Fain, O; Mekinian, A
Pachymeningitis is a fibrosing and inflammatory process, which involves the dura mater. Some pachymeningitis are cranial and induce headaches and cranial nerve palsies. Others are spinal and responsible for nerve roots or spinal cord compression. MRI shows contrast enhancement thickening of the dura mater. Etiologies are infectious (syphilis, tuberculosis, etc.) or inflammatory (sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, IgG4-related disease, idiopathic). Corticosteroids are the main treatment. The use of immunosuppressive drugs or rituximab is yet to be determined and probably adapted to each etiology. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Auboire, Laurent; Boutemy, Jonathan; Constans, Jean Marc; Le Gallou, Thomas; Busson, Philippe; Bienvenu, Boris
Although occipital neuralgia is usually caused by degenerative arthropathy, nearly 20 other aetiologies may lead to this condition. We present the first case report of hypertrophic pachymeningitis revealed by isolated occipital neuralgia. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a plausible cause of occipital neuralgia and may present without cranial-nerve palsy. There is no consensus on the treatment for idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis, but the usual approach is to start corticotherapy and then to add immunosuppressants. When occipital neuralgia is not clinically isolated or when a first-line treatment fails, another disease diagnosis should be considered. However, the cost effectiveness of extended investigations needs to be considered.
Vargas-Bellina, V; Saavedra-Pastor, H; Alvarado-Rosales, M; Porras-Carrión, M; Cjuno-Pinto, R; Gonzales-Quispe, I; Alban-Zapata, G
Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a clinical condition that is caused by a diffuse or localised thickening of the dura mater. It predominantly affects males and manifests as chronic headache, with or without association to neurological manifestations, such as paralysis of the cranial nerves, cerebellar ataxia and neuro-ophthalmic complications. A 61-year-old male, with no relevant past history, who, one month before admission, had begun to suffer from right frontotemporal headache that irradiated to the ipsilateral orbital region and was more pronounced at night. A week later he was affected by a decrease in visual acuity in the right eye and two weeks later he noted the presence of right palpebral ptosis, while the headaches increased. The examination showed: right palpebral ptosis with global ophthalmoparesis with predominance of adduction and abduction, and diminished photomotor reflex in the right eye. The visual acuity of the right eye was reduced and the palpebral fissure was 0 in the right eye. The fundus oculi was normal. Infectious and non-infectious causations of meningitis were precluded. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse thickening of the supratentorial and infratentorial meninges, as well as diffuse uptake of the paramagnetic substance; thickening of the mucus in both paranasal maxillary sinuses was also observed. A meningeal biopsy study confirmed the existence of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Treatment was established with prednisone and the clinical symptoms improved. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis is an underdiagnosed condition that must be taken into consideration in cases of patients with a history of subacute or chronic meningitis in which infectious and non-infectious causations have been precluded, and high-dose steroid treatment must be established.
Heo, Mi Hwa; Cho, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Park, Yeon Hee
To evaluate the clinical features and prognoses of patients with isolated pachymeningeal metastasis (IPM) from breast cancer. We reviewed the medical records of all patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated from January 2009 to August 2016. Eligibility criteria included diagnosis of pachymeningeal metastasis based on brain magnetic resonance imaging and histologic diagnosis of primary breast cancer. We excluded patients with concomitant parenchymal or leptomeningeal metastases. Thirty-eight patients who matched our inclusion criteria were included in this study. The incidence of IPM in breast cancer was 1.5% of all patients with MBC. The molecular subtype distribution was: triple negative, 29.0%; ER+/HER2-, 44.7%; ER+/HER2+, 18.4%; and ER-/HER2+, 7.9%. All isolated pachymeningeal involvement resulted from the direct extension of skull metastases. The median time to IPM from systemic metastasis was 28.6 (95% CI: 23.6-33.6) months. The median time to IPM from skull metastasis was 5.2 (95% CI: 0-10.9) months. The median overall survival (OS) from IPM was 4.0 (95% CI: 2.5-5.5) months. In patients who received chemotherapy the OS was longer than for those who received radiotherapy or supportive care only [median OS 8.9 (95% CI: 0.0-18.4), 2.8 (95% CI: 0.5-5.0), and 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6-1.1) months, respectively (p = 0.006)]. Multivariate analysis revealed that good performance status and chemotherapy were associated with better survival outcomes. Stratified evaluation is required for patients with skull metastasis from breast cancer, as pachymeningeal involvement can develop and be associated with unsuspected outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Harsch, Igor Alexander; Schiffer, Anne; Konturek, Peter C
To investigate a potential cause of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). A 70-year-old female patient had nausea and collapsed. Although euvolemic, pathological laboratory findings showed hyponatremia and hypoosmolality, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Secondary hypertrophic pachymeningitis was excluded. Other nonneurological reasons for SIADH were also excluded. Moderate fluid restriction restored an almost normal serum osmolality and sodium. This case of SIADH was conservatively treated with moderate fluid restriction that almost restored normal serum osmolality and sodium levels. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Harsch, Igor Alexander; Schiffer, Anne; Konturek, Peter C.
Objective To investigate a potential cause of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 70-year-old female patient had nausea and collapsed. Although euvolemic, pathological laboratory findings showed hyponatremia and hypoosmolality, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Secondary hypertrophic pachymeningitis was excluded. Other nonneurological reasons for SIADH were also excluded. Moderate fluid restriction restored an almost normal serum osmolality and sodium. Conclusion This case of SIADH was conservatively treated with moderate fluid restriction that almost restored normal serum osmolality and sodium levels. PMID:28245481
Briani, Chiara; Manara, Renzo; Lessi, Federica; Citton, Valentina; Zambello, Renato; Adami, Fausto
POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease associated with plasma cell dyscrasia and increased serum or plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, the latter likely responsible for several POEMS syndrome manifestations. Whereas peripheral neuropathy is the main neurological feature and a mandatory diagnostic criterium, central nervous system involvement is less common except for papilledema and stroke. We recently reported the frequent occurrence at brain MRI of cranial pachymeningeal involvement ina series of POEMS syndrome patients. Meningeal histopathology revealed hyperplasia of meningothelial cells, neovascularization, and obstructive vessel remodeling without inflammatory signs pointing to a role of VEGF in the meningeal manifestations. Here, we report the dramatic pachymeningeal improvement in patients undergoing lenalidomide therapy. These findings support the therapeutic role of lenalidomide and might shed further light on the pathophysiology of the disease
Caldas, Ana Rita; Brandao, Mariana; Paula, Filipe Seguro; Castro, Elsa; Farinha, Fatima; Marinho, Antonio
Hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) is an uncommon disorder characterized by localized or diffuse thickening of the dura mater, and it usually presents with multiple cranial neurophaties. It has been associated with a variety of inflammatory, infectious, traumatic, toxic and neoplasic diseases, when no specific cause is found the process is called idiopathic. The infectious cases occur in patients under systemic immunosuppression, which have an evident contiguous source or those who have undergone neurosurgical procedures. We describe a case of a 62-year-old immunosuppressed woman with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, which had HCP and osteomyelitis of the skull base caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa, presenting with headache and diplopia. We believe this is the second documented case of pachymeningitis secondary to this microorganism. As a multifactorial disease, it is essencial to determine the specific causative agent of HCP before making treatment decisions, and great care is needed with immunocompromised patients. Keywords Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Hypertrophic pachymeningitis; Ophtalmoplegia, optical neuropathy; Osteomyelitis; Skull base PMID:22505989
Shiraishi, Wataru; Hayashi, Shintaro; Iwanaga, Yasutaka; Murai, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Akifumi; Kira, Jun-ichi
A 43-year-old woman with a 3-year history of headache, fever, and swelling of the forehead, presented to our hospital. A general examination revealed palmar and plantar pustules. Blood analyses showed an elevated white blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Brain MRI revealed a partially thickened cranial bone with gadolinium enhancement, and also abnormally enhanced dura mater. Bone scintigraphy showed involvement of the cranial bone and bilateral sternoclavicular joints. Palmar skin biopsy indicated palmoplantar pustulosis. From these results, SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome with associated hypertrophic pachymeningitis was diagnosed. After corticosteroid therapy and tonsillectomy, the clinical symptoms and radiological abnormalities were improved. Clinicians should be aware of SAPHO as a potential unusual cause of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shi, C H; Niu, S T; Zhang, Z Q
The objective of this study was to examine the clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological features, and treatment experiments of patients with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP). The clinical findings, MRI, and pathological appearances of 9 patients with HCP were analyzed retrospectively. The thickened dura mater was markedly enhanced after contrast media injection. The lesion near the brain hemisphere presented long regions of T1- and T2-weighted abnormal signal intensities. The abnormal signal intensities of the brain tissue were decreased significantly. Pathological examination demonstrated chronic inflammation changes, with cerebral dura mater fibrous tissue showing obvious hyperplasia, and the periphery of the blood vessel showing a great quantity of infiltrating phlegmonosis cells. HCP mainly presents headache and paralysis of multiple cranial nerves. The distinctive signs on brain MRIs involve strengthening the signal in the cerebral dura.
Navalpotro-Gómez, Irene; Vivanco-Hidalgo, Rosa María; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Medrano-Martorell, Santiago; Alameda-Quitllet, Francisco; Villalba-Martínez, Gloria; Roquer, Jaume
Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (IHCP) is an uncommon disease of unknown etiology characterized by thickening of the cerebral dura mater with possible associated inflammation. The most frequently described clinical symptoms include headache, cranial nerve palsy, and cerebellar dysfunction. Epilepsy and/or status epilepticus as main presentation is very uncommon. Two consecutive cases are presented of patients manifesting focal status epilepticus secondary to IHCP, with clinical, laboratory [blood test and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis], neuroradiologic [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)], and therapeutic data. One patient underwent meningeal biopsy; pathology findings are also included. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in clinical improvement in both cases, and neuroimaging showed decreased abnormal morphology, compared to initial findings. In the diagnostic approach to focal status epilepticus or epilepsy, IHCP must be considered a potential, although extremely infrequent, cause. Anti-inflammatory treatment is an effective addition to antiepileptic drug therapy in patients with IHCP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Olubajo, Farouk; Yermakova, Tatyana; Highley, J Robin; Arzoglou, Vasileios
Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP), a rare diffuse inflammatory thickening of the dura mater, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are known entities but they have never been reported as concomitant diagnoses. To their knowledge, the authors present the first reported case in the international literature with supportive evidence for both IHSP (based on MRI, intraoperative, and histological findings) and GBS (based on history, clinical examination, and electrophysiological findings). They review the literature on IHSP and the diagnostic criteria for GBS, with the view of identifying a possible causative connection.
Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jun; Gui, Li
Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP) is a rare condition, characterized by a chronic fibrosing inflammatory process usually involving either the intracranial or spinal dura mater, but rarely both. Here, we report a rare case of IHP affecting both the intracranial and spinal dura mater. We also discussed the diagnosis, management, and outcome of IHP. We reviewed the case of a 60-year-old woman presenting with chronic headache, multiple cranial nerve palsies and gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her head revealed thickened and contrast-enhanced dura in the craniocervical region as well as obstructive hydrocephalus and cerebellar tonsillar herniation. The patient had a suboccipital craniectomy and posterior decompression through C1 plus a total laminectomy. The dura was partially resected to the extent of the bony decompression, and a duroplasty was performed. Microscopic examination of the surgically resected sample showed chronic inflammatory changes, lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltration, fibrous tissue hyperplasia, and hyaline degeneration. Blood tests to evaluate the secondary causes of hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) were unremarkable. Steroid was used to treat suspected IHP. Postoperatively, the patient showed gradual improvement in her headache, glossolalia, and bucking. Prior to discharge, a follow-up MRI showed improvement of the dura mater thickening. IHP is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the dura mater that usually causes neurological deficits. Clinical manifestations of IHP, MRI findings, and laboratory abnormalities are the essential components for making an accurate diagnosis. When the radiological or laboratory evaluation is uncertain, but neurological deficits are present, a prompt surgical approach should be considered. Postoperative steroid therapy and close observation for recurrence are necessary to ensure a good long-term outcome.
Yasuda, Ken; Sainouchi, Makoto; Goto, Masahiro; Murase, Nagako; Ohtani, Ryo; Nakamura, Michikazu
A 61-year-old woman developed hearing difficulties and became thirsty after experiencing cold symptoms. A neurological examination revealed a loss of odor sensation, facial palsy, dysphasia, and dysarthria. Vocal cord palsy was observed during pharyngoscopy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a thickened pituitary stalk and swelling of the pituitary gland, but no high signal intensity regions were seen in the posterior portion of the pituitary gland. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI demonstrated a thickened dura mater over the anterior cranial fossa. A biopsy specimen of the thickened dura mater showed fibrosis, granulomatous inflammation, and necrotic foci. Blood tests detected myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). The patient's urine osmolarity was low even though she exhibited hypernatremia. We diagnosed her with hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with MPO-ANCA and diabetes insipidus. The patient received two courses of 5-day high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (1.0 g/day), and was subsequently administered oral prednisolone, which gradually relieved her symptoms. However, the patient's symptoms recurred despite the high-dose prednisolone treatment. It was difficult to control the patient's symptoms in this case with oral prednisolone monotherapy, but combined treatment with cyclosporine resulted in sustained remission. It is considered that patients with MPO-ANCA-positive hypertrophic pachymeningitis require combination therapy with prednisolone and immunosuppressive agents at an early stage.
Mari, E; Maraldi, C; Grandi, E; Gallerani, M
We report the case of a 84-year-old man, with history of rheumatoid arthritis, admitted the Hospital for a fall and complaining of dysaesthesia and pain located to the cervical spine and arms. Within a few hours after admission, fever and acute, progressive, ascendant quadriplegia became evident. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cervical spine showed spinal canal stenosis between C4-C6 with spinal cord compression. Hemocultures resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The clinical picture rapidly evolved to sepsis with a fatal multi-organ failure. An autopsy found a osteosclerosis narrowing the neurocanal at the level of C3-C6, and recent cervical medulla infarction. A histological exam revealed the presence of a suppurative pachymeningitis with local phenomenas of periradiculitis, vasculitis and thrombosis of the anterior medullar artery, associated with coagulative necrosis of the neural tissue.
Fujisawa, Etsuco; Shibayama, Hidehiro; Mitobe, Fumi; Katada, Fumiaki; Sato, Susumu; Fukutake, Toshio
There have been 23 reports of primary central nervous system anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in the literature. Here we report the 24th case of a 40-year-old man who presented with occipital headache for one month. His contrast-enhanced brain MRI showed enhancement around the right temporal lobe, which suggested a diagnosis of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. He improved with steroid therapy. After discharge, however, he was readmitted with generalized convulsive seizures. Finally, he was diagnosed as primary central nervous system ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma by brain biopsy. Primary central nervous system lymphoma invading dura matter can rarely manifests as a unilateral pachymeningitis. Therefore, in case of pachymeningitis, we should pay attention to the possibility of infiltration of lymophoma with meticulous clinical follow-up.
Ferrante, E; Citterio, A; Savino, A; Santalucia, P
A 26-year-old man with Marfan's syndrome had postural headache. Brain MRI with gadolinium showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. MRI myelography revealed bilateral multiple large meningeal diverticula at sacral nerve roots level. He was suspected to have spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome. Eight days later headache improved with bed rest and hydration. One month after the onset he was asymptomatic and 3 months later brain MRI showed no evidence of diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. The 1-year follow-up revealed no neurological abnormalities. The intracranial hypotension syndrome likely resulted from a CSF leak from one of the meningeal diverticula. In conclusion patients with spinal meningeal diverticula (frequently seen in Marfan's syndrome) might be at increased risk of developing CSF leaks, possibly secondary to Valsalva maneuver or minor unrecognized trauma.
syndrome ; JCV 5 JC polyomavirus; NGS 5 next- generation sequencing; PML 5 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Ascertainment of the etiology of...Hunt-like syndrome and focal pachymeningitis. A 69-year-old man developed left-sided ptosis and Figure 1 Heatmap shows the top microbial species in each...The symptoms were followed by decreased vision, diplopia, ophthalmoplegia, and facial numbness. He was diagnosed with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and treated
Clinical features and treatment outcomes of otitis media with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (OMAAV): A retrospective analysis of 235 patients from a nationwide survey in Japan.
Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Kishibe, Kan; Tateyama, Kaori; Morita, Yuka; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kunimoto, Yasuomi; Matsui, Takamichi; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Okada, Masahiro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Inagaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Shigeto; Iino, Yukiko; Murakami, Shingo; Takahashi, Haruo; Tono, Tetsuya
We aimed to analyze clinical features and treatment outcomes of otitis media caused by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), i.e. otitis media with AAV (OMAAV). This survey was performed between December 2013 and February 2014. The study began with a preliminary survey to 123 otolaryngology institutions in Japan to inquire about their experiences with OMAAV patients during the past 10 years, and was followed by a questionnaire survey to investigate clinical and laboratory findings. OMAAV was defined using the criteria described in the text. Two hundred and thirty-five patients classified as OMAAV were enrolled in this study. They were characterized as follows: (1) disease onset with initial signs/symptoms due to intractable otitis media with effusion or granulation, which did not respond to ordinary treatments such as antibiotics and insertion of tympanic ventilation tubes, followed by progressive hearing loss; (2) predominantly female (73%) and older (median age: 68 years); (3) predominantly myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA-positive (60%), followed by proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA-positive (19%) and both ANCAs-negative (16%); (4) frequently observed accompanying facial palsy (36%) and hypertrophic pachymeningitis (28%); and (5) disease often involving lung (35%) and kidney (26%) lesions. Four factors associated with OMAAV were found to be related to an unfavorable clinical course threatening the patient's hearing and/or lives, namely facial palsy, hypertrophic pachymeningitis, both ANCAs-negative phenotype, and disease relapse. The occurrence of hypertrophic pachymeningitis was associated with facial palsy (p < 0.05), both ANCAs-negative phenotype (p < 0.001), and headache (p < 0.001). The administration of corticosteroid together with an immunosuppressant was an independent predicting factor for lack of disease relapse (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, p = 0.03) and an improvement in hearing loss (OR =2.58, p = 0.0002). Since
Chen, Yen-Hao; Huang, Cheng-Hua
Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma generally present at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The most common sites of visceral metastasis are the lung, liver and bone, but brain and bone marrow involvement is exceedingly rare. Herein, we report a 62-year-old man with a 4-wk history of progressive low back pain with radiation to bilateral lower legs, dysphagia and body weight loss. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with regional lymph node, liver and bone metastases was diagnosed. He underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy and got a partial response. Four months later, he complained of headache, diplopia and severe hearing impairment in the left ear. There was no evidence for bacterial, fungal, tuberculous infection or neoplastic infiltration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated thickening and enhancement of bilateral pachymeninges and multiple enhancing masses in bilateral skull. Dural metastasis was diagnosed and he received whole brain irradiation. In addition, laboratory examination revealed severe thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, and bone marrow study confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first described case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with dural and bone marrow metastases. We also discuss the pathogenesis of unusual metastatic diseases and differential diagnosis of pachymeningeal thickening.
Ohashi, Keiji; Morishita, Michiko; Watanabe, Haruki; Sada, Ken-Ei; Katsuyama, Takayuki; Miyawaki, Yoshia; Katsuyama, Eri; Narazaki, Mariko; Tatebe, Noriko; Watanabe, Katsue; Kawabata, Tomoko; Wada, Jun
We herein describe two cases of refractory antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) complicated with diabetes insipidus (DI) possibly related to hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP). One patient had microscopic polyangiitis and HP, which were refractory to cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and mizoribine. Remission was finally achieved with the use of etanercept, but DI occurred 5 years later. The other patient had granulomatosis with polyangiitis, which that was refractory to cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, MMF, and rituximab. DI subsequently developed, but was successfully treated with etanercept. Dura mater hypertrophy was macroscopically observed in the latter case.
Ohashi, Keiji; Morishita, Michiko; Watanabe, Haruki; Sada, Ken-Ei; Katsuyama, Takayuki; Miyawaki, Yoshia; Katsuyama, Eri; Narazaki, Mariko; Tatebe, Noriko; Watanabe, Katsue; Kawabata, Tomoko; Wada, Jun
We herein describe two cases of refractory antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) complicated with diabetes insipidus (DI) possibly related to hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP). One patient had microscopic polyangiitis and HP, which were refractory to cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and mizoribine. Remission was finally achieved with the use of etanercept, but DI occurred 5 years later. The other patient had granulomatosis with polyangiitis, which that was refractory to cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, MMF, and rituximab. DI subsequently developed, but was successfully treated with etanercept. Dura mater hypertrophy was macroscopically observed in the latter case. PMID:28943556
Floka, S E; Shifman, E M
The paper describes cranial nerve damage, a rare complication of neuroaxial anesthesia in obstetric care. In the literature, there are summarized data on 17 cases of neurological deficit developing after subarachnoidal or epidural anesthesia in puerperas. The etiological and pathogenetic factors of the above complications may be suggested to be the high disposition of a local anesthetic, arterial hypotension due to neuroaxial anesthetics, the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid after pachymeningeal puncture (including after unintended puncture during epidural anesthesia), and ischemic injury after the blood packing performed to relieve postpuncture headache. Closer consideration of these risk factors seems to reduce the incidence of cranial nerve damage in puerperas.
Bathla, G; Watal, P; Gupta, S; Nagpal, P; Mohan, S; Moritani, T
Involvement of the central nervous system by sarcoidosis, also referred to as neurosarcoidosis, is seen clinically in about 5% of patients with systemic disease. CNS involvement most frequently affects the leptomeninges and cranial nerves, though the ventricular system, brain parenchyma, and pachymeninges may also be involved. Even though the involvement of the intracranial vascular structures is well-known on postmortem studies, there is scant literature on imaging manifestations secondary to the vessel wall involvement, being confined mostly to isolated case reports and small series. The authors present a review of various cerebrovascular manifestations of neurosarcoidosis, along with a brief synopsis of the existing literature. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Kusunoki-Nakamoto, Fumiko; Matsukawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaki; Miyagawa, Toji; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Shimizu, Jun; Ikemura, Masako; Shibahara, Junji; Tsuji, Shoji
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a disease characterized by tumorous lesions consisting of myofibroblastic spindle cells and inflammatory cells that occur primarily in the soft tissues and viscera of children and young adults. Total excision is the most effective therapy. Steroids have been used to treat unresectable lesions with some success. We herein report a case of IMT involving the frontal bone accompanied by pachymeningitis. The tumor was characterized by an aggressive clinical course that was refractory to prednisolone. Performing total excision seemed difficult. Celecoxib and methotrexate were effective treatments. Our experience suggests the efficacy of celecoxib and methotrexate as alternatives for treating unresectable IMT.
Drier, A; Bonneville, F; Haroche, J; Amoura, Z; Dormont, D; Chiras, J
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic disease (SD) is unusual. MRI features of such lesions are unfamiliar to most radiologists. The diagnosis of SD is still based on clinical features and laboratory findings but some characteristic MRI findings exist for each SD: micronodular leptomeningeal enhancement in sarcoidosis, diffuse or focal pachymeningeal involvement in Wegener disease, dentate nuclei and brain stem lesions in Langerhans cell histiocytosis, meningeal masses, dentate nuclei lesions and periarterial infiltration in Erdheim-Chester disease, meningeal masses in Rosai-Dorfman disease, veinular pontic lesions and cerebral vein thrombosis in Behçet, supratentorial microvascular lesions in lupus and antiphospholipid and Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome. In this work, we explain, describe and illustrate the most characteristic MRI findings for each disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Thomas, B; Thamburaj, K; Kesavadas, C
A forty- seven-year-old man presented with chronic headache with lower cranial nerve palsies of ten year duration with recent aggravation of symptoms. MRI revealed hypointensity - predominantly of the posterior falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli - on all sequences with intense peripheral contrast enhancement on CE SE T1, which on coronal images mimicked the illuminated Eiffel tower by night.
Di Ieva, A; Di Lieva, A; Aimar, E; Tancioni, F; Levi, D; Debernardi, A; Pisano, P; Rahal, D; Nozza, A; Magagnoli, M; Gaetani, P
Idiopathic myelodysplastic syndrome is a disease characterized by a clonal stem cell disorder in which megacaryocitic and granulocytic lineages are mainly involved; extramedullary myeloid metaplasia is due to abnormal location of myeloid tissue in other organs than bone marrow. Rarely the central nervous system is involved. When it happens, it is typical to find masses around the brain and pachymeningeal thickening, but it is very rare to find it associated with subdural haemorrhage, as in the case we describe in the present article. Considering our case and the literature we can suggest that radiological images associated with the clinical history of the patient suggestive for extramedullary hematopoiesis can be sufficient for a correct diagnosis and for a radiotherapy treatment, demanding surgery in the case of diagnostic doubts, massive hemorrahages or neurological decifits caused by the focal lesions.
Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar
A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.
Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios
Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dannawi, Zaher; Lennon, Shirley Evelyn; Zaidan, Ammar; Khazim, Rabi
A 28-year-old woman presented with a severe unremitting frontal postural headache associated with photophobia. This started immediately after standing following reaching orgasm during sexual intercourse. Fifty-two days previously, the patient underwent bilateral L4-L5 decompression laminotomies and a left L4-L5 discectomy for excision of a large herniated intervertebral disc. Subarachnoid haemorrhage was excluded with a CT scan. Brain and lumbar MRI showed enhancement of the pachymeninges and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak into the deep soft tissue planes. Conservative treatment for 5 days failed to alleviate the patient's symptoms. An exploration and repair of a dural tear was performed. Subsequently, the headache subsided but the patient developed a low-grade infection requiring 12 weeks of antibiotics. Six months later the patient was asymptomatic. This is the first case report of a delayed presentation of a dural tear occurring during sexual intercourse following lumbar surgery. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Kundu, Anjana; Sano, Yuko; Pagel, Paul S
To discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges presented by an adolescent girl with delayed postural headaches and photophobia that occurred three months after an apparently uncomplicated microscopic lumbar discectomy. A previously healthy girl was admitted to our hospital with a one-week history of an unremitting, frontal-retroorbital postural headache and photophobia. Three months before admission, the patient had undergone a L5-S1 left hemilaminotomy and foraminotomy with microdiscectomy for excision of a herniated intervertebral disc. Conservative treatment failed to provide symptomatic relief. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed enhancement of the pachymeninges, consistent with intracranial hypotension. A chronic cerebrospinal leak was identified by high-resolution computed tomography (CT) myelography. Epidural blood patches were performed, with and without CT guidance, that provided temporary relief of the patient's symptoms; however, direct suture plication of the dural tear was eventually required for definitive treatment. This case emphasizes that delayed presentation of dural injury may occur after lumbar surgery and describes the potential therapeutic implications for this unusual complication.
Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is histologically characterized by systemic necrotizing vasculitis and is clinically classified into two phases, systemic or localized. Recently, otological symptoms such as otitis media and hearing loss, not previously often associated with AAV, have been reported in AAV cases. In these cases we propose a diagnosis of otitis media with AAV (OMAAV). The ANCA titer is important for the diagnosis of OMAAV, and in most cases rapid progressive hearing loss is observed as localized AAV. Peripheral facial nerve palsy or hypertrophic pachymeningitis are coupled with 25% of cases and 18% of cases respectively. Proteinase 3-ANCA (PR3-ANCA) positive otitis media causes granulomatous formation or middle ear effusion in the middle ear, on the other hand myeloperoxidase-ANCA (MPO-ANCA) positive otitis media predominantly presents as otitis media with effusion. The early diagnosed case and the sensorineural hearing loss not progressed deaf could be recovered by the immunosuppressive therapy. Delayed diagnosis of AAV occasionally leads to progression to the irreversible phase; therefore, diagnosis at the early-localized stage is important for treating AAV. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of this newly proposed concept of OMAAV.
Fink, Kathleen R; Fink, James R
Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Imaging is used to detect metastases in patients with known malignancies and new neurological signs or symptoms, as well as to screen for CNS involvement in patients with known cancer. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of brain metastases. In difficult cases, such as newly diagnosed solitary enhancing brain lesions in patients without known malignancy, advanced imaging techniques including proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), contrast enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may aid in arriving at the correct diagnosis. This image-rich review discusses the imaging evaluation of patients with suspected intracranial involvement and malignancy, describes typical imaging findings of parenchymal brain metastasis on CT and MRI, and provides clues to specific histological diagnoses such as the presence of hemorrhage. Additionally, the role of advanced imaging techniques is reviewed, specifically in the context of differentiating metastasis from high-grade glioma and other solitary enhancing brain lesions. Extra-axial CNS involvement by metastases, including pachymeningeal and leptomeningeal metastases is also briefly reviewed.
Kidd, Desmond P
Neurological complications of systemic sarcoidosis are uncommon and the natural history and optimal treatments under-researched. With the advent of modern biological therapies, it is important to define the clinical characteristics and immunopathology of the disease. Patients referred to and treated within the Centre for Neurosarcoidosis over a 15 year period who had biopsy-proven "highly probable" disease of the central nervous system were studied prospectively. 166 patients were studied, of whom two-thirds had involvement of the brain and spinal cord and the remainder cranial neuropathies and radiculopathy. Imaging was abnormal in all those with meningeal and parenchymal diseases, and was normal in 37% of those with cranial neuropathy. Those with leptomeningeal disease had a more severe disorder, with hydrocephalus and tissue destruction, whereas those with pachymeningeal disease had more striking imaging features but less neurological impairment. The CSF was active in 70% of cases, even when imaging was normal. Disability correlated with CSF indices in those with a leptomeningitis. Oligoclonal bands were seen in 30% of cases and correlated with disability and the presence of hydrocephalus. Unmatched bands were seen only in isolated neurological disease. This prospective study of neurosarcoidosis increases our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. A reclassification of the clinical and imaging features of the disease allows an understanding of its pathophysiology and correlation with CSF indices allows an early identification of those with a more destructive disease will help to define treatment and may thereby improve outcome.
Wicklund, M.R.; Mokri, B.; Drubach, D.A.; Boeve, B.F.; Parisi, J.E.
Background: Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a relatively well-defined clinical syndrome. It is associated with frontal and temporal lobe structural/metabolic changes and pathologic findings of a neurodegenerative disease. We have been evaluating patients with clinical and imaging features partially consistent with bvFTD but with evidence also suggestive of brain sagging, which we refer to as frontotemporal brain sagging syndrome (FBSS). Methods: Retrospective medical chart review to identify all patients seen at our institution between 1996 and 2010, who had a clinical diagnosis of FTD and imaging evidence of brain sag. Results: Eight patients, 7 male and 1 female, were diagnosed with FBSS. The median age at symptom onset was 53 years. All patients had insidious onset and slow progression of behavioral and cognitive dysfunction accompanied by daytime somnolence and headache. Of the 5 patients with functional imaging, all showed evidence of hypometabolism of the frontotemporal regions. On brain MRI, all patients had evidence of brain sagging with distortion of the brainstem; 3 patients had diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. CSF opening pressure was varied and CSF protein was mildly elevated. A definite site of CSF leak was not identified by myelogram or cisternography, except in one patient with a site highly suggestive of leak who subsequently underwent surgery confirming a CSF leak. In 2 patients with a neuropathologic examination, there was no evidence of a neurodegenerative disease. Conclusions: This case series demonstrates that FBSS may mimic typical bvFTD but should be recognized as an unusual presentation that is potentially treatable. PMID:21502595
Smirniotopoulos, James G; Murphy, Frances M; Rushing, Elizabeth J; Rees, John H; Schroeder, Jason W
Contrast material enhancement for cross-sectional imaging has been used since the mid 1970s for computed tomography and the mid 1980s for magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the patterns and mechanisms of contrast enhancement facilitate radiologic differential diagnosis. Brain and spinal cord enhancement is related to both intravascular and extravascular contrast material. Extraaxial enhancing lesions include primary neoplasms (meningioma), granulomatous disease (sarcoid), and metastases (which often manifest as mass lesions). Linear pachymeningeal (dura-arachnoid) enhancement occurs after surgery and with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Leptomeningeal (pia-arachnoid) enhancement is present in meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Superficial gyral enhancement is seen after reperfusion in cerebral ischemia, during the healing phase of cerebral infarction, and with encephalitis. Nodular subcortical lesions are typical for hematogenous dissemination and may be neoplastic (metastases) or infectious (septic emboli). Deeper lesions may form rings or affect the ventricular margins. Ring enhancement that is smooth and thin is typical of an organizing abscess, whereas thick irregular rings suggest a necrotic neoplasm. Some low-grade neoplasms are "fluid-secreting," and they may form heterogeneously enhancing lesions with an incomplete ring sign as well as the classic "cyst-with-nodule" morphology. Demyelinating lesions, including both classic multiple sclerosis and tumefactive demyelination, may also create an open ring or incomplete ring sign. Thick and irregular periventricular enhancement is typical for primary central nervous system lymphoma. Thin enhancement of the ventricular margin occurs with infectious ependymitis. Understanding the classic patterns of lesion enhancement--and the radiologic-pathologic mechanisms that produce them--can improve image assessment and differential diagnosis.