with delayed inter-atrial conduction, but its clinical role in preventing atrial tachyarrhythmias is still debated. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of IAS pacing guided by pace mapping of the IAS, as an alternative treatment modality in pts with drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). We evaluated 29 pts (13 male, 16 female, 60 +/- 11 years), with drug refractory PAF, normal sinus node function and prolonged inter-atrial conduction time (P wave 142 +/- 10 ms). Multipolar catheters were inserted and the electrograms from the high right atrium (HRA) and proximal, middle and distal coronary sinus (CS) were recorded. The IAS was paced from multiple sites. The site of IAS where the timing between HRA and distal CS was <20 ms was considered the most suitable for synchronizing the atria. This site was found to be superior to the CS os. near the fossa ovalis in all pts. An active fixation atrial lead was positioned at this site and a standard lead was placed in the right ventricle. During IAS pacing, the P wave duration decreased significantly to 107 +/- 15 ms (P<0.001). At implant, the atrial sensing was 2.3 +/- 0.7 mV, the atrial pacing threshold was 0.95 +/- 0.15 V (0.5 ms) and the impedance was 760 +/- 80 Ohm. We evaluated the pts during four periods of 3 months duration each. The first period (control) was before pacemaker implantation, while the pts were under antiarrhythmic treatment. During the subsequent two periods, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of IAS pacing to prevent PAF recurrences, in AAT (75 bpm) and AAIR (75-140 bpm) mode, with random selection of the order and after discontinuation of antiarrhythmic treatment. During the fourth period, the same AAIR mode was assessed, but antiarrhythmic drugs were also administered. We compared the arrhythmia free interval among the four periods. The proportion of

  19. Changes in breathing pattern in the normal horse at rest up to age one year.

    PubMed

    Koterba, A M; Wozniak, J A; Kosch, P C

    1995-07-01

    Changes in pattern of airflow, sequence of respiratory muscle activation and generated pressures were measured serially in a group of foals during the first year post partum, in order to describe the maturation of the equine breathing pattern. In neonatal foals, inspiration and expiration were both primarily active and airflow pattern was essentially monophasic. By age 1 year, foals displayed essentially the same breathing pattern previously described in adult horses, utilising a combination of active and passive inspiration and expiration to breathe around, rather than from, the relaxation volume of the respiratory system (Vrx). A strong temporal relationship during growth was found between the timing of changes observed in airflow pattern and in the neuromuscular strategy of breathing. The transition to the adult breathing pattern appeared to involve a time delay in activation of both inspiratory and expiratory muscle groups, establishing a passive and active component to both inspiration and expiration. Throughout the study period, concurrent with the increase in delay of abdominal muscle activation, the expiratory flow pattern became progressively more biphasic in appearance. The time of appearance of a consistent biphasic inspiratory flow pattern was considerably later, at approximately age 1 year and coincided with the appearance of a delay in inspiratory muscle activation. From our results, we conclude that the transition from the neonatal to the adult breathing strategy in the horse appears not to be induced by the time course of chest wall stiffening during maturation. While changes in relative body proportions and size of abdominal contents during growth may influence the transition in breathing, our results also indicate that respiratory control mechanisms play an essential role in the expression of the polyphasic breathing pattern.

  20. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Jeska; Desmet, Frank; Moens, Bart; Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended) synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous) synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities.

  1. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking

    PubMed Central

    Buhmann, Jeska; Desmet, Frank; Moens, Bart; Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended) synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous) synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities. PMID:27167064

  2. Study of the detectability of controlled substances on breath

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-07-01

    The University of Missouri used high pressure liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry for a quantitative analysis of marijuana metabolites in blood and breath. A breath collector was developed for road-side sampling of human breath and subsequen...

  3. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  4. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  5. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  6. Pacing behaviour of players in team sports: Influence of match status manipulation and task duration knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Bruno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Sampaio, Jaime; Marques, Mário C.

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration associated with initial information about momentary match status (losing or winning) on the pacing behaviour displayed during soccer game-based activities. Twenty semi-professional male players participated in four game scenarios divided in two sessions. In the first game scenario, players were not informed about the time duration or initial match status. In the second, players were only informed they would be required to play a small-sided game for 12 minutes. In the third, players were told they would play a small-sided game for 12 minutes and that one of the teams was winning 2 to 0. Finally, in the fourth game scenario, players were instructed they would play a small-sided game for 12 minutes and the score lines used at the start of the previous game scenario were reversed. The results showed a tendency for the unknown task duration to elicit greater physical responses in all studied variables, compared with knowing the task duration. Knowing the task duration and starting the game winning or losing did not affect the players’ activity profile between the two conditions. Thus, during small-sided soccer games, knowledge (or not) about the exercise duration alters the pacing behaviour of the players. Moreover, short and undisclosed-length exercise durations resulted in the adoption of more aggressive pacing strategies, characterised by higher initial exercise intensities. Furthermore, previous information on match status does not seem to interfere with pacing patterns if the players are aware of the exercise duration. Coaches may use knowledge of exercise duration to manipulate the small-sided games’ demands. PMID:29401476

  7. Use of epicardial pacing wires after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, E R; Manna, D; McCourt, K

    1994-01-01

    To replicate a previous study that described the incidence and characteristics of patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery who required the use of epicardial pacing wires and to explore the reasons for epicardial pacing wire use in this patient population. Ex post facto descriptive correlational. Cardiothoracic intensive care and step down units of a 500-bed medical center. Convenience sample of 196 patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 165 who did not use the epicardial pacing wires and 31 who used the epicardial pacing wires to augment cardiac output, diagnose dysrhythmias, suppress dysrhythmias, or treat heart block. Patients receiving other surgical techniques in combination with coronary artery bypass graft surgery were not included. Recording of demographic and clinical data for all of the sample population, with additional data collected when the epicardial pacing wires were used. Independent t test and chi-square analysis were used to determine significance between the means and frequencies in the variables of the patients who used the epicardial pacing wires and those who did not. The significance level was set at 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of age or previous or recent myocardial infarction, which was opposite of the replicated study's findings. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between the groups for the use of inotropic support, which was also opposite of the findings of that study. The group requiring epicardial pacing wire utilization demonstrated a greater need for diuretics in the preoperative phase than those who did not (p < 0.01), as well as a higher use of digitalis therapy before surgery (p < 0.01). Additionally, those who were paced experienced a greater cardiac output (p = 0.013) and cardiac index (p = 0.018) after pacing was initiated. The variation in findings between this study and the one replicated may be the result of

  8. PACE: Pharmacists use the power of communication in paediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Elaro, Amanda; Shah, Smita; Pomare, Luca N; L Armour, Carol; Z Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2014-10-01

    Paediatric asthma is a public health burden in Australia despite the availability of national asthma guidelines. Community pharmacy interventions focusing on paediatric asthma are scarce. Practitioner Asthma Communication and Education (PACE) is an evidence-based program, developed in the USA for general practice physicians, aimed at addressing the issues of poor clinician-patient communication in the management of paediatric asthma. This program has been shown to improve paediatric asthma management practices of general practitioners in the USA and Australia. The development of a PACE program for community pharmacists will fill a void in the current armamentarium for pharmacist-patient care. To adapt the educational program, PACE, to the community pharmacy setting. To test the feasibility of the new program for pharmacy and to explore its potential impact on pharmacists' communication skills and asthma related practices. Community pharmacies located within the Sydney metropolitan. The PACE framework was reviewed by the research team and amended in order to ensure its relevance within the pharmacy context, thereby developing PACE for Pharmacy. Forty-four pharmacists were recruited and trained in small groups in the PACE for Pharmacy workshops. Pharmacists' satisfaction and acceptability of the workshops, confidence in using communication strategies pre- and post-workshop and self-reported behaviour change post workshop were evaluated. Pharmacist self-reported changes in communication and teaching behaviours during a paediatric asthma consultation. All 44 pharmacists attended both workshops, completed pre- and post-workshop questionnaires and provided feedback on the workshops (100 % retention). The participants reported a high level of satisfaction and valued the interactive nature of the workshops. Following the PACE for Pharmacy program, pharmacists reported significantly higher levels in using the communication strategies, confidence in their application and

  9. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air.

  10. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (<1 min) and on site breath acetone measurement can be used for diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  11. T wave alternans during exercise and atrial pacing in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohnloser, S. H.; Klingenheben, T.; Zabel, M.; Li, Y. G.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence is accumulating that microvolt T wave alternans (TWA) is a marker of increased risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Initially, atrial pacing was used to elevate heart rate and elicit TWA. More recently, a noninvasive approach has been developed that elevates heart rate using exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 30 consecutive patients with a history of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the spectral method was used to detect TWA during both atrial pacing and submaximal exercise testing. The concordance rate for the presence or absence of TWA using the two measurement methods was 84%. There was a patient-specific heart rate threshold for the detection of TWA that averaged 100 +/- 14 beats/min during exercise compared with 97 +/- 9 beats/min during right atrial pacing (P = NS). Beyond this threshold, there was a significant and comparable increase in level of TWA with decreasing pacing cycle length and increasing exercise heart rates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to demonstrate that microvolt TWA can be assessed reliably and noninvasively during exercise stress. There is a patient-specific heart rate threshold beyond which TWA continues to increase with increasing heart rates. Heart rate thresholds for the onset of TWA measured during atrial pacing and exercise stress were comparable, indicating that heart rate alone appears to be the main factor of determining the onset of TWA during submaximal exercise stress.

  12. Pace of shifts in climate regions increases with global temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlstein, Irina; Daniel, John S.; Solomon, Susan

    2013-08-01

    Human-induced climate change causes significant changes in local climates, which in turn lead to changes in regional climate zones. Large shifts in the world distribution of Köppen-Geiger climate classifications by the end of this century have been projected. However, only a few studies have analysed the pace of these shifts in climate zones, and none has analysed whether the pace itself changes with increasing global mean temperature. In this study, pace refers to the rate at which climate zones change as a function of amount of global warming. Here we show that present climate projections suggest that the pace of shifting climate zones increases approximately linearly with increasing global temperature. Using the RCP8.5 emissions pathway, the pace nearly doubles by the end of this century and about 20% of all land area undergoes a change in its original climate. This implies that species will have increasingly less time to adapt to Köppen zone changes in the future, which is expected to increase the risk of extinction.

  13. Effect of a Primary Care Walking Intervention with and without Nurse Support on Physical Activity Levels in 45- to 75-Year-Olds: The Pedometer And Consultation Evaluation (PACE-UP) Cluster Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Tess; Iliffe, Steve; Whincup, Peter H.; Ekelund, Ulf; Furness, Cheryl; Anokye, Nana; Ibison, Judith; DeWilde, Steve; David, Lee; Dale, Rebecca; Cook, Derek G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pedometers can increase walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels, but their effectiveness with or without support has not been rigorously evaluated. We assessed the effectiveness of a pedometer-based walking intervention in predominantly inactive adults, delivered by post or through primary care nurse-supported physical activity (PA) consultations. Methods and Findings A parallel three-arm cluster randomised trial was randomised by household, with 12-mo follow-up, in seven London, United Kingdom, primary care practices. Eleven thousand fifteen randomly selected patients aged 45–75 y without PA contraindications were invited. Five hundred forty-eight self-reporting achieving PA guidelines were excluded. One thousand twenty-three people from 922 households were randomised between 2012–2013 to one of the following groups: usual care (n = 338); postal pedometer intervention (n = 339); and nurse-supported pedometer intervention (n = 346). Of these, 956 participants (93%) provided outcome data (usual care n = 323, postal n = 312, nurse-supported n = 321). Both intervention groups received pedometers, 12-wk walking programmes, and PA diaries. The nurse group was offered three PA consultations. Primary and main secondary outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 mo in average daily step-counts and time in MVPA (in ≥10-min bouts), respectively, measured objectively by accelerometry. Only statisticians were masked to group. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Average baseline daily step-count was 7,479 (standard deviation [s.d.] 2,671), and average time in MVPA bouts was 94 (s.d. 102) min/wk. At 12 mo, mean steps/d, with s.d. in parentheses, were as follows: control 7,246 (2,671); postal 8,010 (2,922); and nurse support 8,131 (3,228). PA increased in both intervention groups compared with the control group; additional steps/d were 642 for postal (95% CI 329–955) and 677 for nurse support (95% CI 365–989); additional MVPA in bouts

  14. Quiet breathing in hindlimb casted mice.

    PubMed

    Receno, Candace N; Roffo, Katelynn E; Mickey, Marisa C; DeRuisseau, Keith C; DeRuisseau, Lara R

    2018-06-07

    The hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters were obtained utilizing unrestrained barometric plethysmography (UBP). Breathing traces were analyzed with Ponemah software for breathing frequency, tidal volume (TV), and minute ventilation (MV). Frequency, TV and MV did not show any differences in quiet breathing patterns during or post-casting in mice. Thus, the hindlimb casting model does not complicate breathing during and after casting and should not interfere with the unloading and reloading of skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  16. A proteomic approach reveals transient association of reticulocalbin-3, a novel member of the CREC family, with the precursor of subtilisin-like proprotein convertase, PACE4

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Yayoi; Sato, Yukimi; Koide, Shizuyo; Yuasa, Keizo; Nagahama, Masami; Matsuda, Yoshiko

    2006-01-01

    SPCs (subtilisin-like proprotein convertases) are a family of seven structurally related serine endoproteases that are involved in the proteolytic activation of proproteins. In an effort to examine the substrate protein for PACE4 (paired basic amino-acid-cleaving enzyme-4), an SPC, a potent protein inhibitor of PACE4, an α1-antitrypsin RVRR (Arg-Val-Arg-Arg) variant, was expressed in GH4C1 cells. Ectopic expression of the RVRR variant caused accumulation of the 48 kDa protein in cells. Sequence analysis indicates that the 48 kDa protein is a putative Ca2+-binding protein, RCN-3 (reticulocalbin-3), which had previously been predicted by bioinformatic analysis of cDNA from the human hypothalamus. RCN-3 is a member of the CREC (Cab45/reticulocalbin/ERC45/calumenin) family of multiple EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins localized to the secretory pathway. The most interesting feature of the RCN-3 sequence is the presence of five Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Arg motifs, which represents the target sequence of SPCs. Biosynthetic studies showed that RCN-3 is transiently associated with proPACE4, but not with mature PACE4. Inhibition of PACE4 maturation by a Ca2+ ionophore resulted in accumulation of the proPACE4–RCN-3 complex in cells. Furthermore, autoactivation and secretion of PACE4 was increased upon co-expression with RCN-3. Our findings suggest that selective and transient association of RCN-3 with the precursor of PACE4 plays an important role in the biosynthesis of PACE4. PMID:16433634

  17. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  18. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  19. The Search for Learning Community in Learner Paced Distance Education: Or, "Having Your Cake and Eating It, Too!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Annand, David; Wark, Norine

    2005-01-01

    University distance and e-learning programs generally follow one of two models. Most dual mode institutions and some open universities follow a model of cohort learning. Students start and terminate each course at the same time, and proceed at the same pace. This model allows for occasional or regular group based activities. The second model,…

  20. (13)C breath tests in personalized medicine: fiction or reality?

    PubMed

    Modak, Anil S

    2009-11-01

    The concept of personalized medicine is gathering momentum as various biomarkers are being discovered and developed to lead to genotype and phenotype diagnostic tests, which will enable physicians to individualize therapy. Noninvasive, rapid (13)C breath tests have the potential to serve as clinically significant diagnostic tools, especially for evaluating the enzyme activity of polymorphic enzymes. This would enable physicians to rapidly identify responders/nonresponders to various drugs primarily metabolized by these enzymes prior to initiation of therapy. With the information on enzyme activity, the physician can prescribe the right drug, at the right dose, at the right time, to the right individual, for the right clinical outcome. However, the promise of the era of personalized medicine, including the novel (13)C breath tests, will have to overcome several regulatory, business and financial hurdles for diagnostic tests to become part of routine mainstream clinical practice over the next decade.

  1. Effect of age and performance on pacing of marathon runners

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Knechtle, Beat

    2017-01-01

    Pacing strategies in marathon runners have previously been examined, especially with regard to age and performance level separately. However, less information about the age × performance interaction on pacing in age-group runners exists. The aim of the present study was to examine whether runners with similar race time and at different age differ for pacing. Data (women, n=117,595; men, n=180,487) from the “New York City Marathon” between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed. A between–within subjects analysis of variance showed a large main effect of split on race speed (p<0.001, η2=0.538) with the fastest speed in the 5–10 km split and the slowest in the 35–40 km. A small sex × split interaction on race speed was found (p<0.001, η2=0.035) with men showing larger increase in speed at 5 km and women at 25 km and 40 km (end spurt). An age-group × performance group interaction on Δspeed was shown for both sexes at 5 km, 10 km, 15 km, 20 km, 25 km, 30 km, 35 km, and 40 km (p<0.001, 0.001≤η2≤0.004), where athletes in older age-groups presented a relatively more even pace compared with athletes in younger age-groups, a trend that was more remarkable in the relatively slow performance groups. So far, the present study is the first one to observe an age × performance interaction on pacing; ie, older runners pace differently (smaller changes) than younger runners with similar race time. These findings are of great practical interest for coaches working with marathon runners of different age, but similar race time. PMID:28860876

  2. Pacing during an ultramarathon running event in hilly terrain

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Wiegand, Aaron N.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km) ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. Methods Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km) carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS) device. Using the GPS data, we determined the speed, relative to average total speed, in level (LEV), uphill (UH) and downhill (DH) gradient categories as a function of total distance, as well as the correlation between overall performance and speed variability, speed loss, and total time stopped. Results There were no significant differences in normality, variances or means in the relative speed in 173-km and 103-km participants. Relative speed decreased in LEV, UH and DH. The main component of speed loss occurred between 5% and 50% of the event distance in LEV, and between 5% and 95% in UH and DH. There were no significant correlations between overall performance and speed loss, the variability of speed, or total time stopped. Conclusions Positive pacing was observed at all gradients, with the main component of speed loss occurring earlier (mixed pacing) in LEV compared to UH and DH. A speed reserve (increased speed in the last section) was observed in LEV and UH. The decrease in speed and variability of speed were more important in LEV and DH than in UH. The absence of a significant correlation between overall performance and descriptors of pacing is novel and indicates that pacing in ultramarathons in trails and hilly terrain differs to other types of running events. PMID:27812406

  3. Self-Paced Exercise, Affective Response, and Exercise Adherence: A Preliminary Investigation Using Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Dunsiger, Shira; Emerson, Jessica A; Gwaltney, Chad J; Monti, Peter M; Miranda, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Affective response to exercise may mediate the effects of self-paced exercise on exercise adherence. Fiftynine low-active (exercise <60 min/week), overweight (body mass index: 25.0-39.9) adults (ages 18-65) were randomly assigned to self-paced (but not to exceed 76% maximum heart rate) or prescribed moderate intensity exercise (64-76% maximum heart rate) in the context of otherwise identical 6-month print-based exercise promotion programs. Frequency and duration of exercise sessions and affective responses (good/bad) to exercise were assessed via ecological momentary assessment throughout the 6-month program. A regression-based mediation model was used to estimate (a) effects of experimental condition on affective response to exercise (path a = 0.20, SE = 0.28, f 2 = 0.02); (b) effects of affective response on duration/latency of the next exercise session (path b = 0.47, SE = 0.25, f 2 = 0.04); and (c) indirect effects of experimental condition on exercise outcomes via affective response (path ab = 0.11, SE = 0.06, f 2 = 0.10). Results provide modest preliminary support for a mediational pathway linking self-paced exercise, affective response, and exercise adherence.

  4. Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled human breath: exercise and resting determinations.

    PubMed

    Mantione, Kirk J; Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2007-03-01

    Nitric oxide has become a vital indicator of health since many cells produce it constitutively. It is present in exhaled breath and can be measured. A Kiernan NO Breath analyzer (KNB) was used in the present study to determine nitric oxide (NO) levels in exhaled human breath. The KNB was calibrated via measuring NO gas in O2-free N2 obtained from Scott Specialty Gases. Human subjects aged 21 to 45 were instructed to place the KNB over their nose and mouth and to breathe normally before and after mild exercise (n=24) and relaxation (n=20). Mean exhaled NO measurements were compared before and after the protocols using paired t-tests. Regardless of the test, all subjects exhibited NO in their exhaled breath. Exhaled NO decreased significantly after exercise compared to the first reading just prior to the exercise protocol. The mean +/-SE of exhaled NO was 22.8+/-4 before and 13.0+/-2 ppb after exercise (n=24, P=0.003). In the resting experiment, exhaled NO was demonstrated to increase significantly after 10 min compared to the reading taken right after the individuals sat down. The present study demonstrates NO in exhaled human breath can vary, reflecting the activity state of the individual. Additionally, the study demonstrates that NO in exhaled human breath can be measured rapidly, with high sensitivity, and in real time via the KNB, representing an affordable means to achieve this determination.

  5. The glucose breath test: a diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, Daniel; Boston, Francis M; Blank, David; Yalovsky, Morty; Mishkin, Seymour

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an indirect noninvasive indicator of proximal bacterial overgrowth, the glucose breath test, was of diagnostic value in inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty four of 71 Crohn's disease patients tested had a positive glucose breath test. No statistical conclusions could be drawn between the Crohn's disease activity index and glucose breath test status. Of patients with radiologic evidence of small bowel stricture(s), 96.0% had a positive glucose breath test, while only one of 46 negative glucose breath test patients had a stricture. The positive and negative predictive values for a positive glucose breath test as an indicator of stricture formation were 96.0% and 97.8%, respectively. This correlation was not altered in Crohn's disease patients with fistulae or status postresection of the terminal ileum. The data in ulcerative colitis were nondiagnostic. In conclusion, the glucose breath test appears to be an accurate noninvasive inexpensive diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) and secondary bacterial overgrowth in Crohn's disease.

  6. Breath acetone to monitor life style interventions in field conditions: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Samudrala, Devasena; Lammers, Gerwen; Mandon, Julien; Blanchet, Lionel; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Harren, Frans J M; Tappy, Luc; Cristescu, Simona M

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether breath acetone concentration can be used to monitor the effects of a prolonged physical activity on whole body lipolysis and hepatic ketogenesis in field conditions. Twenty-three non-diabetic, 11 type 1 diabetic, and 17 type 2 diabetic subjects provided breath and blood samples for this study. Samples were collected during the International Four Days Marches, in the Netherlands. For each participant, breath acetone concentration was measured using proton transfer reaction ion trap mass spectrometry, before and after a 30-50 km walk on four consecutive days. Blood non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB), and glucose concentrations were measured after walking. Breath acetone concentration was significantly higher after than before walking, and was positively correlated with blood NEFA and BOHB concentrations. The effect of walking on breath acetone concentration was repeatedly observed on all four consecutive days. Breath acetone concentrations were higher in type 1 diabetic subjects and lower in type 2 diabetic subjects than in control subjects. Breath acetone can be used to monitor hepatic ketogenesis during walking under field conditions. It may, therefore, provide real-time information on fat burning, which may be of use for monitoring the lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. The Use of Breathing Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic, Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton E; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Research has shown a link between poor core stability and chronic, nonspecific low back pain, with data to suggest that alterations in core muscle activation patterns, breathing patterns, lung function, and diaphragm mechanics may occur. Traditional treatment approaches for chronic, nonspecific low back pain focus on exercise and manual therapy interventions, however it is not clear whether breathing exercises are effective in treating back pain. Focused Clinical Question: In adults with chronic, nonspecific low back pain, are breathing exercises effective in reducing pain, improving respiratory function, and/or health related quality of life? Summary of Key Findings: Following a literature search, 3 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. All reviewed studies were critically appraised at level 2 evidence and reported improvements in either low back pain or quality of life following breathing program intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: Exercise programs were shown to be effective in improving lung function, reducing back pain, and improving quality of life. Breathing program frequencies ranged from daily to 2-3 times per week, with durations ranging from 4 to 8 weeks. Based on these results, athletic trainers and physical therapists caring for patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain should consider the inclusion of breathing exercises for the treatment of back pain when such treatments align with the clinician's own judgment and clinical expertise and the patient's preferences and values. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the use of breathing exercises in the treatment of chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

  8. Electric ventilation: indications for and technical aspects of diaphragm pacing stimulation surgical implantation.

    PubMed

    Tedde, Miguel Lia; Onders, Raymond P; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lage, Silvia Gelas; Ballester, Gerson; Brotto, Mario Wilson Iersolino; Okumura, Erica Mie; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2012-01-01

    Patients with high cervical spinal cord injury are usually dependent on mechanical ventilation support, which, albeit life saving, is associated with complications and decreased life expectancy because of respiratory infections. Diaphragm pacing stimulation (DPS), sometimes referred to as electric ventilation, induces inhalation by stimulating the inspiratory muscles. Our objective was to highlight the indications for and some aspects of the surgical technique employed in the laparoscopic insertion of the DPS electrodes, as well as to describe five cases of tetraplegic patients submitted to the technique. Patient selection involved transcutaneous phrenic nerve studies in order to determine whether the phrenic nerves were preserved. The surgical approach was traditional laparoscopy, with four ports. The initial step was electrical mapping in order to locate the "motor points" (the points at which stimulation would cause maximal contraction of the diaphragm). If the diaphragm mapping was successful, four electrodes were implanted into the abdominal surface of the diaphragm, two on each side, to stimulate the branches of the phrenic nerve. Of the five patients, three could breathe using DPS alone for more than 24 h, one could do so for more than 6 h, and one could not do so at all. Although a longer follow-up period is needed in order to reach definitive conclusions, the initial results have been promising. At this writing, most of our patients have been able to remain ventilator-free for long periods of time.

  9. Pacing Strategy, Muscle Fatigue, and Technique in 1500-m Speed-Skating and Cycling Time Trials.

    PubMed

    Stoter, Inge K; MacIntosh, Brian R; Fletcher, Jared R; Pootz, Spencer; Zijdewind, Inge; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate pacing behavior and peripheral and central contributions to muscle fatigue in 1500-m speed-skating and cycling time trials when a faster or slower start is instructed. Nine speed skaters and 9 cyclists, all competing at regional or national level, performed two 1500-m time trials in their sport. Athletes were instructed to start faster than usual in 1 trial and slower in the other. Mean velocity was measured per 100 m. Blood lactate concentrations were measured. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), and potentiated twitch (PT) of the quadriceps muscles were measured to estimate central and peripheral contributions to muscle fatigue. In speed skating, knee, hip, and trunk angles were measured to evaluate technique. Cyclists showed a more explosive start than speed skaters in the fast-start time trial (cyclists performed first 300 m in 24.70 ± 1.73 s, speed skaters in 26.18 ± 0.79 s). Both trials resulted in reduced MVC (12.0% ± 14.5%), VA (2.4% ± 5.0%), and PT (25.4% ± 15.2%). Blood lactate concentrations after the time trial and the decrease in PT were greater in the fast-start than in the slow-start trial. Speed skaters showed higher trunk angles in the fast-start than in the slow-start trial, while knee angles remained similar. Despite similar instructions, behavioral adaptations in pacing differed between the 2 sports, resulting in equal central and peripheral contributions to muscle fatigue in both sports. This provides evidence for the importance of neurophysiological aspects in the regulation of pacing. It also stresses the notion that optimal pacing needs to be studied sport specifically, and coaches should be aware of this.

  10. The behavior of an opponent alters pacing decisions in 4-km cycling time trials.

    PubMed

    Konings, Marco J; Schoenmakers, Patrick P J M; Walker, Andrew J; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to explore how athletes respond to different behaviors of their opponents. Twelve moderately to highly physically active participants with at least two years of cycling experience completed four 4-km time trials on a Velotron cycle ergometer. After a familiarization time trial (FAM), participants performed three experimental time trials in randomized order with no opponent (NO), a virtual opponent who started slower and finished faster compared to FAM (OP-SLOWFAST), or a virtual opponent who started faster and finished slower compared to FAM (OP-FASTSLOW). Repeated-measures ANOVAs (P<0.05) were used to examine differences in pacing and performance related to power output, velocity and RPE. OP-SLOWFAST and OP-FASTSLOW were completed faster compared to NO (385.5±27.5, 385.0±28.6, and 390.6±29.3s, respectively). An interaction effect for condition×distance (F=3.944, P<0.001) indicated differences in pacing profiles between conditions. Post-hoc analysis revealed that a less aggressive starting strategy was adopted in NO compared to OP-FASTSLOW and OP-SLOWFAST during the initial 1000m. Finally, a faster starting opponent evokes higher power outputs by the participants in the initial 750m compared to a slower starting opponent. The present study is the first to show that the behavior of an opponent affects pacing-related decisions in laboratory-controlled conditions. Our findings support the recently proposed interdependence of perception and action, and emphasize the interaction with the environment as an important determinant for an athlete's pacing decisions, especially during the initial stages of a race. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of recovery interventions on cycling performance and pacing strategy in the heat.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Vanparijs, Jef; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-03-01

    To determine the effect of active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR), and cold-water immersion (CWI) after 90 min of intensive cycling on a subsequent 12-min time trial (TT2) and the applied pacing strategy in TT2. After a maximal test and familiarization trial, 9 trained male subjects (age 22 ± 3 y, VO2max 62.1 ± 5.3 mL · min-1 · kg-1) performed 3 experimental trials in the heat (30°C). Each trial consisted of 2 exercise tasks separated by 1 h. The first was a 60-min constant-load trial at 55% of the maximal power output followed by a 30-min time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12-min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1, AR, PR, or CWI was applied for 15 min. No significant TT2 performance differences were observed, but a 1-sample t test (within each condition) revealed different pacing strategies during TT2. CWI resulted in an even pacing strategy, while AR and PR resulted in a gradual decline of power output after the onset of TT2 (P ≤ .046). During recovery, AR and CWI showed a trend toward faster blood lactate ([BLa]) removal, but during TT2 significantly higher [BLa] was only observed after CWI compared with PR (P = .011). The pacing strategy during subsequent cycling performance in the heat is influenced by the application of different postexercise recovery interventions. Although power was not significantly altered between groups, CWI enabled a differently shaped power profile, likely due to decreased thermal strain.

  12. Permanent His-bundle pacing: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zanon, Francesco; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Dandamudi, Gopi; Sharma, Parikshit S; Huang, Weijian; Lustgarten, Daniel L; Tung, Roderick; Tada, Hiroshi; Koneru, Jayanthi N; Bergemann, Tracy; Fagan, Dedra H; Hudnall, John Harrison; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi

    2018-04-26

    Permanent cardiac pacing of the His-bundle restores and retains normal electrical activation of the ventricles. Data on His-bundle pacing (HBP) are largely limited to small single-centre reports, and clinical benefits and risks have not been systematically examined. We sought to systematically examine published studies of patients undergoing permanent HBP and quantify the benefits and risks of the therapy. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for full-text articles on permanent HBP. Clinical outcomes of interest included implant success rate, procedural and lead complications, pacing thresholds, QRS duration, and ejection fraction at follow-up, and mortality. Data were extracted and summarized. Where possible, meta-analysis of aggregate data was performed. Out of 2876 articles, 26 met the inclusion criteria representing 1438 patients with an implant attempt. Average age of patients was 73 years and 62.1% were implanted due to atrioventricular block. Overall average implant success rate was 84.8% and was higher with use of catheter-delivered systems (92.1%; P < 0.001). Average pacing thresholds were 1.71 V at implant and 1.79 V at >3 months follow-up; although, pulse widths varied at testing. Average left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) were 42.8% at baseline and 49.5% at follow-up. There were 43 complications observed in 907 patients across the 17 studies that reported safety information. Among 26 articles of permanent HBP, the implant success rate averaged 84.8% and LVEF improved by an average of 5.9% during follow-up. Specific reporting of our clinical outcomes of interest varied widely, highlighting the need for uniform reporting in future HBP trials.

  13. Postural Change Alters Autonomic Responses to Breath-Holding

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony; Stewart, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 yrs) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen saturation (SaO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded. Cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. While breath-holding, ETCO2 increased significantly from 41±2 to 60±2 Torr during supine (p<0.05) and 38±2 Torr to 58±2 during HUT60 (p<0.05); SaO2 decreased from 98±1.5% to 95±1.4% supine, and from 97±1.5% to 94±1.7% during HUT60 (p=NS). MSNA showed three distinctive phases - a quiescent phase due to pulmonary stretch associated with decreased MAP, HR, CO and TPR; a second phase of baroreflex-mediated elevated MSNA which was associated with recovery of MAP and HR only during HUT60; CO and peripheral resistance returned to baseline while supine and HUT60; a third phase of further increased MSNA activity related to hypercapnia and associated with increased TPR. Breath-holding results in initial reductions of MSNA, MAP and HR by the pulmonary stretch reflex followed by increased sympathetic activity related to the arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex. PMID:20012144

  14. Diaphragm pacing system implanted in a patient with ALS.

    PubMed

    Kotan, Dilcan; Kaymak, Kamil; Gündogdu, Aslı Aksoy

    2016-08-10

    The diaphragm pacing system (DPS) is a life quality improving operation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients who need mechanical ventilation or have chronic respiratory insufficiency. This procedure is gaining in popularity, and the number of centers implanting diaphragm pacing systems (DPS) is increasing. DPS delays the need for a ventilation machine in the early stages of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease. In this case study, we present a young female ALS patient. A DPS was implanted after respiratory insufficiency began. In the one-year follow-up period following her operation, her need for ventilatory support disappeared.

  15. Improved ROS defense in the swimbladder of a facultative air-breathing erythrinid fish, jeju, compared to a non-air-breathing close relative, traira.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-07-01

    The jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and the traira Hoplias malabaricus are two closely related erythrinid fish, both possessing a two-chambered physostomous swimbladder. In the jeju the anterior section of the posterior bladder is highly vascularized and the swimbladder is used for aerial respiration; the traira, in turn, is a water-breather that uses the swimbladder as a buoyancy organ and not for aerial oxygen uptake. Observation of the breathing behavior under different levels of water oxygenation revealed that the traira started aquatic surface respiration only under severe hypoxic conditions and did not breathe air. In the jeju air-breathing behavior was observed under normoxic conditions, and the frequency of air-breathing was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, even under hyperoxic conditions (30 mg O2 L(-1)) the jeju continued to take air breaths, and compared with normoxic conditions the frequency was not reduced. Because the frequently air-exposed swimbladder tissue faces higher oxygen partial pressures than normally experienced by other fish tissues, it was hypothesized that in the facultative air-breathing jeju, swimbladder tissue would have a higher antioxidative capacity than the swimbladder tissue of the water breathing traira. Measurement of total glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentration in anterior and posterior swimbladder tissue revealed a higher concentration of this antioxidant in swimbladder tissue as compared to muscle tissue in the jeju. Furthermore, the GSSG/GSH concentration in jeju tissues was significantly higher than in traira tissues. Similarly, activities of enzymes involved in the breakdown of reactive oxygen species were significantly higher in the jeju swimbladder as compared to the traira swimbladder. The results show that the jeju, using the swimbladder as an additional breathing organ, has an enhanced antioxidative capacity in the swimbladder as compared to the traira, using the swimbladder only as a

  16. Impact of endotracheal tube shortening on work of breathing in neonatal and pediatric in vitro lung models.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Rebecca; Thomas, Jörg; Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Weiss, Markus; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2017-09-01

    Work of breathing accounts for a significant proportion of total oxygen consumption in neonates and infants. Endotracheal tube inner diameter and length significantly affect airflow resistance and thus work of breathing. While endotracheal tube shortening reduces endotracheal tube resistance, the impact on work of breathing in mechanically ventilated neonates and infants remains unknown. The objective of this in vitro study was to quantify the effect of endotracheal tube shortening on work of breathing in simulated pediatric lung settings. We hypothesized that endotracheal tube shortening significantly reduces work of breathing. We used the Active-Servo-Lung 5000 to simulate different clinical scenarios in mechanically ventilated infants and neonates under spontaneous breathing with and without pressure support. Endotracheal tube size, lung resistance, and compliance, as well as respiratory settings such as respiratory rate and tidal volume were weight and age adapted for each lung model. Work of breathing was measured before and after maximal endotracheal tube shortening and the reduction of the daily energy demand calculated. Tube shortening with and without pressure support decreased work of breathing to a maximum of 10.1% and 8.1%, respectively. As a result, the calculated reduction of total daily energy demand by endotracheal tube shortening was between 0.002% and 0.02%. In this in vitro lung model, endotracheal tube shortening had minimal effects on work of breathing. Moreover, the calculated percentage reduction of the total daily energy demand after endotracheal tube shortening was minimal. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate acidity.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Barta, Imre; Antus, Balázs; Horváth, Ildikó

    2008-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a developing method for investigating airway pathology. Impact of food and drink on breath condensate composition has not been systematically addressed. The aim of the study was to follow exhaled breath condensate pH after drinking an acidic and a neutral beverage. Breath condensate, capillary blood, and urine of 12 healthy volunteers were collected before and after drinking either 1 l of coke or 1 l of mineral water. The pH of each sample was determined with a blood gas analyzer. The mean difference between the pH of two breath condensate samples collected within 15 min before drinking was 0.13+/-0.03. Condensate pH decreased significantly from 6.29+/-0.02 to 6.24+/-0.02 (p<0.03) after drinking coke and from 6.37+/-0.03 to 6.22+/-0.04 (p<0.003) after drinking water. Drinking coke induced significant changes in blood and urine pH as well. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate composition and may contribute to the variability of exhaled breath condensate pH.

  18. Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

  19. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    PubMed

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  20. Networks within networks: The neuronal control of breathing

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alfredo J.; Zanella, Sebastien; Koch, Henner; Doi, Atsushi; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Breathing emerges through complex network interactions involving neurons distributed throughout the nervous system. The respiratory rhythm generating network is composed of micro networks functioning within larger networks to generate distinct rhythms and patterns that characterize breathing. The pre-Bötzinger complex, a rhythm generating network located within the ventrolateral medulla assumes a core function without which respiratory rhythm generation and breathing cease altogether. It contains subnetworks with distinct synaptic and intrinsic membrane properties that give rise to different types of respiratory rhythmic activities including eupneic, sigh, and gasping activities. While critical aspects of these rhythmic activities are preserved when isolated in in vitro preparations, the pre-Bötzinger complex functions in the behaving animal as part of a larger network that receives important inputs from areas such as the pons and parafacial nucleus. The respiratory network is also an integrator of modulatory and sensory inputs that imbue the network with the important ability to adapt to changes in the behavioral, metabolic, and developmental conditions of the organism. This review summarizes our current understanding of these interactions and relates the emerging concepts to insights gained in other rhythm generating networks. PMID:21333801