Sample records for pacientes con preeclampsia

  1. [EARLY DETECTION OF PREECLAMPSIA].

    PubMed

    Todorov, N

    2016-01-01

    The preeclampsia is one of the most serious complications in the second half of the pregnancy with a high risk of perinatal maternal and neonatal mortality. The study is aiming to determine which pregnant women have a higher risk of developing preeclampsia with a view to the subsequent antenatal care, on the base of the individual factors. From prospectively followed pacients is collected information by a questionnaire and sonographic examination at 11-13 weeks of gestation/w.g./ + 6 days, at the point of biochemical screening implementation. Selected is a group of women with one fetus pregnancy, non-smokers, without chromosomal and structural anomalies of the fetus, excluding those taking prophylactic low-dose of aspirin. The Doppler examination was transabdominaly performed on the ascending branch of the A. Uterina at the level of OICC.Pusatility and resistance index /Pi and Ri/ are bilaterally evaluated and converted to MoM for the relevant age of gestation. The information about the taken values of Pi, Ri, the presence of diastolic incisures and the development of preeclampsia /PE/ or pregnancy indused hypertension /PIH/ is analyzed at 205 pregnant women. Out of them high values of Pi have 9 pregnant women, who subsequently developed PE or PlH. The measurement of Pi at 12-13 weeks of gestation and presence of diastolic incisures have prognostic importance for the development of PE in the later period of pregnancy. The values of Ri, taken at 12-13 weeks of gestation have not essential importance in the forecast of preeclamsia development.

  2. Genes del receptor variable beta de células T en células circulantes de pacientes con lupus eritematoso generalizado y sus familiares sanos.

    PubMed

    Jakez-Ocampo, Juan; Paulín-Vera, Carmen María; Rivadeneyra-Espinoza, Liliana; Gómez-Martín, Diana; Carrillo-Maravilla, Eduardo; Lima, Guadalupe; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Pérez-Romano, Beatriz; Calva-Cevenini, Gabriella; García-Carrasco, Mario; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; Llorente, Luis

    Se investigó la proporción de la expresión génica del receptor variable beta de células T (Vβ TCR) en linfocitos periféricos CD3+ en pacientes con lupus eritematoso generalizado (LEG) familiar y no familiar. El repertorio de Vβ TCR se estudió en 14 familias que presentaban más de un miembro con LEG. El uso de Vβ TCR en pacientes con LEG (n = 27) se comparó con el de los miembros sanos de estas familias (n = 47), con 37 pacientes con LEG esporádico y con 15 controles sanos. La expresión del repertorio de Vβ TCR se estudió por citometría de flujo multiparamétrica utilizando un arreglo de 24 diferentes anticuerpos monoclonales específicos de genes familiares para Vβ TCR. Se encontró el mismo perfil de expresión en las comparaciones entre los casos de LEG esporádico y familiar, así como en los consanguíneos sanos de las familias multicasos, que incluía una expresión incrementada de Vβ 5.2, Vβ 11 y Vβ 16, y una menor expresión de Vβ 3, Vβ4, Vβ 7.1 y Vβ 7. De manera interesante, solo Vβ 17 se expresó de modo diferente entre casos familiares y esporádicos de LEG. Igualmente, la expresión incrementada de Vβ 9 fue el distintivo entre los casos de LEG familiar (casos y consanguíneos sanos) y los controles sanos. Estos resultados refuerzan la noción de que el perfil final del repertorio Vβ TCR observado en LEG familiar y no familiar parece surgir de la interacción de factores genéticos, ambientales e inmunorreguladores, además de que pueden explicar las alteraciones inmunitarias que se observan en los consanguíneos sanos de pacientes con LEG. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud

  3. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  4. Adenosine and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Salsoso, Rocío; Farías, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Chiarello, Delia I; Toledo, Fernando; Leiva, Andrea; Mate, Alfonso; Vázquez, Carmen M; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-06-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside with pleiotropic effects in different physiological processes including circulation, renal blood flow, immune function, or glucose homeostasis. Changes in adenosine membrane transporters, adenosine receptors, and corresponding intracellular signalling network associate with development of pathologies of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. Since the proposed mechanisms of preeclampsia development include adenosine-dependent biological effects, adenosine membrane transporters and receptors, and the associated signalling mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia associates with increased adenosine concentration in the maternal blood and placental tissue, likely due to local hypoxia and ischemia (although not directly demonstrated), microthrombosis, increased catecholamine release, and platelet activation. In addition, abnormal expression and function of equilibrative nucleoside transporters is described in foetoplacental tissues from preeclampsia; however, the role of adenosine receptors in the aetiology of this disease is not well understood. Adenosine receptors activation may be related to abnormal trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis, and ischemia/reperfusion mechanisms in the placenta from preeclampsia. These mechanisms may explain only a low fraction of the associated abnormal transformation of spiral arteries in preeclampsia, triggering cellular stress and inflammatory mediators release from the placenta to the maternal circulation. Although increased adenosine concentration in preeclampsia may be a compensatory or adaptive mechanism favouring placental angiogenesis, a poor angiogenic state is found in preeclampsia. Thus, preeclampsia-associated complications might affect the cell response to adenosine due to altered expression and activity of adenosine receptors, membrane transporters

  5. High normal blood pressure in early pregnancy also contribute to early onset preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    He, Dian; Wu, Shaowen; Zhao, Haiping; Zheng, Zihe; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-11-27

    This study was to evaluate effects of high normal blood pressure (HNBP) in early pregnancy on total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia. We conducted a multicenter, national representative retrospective cohort study. HNBP was defined as systolic blood pressure between 130 and 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure between 85 and 90 mmHg. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations of HNBP and the risks of above three types of preeclampsia. We included 58 054 women who were normotensive and nulliparous in early pregnancy. 4 809 (8.3%) fulfilled the definition of having HNBP, 16 682 (28.7%) were in normal blood pressure group, and 36 563 (63.0%) were in optimal blood pressure group. The incidence rates of total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia were 2.1% (1 217), 0.8% (491), and 1.4% (814), respectively. Compared to having optimal blood pressure, women with HNBP had significantly higher odds of total preeclampsia (odds ratio (OR) = 4.028, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.377, 4.804), severe preeclampsia (OR = 3.542, 95% CI 2.851, 4.400), and early preeclampsia (OR = 8.163, 95% CI 6.219, 10.715). Our restricted cubic spline results supported the dose-response relationship between continuous blood pressure and the odds ratio of three types of preeclampsia. The fraction of early preeclampsia associated with prehypertension was 58.6%, which was higher than those of total preeclampsia (42.2%) or severe preeclampsia (40.5%). Women in early pregnancy with HNBP more likely develop total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia, compared to those with optimal blood pressure. HNBP contribute more to early preeclampsia than severe preeclampsia. Our study provided robust epidemiological evidences for monitoring HNBP in early pregnancy to reduce the risks of preeclampsia.

  6. Microvascular remodelling in preeclampsia: quantifying capillary rarefaction accurately and independently predicts preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Antonios, Tarek F T; Nama, Vivek; Wang, Duolao; Manyonda, Isaac T

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The incidence of preeclampsia seems to be rising because of increased prevalence of predisposing disorders, such as essential hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, and there is increasing evidence to suggest widespread microcirculatory abnormalities before the onset of preeclampsia. We hypothesized that quantifying capillary rarefaction could be helpful in the clinical prediction of preeclampsia. We measured skin capillary density according to a well-validated protocol at 5 consecutive predetermined visits in 322 consecutive white women, of whom 16 subjects developed preeclampsia. We found that structural capillary rarefaction at 20-24 weeks of gestation yielded a sensitivity of 0.87 with a specificity of 0.50 at the cutoff of 2 capillaries/field with the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic value of 0.70, whereas capillary rarefaction at 27-32 weeks of gestation yielded a sensitivity of 0.75 and a higher specificity of 0.77 at the cutoff of 8 capillaries/field with area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic value of 0.82. Combining capillary rarefaction with uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index increased the sensitivity and specificity of the prediction. Multivariable analysis shows that the odds of preeclampsia are increased in women with previous history of preeclampsia or chronic hypertension and in those with increased uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index, but the most powerful and independent predictor of preeclampsia was capillary rarefaction at 27-32 weeks. Quantifying structural rarefaction of skin capillaries in pregnancy is a potentially useful clinical marker for the prediction of preeclampsia.

  7. Associations of personal and family preeclampsia history with the risk of early-, intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Heather A; Tahir, Hassaan; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  8. Preeclampsia Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... did not develop recurrent preeclampsia served as a control group. CRP levels were measured in the serum samples ... 20 years after pregnancy. Blood samples from a group of women who did not have preeclampsia served as the controls. Similar to the earlier findings that TSH was ...

  9. Nutritional approach to preeclampsia prevention.

    PubMed

    Achamrah, Najate; Ditisheim, Agnès

    2018-05-01

    Although not fully understood, the physiopathology of preeclampsia is thought to involve an abnormal placentation, diffuse endothelial cell dysfunction and increased systemic inflammation. As micronutrients play a key role in placental endothelial function, oxidative stress and expression of angiogenic factors, periconceptional micronutrient supplementation has been proposed to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. However, recent studies reported conflicting results. Calcium intake (>1 g/day) may reduce the risk of preeclampsia in women with low-calcium diet. Data from recently updated Cochrane reviews did not support routine supplementation of vitamins C, E or D for either the prevention or treatment of preeclampsia. Evidences are also poor to support zinc or folic acid supplementation for preeclampsia prevention. Dark chocolate, flavonoid-rich food, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids might also be candidates for prevention of preeclampsia. Through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or vasoactive proprieties, micronutrients are good candidates for preeclampsia prevention. Calcium supplementation is recommended to prevent preeclampsia in women with low-calcium intake. Despite positive clinical and in-vitro data, strong evidence to support periconceptional supplementation of other micronutrients for preeclampsia risk-reduction is still lacking. Further studies are also needed to evaluate the benefit of nutritional supplementation such as chocolate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Embryo cryopreservation and preeclampsia risk.

    PubMed

    Sites, Cynthia K; Wilson, Donna; Barsky, Maya; Bernson, Dana; Bernstein, Ira M; Boulet, Sheree; Zhang, Yujia

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles involving cryopreserved-warmed embryos are associated with the development of preeclampsia. Retrospective cohort study. IVF clinics and hospitals. A total of 15,937 births from ART: 9,417 singleton and 6,520 twin. We used linked ART surveillance, birth certificate, and maternal hospitalization discharge data, considering resident singleton and twin births from autologous or donor eggs from 2005-2010. We compared the frequency of preeclampsia diagnosis for cryopreserved-warmed versus fresh ET and used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for confounders. Among pregnancies conceived with autologous eggs resulting in singletons, preeclampsia was greater after cryopreserved-warmed versus fresh ET (7.51% vs. 4.29%, adjusted odds ratio = 2.17 [95% CI 1.67-2.82]). Preeclampsia without and with severe features, preeclampsia with preterm delivery, and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia were more frequent after cryopreserved-warmed versus fresh ET (3.99% vs. 2.55%; 2.95% vs. 1.41%; 2.76 vs. 1.48%; and 0.95% vs. 0.43%, respectively). Among pregnancies from autologous eggs resulting in twins, the frequency of preeclampsia with severe features (9.26% vs. 5.70%) and preeclampsia with preterm delivery (14.81% vs. 11.74%) was higher after cryopreserved versus fresh transfers. Among donor egg pregnancies, rates of preeclampsia did not differ significantly between cryopreserved-warmed and fresh ET (10.78% vs. 12.13% for singletons and 28.0% vs. 25.15% for twins). Among ART pregnancies conceived using autologous eggs resulting in live births, those involving transfer of cryopreserved-warmed embryos, as compared with fresh ETs, had increased risk for preeclampsia with severe features and preeclampsia with preterm delivery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Preeclampsia - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... preeclampsia is mild, you may be able to stay at home on bed rest. You will need to have ... and your baby if you develop preeclampsia: The mother can have kidney ... to detach from the uterus (abruption) and for stillbirth.

  12. Protein profiling of preeclampsia placental tissues.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y; He, Jin; Ye, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A) and adverse outcomes (Flt-1) in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia.

  13. Pregnancy Complications: Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... have preeclampsia after you’ve given birth. It most often happens within 48 hours (2 days) of having a baby, but it can develop up to 6 weeks after a baby’s birth. It’s just as dangerous as preeclampsia during pregnancy and needs immediate treatment. ...

  14. Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Bong; Wong, Amy P.; Kanasaki, Keizo; Xu, Yong; Shenoy, Vivek K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Whitesides, George M.; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate invasion of the uterus by cytotrophoblasts is speculated to result in pregnancy-induced disorders such as preeclampsia. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern appropriate invasion of cytotrophoblasts are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that under low-oxygen conditions (2.5% oxygen), 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), which is a metabolite of estradiol and is generated by catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), induces invasion of cytotrophoblasts into a naturally-derived, extracellular matrix. Neither low-oxygen conditions nor 2-ME alone induces the invasion of cytotrophoblasts in this system; however, low-oxygen conditions combined with 2-ME result in the appropriate invasion of cytotrophoblasts into the extracellular matrix. Cytotrophoblast invasion under these conditions is also associated with a decrease in the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2). Pregnant COMT-deficient mice with hypoxic placentas and preeclampsia-like features demonstrate an up-regulation of HIF-1α, TGF-β3, and TIMP-2 when compared with wild-type mice; normal levels are restored on administration of 2-ME, which also results in the resolution of preeclampsia-like features in these mice. Indeed, placentas from patients with preeclampsia reveal lower levels of COMT and higher levels of HIF-1α, TGF-β3, and TIMP-2 when compared with those from normal pregnant women. We demonstrate that low-oxygen conditions of the placenta are a critical co-stimulator along with 2-ME for the proper invasion of cytotrophoblasts to facilitate appropriate vascular development and oxygenation during pregnancy. PMID:20075204

  15. Protein Profiling of Preeclampsia Placental Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expressed between preterm preeclampsia and gestational age matched control, while 25 proteins were found to be expressed differentially between term preeclampsia and matched controls. Among these proteins, 16 proteins and their associated signaling pathways overlapped between preterm and term preeclampsia, suggesting the common pathogenesis of two subsets of disease. On the other hand, many proteins are uniquely altered in either preterm or term preeclampsia and correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and outcomes, therefore, providing molecular basis for these two subsets of preeclampsia. Furthermore, the expression levels of some of these proteins correlated with neonatal small for gestational age (PAI-1 and PAPP-A) and adverse outcomes (Flt-1) in women with preterm preeclampsia. These proteins could potentially be used as candidate biomarkers for predicting outcomes of preeclampsia. PMID:25392996

  16. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  17. Differences in clinical presentation and pregnancy outcomes in antepartum preeclampsia and new-onset postpartum preeclampsia: Are these the same disorder?

    PubMed

    Vilchez, Gustavo; Hoyos, Luis R; Leon-Peters, Jocelyn; Lagos, Moraima; Argoti, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    New-onset postpartum preeclampsia is a poorly defined condition that accounts for a significant percentage of eclampsia cases. It is unclear whether new-onset postpartum preeclampsia is a different disorder from or belongs to the same spectrum of classic antepartum preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical presentation and pregnancy outcomes of antepartum preeclampsia and new-onset postpartum preeclampsia. A retrospective study including 92 patients with antepartum preeclampsia and 92 patients with new-onset postpartum preeclampsia was performed. Clinical presentation and pregnancy outcomes were compared. Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables, and independent t -test and Mann-Whitney U -test for numerical variables. P -values of <0.05 were used to indicate statistical signifi cance. Patients with antepartum preeclampsia and new-onset postpartum preeclampsia differ significantly in profile, symptoms at presentation, laboratory markers and pregnancy outcomes. New-onset postpartum preeclampsia has a distinct patient profile and clinical presentation than antepartum preeclampsia, suggesting they may represent different disorders. Characterization of a patient profile with increased risk of developing this condition will help clinicians to identify patients at risk and provide early and targeted interventions to decrease the morbidity associated with this condition.

  18. Is ethnicity a risk factor for developing preeclampsia? An analysis of the prevalence of preeclampsia in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Shen, F; Xue, Q; Chen, G; Zeng, K; Stone, P; Zhao, M; Chen, Q

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy. Risk factors for preeclampsia include population and regional ethnicity. Chinese women living outside the Chinese mainland have a lower prevalence of preeclampsia than resident Caucasians. We performed a retrospective study to identify potential factors that may be associated with developing preeclampsia in China. A total of 67,746 pregnant women were included in this study from 2002 to 2011. Data included maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI), age at marriage, parity, gestation and blood pressure at diagnosis, proteinuria, and birth weight. In the study period, 1301 (1.92%) nulliparous women developed preeclampsia. The prevalence of mild or severe preeclampsia was 1.42% or 0.49%, respectively. The average BMI was 21.61 kg m(-2). On the basis of the WHO BMI classification, 78.8% of women were of normal BMI, 18.3% were overweight and 2.9% were obese. A total of 37.8% of preeclamptic women had lived with the same partner for less than 1 year, which was significantly higher than those healthy pregnant women who did not develop preeclampsia (24.2%). The prevalence of preeclampsia in China is low compared with Caucasians, and the contribution to this lower prevalence may be dependent on BMI or lifestyle including period of cohabitation with the partner. Our data suggest that Chinese ethnicity may be a factor responsible for the low risk of developing preeclampsia in the populations studied.

  19. Finding NEMO in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Sakowicz, Agata; Hejduk, Paulina; Pietrucha, Tadeusz; Nowakowska, Magdalena; Płuciennik, Elżbieta; Pospiech, Karolina; Gach, Agnieszka; Rybak-Krzyszkowska, Magda; Sakowicz, Bartosz; Kaminski, Marek; Krasomski, Grzegorz; Biesiada, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of preeclampsia and its way of inheritance are still a mystery. Biochemical and immunochemical studies reveal a substantial increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 concentrations in the blood of women with preeclampsia. The level of these factors is regulated by nuclear facxtor-kappa B, whose activation in a classical pathway requires inhibitory kappa B kinase gamma (known as NEMO or IKBKG). Moreover, NEMO can schedule between cytoplasma and the nucleus. In the nucleus, IKBKG interacts with other proteins, and thus, it is implicated in the regulation of different gene expressions, which are related to cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. This is the first study investigating the association between the level of NEMO gene expression and the presence of preeclampsia. We tested the hypothesis that the simultaneous increase in NEMO gene expression both in the mother and her fetus may be responsible for the preeclampsia development. Moreover, the relationships between clinical risk factors of preeclampsia and the levels of NEMO gene expression in blood, umbilical cord blood, and placentas were investigated. A total of 91 women (43 preeclamptic women and 48 controls) and their children were examined. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the amount total NEMO messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) content and the mRNA level of each NEMO transcript from exons 1A, 1B, and 1C in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and placentas. Univariate analyses and correlation tests were performed to examine the association between NEMO gene expression and preeclampsia. Newborn weight and height, maternal platelet number, and gestational age (week of delivery) were lower in the group of women with preeclampsia than controls. NEMO gene expression level was found to be almost 7 times higher in the group of women with preeclampsia than healthy controls. The correlation

  20. Superimposed Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Guedes-Martins, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Superimposed preeclampsia refers to women with chronic arterial hypertension (primary or secondary) who develop preeclampsia (PE). Because hypertension affects 5-15 % of pregnancies, it is itself a matter of concern. However, this concern should be permanent, given the increased risk of the hypertension worsening and, particularly, the appearance of superimposed PE. The search for factors that underlie or promote the development of this disorder has been the subject of intense research. However, despite the wealth of knowledge, the cause or causes remain to be determined.

  1. Role of fetal DNA in preeclampsia (review).

    PubMed

    Konečná, Barbora; Vlková, Barbora; Celec, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hypertension. It begins with abnormal cytotrophoblast apoptosis, which leads to inflammation and an increase in the levels of anti-angiogenic factors followed by the disruption of the angiogenic status. Increased levels of fetal DNA and RNA coming from the placenta, one of the most commonly affected organs in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, have been found in pregnant women with the condition. However, it remains unknown as to whether this is a cause or a consequence of preeclampsia. Few studies have been carried out on preeclampsia in which an animal model of preeclampsia was induced by an injection of different types of DNA that are mimic fetal DNA and provoke inflammation through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP). The specific mechanisms involved in the development of preeclampsia are not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that the presence of different fragments of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may cause for the development of preeclampsia. The function of DNase during preeclampsia also remains unresolved. Studies have suggested that its activity is decreased or the DNA is protected against its effects. Further research is required to uncover the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and focus more on the condition of patients with the condition.

  2. Pre-eclampsia: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, Jennifer; Carbonnel, Marie; Piconne, Olivier; Asmar, Roland; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of pre-eclampsia ranges from 3% to 7% for nulliparas and 1% to 3% for multiparas. Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, preterm birth, perinatal death, and intrauterine growth restriction. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology of this multisystem disorder, characterized by abnormal vascular response to placentation, is still unclear. Despite great polymorphism of the disease, the criteria for pre-eclampsia have not changed over the past decade (systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and 24-hour proteinuria ≥0.3 g). Clinical features and laboratory abnormalities define and determine the severity of pre-eclampsia. Delivery is the only curative treatment for pre-eclampsia. Multidisciplinary management, involving an obstetrician, anesthetist, and pediatrician, is carried out with consideration of the maternal risks due to continued pregnancy and the fetal risks associated with induced preterm delivery. Screening women at high risk and preventing recurrences are key issues in the management of pre-eclampsia. PMID:21822394

  3. Pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Monica; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2015-03-01

    Preeclampsia is a gestational kidney disease characterized by glomerular endothelial injury, leading to maternal hypertension and proteinuria. If not addressed promptly, there is significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. When severe, this disorder can cause hepatic and neurologic dysfunction. Understandably, this placental disease enters the focus of the obstetrician first; however, with progression, the nephrologist can also be enlisted. Typical complications include acute kidney injury, refractory hypertension, and acute pulmonary edema. This review summarizes recent literature on the pathogenesis of this condition and will highlight new diagnostic and therapeutic options for preeclampsia. Over the past decade, the role of soluble vascular factors in preeclampsia has shed light on the mechanism underlying this disease. During the last 2 years, several new therapeutics have been developed that target implicated circulating angiogenic factors, including soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, an endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor. Serum levels of angiogenic factors have been correlated with a constellation of hemodynamic and pathophysiologic changes. Thus, circulating levels of these factors may serve both diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Overall, our understanding of preeclampsia has developed significantly and the future holds promise for mechanism-based novel diagnostics and therapeutics.

  4. Criptococosis cutánea primaria en paciente inmunocompetente.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Osorio, Igor; García-Rodiño, Sara; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Marta; Labandeira, Javier; Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Sánchez-Aguilar, MDolores; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo

    2016-05-15

    La criptococosis cutánea es una micosis propia de pacientes inmunodeprimidos, sobre todo aquellos con infección por el virusde la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Sin embargo, existen casos infrecuentes de criptococosis cutánea en pacientes inmunocompetentes, que suelen simular otras dermatosis, lo que retrasa su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Presentamos el caso de un varón pluripatológico de 79 años, con úlceras dolorosas en dorso de mano derecha que no respondían a tratamientos tópicos. A través del estudio histopatológico y micológico se alcanzó el diagnóstico de criptococosis cutánea primaria, lográndose la remisión de las lesiones tras 6 meses de tratamiento con fluconazol.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Hod, Tammy; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Karumanchi, S. Ananth

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. It is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exciting discoveries in the last decade have contributed to a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. Epidemiological, experimental, and therapeutic studies from several laboratories have provided compelling evidence that an antiangiogenic state owing to alterations in circulating angiogenic factors leads to preeclampsia. In this review, we highlight the role of key circulating antiangiogenic factors as pathogenic biomarkers and in the development of novel therapies for preeclampsia. PMID:26292986

  6. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  7. The impact of preeclampsia in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Manaj, Aferdita; Rrugia, Arben; Manoku, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To observe the influence of preeclampsia during pregnancy. Materials and methods. 5711 patient’s records of the year 2008 and 6188 patient’s records of the year 2009 of Obstetric/Gynecologic hospital ‘Queen Geraldina’ have been consulted. The age of women that we studied in 2008 was between 23-35 and in 2009 was be-tween 25-34 years old. We have made a careful diagnose of inducted hypertension of pregnancy and preeclampsia. Results. The incidence of preeclampsia in the population was 4.1% (n =238) in 2008 and 3.1% (n=192) in 2009.The incidence of the cases that developed from preeclampsia to eclampsia were respectively 1.6% (n=4) and 1.5% (n=3) on 2009. Babies which have preeclamptic mothers were preterm in 13% (n=31) of cases, and 14.5% (n=28) of which have severe hypotrophia vs. 10% (n=24) and 11% (n=21) severe hypotrophia in 2009. Babies mortality on the preeclamptic population were respectively 8% (n=19) and 7.8% (n=15). Conclusions. From the survey resulted that patients diagnosed with preeclampsia manifested on a high rate hypertension and proteinuria. Prematurity, severe hypotrophy and baby’s mortality were the major complications of preeclampsia. Women with preeclampsia were especially the youngest. PMID:22439070

  8. Vasopressin: the missing link for preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Jeremy A; Scroggins, Sabrina M; Santillan, Donna A; Devor, Eric J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Pierce, Gary L; Sigmund, Curt D; Santillan, Mark K; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, affecting 5-7% of all pregnancies and claiming the lives of 76,000 mothers and 500,000 children each year. Various lines of evidence support a "tissue rejection" type reaction toward the placenta as the primary initiating event in the development of preeclampsia, followed by a complex interplay among immune, vascular, renal, and angiogenic mechanisms that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia beginning around the end of the first trimester. Critically, it remains unclear what mechanism links the initiating event and these pathogenic mechanisms. We and others have now demonstrated an early and sustained increase in maternal plasma concentrations of copeptin, a protein by-product of arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesis and release, during preeclampsia. Furthermore, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy is sufficient to phenocopy essentially all maternal and fetal symptoms of preeclampsia in mice. As various groups have demonstrated interactions between AVP and immune, renal, and vascular systems in the nonpregnant state, elevations of this hormone are therefore positioned both in time (early pregnancy) and function to contribute to preeclampsia. We therefore posit that AVP represents a missing mechanistic link between initiating events and established midpregnancy dysfunctions that cause preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Atypical preeclampsia – Gestational proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Amy B.; Brasuell, Diane M.; Higdon, Rebecca N.

    2017-01-01

    There are many rural areas where obstetric care is predominately performed by family medicine physicians. As such, it is important for family medicine physicians to stay up to date with the latest obstetric guidelines. Preeclampsia is a well-established disorder and the guidelines for screening and treatment are well known. However, atypical presentations of preeclampsia have been less studied. Notably, what constitutes atypical preeclampsia and when to be concerned for increased morbidity and mortality in the mother and neonate. This report describes a unique case in which a woman with proteinuria of pregnancy developed atypical preeclampsia with severe features. This report discusses the care that was given by a practicing family medicine physician and the reasoning behind it. PMID:29417031

  10. [Preeclampsia: A challenge also for cardiologists].

    PubMed

    Cournot, M; Lairez, O; Medzech, B

    2018-05-18

    Due to its short-term consequences on perinatal outcome, preeclampsia has been long regarded as an obstetrical disease, strictly confined to a management by OB/GYNs. It has been now widely accepted that preeclampsia is most a systemic inflammatory and systemic vascular disease during pregnancy and then a lifelong risk factor for subsequent cardiovascular event in women's life. The aim of this review is to propose an overview in the current state-of-art in definition, early identification and management of preeclampsia. We will also discuss the growing evidence that support that cardiologists must be fully involved in screening and prevention of preeclampsia during pregnancy and beyond in the subsequent medical follow-up of women who have experienced a preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular association of pathogenetic contributors to pre-eclampsia (pre-eclampsia associome)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Pre-eclampsia is the most common complication occurring during pregnancy. In the majority of cases, it is concurrent with other pathologies in a comorbid manner (frequent co-occurrences in patients), such as diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and obesity. Providing bronchial asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, certain neurodegenerative diseases and cancers as examples, we have shown previously that pairs of inversely comorbid pathologies (rare co-occurrences in patients) are more closely related to each other at the molecular genetic level compared with randomly generated pairs of diseases. Data in the literature concerning the causes of pre-eclampsia are abundant. However, the key mechanisms triggering this disease that are initiated by other pathological processes are thus far unknown. The aim of this work was to analyse the characteristic features of genetic networks that describe interactions between comorbid diseases, using pre-eclampsia as a case in point. Results The use of ANDSystem, Pathway Studio and STRING computer tools based on text-mining and database-mining approaches allowed us to reconstruct associative networks, representing molecular genetic interactions between genes, associated concurrently with comorbid disease pairs, including pre-eclampsia, diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and obesity. It was found that these associative networks statistically differed in the number of genes and interactions between them from those built for randomly chosen pairs of diseases. The associative network connecting all four diseases was composed of 16 genes (PLAT, ADIPOQ, ADRB3, LEPR, HP, TGFB1, TNFA, INS, CRP, CSRP1, IGFBP1, MBL2, ACE, ESR1, SHBG, ADA). Such an analysis allowed us to reveal differential gene risk factors for these diseases, and to propose certain, most probable, theoretical mechanisms of pre-eclampsia development in pregnant women. The mechanisms may include the following pathways: [TGFB1 or TNFA]-[IL1B]-[pre-eclampsia]; [TNFA

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hod, Tammy; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2015-08-20

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. It is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exciting discoveries in the last decade have contributed to a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. Epidemiological, experimental, and therapeutic studies from several laboratories have provided compelling evidence that an antiangiogenic state owing to alterations in circulating angiogenic factors leads to preeclampsia. In this review, we highlight the role of key circulating antiangiogenic factors as pathogenic biomarkers and in the development of novel therapies for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of preeclampsia: Impact of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jeyabalan, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that affects 2 to 8% of all pregnancies and remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diagnosis is based on new onset of hypertension and proteinuria. Multiple organ systems can be affected with severe disease. The wide range of risk factors reflects the heterogeneity of preeclampsia. Obesity, which is increasing at an alarming rate, is also a risk factor for preeclampsia as well as for later life cardiovascular disease. Exploring common features may provide insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying preeclampsia among obese and overweight women. PMID:24147919

  14. Prevalence of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kharaghani, Roghieh; Cheraghi, Zahra; Okhovat Esfahani, Batool; Mohammadian, Zahra; Nooreldinc, Reyhaneh Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence of preeclampsia and eclampsia in Iran. These studies have yielded different results. This meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the prevalence of preeclampsia and eclampsia in Iran. International and national electronic databases were searched up to August 2014 including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Science Information Database, MagIran, and IranMedex as well as conference databases. All studies, in which the prevalence or cumulative incidence of preeclampsia in Iran was reported, were included in this meta-analysis. Thirty-six separate studies were assessed involving overall 132,737 participants, of which 4360 had preeclampsia and 49 had eclampsia. Overall prevalence of preeclampsia and eclampsia was 0.05 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.06) and 0.23% (95% CI: 0.12%, 0.33%) respectively. The prevalence of preeclampsia, increased from 0.04 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.05) during 1996 to 2005 to 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.09) during 2010 to 2013, while the prevalence of eclampsia decreased from 0.30% (95% CI: 0.15%, 0.45%) to 0.01% (95% CI: 0.01%, 0.01%), during the same period. The preeclampsia prevalence had an increasing growth and the eclampsia prevalence had declining growth in recent years. In addition, despite many studies aimed the prevalence of preeclampsia and eclampsia in Iran, there is a significant variation between the results. So, it is difficult to give an exact estimation of the preeclampsia and eclampsia prevalence in Iran.

  15. Genetic Aspects of Preeclampsia and the HELLP Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Jan Helge; Nagy, Bálint

    2014-01-01

    Both preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome have their origin in the placenta. The aim of this study is to review genetic factors involved in development of preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome using literature search in PubMed. A familial cohort links chromosomes 2q, 5q, and 13q to preeclampsia. The chromosome 12q is coupled with the HELLP syndrome. The STOX1 gene, the ERAP1 and 2 genes, the syncytin envelope gene, and the −670 Fas receptor polymorphisms are involved in the development of preeclampsia. The ACVR2A gene on chromosome 2q22 is also implicated. The toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and factor V Leiden mutation participate both in development of preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome. Carriers of the TT and the CC genotype of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism seem to have an increased risk of the HELLP syndrome. The placental levels of VEGF mRNA are reduced both in women with preeclampsia and in women with the HELLP syndrome. The BclI polymorphism is engaged in development of the HELLP syndrome but not in development of severe preeclampsia. The ACE I/D polymorphism affects uteroplacental and umbilical artery blood flows in women with preeclampsia. In women with preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome several genes in the placenta are deregulated. Preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome are multiplex genetic diseases. PMID:24991435

  16. Pre-eclampsia part 2: prediction, prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    An antiangiogenic state might constitute a terminal pathway for the multiple aetiologies of pre-eclampsia, especially those resulting from placental abnormalities. The levels of angiogenic and antiangiogenic proteins in maternal blood change prior to a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, correlate with disease severity and have prognostic value in identifying women who will develop maternal and/or perinatal complications. Potential interventions exist to ameliorate the imbalance of angiogenesis and, hence, might provide opportunities to improve maternal and/or perinatal outcomes in pre-eclampsia. Current strategies for managing pre-eclampsia consist of controlling hypertension, preventing seizures and timely delivery of the fetus. Prediction of pre-eclampsia in the first trimester is of great interest, as early administration of aspirin might reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, albeit modestly. Combinations of biomarkers typically predict pre-eclampsia better than single biomarkers; however, the encouraging initial results of biomarker studies require external validation in other populations before they can be used to facilitate intervention in patients identified as at increased risk. Angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors might also be useful in triage of symptomatic patients with suspected pre-eclampsia, differentiating pre-eclampsia from exacerbations of pre-existing medical conditions and performing risk assessment in asymptomatic women. This Review article discusses the performance of predictive and prognostic biomarkers for pre-eclampsia, current strategies for preventing and managing the condition and its long-term consequences. PMID:25003612

  17. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... preeclampsia makes a woman a higher risk for future problems such as: Heart disease Diabetes Kidney disease ... medical problems in pregnancy. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  19. Associations between phenotypes of preeclampsia and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Berks, Durk; Duvekot, Johannes J; Basalan, Hillal; De Maat, Moniek P M; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Willy

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of preeclampsia with thrombophilia are conflicting. Clinical heterogeneity of the disease may be one of the explanations. The present study addresses the question whether different phenotypes of preeclampsia are associated with thrombophilia factors. Study design We planned a retrospective cohort study. From 1985 until 2010 women with preeclampsia were offered postpartum screening for the following thrombophilia factors: anti-phospholipid antibodies, APC-resistance, protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteineamia, factor V Leiden and Prothrombin gene mutation. Hospital records were used to obtain information on phenotypes of the preeclampsia and placental histology. We identified 844 women with singleton pregnancies who were screened for thrombophilia factors. HELLP complicated 49% of pregnancies; Fetal growth restriction complicated 61% of pregnancies. Early delivery (<34th week) occurred in 71% of pregnancies. Any thrombophilia factor was present in 29% of the women. Severe preeclampsia was associated with protein S deficiency (p=0.01). Fetal growth restriction was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p<0.01). Early onset preeclampsia was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p=0.01). Extensive placental infarction (>10%) was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p<0.01). Low placental weight (<5th percentile) was associated with hyperhomocysteineamia (p=0.03). No other associations were observed. Early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction, are associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies. Other phenotypes of preeclampsia, especially HELLP syndrome, were not associated with thrombophilia. We advise only to test for anti-phospholipid antibodies after early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction. We suggest enough evidence is presented to justify no further studies are

  20. Is inflammation the cause of pre-eclampsia?

    PubMed Central

    Ramma, Wenda; Ahmed, Asif

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that either excessive inflammation or an imbalance in angiogenic factors cause pre-eclampsia. In the present review, the arguments for and against the role of inflammation and/or angiogenic imbalance as the cause of pre-eclampsia are discussed on the basis of the Bradford–Hill criteria for disease causation. Although both angiogenic imbalance and systemic inflammation are implicated in pre-eclampsia, the absence of temporality of inflammatory markers with pre-eclampsia challenges the concept that excessive inflammation is the cause of pre-eclampsia. In contrast, the elevation of anti-angiogenic factors that precede the clinical signs of pre-eclampsia fulfils the criterion of temporality. The second most important criterion is the dose–response relationship. Although such a relationship has not been proven between pro-inflammatory cytokines and pre-eclampsia, high levels of anti-angiogenic factors have been shown to correlate with increased incidence and disease severity, hence satisfying this condition. Finally, as the removal of circulating sFlt-1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1) from pre-eclamptic patients significantly improves the clinical outcome, it fulfils the Hill's experiment principle, which states that removal of the cause by an appropriate experimental regimen should ameliorate the condition. In contrast, treatment with high doses of corticosteroid fails to improve maternal outcome in pre-eclampsia, despite suppressing inflammation. Inflammation may enhance the pathology induced by the imbalance in the angiogenic factors, but does not by itself cause pre-eclampsia. Development of therapies based on the angiogenic and cytoprotective mechanisms seems more promising. PMID:22103497

  1. IFPA Senior Award Lecture: making sense of pre-eclampsia - two placental causes of preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Redman, C W; Sargent, I L; Staff, A C

    2014-02-01

    Incomplete spiral artery remodelling is the first of two stages of pre-eclampsia, typically of early onset. The second stage comprises dysregulated uteroplacental perfusion and placental oxidative stress. Oxidatively stressed syncytiotrophoblast (STB) over-secretes proteins that perturb maternal angiogenic balance and are considered to be pre-eclampsia biomarkers. We propose that, in addition and more fundamentally, these STB-derived proteins are biomarkers of a cellular (STB) stress response, which typically involves up-regulation of some proteins and down-regulation of others (positive and negative stress proteins respectively). Soluble vascular growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and reduced growth factor (PlGF) then exemplify positive and negative STB stress response proteins in the maternal circulation. Uncomplicated term pregnancy is associated with increasing sVEGFR-1 and decreasing PlGF, which can be interpreted as evidence of increasing STB stress. STB pathology, at or after term (for example focal STB necrosis) demonstrates this stress, with or without pre-eclampsia. We review the evidence that when placental growth reaches its limits at term, terminal villi become over-crowded with diminished intervillous pore size impeding intervillous perfusion with increasing intervillous hypoxia and STB stress. This type of STB stress has no antecedent pathology, so the fetuses are well-grown, as typifies late onset pre-eclampsia, and prediction is less effective than for the early onset syndrome because STB stress is a late event. In summary, abnormal placental perfusion and STB stress contribute to the pathogenesis of early and late onset pre-eclampsia. But the former has an extrinsic cause - poor placentation, whereas the latter has an intrinsic cause, 'microvillous overcrowding', as placental growth reaches its functional limits. This model explains important features of late pre-eclampsia and raises questions of how antecedent medical risk factors such as

  2. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study.

    PubMed

    Villa, Pia M; Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0-13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7-11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1-60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1-60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0-36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1-79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0-52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1-3.6). Together with preeclampsia in an earlier

  3. Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2018 Preeclampsia Anne Marie Valente, MD; Katherine E. Economy, MD W omen are at risk for elevations ... 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003858 e344 Valente and Economy  Preeclampsia   e345 Downloaded from http: / / circ. ahajournals. org/ ...

  4. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting preeclampsia from a history of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Svein; Ebbing, Cathrine; Irgens, Lorentz M

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether women with a history of preterm birth, independent on the presence of prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM) and growth deviation of the newborn, are more likely to develop preeclampsia with preterm or preterm birth in a subsequent pregnancy. We conducted a population-based cohort study, based on Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 1967 and 2012, including 742,980 women with singleton pregnancies who were followed up from their 1st to 2nd pregnancy. In the analyses we included 712,511 women after excluding 30,469 women with preeclampsia in the first pregnancy. After preterm birth without preeclampsia in the first pregnancy, the risk of preterm preeclampsia in the second pregnancy was 4-7 fold higher than after term birth (odds ratios 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-4.0 to 6.5; 95% CI 5.1-8.2). The risk of term preeclampsia in the pregnancy following a preterm birth was 2-3 times higher than after term birth (odds ratios 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8 to 2.6; 95% CI 2.0-3.4). After spontaneous non-PROM preterm birth and preterm PROM, the risk of preterm preeclampsia was 3.3-3.6 fold higher than after spontaneous term birth. Corresponding risks of term preeclampsia was 1.6-1.8 fold higher. No significant time trends were found in the effect of spontaneous preterm birth in the first pregnancy on preterm or term preeclampsia in the second pregnancy. The results suggest that preterm birth, regardless of the presence of PROM, and preeclampsia share pathophysiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms may cause preterm birth in one pregnancy and preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy in the same woman. The association was particularly evident with preterm preeclampsia.

  6. Predicting preeclampsia from a history of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Ebbing, Cathrine; Irgens, Lorentz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess whether women with a history of preterm birth, independent on the presence of prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM) and growth deviation of the newborn, are more likely to develop preeclampsia with preterm or preterm birth in a subsequent pregnancy. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study, based on Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 1967 and 2012, including 742,980 women with singleton pregnancies who were followed up from their 1st to 2nd pregnancy. In the analyses we included 712,511 women after excluding 30,469 women with preeclampsia in the first pregnancy. Results After preterm birth without preeclampsia in the first pregnancy, the risk of preterm preeclampsia in the second pregnancy was 4–7 fold higher than after term birth (odds ratios 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0–4.0 to 6.5; 95% CI 5.1–8.2). The risk of term preeclampsia in the pregnancy following a preterm birth was 2–3 times higher than after term birth (odds ratios 1.6; 95% CI 1.5–1.8 to 2.6; 95% CI 2.0–3.4). After spontaneous non-PROM preterm birth and preterm PROM, the risk of preterm preeclampsia was 3.3–3.6 fold higher than after spontaneous term birth. Corresponding risks of term preeclampsia was 1.6–1.8 fold higher. No significant time trends were found in the effect of spontaneous preterm birth in the first pregnancy on preterm or term preeclampsia in the second pregnancy. Conclusions The results suggest that preterm birth, regardless of the presence of PROM, and preeclampsia share pathophysiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms may cause preterm birth in one pregnancy and preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy in the same woman. The association was particularly evident with preterm preeclampsia. PMID:28738075

  7. Triggers for Preeclampsia Onset: a Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jane B; Schemann, Kathrin; Patterson, Jillian A; Morris, Jonathan; Herbert, Robert D; Roberts, Christine L

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for preeclampsia are well established, whereas, the triggers associated with timing of preeclampsia onset are not. The aim of this study was to establish whether recent infection or other triggers were associated with timing of preeclampsia onset. We used a case-crossover design with preeclampsia cases serving as their own controls. Women with singleton pregnancies of ≥20 weeks gestation presenting at three hospitals were eligible for inclusion. Exposures to potential triggers were identified via guided questionnaire. Infective episodes included symptoms lasting >24 h. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension (BP ≥140 mmHg and/or ≥90 mmHg) and proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/mmol). Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the odds of exposure to potential triggers in the case windows (1-7 days preceding diagnosis of preeclampsia) and control windows (8-14 days prior to diagnosis); unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) are reported. Among 286 recruited women, 25 (8.7%) reported a new infection in the 7 days prior to preeclampsia onset and 21 (7.3%) in the 8-14 days prior. There was no significant association between onset of infection in the 7 days prior and preeclampsia diagnosis (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.65, 2.34). Consumption of caffeine (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33, 0.77), spicy food (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.81), and alcohol (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10, 0.71) were strongly inversely associated with preeclampsia onset. Recent infection does not appear to trigger preeclampsia. Decreased consumption of caffeine, spicy food, and alcohol may be prodromal markers. Such behaviours may be early markers of imminent preeclampsia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. <0.73 ng/mL) concentrations. Reduced circulating apelin peptides may be associated with preeclampsia. The apelinergic system should be further investigated to elucidate its role in preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  9. Environmental noise pollution and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Duplaix, Mathilde; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Lo, Ernest; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2018-08-01

    Environmental noise exposure is associated with a greater risk of hypertension, but the link with preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between environmental noise pollution and risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy. We analyzed a population-based cohort comprising 269,263 deliveries on the island of Montreal, Canada between 2000 and 2013. We obtained total environmental noise pollution measurements (LA eq24 , L den , L night ) from land use regression models, and assigned noise levels to each woman based on the residential postal code. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of noise with preeclampsia in mixed logistic regression models with participants as a random effect, and adjusted for air pollution, neighbourhood walkability, maternal age, parity, multiple pregnancy, comorbidity, socioeconomic deprivation, and year of delivery. We assessed whether noise exposure was more strongly associated with severe or early onset preeclampsia than mild or late onset preeclampsia. Prevalence of preeclampsia was higher for women exposed to elevated environmental noise pollution levels (LA eq24h  ≥ 65 dB(A) = 37.9 per 1000 vs. <50 dB(A) = 27.9 per 1000). Compared with 50 dB(A), an LA eq24h of 65.0 dB(A) was not significantly associated the risk of preeclampsia (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99-1.20). Associations were however present with severe (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.54) and early onset (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.20-2.43) preeclampsia, with results consistent across all noise indicators. The associations were much weaker or absent for mild and late preeclampsia. Environmental noise pollution may be a novel risk factor for pregnancy-related hypertension, particularly more severe variants of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study

    PubMed Central

    Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. Methods We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0–13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. Results The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7–11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1–60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1–60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0–36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1–79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0–52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1–3

  11. Water immersion in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Elvan-Taşpinar, Ayten; Franx, Arie; Delprat, Constance C; Bruinse, Hein W; Koomans, Hein A

    2006-12-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with profound vasoconstriction in most organ systems and reduced plasma volume. Because water immersion produces a marked central redistribution of blood volume and suppresses the renin-angiotensin system response and sympathetic activity, we hypothesized that water immersion might be useful in the treatment of preeclampsia. The effects of thermoneutral water immersion for 3 hours on central and peripheral hemodynamics were evaluated in 7 preeclamptic patients, 7 normal pregnant control patients, and 7 nonpregnant women. Finger plethysmography was used to determine hemodynamic measurements (cardiac output and total peripheral resistance), and forearm blood flow was measured by strain gauge plethysmography. Postischemic hyperemia was used to determine endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Analysis was by analysis of variance for repeated measurements. During water immersion cardiac output increased while diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased, although systolic blood pressure remained unchanged in each group. Forearm blood flow increased significantly in the normal pregnant and preeclamptic subjects. Total peripheral resistance decreased in all groups, but values in preeclamptic patients remained above those of normotensive pregnant women. Water immersion had no effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the preeclamptic group, and most hemodynamic changes that were observed reversed to baseline within 2 hours of completion of the procedure. Although water immersion results in hemodynamic alterations in a manner that is theoretically therapeutic for women with preeclampsia, the effect was limited and short-lived. In addition water immersion had no effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in women with preeclampsia. The therapeutic potential for water immersion in preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  12. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-widemore » DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.« less

  13. Loss of Thrombomodulin in Placental Dysfunction in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rosanne J; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Bruijn, Jan A; Baelde, Hans J

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by placental dysfunction and an angiogenic imbalance. Systemically, levels of thrombomodulin, an endothelium- and syncytiotrophoblast-bound protein that regulates coagulation, inflammation, apoptosis, and tissue remodeling, are increased. We aimed to investigate placental thrombomodulin dysregulation and consequent downstream effects in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Placentas from 28 preeclampsia pregnancies, 30 uncomplicated pregnancies, and 21 pregnancies complicated by growth restriction as extra controls were included. Immunohistochemical staining of thrombomodulin, caspase-3, and fibrin was performed. Placental mRNA expression of thrombomodulin, inflammatory markers, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and soluble Flt-1 were measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Thrombomodulin mRNA expression was determined in vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected trophoblast cell lines. Thrombomodulin protein and mRNA expression were decreased in preeclampsia as compared with both control groups (P=0.001). Thrombomodulin mRNA expression correlated with maternal body mass index (P<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05) in preeclampsia. An increase in placental apoptotic cells was associated with preeclampsia (P<0.001). Thrombomodulin expression correlated positively with matrix metalloproteinase expression (P<0.01) in preeclampsia, but not with fibrin deposits or inflammatory markers. Placental soluble Flt-1 expression correlated with decreased thrombomodulin expression. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced upregulation of thrombomodulin expression in trophoblast cells. Decreased thrombomodulin expression in preeclampsia may play a role in placental dysfunction in preeclampsia and is possibly caused by an angiogenic imbalance. Hypertension and obesity are associated with thrombomodulin downregulation. These results set the stage for further basic and clinical research on

  14. Electronegativity and intrinsic disorder of preeclampsia-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Uversky, Vladimir N; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego Mendoza, José Lino; Calva, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia, hemorrhage, and infection are the leading causes of maternal death in underdeveloped countries. Since several proteins associated with preeclampsia are known, we conducted a computational study which evaluated the commonness and potential functionality of intrinsic disorder of these proteins and also made an attempt to characterize their origin. The origin of the preeclampsia-related proteins was assessed with a supervised technique, a Polarity Index Method (PIM), which evaluates the electronegativity of proteins based solely on their sequence. The commonness of intrinsic disorder was evaluated using several disorder predictors from the PONDR family, the charge-hydropathy plot (CH-plot) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) analyses, and using the MobiDB web-based tool, whereas potential functionality of intrinsic disorder was studied with the D2P2 resource and ANCHOR predictor of disorder-based binding sites, and the STRING tool was used to build the interactivity networks of the preeclampsia-related proteins. Peculiarities of the PIM-derived polar profile of the group of preeclampsia-related proteins were then compared with profiles of a group of lipoproteins, antimicrobial peptides, angiogenesis-related proteins, and the intrinsically disordered proteins. Our results showed a high graphical correlation between preeclampsia proteins, lipoproteins, and the angiogenesis proteins. We also showed that many preeclampsia-related proteins contain numerous functional disordered regions. Therefore, these bioinformatics results led us to assume that the preeclampsia proteins are highly associated with the lipoproteins group, and that some preeclampsia-related proteins contain significant amounts of functional disorders.

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and Preeclampsia: A Spatiotemporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Francesc; Basagaña, Xavier; Beelen, Rob; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Schembari, Anna; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Available evidence concerning the association between air pollution and preeclampsia is limited, and specific associations with early- and late-onset preeclampsia have not been assessed. Objectives: We investigated the association, if any, between preeclampsia (all, early-, and late-onset) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles), ≤ 10 μm, and 2.5–10 μm, and PM2.5 light absorption (a proxy for elemental carbon) during the entire pregnancy and during the first, second, and third trimesters. Methods: This study was based on 8,398 pregnancies (including 103 cases of preeclampsia) among women residing in Barcelona, Spain (2000–2005). We applied a spatiotemporal exposure assessment framework using land use regression models to predict ambient pollutant levels during each week of pregnancy at the geocoded residence address of each woman at the time of birth. Logistic and conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations. Results: We found positive associations for most of our evaluated outcome–exposure pairs, with the strongest associations observed for preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia in relation to the third-trimester exposure to fine particulate pollutants, and for early-onset preeclampsia in relation to the first-trimester exposure to fine particulate pollutants. Among our investigated associations, those of first- and third-trimester exposures to PM2.5 and third-trimester exposure to PM2.5 absorbance and all preeclampsia, and third-trimester PM2.5 exposure and late-onset preeclampsia attained statistical significance. Conclusion: We observed increased risk of preeclampsia associated with exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Our findings, in combination with previous evidence suggesting distinct pathogenic mechanisms for early- and late-onset preeclampsia, support additional research on this

  16. Genetic Predisposition to Dyslipidemia and Risk of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Saftlas, Audrey F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-07-01

    Large epidemiologic studies support the role of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia; however, the etiology of preeclampsia or whether dyslipidemia plays a causal role remains unclear. We examined the association between the genetic predisposition to dyslipidemia and risk of preeclampsia using validated genetic markers of dyslipidemia. Preeclampsia cases (n = 164) and normotensive controls (n = 110) were selected from live birth certificates to nulliparous Iowa women during the period August 2002 to May 2005. Disease status was verified by medical chart review. Genetic predisposition to dyslipidemia was estimated by 4 genetic risk scores (GRS) (total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides) on the basis of established loci for blood lipids. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between each of the 4 genotype scores and preeclampsia. Replication analyses were performed in an independent, US population of preeclampsia cases (n = 516) and controls (n = 1,097) of European ancestry. The GRS related to higher levels of TC, LDL-C, and triglycerides demonstrated no association with the risk of preeclampsia in either the Iowa or replication population. The GRS related to lower HDL-C was marginally associated with an increased risk for preeclampsia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99-1.07; P = 0.10). In the independent replication population, the association with the HDL-C GRS was also marginally significant (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06; P = 0.04). Our data suggest a potential effect between the genetic predisposition to dyslipidemic levels of HDL-C and an increased risk of preeclampsia, and, as such, suggest that dyslipidemia may be a component along the causal pathway to preeclampsia. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Shim, Sung Shin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers. PMID:26247944

  18. Maternal rubella immunity status and pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lao, Terence T; Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Leung, Tak-Yeung

    2017-07-01

    To determine if maternal immune maladaptation associated with pre-eclampsia is reflected in the rubella immunity status. Incidence of pre-eclampsia was compared between rubella non-immune and immune gravidae carrying a singleton pregnancy beyond 24 weeks, taking into account maternal characteristics and reported risk factors for pre-eclampsia. The 9870 (10.4%) rubella non-immune gravidae among the 95 024 in the cohort exhibited no difference in incidence of underlying medical disorders, but they were slightly but significantly older, shorter, heavier, and had more pre-eclampsia (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47) despite having fewer nulliparas. Regression analysis confirmed an overall association between rubella non-immunity with pre-eclampsia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06-1.54), which was related to multiparas (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.05-1.91) and carrying a male fetus (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.78). The association between rubella non-immunity and pre-eclampsia reflects immune maladaptation in multiparas and toward a male fetus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Maternal serum theobromine and the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Cuilin; Levine, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    Preeclampsia, a disorder with prominent cardiovascular manifestations, is a cause of maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. Chocolate contains compounds that may promote cardiovascular health. A recent study found chocolate consumption during pregnancy, and, particularly, increasing cord serum concentration of theobromine (the primary methylxanthine alkaloid in chocolate), to be associated with reduced occurrence of preeclampsia. We studied 2769 women who comprised the control group from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. These women were pregnant between 1959 and 1966, with liveborn infants of at least 28 weeks' gestation. Serum was drawn at <20 weeks and >26 weeks' gestation, and assayed for theobromine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Odds ratios (ORs) for preeclampsia were estimated using logistic regression, and adjusted for age, education, prepregnant weight, race, parity, smoking, and gestation at blood draw. Preeclampsia occurred in 68 (2.9%) of 2105 eligible women. Adjusted ORs for preeclampsia were near unity across most third-trimester theobromine concentrations. Adjusted ORs for preeclampsia according to theobromine concentration in serum at <20 weeks' gestation increased with increases in concentration, although estimates were imprecise. This study does not support the previous finding that chocolate consumption is associated with a reduced occurrence of preeclampsia. Unmeasured confounding or reverse causation may account for the positive association between early-pregnancy theobromine and preeclampsia.

  20. Screening for Preeclampsia: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    PubMed

    Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phillips, William R; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-04-25

    Preeclampsia affects approximately 4% of pregnancies in the United States. It is the second leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide and may lead to serious maternal complications, including stroke, eclampsia, and organ failure. Adverse perinatal outcomes for the fetus and newborn include intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, and stillbirth. Many of the complications associated with preeclampsia lead to early induction of labor or cesarean delivery and subsequent preterm birth. Preeclampsia is more prevalent among African American women than among white women. Differences in prevalence may be, in part, due to African American women being disproportionally affected by risk factors for preeclampsia. African American women also have case fatality rates related to preeclampsia 3 times higher than rates among white women. Inequalities in access to adequate prenatal care may contribute to poor outcomes associated with preeclampsia in African American women. To update the 1996 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for preeclampsia. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy of screening and diagnostic tests for preeclampsia, the potential benefits and harms of screening for preeclampsia, the effectiveness of risk prediction tools, and the benefits and harms of treatment of screen-detected preeclampsia. Given the evidence that treatment can reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and the well-established accuracy of blood pressure measurements, the USPSTF found adequate evidence that screening for preeclampsia results in a substantial benefit for the mother and infant. In addition, there is adequate evidence to bound the harms of screening for and treatment of preeclampsia as no greater than small. Therefore, the USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that there is a substantial net benefit of screening for preeclampsia in pregnant women. The USPSTF recommends screening for preeclampsia in pregnant

  1. Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zahumensky, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia. We summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal circulation in preeclampsia. The present review summarized the results of clinical research on the Doppler flowmetry in the screening of risk of preclampsia, in the diagnosis of preclampsia and in the fetal risk in preclampsia (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  2. Pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Maria C; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Engeland, Anders; Nafstad, Per; Karlstad, Øystein; Nystad, Wenche

    2016-12-01

    Studies of pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma are conflicting, and none have performed a formal mediation analysis of preterm birth.We examined the association between pre-eclampsia and asthma at 7 years using national registries, including all births in Norway from 1999 to 2006 (n=406 907), and a subsample of children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (n=45 028) using log-linear regression. We performed a mediation analysis of preterm birth, and a sibling comparison to evaluate unobserved confounding.There was a positive association between pre-eclampsia and asthma in the registry study, with an adjusted relative risk of 1.31 (95% CI 1.22-1.41), but not in MoBa, which had an adjusted relative risk of 1.19 (95% CI 0.99-1.44). The odds ratios for the direct effect not mediated through preterm birth and the indirect effect in the registry linkage were 1.19 (95% CI 1.10-1.29) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.11-1.14), respectively. The sibling comparison indicated no association between pre-eclampsia and asthma (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.33).In this large study, which used different datasets and analytic approaches, there was little evidence for an association between pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma. The association was weak and largely explained by pre-term birth and confounders shared by siblings. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  3. Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial: influence of compliance on beneficial effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wright, David; Poon, Liona C; Rolnik, Daniel L; Syngelaki, Argyro; Delgado, Juan Luis; Vojtassakova, Denisa; de Alvarado, Mercedes; Kapeti, Evgenia; Rehal, Anoop; Pazos, Andrea; Carbone, Ilma Floriana; Dutemeyer, Vivien; Plasencia, Walter; Papantoniou, Nikos; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-12-01

    The Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial was a multicenter study in women with singleton pregnancies. Screening was carried out at 11-13 weeks' gestation with an algorithm that combines maternal factors and biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, and maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and placental growth factor). Those with an estimated risk for preterm preeclampsia of >1 in 100 were invited to participate in a double-blind trial of aspirin (150 mg/d) vs placebo from 11-14 until 36 weeks' gestation. Preterm preeclampsia with delivery at <37 weeks' gestation, which was the primary outcome, occurred in 1.6% (13/798) participants in the aspirin group, as compared with 4.3% (35/822) in the placebo group (odds ratio in the aspirin group, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.74). We sought to examine the influence of compliance on the beneficial effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia in the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial. This was a secondary analysis of data from the trial. The proportion of prescribed tablets taken was used as an overall measure of compliance. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of aspirin on the incidence of preterm preeclampsia according to compliance of <90% and ≥90%, after adjustment for the estimated risk of preterm preeclampsia at screening and the participating center. The choice of cut-off of 90% was based on an exploratory analysis of the treatment effect. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of compliance ≥90% among maternal characteristics and medical history. Preterm preeclampsia occurred in 5/555 (0.9%) participants in the aspirin group with compliance ≥90%, in 8/243 (3.3%) of participants in the aspirin group with compliance <90%, in 22/588 (3.7%) of participants in the placebo group with compliance ≥90%, and in 13/234 (5.6%) of participants in the placebo group

  4. Preeclampsia Risks in Kidney Donors and Recipients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pratik B; Samra, Manpreet; Josephson, Michelle A

    2018-06-08

    To review the studies and practice guidelines on the preeclampsia risks in kidney donors and recipients. There is a small increased risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia in pregnancies that follow kidney donation. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guideline (2017) and the 2015 American Society of Transplantation (AST) consensus conference statement recommends counseling kidney donors about this increased risk. There is no observed increase in fetal complications or eclampsia post-kidney donation. Preeclampsia is more commonly observed in kidney transplant recipients than the general population and these patients should be co-managed with an obstetrician with experience in managing high risk pregnancies. Although preeclampsia has not been found to have a deleterious effect on renal graft function, it can cause premature delivery. Risk calculators have been proposed and an elevated pre-pregnancy creatinine seems to be an important risk. KDIGO Clinical Practice Guidelines (2009) recommends attempting pregnancy when kidney function is stable with proteinuria of less than 1 g per day. The use of novel biomarkers for preeclampsia has not been published in this population. Preeclampsia is an important concern for female kidney donors and recipients of child-bearing age. These individuals should be appropriately counseled.

  5. Low-Dose Aspirin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2018-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder specific to pregnancy that remains a significant cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Identification of women who are most at risk for preeclampsia is imprecise. Because of the potential negative health consequences of preeclampsia for women and newborns and the lack of effective screening mechanisms preventing preeclampsia is an important component of prenatal care. Researchers have documented that low-dose aspirin, taken daily after the first trimester, can decrease the development of preeclampsia and reduce the incidence of preterm birth and birth of small-for-gestational-age infants. This column includes an overview of low-dose aspirin in pregnancy and a review of current recommendations from leading national organizations. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  6. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    AlSheeha, Muneera A; Alaboudi, Rafi S; Alghasham, Mohammad A; Iqbal, Javed; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia. To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls. Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A case-control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls. There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×10 3 /µL for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia ( P =0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%). Binary regression suggests that women with PC <248.010×10 3 /µL were at higher risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08-4.6, P =0.03). The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia ( P =0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%). PC <248.010×10 3 /µL and PC to MPV ratio 31.2 are valid predictors of preeclampsia.

  7. Maternal and Paternal Height and the Risk of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunsung; Magnus, Per

    2018-04-01

    The etiology of preeclampsia is unknown. Tall women have been found to have lower incidence of preeclampsia. This points to a possible biological causal effect but may be because of socioeconomic confounding. We used paternal height as an unexposed control to examine confounding. The MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study) was used to extract data on parental heights, maternal prepregnancy weight, other background factors, and pregnancy outcomes for 99 968 singleton births. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for preeclampsia according to parental height. The adjusted odds ratio for preeclampsia was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for women >172 cm as compared with women <164 cm. The adjusted odds ratio for preeclampsia for men >186 cm was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.15) compared with men <178 cm. The association between maternal height and preeclampsia is unlikely to be because of confounding by familial, socioeconomic factors or by fetal genes related to height. The observed association between maternal height and preeclampsia merits further investigation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Strategy for standardization of preeclampsia research study design.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Leslie; Redman, Christopher W; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Hansson, Stefan; Wilson, Melissa L; Laivuori, Hannele; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, James M

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia remains a major problem worldwide for mothers and babies. Despite intensive study, we have not been able to improve the management or early recognition of preeclampsia. At least part of this is because of failure to standardize the approach to studying this complex syndrome. It is possible that within the syndrome there may be different phenotypes with pathogenic pathways that differ between the subtypes. The capacity to recognize and to exploit different subtypes is of obvious importance for prediction, prevention, and treatment. We present a strategy for research to study preeclampsia, which will allow discrimination of such possible subtypes and also allow comparison and perhaps combinations of findings in different studies by standardized data and biosample collection. To make studies relevant to current clinical practice, the definition of preeclampsia can be that currently used and accepted. However, more importantly, sufficient data should be collected to allow other diagnostic criteria to be used and applied retrospectively. To that end, we present what we consider to be the minimum requirements for a data set in a study of preeclampsia that will facilitate comparisons. We also present a comprehensive or optimal data set for in-depth investigation of pathophysiology. As we approach the definition of phenotypes of preeclampsia by clinical and biochemical criteria, adherence to standardized protocols will hasten our understanding of the causes of preeclampsia and development of targeted treatment strategies.

  9. Vitamina D y riesgo de preeclampsia: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Díaz, Norma Cecilia; Gamboa-Delgado, Edna Magaly; Domínguez-Urrego, Clara Lucía; Vesga-Varela, Andrea Liliana; Serrano-Gómez, Sergio Eduardo; Quintero-Lesmes, Doris Cristina

    2018-05-01

    Introducción. Cada vez son más los hallazgos sobre la relación entre las concentraciones de vitamina D en el ser humano y diversas condiciones clínicas. Hay una gran cantidad de estudios que informan sobre dicha asociación, especialmente con complicaciones obstétricas, incluidas la preeclampsia y la diabetes mellitus de la gestación, entre otras, pero sus resultados todavía no son definitivos, por lo que se requieren estudios de intervención de calidad que confirmen la relación de la vitamina D con dichos resultados.Objetivo. Revisar la información plasmada en estudios en torno al papel de la vitamina D materna y el desarrollo de la preeclampsia.Materiales y métodos. La metodología usada siguió las recomendaciones de la guía Cochrane para la elaboración de revisiones sistemáticas y de la guía del grupo Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) para los metaanálisis. La búsqueda incluyó estudios observacionales y ensayos clínicos controlados.Resultados. Los niveles bajos de vitamina D, medida con el examen de 25-hidroxivitamina D, son comunes en el embarazo. Los resultados de esta revisión sistemática y del metaanálisis sugieren una asociación inversa entre los niveles de vitamina D y el desarrollo de preeclampsia. Hubo heterogeneidad en los estudios en cuanto a su diseño, población y ubicación geográfica, así como a las definiciones de exposición y resultado. Los ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados se excluyeron del metaanálisis.Conclusión. Se encontró una asociación inversa que sugiere que, a mayores concentraciones de vitamina D, menor es la probabilidad de desarrollar preclampsia, a pesar de la heterogeneidad de la medida global en este tipo de análisis.

  10. Preeclampsia: Updates in Pathogenesis, Definitions, and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Elizabeth; Prasanna, Devika; Brima, Wunnie

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is becoming an increasingly common diagnosis in the developed world and remains a high cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Delay in childbearing in the developed world feeds into the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, which include older maternal age, obesity, and/or vascular diseases. Inadequate prenatal care partially explains the persistent high prevalence in the developing world. In this review, we begin by presenting the most recent concepts in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Upstream triggers of the well described angiogenic pathways, such as the heme oxygenase and hydrogen sulfide pathways, as well as the roles of autoantibodies, misfolded proteins, nitric oxide, and oxidative stress will be described. We also detail updated definitions, classification schema, and treatment targets of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy put forth by obstetric and hypertensive societies throughout the world. The shift has been made to view preeclampsia as a systemic disease with widespread endothelial damage and the potential to affect future cardiovascular diseases rather than a self-limited occurrence. At the very least, we now know that preeclampsia does not end with delivery of the placenta. We conclude by summarizing the latest strategies for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia. A better understanding of this entity will help in the care of at-risk women before delivery and for decades after. PMID:27094609

  11. Preeclampsia: Updates in Pathogenesis, Definitions, and Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Elizabeth; Prasanna, Devika; Brima, Wunnie; Jim, Belinda

    2016-06-06

    Preeclampsia is becoming an increasingly common diagnosis in the developed world and remains a high cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Delay in childbearing in the developed world feeds into the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, which include older maternal age, obesity, and/or vascular diseases. Inadequate prenatal care partially explains the persistent high prevalence in the developing world. In this review, we begin by presenting the most recent concepts in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Upstream triggers of the well described angiogenic pathways, such as the heme oxygenase and hydrogen sulfide pathways, as well as the roles of autoantibodies, misfolded proteins, nitric oxide, and oxidative stress will be described. We also detail updated definitions, classification schema, and treatment targets of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy put forth by obstetric and hypertensive societies throughout the world. The shift has been made to view preeclampsia as a systemic disease with widespread endothelial damage and the potential to affect future cardiovascular diseases rather than a self-limited occurrence. At the very least, we now know that preeclampsia does not end with delivery of the placenta. We conclude by summarizing the latest strategies for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia. A better understanding of this entity will help in the care of at-risk women before delivery and for decades after. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Clinical risk factors for preeclampsia in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Paré, Emmanuelle; Parry, Samuel; McElrath, Thomas F; Pucci, Dominick; Newton, Amy; Lim, Kee-Hak

    2014-10-01

    We sought to validate several clinical risk factors previously described for preeclampsia in a large contemporary multicenter prospective cohort. We enrolled women from three sites before 15 weeks of gestation. Demographic and clinical risk factors were collected through standardized chart review. The main outcome of preeclampsia was diagnosed using the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists definitions from 2002. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for confounders. Two thousand six hundred thirty-seven women are included in this analysis; 237 (9.0%) developed preeclampsia. In adjusted analysis, chronic hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.72; 95% confidence interval 1.78-4.13), pregestational diabetes (adjusted OR 3.88; 2.08-7.26), multiple gestation (adjusted OR 2.96; 1.74-5.03), African American race (adjusted OR 1.91; 1.35-2.71), prior preeclampsia (adjusted OR 3.63; 2.29-5.73), nulliparity (adjusted OR 1.73; 1.26-2.38), assisted reproductive techniques (adjusted OR: 1.72; 1.10-2.68), and being overweight (adjusted OR for body mass index [BMI, kg/m] greater than 25-30: 1.65; 1.13-2.41) or obese (adjusted OR for BMI greater than 30-35: 2.34, 1.51-3.61; adjusted OR for BMI greater than 35-40: 3.59, 2.13-6.03; adjusted OR for BMI greater than 40: 6.04, 3.56-10.24) were associated with preeclampsia, but advanced maternal age was not. Similar associations were found for severe preeclampsia. A dose-response effect was observed in the relationship between BMI and both preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia. Being overweight or obese was the most important risk factor for both preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia with an attributable risk percent of 64.9% and 64.4%, respectively. In this contemporary cohort, increasingly prevalent and potentially modifiable factors were confirmed as significant risk factors for preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia, the most important being overweight or obese. This information is important to guide

  13. Thrombophilic mutations and susceptibility to preeclampsia in Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Malek-Khosravi, Shohreh; Rahimi, Zohreh; Rahimi, Ziba; Jalilvand, Faranak; Parsian, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency and the possible association between thrombophilic mutations of factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin G20210A with preeclampsia among Kurdish population of Western Iran. We studied 198 women with preeclampsia including 128 women with mild and 70 women with severe forms and 101 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancy. Among cases there were 23 women with early onset preeclampsia and 175 cases with late-onset preeclampsia. The sample was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism using Mnl I and Hind III for FVL and prothrombin G20210A, respectively. The frequency of heterozygous FVL mutation was 7.6% among all preeclamptic women (8.6% in mild and 5.7% in severe preeclamptic women) and 7.9% in controls (P > 0.05). However, the prevalence of heterozygous FVL were 10.5 and 3.9% among severe preeclamptic women with early onset and late-onset preeclampsia, respectively (P > 0.05). The prevalence of prothrombin G20210A were 1.6, 2.9, and 3% among women with mild preeclamsia, severe preeclampsia and controls, respectively (P > 0.05). The level of serum triglycerides (TG) was significantly higher among women with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women that was not associated with the two thrombophilic mutations. Our results indicate that neither FVL nor prothrombin G20210A could be a risk factor for preeclampsia in our population. However, high prevalence of FVL in preeclamptic women with early onset compared to those with late-onset preeclampsia may suggest a role for this mutation in predisposition to early onset preeclampsia that need to be confirmed with larger sample size.

  14. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Association Between Preeclampsia Risk Factors and Preeclampsia Among Women Residing in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Lim, Eunjung; Harvey, Scott; Miyamura, Jill; Juarez, Deborah T

    2016-09-01

    Objective To assess differences in the rates of preeclampsia among a multiethnic population in Hawaii. Methods We performed a retrospective study on statewide inpatient data for delivery hospitalizations in Hawaii between January 1995 and December 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the impact of maternal race/ethnicity on the rates of preeclampsia after adjusting for age, multiple gestation, multiparity, chronic hypertension, pregestational diabetes, obesity and smoking. Results A total of 271,569 hospital discharges for delivery were studied. The rates of preeclampsia ranged from 2.0 % for Chinese to 4.6 % for Filipinos. Preeclampsia rates were higher among Native Hawaiians who are age <35 and non-obese (OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.43-1.66), age ≥35 and non-obese (OR 2.31; 95 % CI 2.00-2.68), age ≥35 and obese (OR 1.80; 95 % CI 1.24-2.60); other Pacific Islanders who are age <35 and non-obese (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.27-1.54), age ≥35 and non-obese (OR 2.18; 95 % CI 1.79-2.64), age ≥35 and obese (OR 1.68; 95 % CI 1.14-2.49); and Filipinos who are age <35 and non-obese (OR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.43-1.67), age ≥35 and non-obese (OR 2.26; 95 % CI 1.97-2.60), age ≥35 and obese (OR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.04-2.59) compared to whites. Pregestational diabetes (OR 3.41; 95 % CI 3.02-3.85), chronic hypertension (OR 5.98; 95 % CI 4.98-7.18), and smoking (OR 1.19; 95 % CI 1.07-1.33) were also independently associated with preeclampsia. Conclusions for Practice In Hawaii, Native Hawaiians, other Pacific Islanders and Filipinos have a higher risk of preeclampsia compared to whites. For these high-risk ethnic groups, more frequent monitoring for preeclampsia may be needed.

  15. Racial/ethnic disparities in the association between preeclampsia risk factors and preeclampsia among women residing in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Lim, Eunjung; Harvey, Scott; Miyamura, Jill; Juarez, Deborah T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess differences in the rates of preeclampsia among a multiethnic population in Hawaii. Methods We performed a retrospective study on statewide inpatient data for delivery hospitalizations in Hawaii between January 1995 and December 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the impact of maternal race/ethnicity on the rates of preeclampsia after adjusting for age, multiple gestation, multiparity, chronic hypertension, pregestational diabetes, obesity and smoking. Results A total of 271,569 hospital discharges for delivery were studied. The rates of preeclampsia ranged from 2.0% for Chinese to 4.6% for Filipinos. Preeclampsia rates were higher among Native Hawaiians who are age <35 and non-obese (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.43-1.66), age ≥35 and non-obese (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 2.00-2.68), age ≥35 and obese (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.24-2.60); other Pacific Islanders who are age <35 and non-obese (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.27-1.54), age ≥35 and non-obese (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.79-2.64), age ≥35 and obese (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.14-2.49); and Filipinos who are age <35 and non-obese (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.43-1.67), age ≥35 and non-obese (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.97-2.60), age ≥35 and obese (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.04-2.59) compared to whites. Pregestational diabetes (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 3.02-3.85), chronic hypertension (OR, 5.98; 95% CI, 4.98-7.18), and smoking (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33) were also independently associated with preeclampsia. Conclusion In Hawaii, Native Hawaiians, other Pacific Islanders and Filipinos have a higher risk of preeclampsia compared to whites. For these high-risk ethnic groups, more frequent monitoring for preeclampsia may be needed. PMID:27000850

  16. Rubella, herpes simplex virus type 2 and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Alshareef, Shimos A; Eltom, Ahmed M; Nasr, Abubakr M; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Adam, Ishag

    2017-07-26

    Preeclampsia is a major health problem. Although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal seropositivity of rubella, Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and preeclampsia. A case -controls study (90 women in each arm) was conducted at Saad Abualila Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. The cases were women with preeclampsia and the controls were healthy pregnant women. Rubella and HSV-2 IgG antibodies were analysed in the maternal sera of all of the participants using ELISA. There was no significant difference in the age, parity and gestational age between the two groups. Maternal serum IgG seropositivity for rubella (92.2% vs. 34.4%, P < 0.001) and HSV-2 (87.8% vs. 57.8%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in preeclampsia than in the controls. There was no significant difference in the maternal serum IgM seropositivity for rubella (3.3% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.650) and HSV-2 (2.2% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.560). All the IgM seropositive cases were IgG seropositive too. In binary logistic regression women with rubella (OR = 4.93; 95% CI = 2.082-11.692, P < 0.001) and HSV-2 (OR = 5.54; 95% CI = 2.48-12.38, P < 0.001) IgG seropositivity were at higher risk for preeclampsia. In the current study rubella and HSV-2 IgG seropositivity is associated with preeclampsia. Preventive measure should be implemented.

  17. Maternal and fetal plasma zinc in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bassiouni, B A; Foda, A I; Rafei, A A

    1979-04-01

    Zinc is important for fetal growth and is involved in several important enzyme systems. Maternal and umbilical plasma zinc concentrations were determined in 52 parturient women with mild and severe pre-eclampsia, and were compared with those obtained from 20 women in labor whose pregnancies had progressed normally. A decrease in maternal as well as umbilical plasma zinc concentrations was observed in pre-eclamptic women, and this decrease was statistically significant in severe pre-eclampsia. The causes of these changes in plasma zinc concentrations in pre-eclampsia were discussed, and the possible adverse effects of zinc deficiency on the mother and fetus were mentioned. Low plasma zinc concentrations in pre-eclampsia may be a sign of zinc deficiency, implying possible risks to the mother and her fetus. It is recommended that maintenance of adequate dietary zinc nutrition during pregnancy, and particularly in pre-eclampsia, is important.

  18. Tratamiento Quirúrgico de los Meningiomas del Foramen Óptico, Técnicay Resultados de una Serie de 18 Pacientes

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Álvaro; Landriel, Federico; Sposito, Maximiliano; Carrizo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los meningiomas del foramen óptico producen un rápido deterioro de la función visual aún cuando su tamaño es pequeño, por eso su diagnóstico y manejo difiere del resto de los meningiomas clinoideos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar la técnica y los resultados de nuestro manejo quirúrgico de meningiomas foraminales (MF). Pacientes y Métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión de las historias clínicas de 47 pacientes con meningiomas primarios intraorbitarios. Se realizaron 52 cirugías en los pacientes con MF. Se empleó una craneotomía fronto-orbitaria, seguida de una descompresión extradural del canal óptico, resección del componente intraorbitario y exploración intradural del nervio óptico. Resultados: de los 12 pacientes con MF que presentaban la visión conservada, la agudeza visual fue preservada en 7 casos, mejoró en 2, y empeoró en 3. En 18 pacientes, el principal síntoma fue exoftalmos y en 35 pacientes ceguera unilateral. Ocurrieron 6 recurrencias, 2 a 10 años después de la resección quirúrgica. Cinco de ellos fueron reoperados. Se indicó radioterapia después de la recurrencia en 3 pacientes. Conclusión: el manejo de los MF continúa siendo controvertido y frecuentemente se propone un tratamiento conservador. Basados en nuestros hallazgos de frecuente extensión intracraneal, proponemos realizar una resección total o subtotal del tumor, preservando el nervio óptico en pacientes con visión prequirúrgica conservada. PMID:25165616

  19. A novel marker in pregnant with preeclampsia: renalase.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Yıldırım, Tolga; Yılmaz, Rahmi; Erdem, Yunus

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by an increase in high blood pressure and decrease in GFR and proteinuria, however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Renalase is a recently discovered protein implicated in regulation of blood pressure in humans. Plasma concentrations of serum renalase were measured in healthy controls, healthy pregnant and pregnant with preeclampsia matched for age, gestational age, in the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum renalase levels were compared in pregnant with and without preeclampsia and non-pregnant controls. Factors associated with serum renalase levels in pregnancies were also evaluated. In healthy pregnant serum renalase levels were significantly higher than in controls. However, pregnant with preeclampsia had lower renalase levels than healthy controls. Serum renalase levels were inversely associated with blood pressure levels and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. The results indicated that the development of preeclampsia in pregnant is accompanied by altered serum renalase levels. High blood pressure and kidney damage that characterize this disorder are mediated at least in part by low renalase levels.

  20. Selenium and Preeclampsia: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Guo, Dan; Gu, Hao; Zhang, Li; Lv, Shuyan

    2016-06-01

    Conflicting results exist between selenium concentration and preeclampsia. The role of selenium in the development of preeclampsia is unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the blood selenium level in patients with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women, and to determine the effectiveness of selenium supplementation in preventing preeclampsia. We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Library, and relevant references for English language literature up to November 25, 2014. Mean difference from observational studies and relative risk from randomized controlled trials were meta-analyzed by a random-effect model. Thirteen observational studies with 1515 participants and 3 randomized controlled trials with 439 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Using a random-effect model, a statistically significant difference in blood selenium concentration of -6.47 μg/l (95 % confidence interval (CI) -11.24 to -1.7, p = 0.008) was seen after comparing the mean difference of observational studies. In randomized controlled trials, using a random-effect model, the relative risk for preeclampsia was 0.28 (0.09 to 0.84) for selenium supplementation (p = 0.02). Evidence from observational studies indicates an inverse association of blood selenium level and the risk of preeclampsia. Supplementation with selenium significantly reduces the incidence of preeclampsia. However, more prospective clinical trials are required to assess the association between selenium supplementation and preeclampsia and to determine the dose, beginning time, and duration of selenium supplementation.

  1. [Evans syndrome, pregnancy, and preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salazar, E; Martínez-Abundis, C E; González-Ortiz, C M

    2001-02-01

    Evans' syndrome is an unusual illness of autoimmune etiology, characterized by thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia. This is more frequent in females throughout first half of the life and during pregnancy. The present paper describes two pregnant women with Evans syndrome associated to preeclampsia. This report emphasizes how the hematology and coagulation abnormalities of preeclampsia could be added to those abnormalities observed in Evans' syndrome. This association constitutes a severe disease of difficult treatment.

  2. Counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G; Mol, Ben W; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on interventions and risk factor follow-up after early and late preeclampsia. In 2011 and 2014, all gynaecologists in the Netherlands were invited for a questionnaire. Results were analysed and compared over time. In 2011, the questionnaire was answered by 244 and in 2014 by 167 gynaecologists. After early preeclampsia, in 2011, 53% advised yearly blood pressure measurements; this increased to 65% in 2014. Over the years there was an increase in respondents advising an increased physical activity of 35% in 2011 to 56% in 2014. After late preeclampsia, in 2011, 36% advised yearly blood pressure measurements; this increased to 46% in 2014. There was an increase in gynaecologists advising increased activity (32% in 2011 to 56% in 2014). In both early and late preeclampsia, smoking cessation and weigh loss were advised often (70-80%); glucose and lipid screening were advised rarely (6-20%). Although there is still a considerable scope for improvement, an increasing number of gynaecologists advise women after preeclampsia on preventive interventions to decrease risks of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Preeclampsia Associates with Asthma, Allergy, and Eczema in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid; Anderson, Ulrik D; Bisgaard, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia reflects an unusual increase in systemic inflammation during pregnancy. We studied associations between preeclampsia and asthma, allergy, and eczema in Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2000 (COPSAC 2000 ) and in national registries. COPSAC 2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma, allergy, and eczema were diagnosed prospectively, and lung function measured at age 1 month and 7 years. Sensitization was evaluated at age 6 months, 18 months, 4 years, and 6 years by skin prick tests and IgE measurements. The register-based cohort included 1.7 million children from Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Children born to mothers with preeclampsia were analyzed regarding risk of asthma, allergy, and eczema. In the COPSAC 2000 cohort, 5.6% (n = 23) were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids at age 7 years (adjusted odds ratio, 4.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-14.43]; P = 0.0337), increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (adjusted β-coefficient log-μmol, -0.80 [95% CI, -1.55 to -0.06]; P = 0.0348), and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.58-14.78]; P = 0.0057) in the 7-year-old children. Furthermore, the children had an increased risk of sensitization to both aeroallergens and food allergens, and increased amount of total IgE during childhood. In the registry-based cohort, 3.7% (n = 62,728) were born to mothers with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of asthma, eczema, and aeroallergen and food allergy, especially pronounced after a duration of preeclampsia of 14 days or more. Maternal asthma increased the risk of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a shared prenatal risk factor for asthma, eczema, and allergy in childhood pointing toward in utero immune programming of the child.

  4. Evidence-Based Revised View of the Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asif; Rezai, Homira; Broadway-Stringer, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a life-threatening vascular disorder of pregnancy due to a failing stressed placenta. Millions of women risk death to give birth each year and globally each year, almost 300,000 lose their life in this process and over 500,000 babies die as a consequence of preeclampsia. Despite decades of research, we lack pharmacological agents to treat it. Maternal endothelial oxidative stress is a central phenomenon responsible for the preeclampsia phenotype of high maternal blood pressure and proteinuria. In 1997, it was proposed that preeclampsia arises due to the loss of VEGF activity, possibly due to elevation in anti-angiogenic factor, soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1). Researchers showed that high sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin (sEng) elicit the severe preeclampsia phenotype in pregnant rodents. We demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) pathway prevents placental stress and suppresses sFlt-1 and sEng release. Likewise, hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S)/cystathionine-γ-lyase (Cth) systems limit sFlt-1 and sEng and protect against the preeclampsia phenotype in mice. Importantly, H 2 S restores placental vasculature, and in doing so improves lagging fetal growth. These molecules act as the inhibitor systems in pregnancy and when they fail, preeclampsia is triggered. In this review, we discuss what are the hypotheses and models for the pathophysiology of preeclampsia on the basis of Bradford Hill causation criteria for disease causation and how further in vivo experimentation is needed to establish 'proof of principle'. Hypotheses that fail to meet the Bradford Hill causation criteria include abnormal spiral artery remodelling and inflammation and should be considered associated or consequential to the disorder. In contrast, the protection against cellular stress hypothesis that states that the protective pathways mitigate cellular stress by limiting elevation of anti-angiogenic factors or oxidative stress and the subsequent clinical signs of preeclampsia

  5. Adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with preeclampsia in Iran.

    PubMed

    Omani-Samani, Reza; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Amini, Payam; Esmailzadeh, Arezoo; Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir

    2017-09-18

    Preeclampsia is relatively a common complication in pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure and protein in urine during pregnancy. Consistent with the adverse outcomes followed by preeclampsia, this study designed to investigate the how preeclampsia is associated with preterm, low birth weight (LBW), cesarean section, and weigh gain during pregnancy. In this population-based cross-sectional study, 5166 deliveries from 103 hospitals in Tehran (Capital of Iran) were included in the analysis in 2015. The independent variable was preeclampsia during pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy, preterm birth, cesarean section, and LBW were considered as interested outcomes. The data were analyzed by statistical Stata software (version 13, Stata Inc., College Station, TX). Adjusted results showed that the mean of weight gain in women with preeclampsia was significantly higher than women without preeclampsia (mean difference: 1.77 kg, 95%CI: 0.76-12.78, p = .001). The adjusted odds ratio for preterm birth, cesarean section, and LBW were 4.19 (95%CI: 2.71-6.48, p = .001), 1.92 (95%CI: 1.24-2.98, p = .003), and 1.19 (95%CI: 0.61-2.31, p = .599), respectively. Weight gain in women with preeclampsia was higher than women without preeclampsia and also the odds of preterm birth, cesarean section and LBW in women with preeclampsia was higher than women without preeclampsia.

  6. Elevated placental adenosine signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Sun, Kaiqi; Parchim, Nicholas F; Li, Jessica; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Anren; Hart, Laura A; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M; Chan, Lee-Nien L; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Hicks, M John; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-02-24

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This pathogenic condition is speculated to be caused by placental abnormalities that contribute to the maternal syndrome. However, the specific factors and signaling pathways that lead to impaired placentas and maternal disease development remain elusive. Using 2 independent animal models of preeclampsia (genetically engineered pregnant mice with elevated adenosine exclusively in placentas and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model), we demonstrated that chronically elevated placental adenosine was sufficient to induce hallmark features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, small fetuses, and impaired placental vasculature. Genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that elevated placental adenosine coupled with excessive A₂B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling contributed to the development of these features of preeclampsia. Mechanistically, we provided both human and mouse evidence that elevated placental CD73 is a key enzyme causing increased placental adenosine, thereby contributing to preeclampsia. We determined that elevated placental adenosine signaling is a previously unrecognized pathogenic factor for preeclampsia. Moreover, our findings revealed the molecular basis underlying the elevation of placental adenosine and the detrimental role of excess placental adenosine in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, and thereby, we highlight novel therapeutic targets. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The Norwegian preeclampsia family cohort study: a new resource for investigating genetic aspects and heritability of preeclampsia and related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Roten, Linda Tømmerdal; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Gundersen, Astrid Solberg; Fenstad, Mona Høysæter; Odland, Maria Lisa; Strand, Kristin Melheim; Solberg, Per; Tappert, Christian; Araya, Elisabeth; Bærheim, Gunhild; Lyslo, Ingvill; Tollaksen, Kjersti; Bjørge, Line; Austgulen, Rigmor

    2015-12-01

    Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication without curative treatment available. A Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Cohort was established to provide a new resource for genetic and molecular studies aiming to improve the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Participants were recruited from five Norwegian hospitals after diagnoses of preeclampsia registered in the Medical birth registry of Norway were verified according to the study's inclusion criteria. Detailed obstetric information and information on personal and family disease history focusing on cardiovascular health was collected. At attendance anthropometric measurements were registered and blood samples were drawn. The software package SPSS 19.0 for Windows was used to compute descriptive statistics such as mean and SD. P-values were computed based on t-test statistics for normally distributed variables. Nonparametrical methods (chi square) were used for categorical variables. A cohort consisting of 496 participants (355 females and 141 males) representing 137 families with increased occurrence of preeclampsia has been established, and blood samples are available for 477 participants. Descriptive analyses showed that about 60% of the index women's pregnancies with birth data registered were preeclamptic according to modern diagnosis criteria. We also found that about 41% of the index women experienced more than one preeclamptic pregnancy. In addition, the descriptive analyses confirmed that preeclamptic pregnancies are more often accompanied with delivery complications. The data and biological samples collected in this Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Cohort will provide an important basis for future research. Identification of preeclampsia susceptibility genes and new biomarkers may contribute to more efficient strategies to identify mothers "at risk" and contribute to development of novel preventative therapies.

  8. Preeclampsia; short and long-term consequences for mother and neonate.

    PubMed

    Bokslag, Anouk; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam; Mol, Ben Willem; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2016-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy specific disease, that presents with hypertension and a variety of organ failures, including malfunction of kidneys, liver and lungs. At present, the only definitive treatment of preeclampsia is end the pregnancy and deliver the neonate and placenta. For women with mild preeclampsia in the preterm phase of pregnancy, expectant management is generally indicated to improve fetal maturity, often requiring maternal medical treatment. Last decades, more evidence is available that the underlying mechanism of preeclampsia, endothelial disease, is not limited to pregnancy but increases cardiovascular risk in later life. In this review, we present the most recent insight in preeclampsia with focus on impact on the fetus, short and long-term outcome of offspring's, and long-term outcome of women with a history of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomarker identification and pathway analysis of preeclampsia based on serum metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; He, Ping; Tan, Yong; Xu, Dongying

    2017-03-25

    Preeclampsia presents serious risk of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers for the detection of preeclampsia are critical for risk assessment and targeted intervention. The goal of this study is to screen potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of preeclampsia and to illuminate the pathogenesis of preeclampsia development based on the differential expression network. Two groups of subjects, including healthy pregnant women, subjects with preeclampsia, were recruited for this study. The metabolic profiles of all of the subjects' serum were obtained by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Correlation between metabolites was analyzed by bioinformatics technique. Results showed that the PC(14:0/00), proline betaine and proline were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for preeclampsia diagnosis and prognosis. Perturbation of corresponding biological pathways, such as iNOS signaling, nitric oxide signaling in the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial dysfunction were responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study indicated that the metabolic profiling had a good clinical significance in the diagnosis of preeclampsia as well as in the study of its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Historical evolution of ideas on eclampsia/preeclampsia: A proposed optimistic view of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Dekker, Gustaaf; Chaouat, Gérard; Scioscia, Marco; Iacobelli, Silvia; Hulsey, Thomas C

    2017-09-01

    Eclampsia (together with epilepsy) being the first disease ever written down since the beginning of writings in mankind 5000 years ago, we will make a brief presentation of the different major steps in comprehension of Pre-eclampsia. 1) 1840. Rayer, description of proteinuria in eclampsia, 2) 1897 Vaquez, discovery of gestational hypertension in eclamptic women, 3) In the 1970's, description of the "double" trophoblastic invasion existing only in humans (Brosens & Pijnenborg,), 4) between the 1970's and the 1990's, description of preeclampsia being a couple disease. The "paternity problem" (and therefore irruption of immunology), 5) at the end of the 1980's, a major step forward: Preeclampsia being a global endothelial cell disease (glomeruloendotheliosis, hepatic or cerebral endotheliosis, HELLP, eclampsia), inflammation (J.Roberts.C Redman, R Taylor), 6) End of the 1990's: Consensus for a distinction between early onset preeclampsia EOP and late onset LOP (34 weeks gestation), EOP being rather a problem of implantation of the trophoblast (and the placenta), LOP being rather a pre-existing maternal problem (obesity, diabetes, coagulopathies etc…). LOP is predominant everywhere on this planet, but enormously predominant in developed countries: 90% of cases. This feature is very different in countries where women have their first child very young (88% of world births), where the fatal EOP (early onset) occurs in more than 30% of cases. 7) What could be the common factor which could explain the maternal global endotheliosis in EOP and LOP? Discussion about the inositol phospho glycans P type. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Monocytes and Macrophages in Pregnancy and Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Faas, Marijke M.; Spaans, Floor; De Vos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important complication in pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Generalized activation of the inflammatory response is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Monocytes may play a central role in this inflammatory response. Monocytes are short lived cells that mature in the circulation and invade into tissues upon an inflammatory stimulus and develop into macrophages. Macrophages are abundantly present in the endometrium and play a role in implantation and placentation in normal pregnancy. In pre-eclampsia, these macrophages appear to be present in larger numbers and are also activated. In the present review, we focused on the role of monocytes and macrophages in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia. PMID:25071761

  12. Mid-pregnancy circulating immune biomarkers in women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brandie D; Tang, Gong; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn; Hougaard, David M; Skogstrand, Kristin; Roberts, James M; Haggerty, Catherine L

    2016-01-01

    To determine if mid-pregnancy circulating immune biomarkers are associated with preeclampsia. Nested case-control study of 410 preeclamptic women and 297 normotensive controls with primiparous singleton pregnancies enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. The mean gestational age in our cohort is 16 weeks (range 9-26). Preeclampsia was defined by blood pressure ⩾140/90 mmHg and proteinuria ⩾3 g/24 h. Serum immune biomarkers included interleukin (IL)-6, IL-6 receptor, IL-4, IL-4 receptor, IL-5, IL-12, IL-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, TNF-receptor, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-18, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, macrophage inflammatory protein, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and RANTES. Associations with preeclampsia, term preeclampsia and preterm preeclampsia were determined using two logistic regression models; (1) biomarkers were dichotomized by the limit of detection (LOD); (2) on the continuous scale, non-detectable values were imputed by LOD/2 and transformed (base 2). All models were adjusted for body mass index and smoking. IL1β was significantly associated with a decrease in the log odds of preeclampsia (p=0.0065), term preeclampsia (p=0.0230) and preterm preeclampsia (p=0.0068). Results were similar for IL4r and preeclampsia (p=0.0383). In the dichotomized models, detectable TNF-β was significantly associated with preeclampsia (ORadj 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) and term preeclampsia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5) but not preterm preeclampsia. Detectable IL6 was significantly with term preeclampsia only (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2). Mid-pregnancy circulating IL1β, IL4r, IL6, and TNFβ were associated with preeclampsia. However, results were not consistent across statistical models. As the relationship is complex, future studies should explore cytokine clusters in preeclampsia risk. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Grosso, Laura M; Belanger, Kathleen; Darefsky, Amy S; Benowitz, Neal L; Bracken, Michael B

    2008-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication with cardiovascular manifestations. Recent studies suggest that chocolate consumption may benefit cardiovascular health. We studied the association of chocolate consumption with risk of preeclampsia in a prospective cohort study of 2291 pregnant women who delivered a singleton livebirth between September 1996 and January 2000. Chocolate consumption was measured by self report in the first and third trimesters, and by umbilical cord serum concentrations of theobromine, the major methylxanthine component of chocolate. Preeclampsia was assessed by detailed medical record review for 1943 of the women. We derived adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Preeclampsia developed in 3.7% (n = 63) of 1681 women. Cord serum theobromine concentrations were negatively associated with preeclampsia (aOR = 0.31; CI = 0.11-0.87 for highest compared with lowest quartile). Self-reported chocolate consumption estimates also were inversely associated with preeclampsia. Compared with women consuming under 1 serving of chocolate weekly, women consuming 5+ servings per week had decreased risk: aOR = 0.81 with consumption in the first 3 months of pregnancy (CI = 0.37-1.79) and 0.60 in the last 3 months (0.30-1.24). Our results suggest that chocolate consumption during pregnancy may lower risk of preeclampsia. However, reverse causality may also contribute to these findings.

  14. Is preeclampsia an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction? A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, George F; Aziz, Michael M; Boccia Liang, Claire; Williams, Shauna F; Apuzzio, Joseph J; Bilinski, Robyn; Mornan, Adenieki J D; Shah, Leena P

    2015-10-01

    To determine if preeclampsia is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction and what factors among patients with preeclampsia are associated with diastolic dysfunction. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who delivered between 2008 and 2013 at a single institution who had a maternal echocardiogram during their pregnancy or within 5months of delivery. Patients with structural heart disease, ejection fraction less than 45%, pulmonary embolus, or age over 45years were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for medical and obstetric complications and echocardiogram findings. Demographic characteristics and rate of diastolic dysfunction were compared between patients with preeclampsia and without preeclampsia. Multivariate logistic regression was performed controlling for age, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery, diabetes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate administration. Sixty-six patients were identified, of which 39 (59%) had preeclampsia. Past history of preeclampsia, IUGR in the current pregnancy, antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate use were higher in the preeclampsia group. Fifteen patients (39%) in the preeclampsia group were African-American compared to 2 (3%) in the control group (p<0.01). Seventeen (44%) of the patients with preeclampsia were found to have diastolic dysfunction compared to 3 (11%) controls (OR=6.18, 95% CI 1.59,24.02; p=0.006). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal other independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction. In the patients with preeclampsia, history of preeclampsia with severe features and IUGR were not associated with diastolic dysfunction. Our study supports previous findings that preeclampsia is associated with diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Risk Score for Essential Hypertension and Risk of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin J; Saftlas, Audrey F; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive complication of pregnancy characterized by novel onset of hypertension after 20 weeks gestation, accompanied by proteinuria. Epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic susceptibility exists for preeclampsia; however, whether preeclampsia is the result of underlying genetic risk for essential hypertension has yet to be investigated. Based on the hypertensive state that is characteristic of preeclampsia, we aimed to determine if established genetic risk scores (GRSs) for hypertension and blood pressure are associated with preeclampsia. Subjects consisted of 162 preeclamptic cases and 108 normotensive pregnant controls, all of Iowa residence. Subjects' DNA was extracted from buccal swab samples and genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Missing genotypes were imputed using MaCH and Minimac software. GRSs were calculated for hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using established genetic risk loci for each outcome. Regression analyses were performed to determine the association between GRS and risk of preeclampsia. These analyses were replicated in an independent US population of 516 cases and 1,097 controls of European ancestry. GRSs for hypertension, SBP, DBP, and MAP were not significantly associated with risk for preeclampsia (P > 0.189). The results of the replication analysis also yielded nonsignificant associations. GRSs for hypertension and blood pressure are not associated with preeclampsia, suggesting that an underlying predisposition to essential hypertension is not on the causal pathway of preeclampsia. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Placenta-derived exosomes: potential biomarkers of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Preenan; Moodley, Kogi; Moodley, Jagidesa; Mackraj, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality, due to ineffective treatment and diagnostic strategies, compounded by the lack of clarity on the etiology of the disorder. Although several clinical and biological markers of preeclampsia have been evaluated, they have proven to be ineffective in providing a definitive diagnosis during the various stages of the disorder. Exosomes have emerged as ideal biomarkers of pathological states, such as cancer, and have more recently gained interest in pregnancy-related complications, due to their role in cellular communication in normal and complicated pregnancies. This occurs as a result of the specific placenta-derived exosomal molecular cargo, which may be involved in normal pregnancy-associated immunological events, such as the maintenance of maternal-fetal tolerance. This review provides perspectives on placenta-derived exosomes as possible biomarkers for the diagnosis/prognosis of preeclampsia. Using keywords, online databases were searched to identify relevant publications to review the potential use of placenta-derived exosomes as biomarkers of preeclampsia.

  17. Preeclampsia: Pathogenesis, Prevention, and Long-Term Complications.

    PubMed

    Jim, Belinda; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia continues to afflict 5% to 8% of all pregnancies throughout the world and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality to the mother and the fetus. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder has not yet been fully elucidated, current evidence suggests that imbalance in angiogenic factors is responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disorder, and may explain why certain populations are risk. In this review, we begin by demonstrating the roles that angiogenic factors play in pathogenesis of preeclampsia and its complications in the mother and the fetus. We then continue to report on the use of angiogenic markers as biomarkers to predict and risk-stratify disease. Strategies to treat preeclampsia by correcting the angiogenic balance, either by promoting proangiogenic factors or by removing antiangiogenic factors in both animal and human studies, are discussed. We end the review by summarizing status of the current preventive strategies and the long-term cardiovascular outcomes of women afflicted with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Litonjua, Augusto A; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W; Handy, Diane E; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10-18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32-38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D-associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61-1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD <30 ng/ml) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10-0.96). Differential expression of 348 vitamin D-associated genes (158 upregulated) was found in peripheral blood of women who developed preeclampsia (FDR <0.05 in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial [VDAART]; P < 0.05 in a replication cohort). Functional enrichment and network analyses of this vitamin D-associated gene set suggests several highly functional modules related to systematic inflammatory and immune responses, including some nodes with a high degree of connectivity. Vitamin D supplementation initiated in weeks 10-18 of pregnancy did not reduce preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia. Differentially expressed vitamin D

  19. Increased levels of copeptin before clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Edwina H; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Männistö, Tuija; Lu, Zhaohui; Tsai, Michael Y; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-12-01

    Copeptin, a surrogate biomarker of vasopressin, has been associated with renal function decline and may serve as a useful early biomarker for preeclampsia. We measured serum copeptin using samples collected longitudinally during pregnancy among unaffected controls (n=136) and cases of preeclampsia (n=169), gestational diabetes mellitus (n=92), gestational hypertension (n=101), and preterm birth (n=86) in the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention trial (1992-1995). Preeclampsia and gestational hypertension were defined as having a diastolic blood pressure≥90 mm Hg on 2 occasions with and without proteinuria, respectively. The risk of pregnancy complications associated with copeptin was estimated by logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, race, body mass index, insurance status, marital status, current smoking, and clinical site. Baseline copeptin levels, at mean 16 weeks of gestation, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk (adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval being 1.55 per log unit; 1.03-2.31) when compared with controls (P=0.03). The association was stronger among cases diagnosed before 37 weeks (1.86; 1.08-3.20) than those diagnosed later (1.45; 0.91-2.32). Copeptin levels rose with increasing gestational age in both cases and controls but remained significantly higher among those who were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Differences in levels of copeptin between cases and controls became more apparent closer to time of diagnosis. No significant associations were found for gestational hypertension without proteinuria, gestational diabetes mellitus, or preterm birth without preeclampsia. Copeptin levels are elevated in pregnant women before diagnosis of preeclampsia with elevation specific to this pregnancy complication rather than hypertension alone. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The Role of Interleukin-10 in the Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Cubro, Hajrunisa; Kashyap, Sonu; Nath, Meryl C; Ackerman, Allan W; Garovic, Vesna D

    2018-04-30

    The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is complex and not entirely understood. A key feature in preeclampsia development is an immunological imbalance that shifts the maternal immune response from one of tolerance towards one promoting chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. As a key regulator of immunity, IL-10 not only has immunomodulatory activity, but also directly benefits vasculature and promotes successful cellular interactions at the maternal-fetal interface. Here we focus on the mechanisms by which the dysregulation of IL-10 may contribute to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Dysregulation of IL-10 has been demonstrated in various animal models of preeclampsia. Decreased IL-10 production in both placenta and peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been reported in human studies, but with inconsistent results. The significance of IL-10 in preeclampsia has shifted from a key biomarker to one with therapeutic potential. As such, a better understanding of the role of this cytokine in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is of paramount importance.

  1. Lesiones subcutáneas dolorosas en paciente con melanoma metastásico: un caso de paniculitis linfocítica asociado a vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Benavente-Villegas, Felipe; Ferrando-Roca, Francisco; Dolz-Gaitón, Raquel; Royo-Peiró, María

    2017-10-15

    Vemurafenib ha probado ser una herramienta útil en el tratamiento de melanoma metastásico con mutación BRAF-V600E. Los efectos adversos incluyen artralgias, fatiga y toxicidad cutánea, siendo infrecuente la paniculitis. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 43 años con melanoma metastásico que desarrolla lesiones subcutáneas dolorosas en miembros inferiores y superiores, asociadas a clínica sistémica después de 2 semanas de inicio de tratamiento con Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib. La histología demostró paniculitis linfocitaria septal y lobulillar. La paciente tuvo mala tolerancia al tratamiento anti diana a dosis plenas, requiriendo su ajuste, generando una corticodependencia para controlar sintomatología, y que finalmente obligó a la descontinuación de la terapia dirigida contra melanoma.  A la fecha, se han descrito 29 casos en la literatura de paniculitis asociada a vemurafenib, siendo la mayoría paniculitis neutrofílicas con adecuado control de sintomatología asociando antiinflamatorios no esteroidales y/o corticoides orales sin requerir en su mayoría modificación de la terapia contra melanoma; sin embargo hay que tener presente que pueden haber casos con mala evolución que obligan a la reducción de dosis de vemurafenib y descontinuar el tratamiento, como ha ocurrido en nuestro reporte.Vemurafenib has proven to be a useful tool in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF-V600E mutation. Adverse effects include arthralgia, fatigue, and skin toxicity; panniculitis is a rare complication. We present the case of a 43-year-old patient with metastatic melanoma who developed painful subcutaneous nodules of the lower and upper limbs and associated systemic clinical symptoms after 2 weeks of treatment with vemurafenib plus cobimetinib. Histology showed a septal and lobular lymphocytic panniculitis.The patient had poor tolerance of the full-dose treatment, requiring its adjustment. Systemic corticosteroids were required to control symptomatology

  2. Metabolic Syndrome in Preeclampsia Women in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the metabolic syndrome in preeclampsia women. The study was performed on 50 women. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 66%. Serum glucose, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly were increased and HDL- cholesterol level significantly was decreased in metabolic syndrome patients. These patients showed high prevalence of components of the syndrome. Our results show the importance of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia in overweight and obese women. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease are important problems for the health of women. It may be useful to give a treat to people with a high-normal blood pressure in early pregnancy. PMID:25553139

  3. Protein misfolding, congophilia, oligomerization, and defective amyloid processing in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Buhimschi, Irina A; Nayeri, Unzila A; Zhao, Guomao; Shook, Lydia L; Pensalfini, Anna; Funai, Edmund F; Bernstein, Ira M; Glabe, Charles G; Buhimschi, Catalin S

    2014-07-16

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of unknown etiology and a leading contributor to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Because there is no cure other than delivery, preeclampsia is the leading cause of iatrogenic preterm birth. We show that preeclampsia shares pathophysiologic features with recognized protein misfolding disorders. These features include urine congophilia (affinity for the amyloidophilic dye Congo red), affinity for conformational state-dependent antibodies, and dysregulation of prototype proteolytic enzymes involved in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. Assessment of global protein misfolding load in pregnancy based on urine congophilia (Congo red dot test) carries diagnostic and prognostic potential for preeclampsia. We used conformational state-dependent antibodies to demonstrate the presence of generic supramolecular assemblies (prefibrillar oligomers and annular protofibrils), which vary in quantitative and qualitative representation with preeclampsia severity. In the first attempt to characterize the preeclampsia misfoldome, we report that the urine congophilic material includes proteoforms of ceruloplasmin, immunoglobulin free light chains, SERPINA1, albumin, interferon-inducible protein 6-16, and Alzheimer's β-amyloid. The human placenta abundantly expresses APP along with prototype APP-processing enzymes, of which the α-secretase ADAM10, the β-secretases BACE1 and BACE2, and the γ-secretase presenilin-1 were all up-regulated in preeclampsia. The presence of β-amyloid aggregates in placentas of women with preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction further supports the notion that this condition should join the growing list of protein conformational disorders. If these aggregates play a pathophysiologic role, our findings may lead to treatment for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Recreational physical activity during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Tanya K; Williams, Michelle A; Lee, I-Min; Dashow, Edward E; Thompson, Mary Lou; Luthy, David A

    2003-06-01

    The potential benefits and risks of physical activity before and during pregnancy are not well studied. We studied the relation between recreational physical activity and the risk of preeclampsia in a case-control study of 201 preeclamptic and 383 normotensive pregnant women. Participants provided information about the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activity performed during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and during the year before pregnancy. Women who engaged in any regular physical activity during early pregnancy, compared with inactive women, experienced a 35% reduced risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.99). Compared with inactive women, those engaged in light or moderate activities (ie, activities with metabolic-equivalent scores <6) experienced a 24% reduced risk of preeclampsia (95% CI, 0.48 to 1.20). The corresponding reduction for women participating in vigorous activities (metabolic equivalent scores > or =6) was 54% (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.79). Brisk walking (average walking pace > or =3 mi/h), when compared with no walking at all, was associated with a 30% to 33% reduction in preeclampsia risk. Stair climbing was inversely associated with the risk of preeclampsia (P for trend=0.039). Recreational physical activity performed during the year before pregnancy was associated with similar reductions in preeclampsia risk. These data suggest that regular physical activity, particularly when performed during the year before pregnancy and during early pregnancy, is associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia.

  5. Chocolate Consumption in Pregnancy and Reduced Likelihood of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Triche, Elizabeth W.; Grosso, Laura M.; Belanger, Kathleen; Darefsky, Amy S.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bracken, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication with cardiovascular manifestations. Recent studies suggest that chocolate consumption may benefit cardiovascular health. Methods We studied the association of chocolate consumption with risk of preeclampsia in a prospective cohort study of 2291 pregnant women who delivered a singleton livebirth between September 1996 and January 2000. Chocolate consumption was measured by self report in the first and third trimesters, and by umbilical cord serum concentrations of theobromine, the major methylxanthine component of chocolate. Preeclampsia was assessed by detailed medical record review for 1943 of the women. We derived adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Results Preeclampsia developed in 3.7% (n = 63) of 1681 women. Cord serum theobromine concentrations were negatively associated with preeclampsia (aOR = 0.31; CI = 0.11–0.87 for highest compared with lowest quartile). Self-reported chocolate consumption estimates also were inversely associated with preeclampsia. Compared with women consuming under 1 serving of chocolate weekly, women consuming 5+ servings per week had decreased risk: aOR = 0.81 with consumption in the first 3 months of pregnancy (CI = 0.37–1.79) and 0.60 in the last 3 months (0.30–1.24). Conclusions Our results suggest that chocolate consumption during pregnancy may lower risk of preeclampsia. However, reverse causality may also contribute to these findings. PMID:18379424

  6. Women's Experiences of Preeclampsia: Australian Action on Preeclampsia Survey of Women and Their Confidants

    PubMed Central

    East, C.; Conway, K.; Pollock, W.; Frawley, N.; Brennecke, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The experience of normal pregnancy is often disrupted for women with preeclampsia (PE). Materials and Methods. Postal survey of the 112 members of the consumer group, Australian Action on Pre-Eclampsia (AAPEC). Results. Surveys were returned by 68 women (61% response rate) and from 64 (57%) partners, close relatives or friends. Respondents reported experiencing pre-eclampsia (n = 53), eclampsia (n = 5), and/or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome) (n = 26). Many women had no knowledge of PE prior to diagnosis (77%) and, once diagnosed, did not appreciate how serious or life threatening it was (50%). Women wanted access to information about PE. Their experience contributed substantial anxiety towards future pregnancies. Partners/friends/relatives expressed fear for the woman and/or her baby and had no prior understanding of PE. Conclusions. The PE experience had a substantial effect on women, their confidants, and their babies and affected their approach to future pregnancies. Access to information about PE was viewed as very important. PMID:21547089

  7. The association between maternal antioxidant levels in midpregnancy and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jacqueline M; Kramer, Michael S; Platt, Robert W; Basso, Olga; Evans, Rhobert W; Kahn, Susan R

    2015-11-01

    We sought to determine whether midpregnancy antioxidant levels are associated with preeclampsia, overall and by timing of onset. We carried out a case-control study, nested within a cohort of 5337 pregnant women in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Blood samples obtained at 24-26 weeks were assayed for nonenzymatic antioxidant levels among cases of preeclampsia (n = 111) and unaffected controls (n = 441). We excluded women diagnosed with gestational hypertension only. We used logistic regression with the z-score of each antioxidant level as the main predictor variable for preeclampsia risk. We further stratified early-onset (<34 weeks) and late-onset preeclampsia and carried out multinomial logistic regression. Finally, we assessed associations between antioxidant biomarkers and timing of onset (in weeks) by Cox regression, with appropriate selection weights. We summed levels of correlated biomarkers (r(2) > 0.3) and log-transformed positively skewed distributions. We adjusted for body mass index, nulliparity, preexisting diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and proxies for ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The odds ratios for α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol:cholesterol, lycopene, lutein, and carotenoids (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, anhydrolutein, α-cryptoxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin) suggested an inverse association between antioxidant levels and overall preeclampsia risk; however, only lutein was significantly associated with overall preeclampsia in adjusted models (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.77) per SD. In multinomial logistic models, the relative risk ratio (RRR) estimates for the early-onset subgroup were farther from the null than those for the late-onset subgroup. The ratio of α-tocopherol to cholesterol and retinol were significantly associated with early- but not late-onset preeclampsia: RRRs (95% confidence intervals) for early-onset preeclampsia 0.67 (0.46-0.99) and 1.61 (1.12-2.33), respectively. Lutein was significantly associated

  8. Exposure to experimental preeclampsia in mice enhances the vascular response to future injury.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Dafina; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Blanton, Robert M; Aronovitz, Mark; Burke, Suzanne D; McCurley, Amy; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Jaffe, Iris Z

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading killer of women in developed nations. One sex-specific risk factor is preeclampsia, a syndrome of hypertension and proteinuria that complicates 5% of pregnancies. Although preeclampsia resolves after delivery, exposed women are at increased long-term risk of premature CVD and mortality. Pre-existing CVD risk factors are associated with increased risk of developing preeclampsia but whether preeclampsia merely uncovers risk or contributes directly to future CVD remains a critical unanswered question. A mouse preeclampsia model was used to test the hypothesis that preeclampsia causes an enhanced vascular response to future vessel injury. A preeclampsia-like state was induced in pregnant CD1 mice by overexpressing soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, a circulating antiangiogenic protein that induces hypertension and glomerular disease resembling human preeclampsia. Two months postpartum, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 levels and blood pressure normalized and cardiac size and function by echocardiography and renal histology were indistinguishable in preeclampsia-exposed compared with control mice. Mice were then challenged with unilateral carotid injury. Preeclampsia-exposed mice had significantly enhanced vascular remodeling with increased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation (180% increase; P<0.01) and vessel fibrosis (216% increase; P<0.001) compared with control pregnancy. In the contralateral uninjured vessel, there was no difference in remodeling after exposure to preeclampsia. These data support a new model in which vessels exposed to preeclampsia retain a persistently enhanced vascular response to injury despite resolution of preeclampsia after delivery. This new paradigm may contribute to the substantially increased risk of CVD in woman exposed to preeclampsia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The incidence of preeclampsia in ICSI pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Ulkumen, BurcuArtunc; Silfeler, DilekBenk; Sofuoglu, Kenan; Silfeler, Ibrahim; Dayicioglu, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between infertility etiology in ICSI pregnancies and preeclampsia; besides, we aimed to discuss the effect of the paternal factor in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Hypothesis:We hypothesized that preeclampsia is more common in ICSI pregnancies with male factor. It is known that maternal exposure to paternal sperm cells over a time period has a protective effect against preeclampsia. Male partners with azospermia have no sperm cells in their seminal fluid, whose female partners will not be able to develop some protective immunity against preeclampsia. We hypothesized that the infertile couples with male factor (partner with azoospermia and also oligospermia) would be an ideal model to test the partner-specific protective immunity against preeclampsia, as the women had no chance to develop adequate protective immunity via the partner’s sperm exposure. Methods: This Single-center, retrospective study included 508 infertile couples admitted to our IVF center between January 2001 and March 2008. The data regarding the maternal age, etiology of the infertility, the pregnancy rates, abortus ratio and viable pregnancy rates was collected from the case files. Antenatal complications such as preeclampsia, placenta previa, abruptio placenta, premature rupture of membranes, premature labor, oligohydramnios, gestational diabetes, postmaturity, postpartum complications and neonatal outcomes were evaluated via the file records and phone interviewing. The study population was divided into two main groups according to the etiology of infertility. 301 of the study population (group 1) was infertile due to male factor and 207 of the study population (group 2) was female factor and unexplained infertility cases.Group 1 patients were divided further into two subgroups: group 1a included 56 cases in which TESE (testicular sperm extraction) was used to obtain the sperm cells as the male factor was severe and as there was no sperm cells

  10. Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity in preterm births.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao Dan; Branch, D Ware; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Zhang, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The relationship between gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains unclear. Thus, we used a large cohort database to study the influence of maternal gestational hypertension and preeclampsia on the occurrence of ROP in preterm infants. We used data from a previous retrospective cohort study that includes 25,473 eligible preterm neonates. We examined the association between gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and ROP while controlling for potential confounders by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 8758 early preterm infants (gestational age <34 weeks), 1024 (11.69%) had ROP, while of the 16,715 late preterm infants, only 29 (0.17%) had ROP. After adjusting for confounders, preeclampsia was associated with a significantly reduced risk of ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.86 for early preterm birth; aOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.93 for late preterm birth; aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.87 for all preterm births). Gestational hypertension was not significantly associated with ROP at early or late preterm births. Preeclampsia, but not gestational hypertension, was associated with a reduced risk of ROP in preterm births.

  11. Fractional excretion of urea in pre-eclampsia: a clinical observation.

    PubMed

    Zar, Tausif; Kohn, Orly F; Kaplan, Andre A

    2011-11-01

    Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. It occurs in 7% of all the pregnancies and accounts for 80% of the cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, proteinuria, and hypertension is a dilemma. The fractional excretion of urea has been described as a marker for renal perfusion. Since pre-eclampsia is associated with a marked decline in renal perfusion, we explored the utility of the fractional excretion of urea as a marker for pre-eclampsia. Urine and serum chemistries were evaluated in 6 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia on their first visit, immediately prior to delivery, and postpartum. For each of these three measurements, the fractional excretion of urea was calculated and proteinuria was assessed by random urine protein-creatinine ratio or 24-hour urine protein studies. In patients diagnosed with pre-eclampsia, the fractional excretion of urea decreased substantially from higher values obtained during the 3rd trimester to values consistent with renal hypoperfusion (< 35%) just prior to delivery, and it rapidly normalized immediately after delivery. Alterations in fractional excretion of urea, which suggest a decreased renal perfusion, may be a useful tool in supporting the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  12. Delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity and oxidative stress markers in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    de Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Kober, Helena; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-12-01

    Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder characterized by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria. It is of unknown etiology and involves serious risks for the pregnant women and fetus. One of the main factors involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is oxidative stress, where excess free radicals produce harmful effects, including damage to macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. In addition, the sulfhydryl delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase enzyme (δ-ALA-D) that is part of the heme biosynthetic pathway in pro-oxidant conditions can be inhibited, which may result in the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), associated with the overproduction of free radicals, suggesting it to be an indirect marker of oxidative stress. As hypertensive pregnancy complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality maternal and fetal where oxidative stress appears to be an important factor involved in preeclampsia, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of δ-ALA-D and classic oxidative stress markers in the blood of pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The analysis and quantification of the following oxidative stress markers were performed: thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS); presence of protein and non-protein thiol group; quantification of vitamin C; Catalase and δ-ALA--D activities in samples of blood of pregnant women with mild preeclampsia (n=25), with severe preeclampsia (n=30) and in a control group of healthy pregnant women (n=30). TBARS was significantly higher in women with preeclampsia, while the presence of thiol groups, levels of vitamin C, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in groups of pregnant women with preeclampsia compared with healthy women. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between groups of pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The data suggest a state of increased oxidative stress in pregnant women with

  13. Indicators of Moderate and Severe Preeclampsia in Correlation with Maternal IL10

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Ana Daneva; Hadži-Lega, Marija; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the actual study was to evaluate the relationship between the formation of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 and several indicators of moderate and severe preeclampsia in the third trimester of pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Examination of the indicators of preeclampsia and maternal IL10 levels was conducted in 50 women with pregnancies complicated by varying degrees of preeclampsia in the third trimester of gestation as well as in 50 normotensive patients, hospitalized at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The levels of IL10 were determined with a commercial test developed by Orgenium Laboratories (Finland), using reagents from AviBion ELISA research kits. Patients with preeclampsia were categorized into moderate and severe preeclampsia group according to the degree of preeclampsia. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of different parameters for the occurrence of severe preeclampsia. Odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated in order to quantify independent associations. RESULTS: The regression analysis detected systolic blood pressure (160 mmHg or higher), diastolic blood pressure (100 mmHg or higher), persistent proteinuria in pregnancy, serum LDH concentration (450 U/L or higher) and reduced serum concentrations of IL10 as significant predictors of severe preeclampsia in pregnant women after adjusting for age. CONCLUSION: The findings of significantly lower serum IL10 concentrations in patients with severe preeclampsia in comparison with respective concentrations in patients with moderate preeclampsia can be considered as major pathognomonic laboratory sign of severe preeclampsia. PMID:27335593

  14. Pre-eclampsia part 1: current understanding of its pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria at ≥20 weeks of gestation. In the absence of proteinuria, hypertension together with evidence of systemic disease (such as thrombocytopenia or elevated levels of liver transaminases) is required for diagnosis. This multisystemic disorder targets several organs, including the kidneys, liver and brain, and is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Glomeruloendotheliosis is considered to be a characteristic lesion of pre-eclampsia, but can also occur in healthy pregnant women. The placenta has an essential role in development of this disorder. Pathogenetic mechanisms implicated in pre-eclampsia include defective deep placentation, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, autoantibodies to type-1 angiotensin II receptor, platelet and thrombin activation, intravascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and the presence of an antiangiogenic state, among which an imbalance of angiogenesis has emerged as one of the most important factors. However, this imbalance is not specific to pre-eclampsia, as it also occurs in intrauterine growth restriction, fetal death, spontaneous preterm labour and maternal floor infarction (massive perivillous fibrin deposition). The severity and timing of the angiogenic imbalance, together with maternal susceptibility, might determine the clinical presentation of pre-eclampsia. This Review discusses the diagnosis, classification, clinical manifestations and putative pathogenetic mechanisms of pre-eclampsia. PMID:25003615

  15. Resolution of hypertension and proteinuria after preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Berks, Durk; Steegers, Eric A P; Molas, Marek; Visser, Willy

    2009-12-01

    To estimate the time required for hypertension and proteinuria to resolve after preeclampsia, and to estimate how this time to resolution correlates with the levels of blood pressure and proteinuria during preeclampsia and prolonging pregnancy after the development of preeclampsia. This is a historic prospective cohort study of 205 preeclamptic women who were admitted between 1990 and 1992 at the Erasmus MC Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Data were collected at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery. Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure 140/90 mm Hg or higher or use of antihypertensive drugs. Proteinuria was defined as 0.3 g/d or more. Resolution of hypertension and proteinuria were analyzed with the Turnbull extension to the Kaplan-Meier procedure. Correlations were calculated with an accelerated failure time model. At 3 months postpartum, 39% of women still had hypertension, which decreased to 18% at 2 years postpartum. Resolution time increased by 60% (P<.001) for every 10-mm Hg increase in maximal systolic blood pressure, 40% (P=.044) for every 10-mm Hg increase in maximal diastolic blood pressure, and 3.6% (P=.001) for every 1-day increase in the diagnosis-to-delivery interval. At 3 months postpartum, 14% still had proteinuria, which decreased to 2% at 2 years postpartum. Resolution time increased by 16% (P=.001) for every 1-g/d increase in maximal proteinuria. Gestational age at onset of preeclampsia was not correlated with resolution time of hypertension and proteinuria. The severity of preeclampsia and the time interval between diagnosis and delivery are associated with postpartum time to resolution of hypertension and proteinuria. After preeclampsia, it can take up to 2 years for hypertension and proteinuria to resolve. Therefore, the authors suggest that further invasive diagnostic tests for underlying renal disease may be postponed until 2 years postpartum. III.

  16. [Effect of astaxanthin on preeclampsia rat model].

    PubMed

    Xuan Rong-rong; Gao Xin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Hai-min

    2014-10-01

    The effect of astaxanthin on N(Ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced preeclampsia disease rats was investigated. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): blank group, L-NAME group and astaxanthin group. From day 5 to 20, astaxanthin group rats were treated with astaxanthin (25 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) x bw(-1)) from pregnancy (day 5). To establish the preeclamptic rat model, L-NAME group and astaxanthin group rats were injected with L-NAME (125 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) x bw(-1)) from days 10-20 of pregnancy. The blood pressure and urine protein were recorded. Serum of each group was collected and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities were analyzed. Pathological changes were observed with HE stain. The expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), ROCK II (Rho-associated protein kinase II), HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) and Caspase 3 were analyzed with immunohistochemistry. L-NAME induced typical preeclampsia symptoms, such as the increased blood pressure, urinary protein, the content of MDA, etc. Astaxanthin significantly reduced the blood pressure (P < 0.01), the content of MDA (P < 0.05), and increased the activity of SOD (P < 0.05) of preeclampsia rats. The urinary protein, NO, and NOS were also decreased. HE stain revealed that after treated with astaxanthin, the thickness of basilal membrane was improved and the content of trophoblast cells and spiral arteries was reduced. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that the expressions of NF-κB, ROCK II and Caspase 3 in placenta tissue were effectively decreased, and HO-1 was increased. Results indicated that astaxanthin can improve the preeclampsia symptoms by effectively reducing the oxidative stress and inflammatory damages of preeclampsia. It revealed that astaxanthin may be benefit for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia disease.

  17. Inherited predisposition to preeclampsia: Analysis of the Aberdeen intergenerational cohort.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, Abimbola A; Bhattacharya, Sohinee

    2017-04-01

    To assess the magnitude of familial risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in women born of a preeclamptic pregnancy and those born of pregnancy complicated by gestational hypertension while accounting for other risk factors. An intergenerational dataset was extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank (AMND) which records all pregnancy and delivery details occurring in Aberdeen, Scotland since 1950. The analysis included all nulliparous women whose mothers' records at their births are also recorded in the AMND. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the risk of having preeclampsia or gestational hypertension based on maternal history of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. There were 17302 nulliparous women included, of whom 1057(6.1%) had preeclampsia while 4098(23.7%) had gestational hypertension. Furthermore, 424(2.5%) and 2940(17.0%) had maternal history of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension respectively. The risk of preeclampsia was higher in women who were born of pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (adjusted RRR 2.55 95% CI 1.87-3.47). This was higher than the risk observed in women whose mothers had gestational hypertension (adjusted RRR 1.44 95% CI 1.23-1.69). Conversely, the risk of gestational hypertension was similar in those who were born of preeclamptic pregnancies (adjusted RRR 1.37 95% CI 1.09-1.71) and those whose mothers had gestational hypertension (adjusted RRR 1.36 95% CI 1.24-1.49). There was a dose response effect in the inheritance pattern of preeclampsia with the highest risk in women born of preeclamptic pregnancies. Gestational hypertension showed similar increased risk with maternal gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Factors for Pregnancy-Associated Stroke in Women With Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eliza C; Gatollari, Hajere J; Too, Gloria; Boehme, Amelia K; Leffert, Lisa; Marshall, Randolph S; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Willey, Joshua Z

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia affects 3% to 8% of pregnancies and increases risk of pregnancy-associated stroke (PAS). Data are limited on which women with preeclampsia are at highest risk for PAS. Using billing data from the 2003 to 2012 New York State Department of Health inpatient database, we matched women with preeclampsia and PAS 1:3 to preeclamptic controls based on age and race/ethnicity. Pre-defined PAS risk factors included pregnancy complications, infection present on admission, vascular risk factors, prothrombotic states, and coagulopathies. We constructed multivariable conditional logistic regression models to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for independent risk factors for PAS. Among women aged 12 to 55 years admitted to New York State hospitals for any reason during the study period (n=3 373 114), 88 857 had preeclampsia, and 197 of whom (0.2%) had PAS. In multivariable analysis, women with preeclampsia and stroke were more likely than controls to have severe preeclampsia or eclampsia (OR, 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6-11.3), infections present on admission (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.8), prothrombotic states (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3-9.2), coagulopathies (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), or chronic hypertension (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-5.5). Additional analyses matched and stratified by severity of preeclampsia confirmed these results. Infections, chronic hypertension, coagulopathies, and underlying prothrombotic conditions increase PAS risk in women with preeclampsia. These women may warrant closer monitoring. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Ferulic acid alleviates symptoms of preeclampsia in rats by upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weiyan; Wan, Jipeng; Yuan, Qing; Man, Quanzhan; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2017-10-01

    Preeclampsia is a complication affecting pregnant women worldwide, which leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) on an N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) induced rat model of preeclampsia. L-NAME was administered to pregnant rats to induce preeclampsia. 48 rats were divided into three experimental groups (n=16 each): control group, preeclampsia group and preeclampsia with FA treatment (preeclampsia+FA). Physiological characteristics such as urine volume, total urine protein and blood pressure were assessed. Expressions levels of urinary nephrin and podocin mRNAs were analyzed by RT-PCR. Levels of renal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), renal soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and serum placenta growth factor (PlGF) were also examined. Urine volume, total urine protein and blood pressure were markedly increased in preeclampsia group rats compared to control (P<.05), which were then significantly reduced in preeclampsia+FA group (P<.05). Expressions of urinary nephrin and podocin mRNAs, levels of VEGF, sFlt-1 and PlGF were also reversed in preeclampsia+FA group compared to preeclampsia rats (P<.05). We hereby report for the first time, FA alleviates preeclampsia symptoms in a rat preeclampsia model, supporting its potential value in treating preeclampsia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The Impact of Magnesium Sulfate Therapy on Angiogenic Factors in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Vadnais, Mary A; Rana, Sarosh; Quant, Hayley S; Salahuddin, Saira; Dodge, Laura E; Lim, Kee-Hak; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Hacker, Michele R

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate whether intravenous magnesium sulfate (magnesium) alters levels of angiogenic factors in women with preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study comparing women with preeclampsia treated with magnesium for seizure prophylaxis to those who were not. Serum levels of angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, soluble endoglin and placental growth factor, were measured at the time of diagnosis and approximately 24 hours later. Secondary analysis compared women receiving magnesium for preeclampsia to women receiving magnesium for preterm labor. Analysis of covariance was used to compare levels at 24 hours, adjusting for levels at enrollment and potential confounders. RESULTS: Angiogenic factor levels did not differ between preeclampsia groups with and without magnesium or between preeclampsia and preterm labor groups treated with magnesium (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Magnesium likely decreases seizure risk in preeclampsia by a mechanism other than altering angiogenic factor levels.

  1. Evaluation of glycosaminoglycans and heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Famá, Eduardo Augusto Brosco; Souza, Renan Salvioni; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Melo Pompei, Luciano; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder whose etiology remains unclear. It is already known that circulation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is directly involved in pre-eclampsia development. However, the molecular mechanisms involved with sFlt-1 shedding are still unidentified. We identified, quantified glycosaminoglycans and determined the enzymatic activity of heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia, in order to possibly explain if these compounds could be related to cellular processes involved with preeclampsia. A total of 45 samples collected from placentas, 15 samples from placentas of preeclampsia women and 30 samples from non-affected women. Heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate were identified and quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis, whilst hyaluronic acid was quantified by an ELISA like assay. Heparanase activity was determined using biotynilated heparan sulfate as substrate. The results showed that dermatan sulfate (P=0.019), heparan sulfate levels (P=0.015) and heparanase activity (P=0.006) in preeclampsia were significantly higher than in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups for hyaluronic acid expression in placentas (P=0.110). The present study is the first to demonstrate directly the increase of heparan sulfate in human placentas from patients with preeclampsia, suggesting that endogenous heparan sulfate could be involved in the release of sFlt-1 from placenta, increasing the level of circulating sFlt-1. Alterations of extracellular matrix components in placentas with preeclampsia raise the possibility that heparan sulfate released by heparanase is involved in mechanisms of preeclampsia development. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The role of genetics in pre-eclampsia and potential pharmacogenomic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paula Juliet; Morgan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The pregnancy-specific condition pre-eclampsia not only affects the health of mother and baby during pregnancy but also has long-term consequences, increasing the chances of cardiovascular disease in later life. It is accepted that pre-eclampsia has a placental origin, but the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the systemic endothelial dysfunction characteristic of the disorder remain to be determined. In this review we discuss some key factors regarded as important in the development of pre-eclampsia, including immune maladaptation, inadequate placentation, oxidative stress, and thrombosis. Genetic factors influence all of these proposed pathophysiological mechanisms. The inherited nature of pre-eclampsia has been known for many years, and extensive genetic studies have been undertaken in this area. Genetic research offers an attractive strategy for studying the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia as it avoids the ethical and practical difficulties of conducting basic science research during the preclinical phase of pre-eclampsia when the underlying pathological changes occur. Although pharmacogenomic studies have not yet been conducted in pre-eclampsia, a number of studies investigating treatment for essential hypertension are of relevance to therapies used in pre-eclampsia. The pharmacogenomics of antiplatelet agents, alpha and beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and magnesium sulfate are discussed in relation to the treatment and prevention of pre-eclampsia. Pharmacogenomics offers the prospect of individualized patient treatment, ensuring swift introduction of optimal treatment whilst minimizing the use of inappropriate or ineffective drugs, thereby reducing the risk of harmful effects to both mother and baby. PMID:23226061

  3. Cardiac diastolic function after recovery from pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Soma-Pillay, P; Louw, M C; Adeyemo, A O; Makin, J; Pattinson, R C

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with significant changes to the cardiovascular system during pregnancy. Eccentric and concentric remodelling of the left ventricle occurs, resulting in impaired contractility and diastolic dysfunction. It is unclear whether these structural and functional changes resolve completely after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine cardiac diastolic function at delivery and one year post-partum in women with severe pre-eclampsia, and to determine possible future cardiovascular risk. This was a descriptive study performed at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Ninety-six women with severe preeclampsia and 45 normotensive women with uncomplicated pregnancies were recruited during the delivery admission. Seventy-four (77.1%) women in the pre-eclamptic group were classified as a maternal near miss. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed at delivery and one year post-partum. At one year post-partum, women with pre-eclampsia had a higher diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001) and body mass index (p = 0.02) than women in the normotensive control group. Women with early onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery prior to 34 weeks' gestation had an increased risk of diastolic dysfunction at one year post-partum (RR 3.41, 95% CI: 1.11-10.5, p = 0.04) and this was irrespective of whether the patient had chronic hypertension or not. Women who develop early-onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks are at a significant risk of developing cardiac diastolic dysfunction one year after delivery compared to normotensive women with a history of a low-risk pregnancy.

  4. An analysis of the differences between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Guo, P L; Xue, Y; Gou, W L; Tong, M; Chen, Q

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is clinically divided into early onset and late onset preeclampsia based on the gestational age at delivery. Although the diagnostic criteria are the same in each subgroup of preeclampsia, it has been suggested that the maternal and perinatal mortalities of early onset and late onset preeclampsia are different. However, studies that compare clinical parameters or laboratory biomarkers between early onset and late onset preeclampsia are limited. Data on 177 women with early or late preeclampsia with severe hypertension were collected from a University Teaching Hospital from January 2010 to January 2011 and analysed. Data included all the clinical parameters and laboratory biomarkers of liver and renal function. 63 women and 114 women were diagnosed with early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension, respectively. There was no difference in the maternal age and the incidence of clinical symptoms including edema, vision disturbance, severe headache and stillbirth between two groups. There was a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension but other markers of liver function were not altered. However, renal function including blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Umbilical artery systolic velocity/diastolic velocity ratio was significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Our data demonstrates that the laboratory biomarkers of renal function differ between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension. The severity of renal dysfunction correlated with the time of delivery in preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated Ratio of Maternal Plasma ApoCIII to ApoCII in Preeclampsia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    presentation of preeclampsia varies significantly between individuals.3 Although both dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction are characteristic of...preeclampsia,3,4 a mechanism unifying the 2 phenomena remains to be estab- lished. Dyslipidemia becomes apparent in most patients with preeclampsia before... dyslipidemia components, leading to atherogenesis.8,9 We hypothesize that a similar mechanism may be applicable to the atherosis of preeclampsia. Apolipoprotein

  6. Intake of Probiotic Food and Risk of Preeclampsia in Primiparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myhre, Ronny; Haugen, Margaretha; Myking, Solveig; Sengpiel, Verena; Magnus, Per; Jacobsson, Bo; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics have been suggested to modify placental trophoblast inflammation, systemic inflammation, and blood pressure, all potentially interesting aspects of preeclampsia. The authors examined the association between consumption of milk-based probiotic products in pregnancy and development of preeclampsia and its subtypes. The study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using a prospective design in 33,399 primiparous women in the years 2002–2008. The intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli was estimated from a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Preeclampsia diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Intake of probiotic milk products was associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia. The association was most prominent in severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 0.96). With probiotic intakes divided into categories representing no, monthly, weekly, or daily intake, a lower risk for preeclampsia (all subtypes) was observed for daily probiotic intake (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96). Lower risks for severe preeclampsia were observed for weekly (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.98) and daily (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.89) intakes. These results suggest that regular consumption of milk-based probiotics could be associated with lower risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women. PMID:21821542

  7. Advances in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and related podocyte injury

    PubMed Central

    Craici, Iasmina M.; Wagner, Steven J.; Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Grande, Joseph P.; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder that may lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. It is a multisystem disease that is commonly, but not always, accompanied by proteinuria. Its cause(s) remain unknown, and delivery remains the only definitive treatment. It is increasingly recognized that many pathophysiological processes contribute to this syndrome, with different signaling pathways converging at the point of systemic endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria. Different animal models of pre-eclampsia have proven utility for specific aspects of pre-eclampsia research, and offer insights into pathophysiology and treatment possibilities. Therapeutic interventions that specifically target these pathways may optimize pre-eclampsia management and may improve fetal and maternal outcomes. In addition, recent findings regarding placental, endothelial, and podocyte pathophysiology in pre-eclampsia provide unique and exciting possibilities for improved diagnostic accuracy. Emerging evidence suggests that testing for urinary podocytes or their markers may facilitate the prediction and diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. In this review, we explore recent research regarding placental, endothelial, and podocyte pathophysiology. We further discuss new signaling and genetic pathways that may contribute to pre-eclampsia pathophysiology, emerging screening and diagnostic strategies, and potential targeted interventions. PMID:24573315

  8. Antidepressant Medication Use, Depression and the Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Chen, Hong Y.; Li, De-Kun

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of depression and antidepressant medication use during pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study linking automated clinical and pharmacy databases including comprehensive electronic medical records of 21,589 pregnant Kaiser Permanente Northern California members between 2010 and 2012. Results The overall risk of preeclampsia was 4.5%. The timing of antidepressant medication exposure was an important factor. A significant increase in the risk of preeclampsia emerged for women with a depression diagnosis who took antidepressant medications during the second trimester compared to women with untreated depression (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.6, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.39), and to women without depression (aRR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.23). Similar associations existed for women who took antidepressant medications, but without depression. In contrast, depressed women with psychotherapy showed no increased risk of preeclampsia compared to women with untreated depression or no depression. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the duration of antidepressant medication use and preeclampsia. The observed association appeared stronger for SSRI use, although a non-significant trend was also noted for use of NDRIs and SNRIs. Conclusion Study findings suggest that the antidepressant use during pregnancy may increase the risk of preeclampsia, especially the use during the second trimester. PMID:25778691

  9. Late onset postpartum preeclampsia 3 months after delivery.

    PubMed

    Giwa, Al; Nguyen, Melissa

    2017-10-01

    Preeclampsia is defined by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) as "the occurrence of new onset hypertension plus new-onset proteinuria" [1]. Up-to-Date elaborates a little further on this by defining preeclampsia as "the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria, or hypertension and end-organ dysfunction with or without proteinuria, after 20 weeks of gestation in a previously normotensive woman. It may also develop postpartum. Severe hypertension or signs/symptoms of end-organ injury represent the severe end of the disease spectrum" [2] In 2013, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists removed proteinuria as a key component in the diagnosis of preeclampsia. They also removed massive proteinuria (previously, 5 g/24 hours) and fetal growth restriction as possible features of severe disease. They found that were was a poor correlation in many outcomes between massive proteinuria and fetal growth restriction when managed similarly, with or without preeclampsia as a diagnosis. Oliguria was also removed as a characteristic of severe disease. [3] There have been several cases reported in the literature as well as by Obstetricians citing the incidence of preeclampsia occurring upwards of 6 to even 12 weeks postpartum. We hope to demonstrate what we believe to be a case of postpartum preeclampsia at 89 days postpartum. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Impact of Magnesium Sulfate Therapy on Angiogenic Factors in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    VADNAIS, Mary A.; RANA, Sarosh; QUANT, Hayley S.; SALAHUDDIN, Saira; DODGE, Laura E.; LIM, Kee-Hak; KARUMANCHI, S. Ananth; HACKER, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate whether intravenous magnesium sulfate (magnesium) alters levels of angiogenic factors in women with preeclampsia. Study Design This was a prospective cohort study comparing women with preeclampsia treated with magnesium for seizure prophylaxis to those who were not. Serum levels of angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, soluble endoglin and placental growth factor, were measured at the time of diagnosis and approximately 24 hours later. Secondary analysis compared women receiving magnesium for preeclampsia to women receiving magnesium for preterm labor. Analysis of covariance was used to compare levels at 24 hours, adjusting for levels at enrollment and potential confounders. Results Angiogenic factor levels did not differ between preeclampsia groups with and without magnesium or between preeclampsia and preterm labor groups treated with magnesium (all P > 0.05). Conclusion Magnesium likely decreases seizure risk in preeclampsia by a mechanism other than altering angiogenic factor levels. PMID:22247820

  11. Massive vulvar edema in a woman with preeclampsia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Daponte, Alexandros; Skentou, Hara; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos D; Kallitsaris, Athanasios; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2007-11-01

    Massive vulvar edema in a woman with preeclampsia preceded the development of massive ascites and impending eclampsia. A 17-year-old preeclamptic, primiparous woman was admitted with preeclampsia and massive vulvar edema. Other causes were excluded. The vulvar edema increased as the blood pressure and ascites increased, and a severe headache developed. Cesarean section for increasing preclampsia was performed. In the puerperium, the blood pressure improved and vulvar edema resolved. The clinical picture of the vulvar edema correlated with the severity of the preeclampsia. The presence of vulvar edema in women with preeclampsia should indicate immediate admission to the hospital. These patients must be considered as at high risk, and close monitoring must be instituted. In our case, vulvar edema preceded massive ascites development. We assume a common development mechanism for these signs in preeclampsia, due mainly to increased capillary permeability and hypoalbuminemia. The attending physician must be prepared for immediate delivery and possible preeclampsia complications in these patients.

  12. Using clinical symptoms to predict adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with preeclampsia: data from the PIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk) study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tin-Wing; Payne, Beth; Qu, Ziguang; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Lee, Tang; Magee, Laura A; Walters, Barry N; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity. The clinical challenge lies in predicting which women with preeclampsia will suffer adverse outcomes and would benefit from treatment, while minimizing potentially harmful interventions. Our aim was to determine the ability of maternal symptoms (i.e., severe nausea or vomiting, headache, visual disturbance, right upper quadrant pain or epigastric pain, abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding, and chest pain or dyspnea) to predict adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. We used data from the PIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk) study, a multicentre, prospective cohort study designed to investigate the maternal risks associated with preeclampsia. Relative risks and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed for each preeclampsia symptom and outcome pair. Of 2023 women who underwent assessment, 52% experienced at least one preeclampsia symptom, with 5.2% and 5.3% respectively experiencing an adverse maternal or perinatal outcome. No symptom and outcome pair, in either of the maternal or perinatal groups, achieved an area under the ROC curve value > 0.7, which would be necessary to demonstrate a discriminatory predictive value. Maternal symptoms of preeclampsia are not independently valid predictors of maternal adverse outcome. Caution should be used when making clinical decisions on the basis of symptoms alone in the preeclamptic patient.

  13. Number of decidual natural killer cells & macrophages in pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Milosevic-Stevanovic, Jelena; Krstic, Miljan; Radovic-Janosevic, Dragana; Popovic, Jasmina; Tasic, Marija; Stojnev, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The process of human placentation is complex and still not well understood. This study was aimed to examine the relationship between clinical features of pre-eclampsia and degree of trophoblastic invasion after its immunohistochemical visualization in the context of possible alterations in the number of natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages in the decidua. Methods: This prospective study included a study group comprising 30 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia delivered by caesarean section and a control group comprising 20 healthy pregnant women also delivered by caesarean section. Samples of placental bed obtained during caesarean section were analyzed after immunohistochemical labelling CD56+ NK cells, CD68+ macrophages and cytokeratin 7 trophoblastic cells. Results: In pre-eclampsia, there was a significantly lower number of CD56+ NK cells in the decidua (P<0.001) and a higher number of CD68+ macrophages (P<0.001) compared to control group. In the subgroup of pre-eclampsia with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a significantly greater number of NK cells (P<0.05) was recorded, as well as an increased number of macrophages, but not significantly compared to pre-eclampsia without IUGR. There was no significant difference in the distribution of these cells in the decidua in relation to the severity of pre-eclampsia. CD56+ NK cells were significantly less (P<0.05) and macrophages were more (P<0.05) in the group with poor trophoblastic invasion. Interpretation & conclusions: Alterations in the number of immune cells in relation to the degree of trophoblastic invasion indicated their role in aetiopathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, while the direct association between their number and severity of pre-eclampsia was not confirmed. PMID:28474619

  14. A Common Profile of Disordered Angiogenic Factor Production and the Exacerbation of Inflammation in Early Preeclampsia, Late Preeclampsia, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Torbè, Andrzej; Bednarek-Jędrzejek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction are two separate disease entities that, according to numerous reports, share the same pathogenesis. In both, angiogenesis disorders and generalized inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we hypothesized that both diseases demonstrate the same profile in early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction patients, with the only difference being the degree of exacerbation of lesions. One hundred sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and divided into four groups: early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction groups, and one control group. Concentrations of the angiogenesis and inflammatory markers soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1, placental growth factor, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were determined, and the behavior of these markers and correlations among them were studied. Higher concentrations of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and a lower concentration of placental growth factor were observed in the study groups compared with the control group. No differences in concentrations of the studied markers were found among the study groups but significant correlations were observed. The higher values for the angiogenesis and inflammatory markers both in preeclampsia patients and patients with intrauterine growth restriction of placental origin compared with the control group suggest the existence of the same underlying disorders in the development of these pathologies. The observed mutual correlations for disordered angiogenesis and inflammatory markers are suggestive of a mutual relationship between these processes in the development of pathologies evolving secondary to placental ischemia. The same lesion profile was observed for both preeclampsia and 'placental' intrauterine growth restriction patients, which could be used in developing

  15. Working hours and risk of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Jen; Chu, Li-Ching; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chuang, Yi-Li; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The potential impact of employment on maternal health, particularly in relation to gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, has been subject to research. However, there is limited evidence on associations between shift work and long working hours on the incidence of these conditions. To evaluate potential associations between maternal shift work and long working hours during pregnancy and gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. Multistage stratified systematic sampling was used to recruit 24 200 post-partum women from the Taiwan national birth registration database in 2005. Subjects underwent home interview 6 months after their deliveries by structured questionnaire to obtain characteristics of maternal employment and potential confounders. Diagnosis of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia was obtained from the birth registration. There was no association between employment status and gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. Also, no significant association between gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia and maternal shift work or long working hours during pregnancy was found in all or primiparous women. There was no convincing evidence that maternal shift work or long working hours had a higher risk of gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. However, further research is warranted to confirm these negative findings.

  16. Longitudinal Discriminant Analysis of Hemoglobin Level for Predicting Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Malihe; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Zayeri, Farid; Kariman, Noorosadat; Safavi Ardebili, Nastaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the most serious complications during pregnancy with important effects on health of mother and fetus that causes maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to evaluate whether high levels of hemoglobin may increase the risk of preeclampsia. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict preeclampsia by the hemoglobin profiles through longitudinal discriminant analysis and comparing the error rate of discrimination in longitudinal and cross sectional data. Patients and Methods: In a prospective cohort study from October 2010 to July 2011, 650 pregnant women referred to the prenatal clinic of Milad Hospital in Tehran were evaluated in 3 stages. The hemoglobin level of each woman was measured in the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy by an expert technician. The subjects were followed up to delivery and preeclampsia was the main outcome under study. The covariance pattern and linear-mixed effects models are common methods that were applied for discriminant analysis of longitudinal data. Also Student t, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for comparing the demographic and clinical characteristics between two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS software version 9.1. Results: The prevalence rate of preeclampsia was 7.2% (47 women). The women with preeclampsia had a higher mean of hemoglobin values and the difference was 0.46 g/dL (P = 0.003). Also the mean of hemoglobin in the first trimester was higher than that of the second trimester, and was lower than that of the third trimester and the differences were significant (P = 0.015 and P < 0.001, respectively). The sensitivity for longitudinal data and cross-sectional data in three trimesters was 90%, 67%, 72%, and 54% and the specificity was 88%, 55%, 63%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusions: The levels of hemoglobin can be used to predict preeclampsia and monitoring the pregnant women and its regular measure in 3

  17. Genetics Home Reference: preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and multiple births resulting from the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Related ... cases of preeclampsia occur in women with no known history of the disorder in their families, and these ...

  18. Bilateral Bell palsy as a presenting sign of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Vogell, Alison; Boelig, Rupsa C; Skora, Joanna; Baxter, Jason K

    2014-08-01

    Bell palsy is a facial nerve neuropathy that is a rare disorder but occurs at higher frequency in pregnancy. Almost 30% of cases are associated with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Bilateral Bell palsy occurs in only 0.3%-2.0% of cases of facial paralysis, has a poorer prognosis for recovery, and may be associated with a systemic disorder. We describe a case of a 24-year-old primigravid woman with a twin gestation at 35 weeks diagnosed initially with bilateral facial palsy and subsequently with preeclampsia. She then developed partial hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, prompting the diagnosis of severe preeclampsia, and was delivered. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare entity in pregnancy that may be the first sign of preeclampsia and suggests increased severity of disease, warranting close monitoring.

  19. Preeclampsia with and without intrauterine growth restriction-Two pathogenetically different entities?

    PubMed

    Milosevic-Stevanovic, Jelena; Krstic, Miljan; Radovic-Janosevic, Dragana; Stefanovic, Milan; Antic, Vladimir; Djordjevic, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the differences in histopathological features of basal decidua and placenta in cases of preeclampsia with or without fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A prospective case-control study included a study group consisting of 30 pregnant women with preeclampsia completed by cesarean section (CS), in 19 of whom preeclampsia was associated with IUGR, and in 11 it was not. The control group consisted of 20 healthy pregnant women delivered by elective CS. Placentas and samples of placental bed obtained during CS were histopathologically (HP) analyzed after hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical labeling of Cytokeratin 7 (CK7) trophoblastic cells in decidua. Regarding the HP changes in the spiral arteries in preeclampsia, the most frequent features were inadequate transformation of spiral arteries with poor trophoblastic invasion (70.0%) and fibrinoid necrosis of the media (66.7%), and rarely acute atherosis (33.3%) and thrombosis (30.0%). Villous hypermaturity was more frequently found in placentas of patients with preeclampsia with IUGR (p < 0.05), while there were no differences between subgroups of preeclampsia with and without IUGR regarding some of HP alterations of placental bed. Alterations of the placental bed in terms of decidual vasculopathy are more the characteristics of the preeclampsia itself than IUGR, while changes in placental villi primarily follow the presence of IUGR, which could indicate that preeclampsia with and without IUGR are two pathogenetically different entities.

  20. First Trimester Maternal Serum PP13 in the Risk Assessment for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; THAN, Nandor Gabor; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; EDWIN, Samuel; CHEFETZ, Ilana; GOMEZ, Ricardo; NIEN, Jyh Kae; SAMMAR, Marei; PINELES, Beth; HASSAN, Sonia S.; MEIRI, Hamutal; TAL, Yossi; KUHNREICH, Ido; PAPP, Zoltan; CUCKLE, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether first trimester maternal serum Placental Protein 13 (PP13) concentrations can be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia. Study Design This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 250 patients with normal pregnancies. Samples were collected between 8-13 weeks of gestation. Serum PP13 concentrations were measured by ELISA and expressed as medians and multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age. Sensitivity and specificity were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results 1) Serum PP13 concentration in the first trimester was significantly lower in patients who developed preterm and early-onset preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies; and 2) At 80% specificity, a cutoff of 0.39 MoM had a sensitivity of 100% for early-onset preeclampsia and 85% for preterm preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal serum first trimester PP13 appears to be a reasonable marker for risk assessment, but a weak marker for severe preeclampsia at term, and ineffective for identifying mild preeclampsia at term. PMID:18539259

  1. Preeclampsia is associated with increased maternal body weight in a northeastern Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a disease with great variability in incidence across the world. The mortality is higher in lower income countries, where it is the leading cause of maternal mortality. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk factors for preeclampsia in a low income population from an urban area of Brazil. Methods A prospective case control study of 242 women of which 30 developed preeclampsia, 4 had gestational hypertension, 2 had superimposed hypertension, 11 had spontaneous abortion, 13 were lost to follow up and 192 had normal pregnancy. This latter group was considered the normotensive controls. The rate of preeclampsia and the risk of cardiovascular disease, after onset of preeclampsia, were determined. Results Of the 218 women who completed the study, the frequency of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy was 16.5% (36 of 218) and of preeclampsia was 13.8% (30 of 218). Women with preeclampsia had a higher body mass index (BMI), mean of 25.3 ± 4.8 compared to 23.5 ± 3.7 for the normotensive controls, p = 0.02. The risk of preeclampsia increased with BMI [Odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02;1.24, p-value = 0.023)]. Women with preeclampsia developed chronic hypertension more often than normotensive controls (p = 0.043) and their systolic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was elevated (p = 0.034). Women with preeclampsia had higher BMI even 5 years post-pregnancy (p = 0.008). Conclusions Women who are overweight or older have an increased risk of preeclampsia. Previous history of preeclampsia increases the risk of early onset of chronic hypertension. Therefore, effective preventive measures are needed, particularly women at lower social economic stratum who have less access to proper medical care and adequate nutrition. PMID:23927768

  2. Impact of Preeclampsia on Clinical and Functional Outcomes in Women With Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Kathryn J; Conner, Shayna N; Cahill, Alison G; Novak, Eric; Mann, Douglas L

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a risk factor for the development of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), but it is unknown whether preeclampsia impacts clinical or left ventricular (LV) functional outcomes. This study sought to assess clinical and functional outcomes in women with PPCM complicated by preeclampsia. This retrospective cohort study included women diagnosed with PPCM delivering at Barnes-Jewish Hospital between 2004 to 2014. The primary outcome was one-year event-free survival rate for the combined end point of death and hospital readmission. The secondary outcome was recovery of LV ejection fraction. Seventeen of 39 women (44%) with PPCM had preeclampsia. The groups had similar mean LV ejection fraction at diagnosis (29.6 with versus 27.3 without preeclampsia; P =0.5). Women with preeclampsia had smaller mean LV end-diastolic diameters (5.2 versus 6.0 cm; P =0.001), greater relative wall thickness (0.41 versus 0.35 mm Hg; P =0.009), and lower incidence of eccentric remodeling (12% versus 48%; P =0.03). Clinical follow-up was available for 32 women; 5 died of cardiovascular complications within 1 year of diagnosis (4/15 with versus 1/17 without preeclampsia; P =0.16). In time to event analysis, patients with preeclampsia had worse event-free survival during 1-year follow-up ( P =0.047). Echocardiographic follow-up was available in 10 survivors with and 16 without preeclampsia. LV ejection fraction recovered in 80% of survivors with versus 25% without preeclampsia ( P =0.014). PPCM with concomitant preeclampsia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and different patterns of LV remodeling and recovery of LV function when compared with patients with PPCM that is not complicated by preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Genesis of Preeclampsia: An Epidemiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Moysén, Jaime; Martínez-López, Yolanda; Ramírez-Aranda, José M.; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Terrones-González, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    There are analyzed some of the main aspects related to the causality of preeclampsia, privileging two types of models: the clinic model and the epidemiologic model, first one represented by the hypothesis of the reduced placental perfusion and the second one considering the epidemiologic findings related to the high levels of psychosocial stress and its association with preeclampsia. It is reasoned out the relevance of raising the causality of the disease from an interdisciplinary perspective, integrating the valuable information generated from both types, clinical and epidemiologic, and finally a tentative explanatory model of preeclampsia is proposed, the subclinical and sociocultural aspects that predispose and trigger the disease are emphasized making aspects to stand out: the importance of reduced placental perfusion as an indicator of individual risk, and the high levels of physiological stress, as a result of the unfavorable conditions of the psychosocial surroundings (indicator of population risk) of the pregnant women. PMID:22462008

  4. Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Assessment of maternal cerebral blood flow in patients with preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Mandić, Vesna; Miković, Zeljko; Dukić, Milan; Vasiljević, Mladenko; Filimonović, Dejan; Bogavac, Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Systemic vasoconstriction in preeclamptic patients increases vascular resistance, and is manifested by increased arterial blood flow velocity. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there is a change of Doppler indices in maternal medial cerbral artery (MCA) in severe preeclampsia due to: 1) severity of clinical symptoms, 2) the begining of eclamptic attack and 3) the application of anticonvulsive therapy. A prospective clinical study included 92 pregnant women, gestational age 28-36 weeks. They were divided into three groups: normotensive (n=30), mild preeclampsia (n=33), and severe preeclampsia (n=29). We investigated maternal cerebral circulation by assessing the MCA. We registrated: pulsatility index (Pi), resistance index (Ri), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), and the maximum systolic, end diastolic and medium velocity. Patients with severe preeclampsia were divided into two subgroups. subgroup 1 included patients without symptoms of threatening eclampsia (n=18; 62.06%); while subgroup 2 included those with symptoms of preeclampsia (n=11; 37.94%). All patients with severe preeclampsia were treated with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), and cerebral blood flow was measured before and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was done by oneway ANOVA, Student t-test and t-paired sample test. The difference was considered to be significant if p<0.05. Significantly increased Pi, Ri and all velocities were established in the group of patients with severe preeclampsia compared with the other two groups. In the group with severe preeclamsia we registrated significantly increased values of all velocities (patients with signs of threatening eclampsia). After MgSO4 treatment in patients with severe preeclampsia significantly decreased values of Pi, Ri, S/D ratio and all velocities were registered. In the studied group of patients with severe preclampsia we found increased velocity values, Pi and Ri, especially in patients with signs of threatened eclampsia, suggesting that

  6. Classical Complement Pathway Activation in the Kidneys of Women With Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Penning, Marlies; Chua, Jamie S; van Kooten, Cees; Zandbergen, Malu; Buurma, Aletta; Schutte, Joke; Bruijn, Jan Anthonie; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Bloemenkamp, Kitty; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Baelde, Hans

    2015-07-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that complement dysregulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The kidney is one of the major organs affected in preeclampsia. Because the kidney is highly susceptible to complement activation, we hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with renal complement activation. We performed a nationwide search for renal autopsy material in the Netherlands using a computerized database (PALGA). Renal tissue was obtained from 11 women with preeclampsia, 25 pregnant controls, and 14 nonpregnant controls with hypertension. The samples were immunostained for C4d, C1q, mannose-binding lectin, properdin, C3d, C5b-9, IgA, IgG, and IgM. Preeclampsia was significantly associated with renal C4d-a stable marker of complement activation-and the classical pathway marker C1q. In addition, the prevalence of IgM was significantly higher in the kidneys of the preeclamptic women. No other complement markers studied differed between the groups. Our findings in human samples were validated using a soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 mouse model of preeclampsia. The kidneys in the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1-injected mice had significantly more C4 deposits than the control mice. The association between preeclampsia and renal C4d, C1q, and IgM levels suggests that the classical complement pathway is involved in the renal injury in preeclampsia. Moreover, our finding that soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1-injected mice develop excess C4 deposits indicates that angiogenic dysregulation may play a role in complement activation within the kidney. We suggest that inhibiting complement activation may be beneficial for preventing the renal manifestations of preeclampsia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Competing risks model in screening for preeclampsia by maternal characteristics and medical history.

    PubMed

    Wright, David; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Poon, Leona C; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for preeclampsia based on maternal demographic characteristics and medical history. This was a screening study of 120,492 singleton pregnancies at 11-13 weeks' gestation, including 2704 pregnancies (2.2%) that experienced preeclampsia. A survival-time model for the gestational age at delivery with preeclampsia was developed from variables of maternal characteristics and history. This approach assumes that, if the pregnancy was to continue indefinitely, all women would experience preeclampsia and that whether they do so or not before a specified gestational age depends on competition between delivery before or after development of preeclampsia. A 5-fold cross validation study was conducted to compare the performance of the new model with the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines. In the new model, increased risk for preeclampsia, with a consequent shift in the Gaussian distribution of the gestational age at delivery with preeclampsia to the left, is provided by advancing maternal age, increasing weight, Afro-Caribbean and South Asian racial origin, medical history of chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome, family history and personal history of preeclampsia, and conception by in vitro fertilization. The risk for preeclampsia decreases with increasing maternal height and in parous women with no previous preeclampsia; in the latter, the protective effect, which is related inversely to the interpregnancy interval, persists beyond 15 years. At a screen-positive rate of 11%, as defined by NICE, the new model predicted 40%, 48%, and 54% of cases of total preeclampsia and preeclampsia requiring delivery at <37 and <34 weeks' gestation, respectively, which were significantly higher than the respective values of 35%, 40%, and 44% achieved by application of NICE guidelines. A new model that is based on maternal characteristics and

  8. Therapeutically targeting mitochondrial redox signalling alleviates endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cathal; Kenny, Louise C

    2016-09-08

    Aberrant placentation generating placental oxidative stress is proposed to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Unfortunately, therapeutic trials of antioxidants have been uniformly disappointing. There is provisional evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction as a source of oxidative stress in preeclampsia. Here we provide evidence that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates endothelial dysfunction and establish that directly targeting mitochondrial scavenging may provide a protective role. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to 3% plasma from women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial function with a subsequent significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation compared to cells exposed to plasma from women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Real-time PCR analysis showed increased expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α, TLR-9 and ICAM-1 respectively in endothelial cells treated with preeclampsia plasma. MitoTempo is a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, pre-treatment of cells with MitoTempo protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Furthermore MitoTempo significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide production in cells exposed to preeclampsia plasma by normalising mitochondrial metabolism. MitoTempo significantly altered the inflammatory profile of plasma treated cells. These novel data support a functional role for mitochondrial redox signaling in modulating the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and identifies mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants as potential therapeutic candidates.

  9. Pre-eclampsia Diagnosis and Treatment Options: A Review of Published Economic Assessments.

    PubMed

    Zakiyah, Neily; Postma, Maarten J; Baker, Philip N; van Asselt, Antoinette D I

    2015-10-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy complication affecting both mother and fetus. Although there is no proven effective method to prevent pre-eclampsia, early identification of women at risk of pre-eclampsia could enhance appropriate application of antenatal care, management and treatment. Very little is known about the cost effectiveness of these and other tests for pre-eclampsia, mainly because there is no clear treatment path. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis and treatment options in pre-eclampsia. We searched three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library) for studies on screening, diagnosis, treatment or prevention of pre-eclampsia, published between 1994 and 2014. Only full papers written in English containing complete economic assessments in pre-eclampsia were included. From an initial total of 138 references, six papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three studies were on the cost effectiveness of treatment of pre-eclampsia, two of which evaluated magnesium sulphate for prevention of seizures and the third evaluated the cost effectiveness of induction of labour versus expectant monitoring. The other three studies were aimed at screening and diagnosis, in combination with subsequent preventive measures. The two studies on magnesium sulphate were equivocal on the cost effectiveness in non-severe cases, and the other study suggested that induction of labour in term pre-eclampsia was more cost effective than expectant monitoring. The screening studies were quite diverse in their objectives as well as in their conclusions. One study concluded that screening is probably not worthwhile, while two other studies stated that in certain scenarios it may be cost effective to screen all pregnant women and prophylactically treat those who are found to be at high risk of developing pre-eclampsia. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview

  10. Risk of future cardiovascular disease in women with prior preeclampsia: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Seely, Ellen W; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Lui, Janet; Nicklas, Jacinda M; Saxena, Aditi; Tsigas, Eleni; Levkoff, Sue E

    2013-12-21

    A history of preeclampsia is a risk factor for the future development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to assess, in women with prior preeclampsia, the level of knowledge regarding the link between preeclampsia and CVD, motivators for and barriers to lifestyle change and interest in a lifestyle modification program to decrease CVD risk following a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. Twenty women with a history of preeclampsia participated in 5 phone-based focus groups. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify common themes across focus groups. Consensus was reached on a representative set of themes describing the data. Women with prior preeclampsia were in general unaware of the link between preeclampsia and future CVD but eager to learn about this link and motivated to achieve a healthy lifestyle. Major perceived barriers to lifestyle change were lack of time, cost of healthy foods and family responsibilities. Perceived facilitators included knowledge of the link between preeclampsia and CVD, a desire to stay healthy, and creating a healthy home for their children. Women with prior preeclampsia were interested in the idea of a web-based program focused on lifestyle strategies to decrease CVD risk in women. Women with prior preeclampsia were eager to learn about the link between preeclampsia and CVD and to take steps to reduce CVD risk. A web-based program to help women with prior preeclampsia adopt a healthy lifestyle may be an appropriate strategy for this population.

  11. [Diagnostic value of radom spot albuminuria to creatinine ratio in women with preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun-fei; Huang, Qi-tao; Zhong, Mei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhi-jian; Leng, Ling-zhi; Yu, Yan-hong

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the correlation between spot albuminuria to creatinine ratio (ACR) and 24 h urinary protein excretion in women with preeclampsia and determine the optimal cut-off values of spot ACR in mild preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia. Twenty-eight women with mild preeclampsia and 22 with severe preeclampsia at Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University between October 2010 and June 2011 were recruited. Maternal serum cystatin, uric acid, urea nitrogen, creatinine and albumin levels were collected and analyzed. Twenty-four hours urinary protein excretion was measured with immunoturbidimetric assay and ACR with automatic analyzer DCA2000. The correlation between ACR and 24 hours urinary protein excretion was explored. And the optimal cut-off values of the spot ACR for mild and severe preeclampsia were determined with receiver operating characteristic curve. (1) Maternal serum biochemical parameters: uric acid levels in mild and severe preeclampsia were (359 ± 114) µmol/L and (450 ± 132) µmol/L, while cystatin levels were (1.3 ± 0.3) mg/L and (1.6 ± 0.5) mg/L respectively. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Serum urea nitrogen, creatinine and albumin in mild preeclampsia were (3.6 ± 1.6) mmol/L, (52 ± 38) µmol/L and (33 ± 3) g/L, while in severe preeclampsia were (6.2 ± 3.1) mmol/L, (78 ± 59) µmol/L and (29 ± 6) g/L respectively. There were no statistical significant differences (P > 0.05). (2) Twenty-four hours urinary protein excretion and ACR: 24 hours urinary protein levels in mild and severe preeclampsia was (700 ± 160) mg and (4800 ± 2200) mg (P < 0.05). ACR in mild and severe preeclampsia was (72.7 ± 12.4) mg/mmol and (401 ± 245) mg/mmol respectively (P < 0.05). (3) There was a strong correlation between the spot ACR and 24 hours urine protein excretion (r = 0.938; P < 0.05). (4) The optimal spot ACR cut-off point for the diagnosis of preeclampsia: the optimal spot ACR cut-off point was 22.8 mg/mmol for 300

  12. Relationship between insulin resistance and tissue blood flow in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Anim-Nyame, Nick; Gamble, John; Sooranna, Suren R; Johnson, Mark R; Steer, Philip J

    2015-05-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by generalized endothelial dysfunction and impaired maternal tissue perfusion, and insulin resistance is a prominent feature of this disease. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that insulin resistance in preeclampsia is related to the reduced resting tissue blood flow. We used venous occlusion plethysmography to compare the resting calf muscle blood flow (measured as QaU) in 20 nulliparous women with preeclampsia and 20 normal pregnant controls matched for maternal age, gestational age, parity and BMI during the third trimester. Fasting blood samples were obtained to measure the plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, and to calculate the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), a measure of insulin resistance in both groups of women. Calf blood flow was significantly reduced in the preeclampsia group (1.93 ± 0.86 QaU), compared with normal pregnant controls (3.94 ± 1.1 QaU, P < 0.001). Fasting insulin concentrations and Insulin Resistance Index were significantly higher in preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy (P < 0.001 for both variables). There were significant inverse correlations between resting calf blood flow and fasting insulin concentrations (r = -0.57, P = 0.008) and FIRI (r = -0.59, P = 0.006) in preeclampsia, but not in normal pregnancy. These findings support our hypothesis and raise the possibility that reduced tissue blood flow may a play a role in the increased insulin resistance seen in preeclampsia.

  13. Pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and non-preeclampsia-related nephrotic range proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, GJ; Walkinshaw, SA; Howse, MLP

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of nephrotic range proteinuria during pregnancy on renal, maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods A retrospective study of pregnant women with proteinuria greater than 3 g/24 h. Outcome measures included: gestation and mode of delivery, maternal high dependency unit admission, birth weight, maternal blood pressure and proteinuria at time of last follow-up, renal biopsy. Results Two hundred and sixty four pregnancies in 262 women were reviewed. Postnatal data were available in 180; of these 104 (57%) had urinary protein quantified postnatally. Sixty three (60%) were pure preeclampsia and nine (9%) super-imposed preeclampsia. Biopsy-proven renal disease was newly diagnosed in nine (9%). Sixty three per cent required caesarean section and 34% required high dependency unit admission. There were no maternal deaths. Birth weight corrected for gestation was below the fifth centile in 33%. Conclusions The incidence of underlying renal pathology in this cohort is significant and highlights the importance of careful follow-up. PMID:27656249

  14. Cardiovascular mortality after pre-eclampsia in one child mothers: prospective, population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Skjaerven, Rolv; Wilcox, Allen J; Klungsøyr, Kari; Irgens, Lorentz M; Vikse, Bjørn Egil; Vatten, Lars J; Lie, Rolv Terje

    2012-11-27

    To assess the association of pre-eclampsia with later cardiovascular death in mothers according to their lifetime number of pregnancies, and particularly after only one child. Prospective, population based cohort study. Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We followed 836,147 Norwegian women with a first singleton birth between 1967 and 2002 for cardiovascular mortality through linkage to the national Cause of Death Registry. About 23,000 women died by 2009, of whom 3891 died from cardiovascular causes. Associations between pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular death were assessed by hazard ratios, estimated by Cox regression analyses. Hazard ratios were adjusted for maternal education (three categories), maternal age at first birth, and year of first birth The rate of cardiovascular mortality among women with preterm pre-eclampsia was 9.2% after having only one child, falling to 1.1% for those with two or more children. With term pre-eclampsia, the rates were 2.8% and 1.1%, respectively. Women with pre-eclampsia in their first pregnancy had higher rates of cardiovascular death than those who did not have the condition at first birth (adjusted hazard ratio 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 2.0) after term pre-eclampsia; 3.7 (2.7 to 4.8) after preterm pre-eclampsia). Among women with only one lifetime pregnancy, the increase in risk of cardiovascular death was higher than for those with two or more children (3.4 (2.6 to 4.6) after term pre-eclampsia; 9.4 (6.5 to 13.7) after preterm pre-eclampsia). The risk of cardiovascular death was only moderately elevated among women with pre-eclamptic first pregnancies who went on to have additional children (1.5 (1.2 to 2.0) after term pre-eclampsia; 2.4 (1.5 to 3.9) after preterm pre-eclampsia). There was little evidence of additional risk after recurrent pre-eclampsia. All cause mortality for women with two or more lifetime births, who had pre-eclampsia in first pregnancy, was not elevated, even with preterm pre-eclampsia in first

  15. Vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and preeclampsia123

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Theresa O; Chen, Xinhua; Stein, T Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is defined by a high concentration of intact parathyroid hormone when circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is low, is a functional indicator of vitamin D insufficiency and a sign of impaired calcium metabolism. Two large randomized controlled trials examined effects of calcium supplementation on preeclampsia but did not consider the vitamin D status of mothers. Objective: We examined the association of secondary hyperparathyroidism with risk of preeclampsia. Design: Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care (mean ± SD: 13.7 ± 5.7 wk) using prospective data from a cohort of 1141 low-income and minority gravidae. Results: Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurred in 6.3% of the cohort and 18.4% of women whose 25(OH)D concentrations were <20 ng/mL. Risk of preeclampsia was increased 2.86-fold (95% CI: 1.28-, 6.41-fold) early in gestation in these women. Gravidae with 25(OH)D concentrations <20 ng/mL who did not also have high parathyroid hormone and women with high parathyroid hormone whose 25(OH)D concentrations were >20 ng/mL were not at increased risk. Intact parathyroid hormone was related to higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures and arterial pressure at week 20 before clinical recognition of preeclampsia. Energy-adjusted intakes of total calcium and lactose and circulating 25(OH)D were correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure or arterial pressure and with parathyroid hormone. Conclusion: Some women who are vitamin D insufficient develop secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. PMID:23885046

  16. VEGF-A and VEGFR1 SNPs associate with preeclampsia in a Philippine population.

    PubMed

    Amosco, Melissa D; Villar, Van Anthony M; Naniong, Justin Michael A; David-Bustamante, Lara Marie G; Jose, Pedro A; Palmes-Saloma, Cynthia P

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is important for establishing normal pregnancy, and related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are implicated in abnormal placentation and preeclampsia. We evaluated the association between preeclampsia and several VEGF SNPs among Filipinos, an ethnically distinct group with high prevalence of preeclampsia. The genotypes and allelic variants were determined in a case-control study (191 controls and 165 preeclampsia patients) through SNP analysis of VEGF-A (rs2010963, rs3025039) and VEGF-C (rs7664413) and their corresponding receptors VEGFR1 (rs722503, rs12584067, rs7335588) and VEGFR3 (rs307826) from venous blood DNA. VEGF-A rs3025039 C allele has been shown to associate with preeclampsia (odds ratio of 1.648 (1.03-2.62)), while the T allele bestowed an additive effect for the maintenance of normal, uncomplicated pregnancy and against the development of preeclampsia (odds ratio of 0.62 (0.39-0.98)). VEGFR1 rs722503 is associated with preeclampsia occurring at or after the age of 40 years. The results showed that genetic variability of VEGF-A and VEGFR1 are important in the etiology of preeclampsia among Filipinos.

  17. D2-Thr92Ala, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Procopciuc, Lucia Maria; Caracostea, Gabriela; Hazi, Georgeta; Nemeti, Georgiana; Stamatian, Florin

    2017-02-01

    To identify if there is a relationship between the deiodinase D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia. We genotyped 125 women with preeclampsia and 131 normal pregnant women using PCR-RFLP. Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined using ELISA. Our study showed higher TSH and FT4 levels and lower FT3 levels in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnant women, with statistical significance for women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The risk to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), mild or severe preeclampsia was increased in carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele. TSH and FT4 levels were significantly higher and FT3 levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic women with severe preeclampsia if they carried the D2-Ala92 allele compared to non-carriers. Pregnant women with PIH and mild preeclampsia, carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele, delivered at lower gestational age neonates with a lower birth weight compared to non-carriers, but the results were statistically significant only in severe preeclampsia. The D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant is associated with the severity and the obstetric outcome of preeclampsia, and it also influences thyroid hormone levels. The study demonstrates non-thyroidal biochemical hypothyroidism - as a result of deiodination effects due to D2 genotypes.

  18. An RGS2 3'UTR polymorphism is associated with preeclampsia in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Karppanen, Tiina; Kaartokallio, Tea; Klemetti, Miira M; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Laivuori, Hannele

    2016-08-24

    Preeclampsia is a common and heterogeneous vascular syndrome of pregnancy. Its genetic risk profile is yet unknown and may vary between individuals and populations. The rs4606 3' UTR polymorphism of the Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 gene (RGS2) in the mother has been implicated in preeclampsia as well as in the development of chronic hypertension after preeclampsia. The RGS2 protein acts as an inhibitor of physiological vasoconstrictive pathways, and a low RGS2 level is associated with hypertension and obesity, two conditions that predispose to preeclampsia. We genotyped the rs4606 polymorphism in 1339 preeclamptic patients and in 697 controls from the Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) cohort to study the association of the variant with preeclampsia. No association between rs4606 and preeclampsia was detected in the analysis including all women. However, the polymorphism was associated with preeclampsia in a subgroup of overweight women (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), and < 30 kg/m(2)) (dominant model; odds ratio, 1.64; 95 % confidence interval, 1.10-2.42). Our results suggest that RGS2 might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia particularly in overweight women and contribute to their increased risk for hypertension and other types of cardiovascular disease later in life.

  19. Obstetric nephrology: preeclampsia--the nephrologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Umans, Jason G

    2012-12-01

    Preeclampsia, a common and potentially devastating multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy, represents a novel form of secondary hypertension with complex renal and systemic effects. Recent translational and clinical research reveals key pathophysiologic contributions due to dysregulation of angiogenic factors and of angiotensin signaling. Despite these insights, there are still difficulties in the clinical definition of preeclampsia and in the diagnosis of women with this disorder. Although recent research suggests the potential for new preventive and treatment strategies, most have not yet been shown ready for clinical use.

  20. GPCRs as potential therapeutic targets in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    McGuane, JT; Conrad, KP

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important obstetric complication that arises in 5% of women after the 20th week of gestation, for which there is no specific therapy and no cure. Although much of the recent investigation in this field has focused on soluble forms of the angiogenic membrane receptor tyrosine kinase Flt1 and the transforming growth factor β co-receptor Endoglin, there is significant clinical potential for several GPCR targets and their agonists or antagonists in preeclampsia. In this review, we discuss several of the most promising candidates in this category, including calcitonin receptor-like receptor / receptor activity modifying protein 1 complexes, the angiotensin AT1, 2 and Mas receptors, and the relaxin receptor RXFP1. We also address some of the controversies surrounding the roles and therapeutic potential of these GPCRs and their (ant)agonists in preeclampsia. PMID:23144646

  1. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks gestation) with 14 matched normotensive controls, as well as 15 cases late-onset preeclampsia (>34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Preeclampsia: novel insights from global RNA profiling of trophoblast subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Matthew; Ona, Katherine; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Garrido-Gomez, Tamara; Zdravkovic, Tamara; Fisher, Susan J

    2017-08-01

    The maternal signs of preeclampsia, which include the new onset of high blood pressure, can occur because of faulty placentation. We theorized that transcriptomic analyses of trophoblast subpopulations in situ would lend new insights into the role of these cells in preeclampsia pathogenesis. Our goal was to enrich syncytiotrophoblasts, invasive cytotrophoblasts, or endovascular cytotrophoblasts from the placentas of severe preeclampsia cases. Total RNA was subjected to global transcriptional profiling to identify RNAs that were misexpressed compared with controls. This was a cross-sectional analysis of placentas from women who had been diagnosed with severe preeclampsia. Gestational age-matched controls were placentas from women who had a preterm birth with no signs of infection. Laser microdissection enabled enrichment of syncytiotrophoblasts, invasive cytotrophoblasts, or endovascular cytotrophoblasts. After RNA isolation, a microarray approach was used for global transcriptional profiling. Immunolocalization identified changes in messenger RNA expression that carried over to the protein level. Differential expression of non-protein-coding RNAs was confirmed by in situ hybridization. A 2-way analysis of variance of non-coding RNA expression identified particular classes that distinguished trophoblasts in cases vs controls. Cajal body foci were visualized by coilin immunolocalization. Comparison of the trophoblast subtype data within each group (severe preeclampsia or noninfected preterm birth) identified many highly differentially expressed genes. They included molecules that are known to be expressed by each subpopulation, which is evidence that the method worked. Genes that were expressed differentially between the 2 groups, in a cell-type-specific manner, encoded a combination of molecules that previous studies associated with severe preeclampsia and those that were not known to be dysregulated in this pregnancy complication. Gene ontology analysis of the

  3. Hyperuricaemia and preeclampsia: is there a pathogenic link?

    PubMed

    Schackis, R C

    2004-01-01

    A hypothesis, based on animal studies and human observational studies, was developed proposing a direct pathogenic link between hyperuricemia and preeclampsia. Epidemiological characteristics of preeclampsia such as its uniqueness to humans and an increased incidence of preeclampsia in multiple pregnancies, increased body mass index, renal and hypertensive disease all have uric acid as their common denominator. Animal studies have linked hyperuricaemia to hypertensive, cardiovascular and renal disease. The aim of the study was to determine whether lowering the serum uric acid levels in preeclampsia would affect biochemical parameters and hypertensive control. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. A tertiary referral center. Forty women with preeclampsia between 26 and 32 weeks gestation. Probenecid 250 mg twice daily for seven days. Renal function and haematological parameters, hypertensive control. In the Probenecid group, there was a significant drop in the serum uric acid levels. Lower uric acid levels in the Probenecid group had no significant effect on blood pressure. Patients in the Probenecid group had a significantly lower serum creatinine value at the end of the study when compared to patients in the placebo group. Other renal function parameters (creatinine clearance, urea, 24 h urinary protein excretion) did not show any significant difference between the two groups. Platelet count differed between the two groups with the platelet count being significantly higher in the Probenecid group at the end of the study. The significant improvement in the platelet count in the Probenecid group warrants further study.

  4. Outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after first pregnancy with early-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Hoeks, Lette B; Bots, Michiel L; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report outcome of subsequent pregnancy after early-onset preeclampsia in first pregnancy, and to evaluate potential risk factors for recurrence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Reproductive follow-up data were obtained for women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia, resulting in delivery before 34 weeks of gestation at the University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands, between July 1993 and September 2002. The relative contributions of demographic data, outcome variables of first pregnancy, and common thrombophilias to the recurrence risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancy, were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Subsequent pregnancy outcome data were available for 120 women. Overall, preeclampsia reoccurred in the second pregnancy in 30 women (25%). However, 6 women delivered before 34 weeks of gestation (5%), 20 women between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation (17%), and 94 women after 37 weeks of gestation (78%). Forty-one women (34%) had an uneventful pregnancy. Recurrence rates for preeclampsia or preterm delivery were not related to severity of first pregnancy complications, including delivery before 28 weeks of gestation, occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, small-for-gestational age infants, and to hereditary or acquired thrombophilias. Chronic hypertension was related to a higher recurrence risk of preeclampsia in the second pregnancy (hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.4), and smoking was related to a higher recurrence risk of preterm birth (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.6). Outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after first pregnancy with early-onset preeclampsia is generally favorable.

  5. Comparison of subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy pregnancy and pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J W; Park, M H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pregnancy is a known predisposing factor for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Choroidal thickness (CT) increases in patients with CSC. This study was designed to evaluate CT in pregnant women. Patients and methods This was a prospective study. Fourteen healthy pregnant women and seven patients with pre-eclampsia were included. Twenty-one normal subjects were also recruited. CT was measured using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Results The mean CT of normal subjects, healthy pregnant women and patients with pre-eclampsia were 264.95±21.03, 274.23±29.30 and 389.79±25.13 μm, respectively (normal subjects vs healthy gravidas: P>0.05; normal subjects vs pre-eclampsia: P<0.001; healthy gravidas vs pre-eclampsia: P<0.001). CT decreased from 381.05±22.96 μm to 335.17±9.97 μm 1 week after delivery in patients with pre-eclampsia. Conclusions Pregnancy itself did not increase CT, whereas pre-eclampsia did appear to result in increased CT. This suggests that additional unknown factors induce hyperpermeability in pregnant women. PMID:26541086

  6. The role of nitrates in the prevention of preeclampsia: an update.

    PubMed

    Kalidindi, Madhavi; Velauthar, Luxmi; Khan, Khalid; Aquilina, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Defective nitric oxide synthesis and nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation is widely documented in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several studies demonstrated the beneficial role of nitric oxide agents, especially glyceryl trinitrate and L-arginine in reducing the blood pressure and improving the uteroplacental blood flow velocities. However, there is insufficient evidence on the efficacy and safety of these agents in the prevention of preeclampsia and its complications, as there are very few randomized controlled trials with small number of women. The aim of this review is to summarize and evaluate the role of nitrates in the prevention of preeclampsia based on the available evidence in the literature till date and suggestions for future research. Supplementation with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in women at high risk of preeclampsia [P < 0.001, absolute risk reduction 0.17 (confidence interval 0.12-0.21)]. On the basis of the recent evidence, nitric oxide agents may be beneficial in the prevention of preeclampsia. Randomized controlled trials initiated in the first trimester and using long-acting nitrates are needed in high-risk women to validate these findings.

  7. Induced Abortions and the Risk of Preeclampsia Among Nulliparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E.; Gissler, Mika; Ananth, Cande V.; Werler, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion (IA) has been associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous women, but it remains unclear whether this association differs by method (either surgical or medical) or timing of IA. We performed a nested case-control study of 12,650 preeclampsia cases and 50,600 matched control deliveries identified in the Medical Birth Register of Finland from 1996 to 2010. Data on number, method, and timing of IAs were obtained through a linkage with the Registry of Induced Abortions. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Overall, prior IA was associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia, with odds ratios of 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.0) for 1 prior IA and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) for 3 or more IAs. Differences in the associations between IA and preeclampsia by timing and method of IA were small, with odds ratios of 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.1) for late (≥12 gestation weeks) surgical abortion and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.7, 1.2) for late medical abortion. There was no association between IA in combination with a history of spontaneous abortion and risk of preeclampsia. In conclusion, prior IA only was associated with a slight reduction in the risk of preeclampsia. PMID:26377957

  8. Preeclampsia: Reflections on How to Counsel About Preventing Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most challenging diseases of pregnancy, with unclear etiology, no specific marker for prediction, and no precise treatment besides delivery of the placenta. Many risk factors have been identified, and diagnostic and management tools have improved in recent years. However, this disease remains one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in under-resourced settings. A history of previous preeclampsia is a known risk factor for a new event in a future pregnancy, with recurrence rates varying from less than 10% to 65%, depending on the population or methodology considered. A recent review that performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on the recurrence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in over 99 000 women showed an overall recurrence rate of 20.7%; when specifically considering preeclampsia, it was 13.8%, with milder disease upon recurrence. Prevention of recurrent preeclampsia has been attempted by changes in lifestyle, dietary supplementation, antihypertensive drugs, antithrombotic agents, and others, with much uncertainty about benefit. It is always challenging to treat and counsel a woman with a previous history of preeclampsia; this review will be based on hypothetical clinical cases, using common scenarios in obstetrical practice to consider the available evidence on how to counsel each woman during pre-conception and prenatal consultations.

  9. Impact of USPSTF recommendations for aspirin for prevention of recurrent preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Tolcher, Mary Catherine; Chu, Derrick M; Hollier, Lisa M; Mastrobattista, Joan M; Racusin, Diana A; Ramin, Susan M; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2017-09-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia among women at high risk for primary occurrence or recurrence of disease. Recommendations for the use of aspirin for preeclampsia prevention were issued by the US Preventive Services Task Force in September 2014. The objective of the study was to evaluate the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia in our cohort before and after the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation for aspirin for preeclampsia prevention. This was a retrospective cohort study designed to evaluate the rates of recurrent preeclampsia among women with a history of preeclampsia. We utilized a 2-hospital, single academic institution database from August 2011 through June 2016. We excluded multiple gestations and included only the first delivery for women with multiple deliveries during the study period. The cohort of women with a history of preeclampsia were divided into 2 groups, before and after the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force 2014 recommendations. Potential confounders were accounted for in multivariate analyses, and relative risk and adjusted relative risk were calculated. A total of 17,256 deliveries occurred during the study period. A total of 417 women had a documented history of prior preeclampsia: 284 women before and 133 women after the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Comparing the before and after groups, the proportion of Hispanic women in the after group was lower and the method of payment differed between the groups (P <.0001). The prevalence of type 1 diabetes was increased in the after period, but overall rates of pregestational diabetes were similar (6.3% before vs 5.3% after [P > .05]). Risk factors for recurrent preeclampsia included maternal age >35 years (relative risk, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.48), Medicaid insurance (relative risk, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.78), type 2 diabetes (relative risk, 2.13; 95

  10. Preconception Cardiovascular Risk Factor Differences Between Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Klungsøyr, Kari; Øyen, Nina; Tell, Grethe S.; Næss, Øyvind; Skjærven, Rolv

    2016-01-01

    Preconception predictors of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia may identify opportunities for early detection and improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and life course epidemiology of these conditions. Female participants in community-based Cohort Norway health surveys, 1994 to 2003, were prospectively followed through 2012 via record linkages to Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Analyses included 13 217 singleton pregnancies (average of 1.59 births to 8321 women) without preexisting hypertension. Outcomes were gestational hypertension without proteinuria (n=237) and preeclampsia (n=429). Mean age (SD) at baseline was 27.9 years (4.5), and median follow-up was 4.8 years (interquartile range 2.6–7.8). Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia shared several baseline risk factors: family history of diabetes mellitus, pregravid diabetes mellitus, a high total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (>5), overweight and obesity, and elevated blood pressure status. For preeclampsia, a family history of myocardial infarction before 60 years of age and elevated triglyceride levels (≥1.7 mmol/L) also predicted risk while physical activity was protective. Preterm preeclampsia was predicted by past-year binge drinking (≥5 drinks on one occasion) with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.3–10.8) and by past-year physical activity of ≥3 hours per week with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.3–0.8). The results suggest similarities and important differences between gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm preeclampsia. Modifiable risk factors could be targeted for improving pregnancy outcomes and the short- and long-term sequelae for mothers and offspring. PMID:27113053

  11. Placental glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 is down-regulated in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lüscher, Benjamin P; Marini, Camilla; Joerger-Messerli, Marianne S; Huang, Xiao; Hediger, Matthias A; Albrecht, Christiane; Baumann, Marc U; Surbek, Daniel V

    2017-07-01

    Transplacental fetal glucose supply is predominantly regulated by glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1). Altered expression and/or function of GLUT1 may affect the intrauterine environment, which could compromise fetal development and may contribute to fetal programming. To date it is unknown whether placental GLUT1 is affected by preeclampsia, which is often associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We addressed the hypothesis that preeclampsia leads to decreased expression and function of placental GLUT1. Placentae were obtained following normal pregnancy and from pregnancies affected by preeclampsia. Washed villous tissue fragments were used to prepare syncytial microvillous (MVM) and basal plasma membranes (BM) microvesicles. GLUT1 protein and mRNA expression was assessed by western blot analysis and qPCR using Fast SYBR Green. A radio-labeled glucose up-take assay using placenta-derived syncytial microvesicles was used to analyze GLUT1 function. GLUT1 protein expression was significantly down-regulated in (apical) MVM of the syncytiotrophoblast in preeclampsia (n = 6) compared to controls (n = 6) (0.40 ± 0.04 versus 1.00 ± 0.06, arbitrary units, P < 0.001, Student's t-test), while GLUT1 mRNA expression did not show a significant difference. In addition, the functional assay in syncytial microvesicles showed a significantly decreased glucose transport activity in preeclampsia (61.78 ± 6.48%, P < 0.05) compared to controls. BM GLUT1 protein expression was unchanged and glucose up-take into BM microvesicles showed no differences between the preeclampsia and control groups. Our study shows for the first time that in preeclampsia placental GLUT1 expression and function are down-regulated at the apical plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Further studies are needed to assess whether these changes occur also in vivo and contribute to the development of IUGR in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes of placental syndecan-1 expression in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Szilvia; Xu, Yi; Romero, Roberto; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Bhatti, Gaurav; Varkonyi, Tibor; Varkonyi, Ildiko; Krenacs, Tibor; Dong, Zhong; Tarca, Adi L.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.; Papp, Zoltan; Kovalszky, Ilona; Than, Nandor Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is characterized by maternal systemic anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory states. Syndecan-1 is a cell surface proteoglycan expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast, which plays an important role in angiogenesis and resolution of inflammation. Our aim was to examine placental syndecan-1 expression in preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome. Methods Placentas were obtained from women in the following groups: (1) late-onset preeclampsia (n=8); (2) early-onset preeclampsia without (n=7) and (3) with HELLP syndrome (n=8); (4) preterm controls (n=5); and (5) term controls (n=9). Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from paraffin-embedded placentas. TMA slides were immunostained for syndecan-1 and evaluated using microscopy, virtual microscopy, and semi-automated image analysis. Maternal sera from patients with preeclampsia (n=49) and controls (n=32) were immunoassayed for syndecan-1. BeWo cells were treated with Forskolin or Latrunculin-B, or kept in ischemic conditions. SDC1 expression and syndecan-1 production were investigated with qRT-PCR, confocal microscopy, and immunoassays. Results Syndecan-1 was localized to the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane in normal placentas. Syndecan-1 immunoscores were higher in late-onset preeclampsia (p=0.0001) and early-onset preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome (p=0.02 for both) than in controls. Maternal serum syndecan-1 concentration was lower in preeclampsia (median: 673ng/ml, interquartile range: 459-1161ng/ml) than in controls (1158ng/ml, 622-1480ng/ml). SDC1 expression and syndecan-1 immunostainings in BeWo cells and syndecan-1 concentrations in supernatants increased during cell differentiation. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with Latrunculin-B decreased syndecan-1 release, while ischemic conditions increased it. Conclusions Syncytiotrophoblastic syndecan-1 expression depends on the differentiation of villous trophoblasts, and trophoblastic syndecan-1 release is decreased in

  13. What Are the Symptoms of Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, and HELLP Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are the symptoms of preeclampsia, eclampsia, & HELLP syndrome? Preeclampsia ... woman's feet might swell too, but swollen feet are common during pregnancy and may not signal a ...

  14. Hypothesis: Pentoxifylline explores new horizons in treatment of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Arsalan; Ziaee, Seyyed Mohyeddin; Farhadi, Pouya; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    Preeclampsia, the leading cause of maternal morbidity and perinatal mortality, initiates as inappropriate immune response to trophoblastic invasion impairs placentation and placental circulation. A poorly perfused placenta generates superoxide anions as well as anti-angiogenic factors and this series of events result in impairment of endothelial function, followed by maternal morbidities such as hypertension, kidney injury and proteinuria. Renal loss of anti-coagulant proteins and subsequent hyper-coagulable state along with endothelial dysfunction accelerates progression of the disease toward eclampsia. Since Pentoxifylline, a methyl-xanthine derivative known for enhancement of vascular endothelial function, down-regulation of many inflammatory cytokines increased during preeclampsia, improvement of placental circulation, reduction of ischemia-reperfusion injury, enhancement of vasodilatation and endothelial function, ameliorating proteinuria, inhibition of platelet aggregation and decreasing risk of preterm labor, which are all amongst morbidities of preeclampsia, here it is hypothesized that Pentoxifylline prevents development of preeclampsia and/or decelerate progression of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Use of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia : a monocentric retrospective analysis].

    PubMed

    Verbeurgt, L; Chantraine, F; De Marchin, J; Minon, J-M; Nisolle, M

    2017-09-01

    Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic factor released in higher amounts in preeclampsia and implicated in endothelial dysfunction. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is used in the prediction of preeclampsia. An sFlt-1/PlGF ratio inferior to 38 predicts the short-term absence of preeclampsia. A ratio ? 85 (early-onset PE) or ? 110 (late-onset of PE) could diagnose preeclampsia. In this study, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio has been measured in 183 patients. Sixty-seven preeclampsia have been diagnosed preeclamptic at delivery. The median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was 100.3. The median ratio among women with preeclampsia (N=67) versus no preeclampsia (N=116) was 212.7 versus 35.4. In accordance with this analysis, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ? 38 has a sensibility of 95,5 % and a specificity of 73.3 %. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 67.4 % and 96.6 %, respectively. These results suggest that sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is helpful in the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  16. Unmethylated-maspin DNA in maternal plasma is associated with severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-Hua; Teng, Fei; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jin-Fang; Yu, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Miao-Yan; Zhou, Ni; Chen, Li-Juan

    2015-09-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma is associated with complications of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Determination of levels is affected by fetal gender and genetic polymorphisms. Unmethylated maspin (u-maspin) is present in the placenta, and is placental-specific. The purpose of this study was to determine whether u-maspin DNA in maternal blood could serve as a marker of preeclampsia by measuring levels in different trimesters of normal pregnancies and in those complicated by preeclampsia. This case-control study was set in a tertiary care hospital. The population consisted of 45 women with normal pregnancies (15 in the 1st trimester, 15 in the 2nd trimester, 15 in the 3rd trimester), 20 women with mild preeclampsia, 25 women with severe preeclampsia, and six women with gestational trophoblastic disease. Peripheral blood was collected and methylation-specific PCR and fluorescence quantitative PCR were performed to measure the content of u-maspin DNA in maternal blood. U-maspin DNA was 5.5-fold higher in women with severe preeclampsia than in those with a normal 3rd trimester pregnancy (p < 0.05). During normal pregnancy, u-maspin DNA in maternal plasma tended to increase with advancing gestational age (p = 0.06). U-maspin DNA was not detected in healthy non-pregnant women or those with gestational trophoblastic disease. U-maspin DNA in maternal blood is associated with severe preeclampsia. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. The reduction in circulating levels of melatonin may be associated with the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, K; Gao, Y; Wan, J; Tong, M; Lee, A C; Zhao, M; Chen, Q

    2016-11-01

    Placental dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, which is a pregnancy-specific disorder. It has been suggested that the incidence of preeclampsia has a seasonal variation. Melatonin, as a seasonal factor, has been suggested to be involved in a successful pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the association of circulating levels of melatonin with preeclampsia. Serum was collected from women with preeclampsia (n=113) and gestation-matched healthy pregnant women, and the levels of melatonin were measured. In addition, the expression of melatonin receptors was examined in preeclamptic placentae (n=27). The association of the incidence of preeclampsia and seasonal variation was also analysed from 1491 women with preeclampsia within 77 745 healthy pregnancies. The serum levels of melatonin were significantly reduced in women with preeclampsia at presentation and these reduced serum levels of melatonin were not associated with the severity or time onset of preeclampsia nor with seasonal variation. The expression of melatonin receptor, MT1 was reduced in preeclamptic placentae. The incidence of preeclampsia was did exhibit seasonal variation, but this was largely due to the increase in the incidence of mild or late-onset preeclampsia. Our results demonstrate that reduced melatonin levels are associated with the development of preeclampsia but that the circulating levels of melatonin do not appear to be subject to seasonal variation during pregnancy.

  18. The association between angiogenic markers and fetal sex: Implications for preeclampsia research.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Jørgensen, J S; Herse, F; Andersen, M S; Christesen, H T; Dechend, R

    2016-09-01

    Current research suggests sexual dimorphism between the male and female fetoplacental units, but with unknown relevance for preeclampsia. We investigated the association between fetal sex and concentrations of the angiogenic markers soluble Fms-like kinase 1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in first and second-third trimester in women with/without preeclampsia, and the impact of fetal sex on the prognostic value of angiogenic markers for preeclampsia. Observational study in a prospective, population-based cohort of 2110 singleton pregnancies with 150 preeclampsia cases. Higher sFlt-1 concentrations were observed for women carrying female fetuses in first trimester (all, 1107.65 vs. 992.27pg/ml; preeclampsia cases, 1118.79 vs. 934.49pg/ml, p<0.05) and in second-third trimester (all, 1130.03 vs. 1043.15pg/ml; preeclampsia, 1480.30 vs. 1152.86pg/ml, p<0.05), with similar findings for the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio concentrations in first (29.67 vs. 27.39 p<0.05) and second-third trimester (3.56 vs. 3.22, p<0.05). In first trimester, log transformed concentrations of PlGF, sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF (all participants) and sFlt-1 (preeclampsia cases) associated with fetal sex in adjusted analyses (p<0.05). In second-third trimester, only log(sFlt-1) associated with fetal sex (all, p=0.028; preeclampsia, p=0.067) In receiver operating curve analysis, prediction of early-onset preeclampsia by sFlt-1/PlGF tended to be superior in pregnancies with female vs. male fetuses (p=0.06). Sexual dimorphism was observed for concentrations of angiogenic markers. Female fetal sex was associated to higher sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio concentrations in both healthy pregnancies and women developing preeclampsia. Fetal sex should be considered in research and clinical use of angiogenic markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal serum anti-Müllerian hormone in Sudanese women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Agabain, Eiman; Mohamed, Hameed; Elsheikh, Anas E; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Adam, Ishag

    2017-06-24

    A case-control study was conducted at Omdurman Maternity Tertiary Hospital, Sudan, during the period from May to August 2014 to investigate AMH level in women with preeclampsia compared to healthy controls. The cases were women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were the controls. The obstetrics and medical history was gathered using a questionnaire. AMH level was measured using ELISA. There was no significant difference between the two groups (40 in each arm of the study) in the age, parity and gestational age. Thirty-three of the 40 cases were patients with severe preeclampsia. There was no significant difference in median inter-quartile of the AMH level between the women with preeclampsia and the controls [0.700 (0.225-1.500) vs. 0.700 (0.400-1.275) ng/ml, P = 0.967]. In a linear regression model there was no association between the log of AMH and age, parity, gestational age, BMI, hemoglobin level and preeclampsia.

  20. PP128. Placental Caspase-3 gene polymorphisms is associated with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C-D; Polavarapu, S; Parton, L

    2012-07-01

    Increased placental trophoblastic apoptosis (programmed cell death) was previously reported in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. Caspase-3 is one of the key executioners of apoptosis. Caspase are expressed in many tissues including human placental trophoblast and other tissues. Variations in the promoter area of the Caspase genes may modulate apoptotic signaling, contributing to an increased risk of preeclampsia To determine if gene polymorphisms of Caspase 3 proteins differ between patient with and without preeclampsia. Forty-three singleton placentas were studied. Twenty-two placentas were with preeclampsia and 21 were normotensive controls. DNA was extracted from placentas using QIAAmp DNA Minikit. Genotyping of Caspase 3 +567 was determined by real-time PCR using the Applied Biosystems Prism 7900 HT SDS machine. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences in maternal age, parity or race between the two groups. Preeclamptic placentas had higher frequency of wild type TT of Caspase-3 SNP (+567) as compared with normotensive controls (59% versus 28.5%). Preeclamptic placentas expressed significantly more genotype of TT of Caspase-3 SNP (+567) than normotensive patients when compared to CC (p=0.02). The alle frequencies of the Caspase SNP (+567) in preeclampstic placentas were 0.77 and 0.23 for T and C, respectively, as compared to 0.52 and 0.48, respectively, in placentas from normotensive pregnancies. Immune intolerance of maternal and placental interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Increased of placental apoptosis was reported in pregnancy complicated with preeclamsia. Our findings indicate placental Caspase 3 (+567) gene polymorphisms is associated with preeclampsia. Altered placental alle frequencies and caspase-3 SNP (+567) in preeclampsia further suggests preeclampsia is a trophoblastic disorder. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Preeclampsia and Future Cardiovascular Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pensée; Haththotuwa, Randula; Kwok, Chun Shing; Babu, Aswin; Kotronias, Rafail A; Rushton, Claire; Zaman, Azfar; Fryer, Anthony A; Kadam, Umesh; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Mamas, Mamas A

    2017-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder resulting in hypertension and multiorgan dysfunction. There is growing evidence that these effects persist after pregnancy. We aimed to systematically evaluate and quantify the evidence on the relationship between preeclampsia and the future risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the future risk of heart failure, coronary heart disease, composite cardiovascular disease, death because of coronary heart or cardiovascular disease, stroke, and stroke death after preeclampsia. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed to identify relevant studies. We used random-effects meta-analysis to determine the risk. Twenty-two studies were identified with >6.4 million women including >258 000 women with preeclampsia. Meta-analysis of studies that adjusted for potential confounders demonstrated that preeclampsia was independently associated with an increased risk of future heart failure (risk ratio [RR], 4.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.09-8.38), coronary heart disease (RR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.43-4.37), cardiovascular disease death (RR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.83-2.66), and stroke (RR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.29-2.55). Sensitivity analyses showed that preeclampsia continued to be associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke after adjusting for age (RR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.83-8.26), body mass index (RR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.41-7.07), and diabetes mellitus (RR, 4.19; 95% CI, 2.09-8.38). Preeclampsia is associated with a 4-fold increase in future incident heart failure and a 2-fold increased risk in coronary heart disease, stroke, and death because of coronary heart or cardiovascular disease. Our study highlights the importance of lifelong monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors in women with a history of preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. A new mouse model to explore therapies for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdulwahab; Singh, Jameel; Khan, Ysodra; Seshan, Surya V; Girardi, Guillermina

    2010-10-27

    Pre-eclampsia, a pregnancy-specific multisystemic disorder is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. This syndrome has been known to medical science since ancient times. However, despite considerable research, the cause/s of preeclampsia remain unclear, and there is no effective treatment. Development of an animal model that recapitulates this complex pregnancy-related disorder may help to expand our understanding and may hold great potential for the design and implementation of effective treatment. Here we show that the CBA/J x DBA/2 mouse model of recurrent miscarriage is also a model of immunologically-mediated preeclampsia (PE). DBA/J mated CBA/J females spontaneously develop many features of human PE (primigravidity, albuminuria, endotheliosis, increased sensitivity to angiotensin II and increased plasma leptin levels) that correlates with bad pregnancy outcomes. We previously reported that antagonism of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling by soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1) is involved in placental and fetal injury in CBA/J x DBA/2 mice. Using this animal model that recapitulates many of the features of preeclampsia in women, we found that pravastatin restores angiogenic balance, ameliorates glomerular injury, diminishes hypersensitivity to angiotensin II and protects pregnancies. We described a new mouse model of PE, were the relevant key features of human preeclampsia develop spontaneously. The CBA/J x DBA/2 model, that recapitulates this complex disorder, helped us identify pravastatin as a candidate therapy to prevent preeclampsia and its related complications. We recognize that these studies were conducted in mice and that clinical trials are needed to confirm its application to humans.

  3. Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing Reverses Low Fetal Activity Levels in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Blyton, Diane M.; Skilton, Michael R.; Edwards, Natalie; Hennessy, Annemarie; Celermajer, David S.; Sullivan, Colin E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Preeclampsia affects 5% to 7% of pregnancies, is strongly associated with low birth weight and fetal death, and is accompanied by sleep disordered breathing. We hypothesized that sleep disordered breathing may link preeclampsia with reduced fetal movements (a marker of fetal health), and that treatment of sleep disordered breathing might improve fetal activity during sleep. Design, Setting, and Participants: First, a method of fetal movement recording was validated against ultrasound in 20 normal third trimester pregnancies. Second, fetal movement was measured overnight with concurrent polysomnography in 20 patients with preeclampsia and 20 control subjects during third trimester. Third, simultaneous polysomnography and fetal monitoring was done in 10 additional patients with preeclampsia during a control night and during a night of nasal CPAP. Intervention: Overnight continuous positive airway pressure. Measurements and Results: Women with preeclampsia had inspiratory flow limitation and an increased number of oxygen desaturations during sleep (P = 0.008), particularly during REM sleep. Preeclampsia was associated with reduced total fetal movements overnight (319 [SD 32]) versus controls (689 [SD 160], P < 0.0001) and a change in fetal movement patterns. The number of fetal hiccups was also substantially reduced in preeclampsia subjects (P < 0.0001). Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increased the number of fetal movements and hiccups (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Conclusions: The effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure in improving fetal movements suggests a pathogenetic role for sleep disordered breathing in the reduced fetal activity and possibly in the poorer fetal outcomes associated with preeclampsia. Citation: Blyton DM; Skilton MR; Edwards N; Hennessy A; Celermajer DS; Sullivan CE. Treatment of sleep disordered breathing reverses low fetal activity levels in preeclampsia. SLEEP 2013;36(1):15–21

  4. Maternal vitamin D status and the risk of mild and severe preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Catov, Janet M.; Roberts, James M.; Platt, Robert W.; Diesel, Jill C.; Klebanoff, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the association between maternal vitamin D status at ≤26 weeks gestation and the risk of preeclampsia separately by clinical subtype. Methods We conducted a case-cohort study among women enrolled at 12 U.S. sites from 1959 to 1966 in the Collaborative Perinatal Project. In 717 women who later developed preeclampsia (560 mild and 157 severe cases) and in 2986 mothers without preeclampsia, we measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at ≤26 weeks gestation (median 20.9 weeks) over 40 years later using liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Half of women in the subcohort had 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L. Maternal 25(OH)D 50–<75 nmol/L was associated with a reduction in the absolute and relative risk of preeclampsia and mild preeclampsia compared with 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L, but the effects were no longer present after adjustment for confounders including race, prepregnancy body mass index, and parity. For severe preeclampsia, 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L was associated with a reduction of 3 cases per 1,000 pregnancies (adjusted RD −.003, 95% CI: −.005, .0002) and a 40% reduction in risk (adjusted RR .65, 95% CI .43, .98) compared with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L. The conclusions were the same after restricting to women with 25(OH)D measured at <22 weeks gestation and after formal sensitivity analyses for unmeasured confounding. Conclusions Maternal vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for severe preeclampsia, but it is not associated with preeclampsia overall or its mild subtypes. Contemporary cohorts with large numbers of severe preeclampsia cases are needed to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:24457526

  5. Association between previous spontaneous abortion and pre-eclampsia during a subsequent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Vesali, Samira; Pirjani, Reihaneh; Samani, Reza O

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of a history of spontaneous abortion on pre-eclampsia during a subsequent pregnancy. A cross-sectional study enrolled pregnant women admitted to obstetrics and gynecology wards at 103 hospitals in Tehran, Iran for delivery between July 6 and July 21, 2015. Consenting participants were interviewed by midwives; data were collected using a five-part questionnaire and patients' medical records were retrieved. Patient data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression to identify variables associated with increased odds of pre-eclampsia. In total, 5170 patients were interviewed and 252 had experienced pre-eclampsia. The number of previous spontaneous abortions was found to be associated with pre-eclampsia, and a higher number of previous spontaneous abortions was associated with increased odds of patients having experienced pre-eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.59; P=0.025). A history of spontaneous abortion was associated with increased odds of pre-eclampsia during a subsequent pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. Management of pre-eclampsia: issues for anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A T

    2012-09-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Substandard care is often present and many deaths are preventable. The aim of this review is to summarise the key management issues for anaesthetists in the light of the current literature. A systematic literature search of electronic databases was undertaken including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library using the key words obstetrics, pregnancy, pregnancy complications, maternal, pre-eclampsia, preeclampsia, cardiac function, haemodynamics, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP), eclampsia, anaesthesia, anesthesia, neuraxial. Relevant Colleges and Societies websites were examined for pertinent guidelines. The disease is defined within the context of hypertensive diseases, and early recognition of pre-eclampsia and its complications, as well as multidisciplinary expert team management is highlighted. Accurate monitoring and recording of observations including the use of transthoracic echocardiography is discussed. The importance of the treatment of systolic blood pressure>180 mmHg and the use of intravenous antihypertensive medication as well as the use of parenteral magnesium sulphate for the treatment and prevention of eclampsia is emphasised . Restricted intravenous fluid therapy and avoidance of ergometrine is discussed. Neuraxial analgesia and anaesthesia, and general anaesthesia for birth is summarised as well as postpartum management including analgesia, thromboprophylaxis, management of acute pulmonary oedema and the use of pharmacological agents in the setting of breastfeeding. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Genetics of preeclampsia: what are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Bernard, Nathalie; Giguère, Yves

    2003-07-01

    Despite recent efforts to identify susceptibility genes of preeclampsia, the genetic determinants of the condition remain ill-defined, as is the situation for most disorders of complex inheritance patterns. The angiotensinogen, factor V, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes have been investigated in different populations, as have other genes involved in blood pressure, vascular volume control, thrombophilia, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. The study of the genetics of complex traits is faced with both methodological and genetic issues; these include adequate sample size to allow for the identification of modest genetic effects, of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, the study of adequate quantitative traits and extreme phenotypes, haplotype analyses, statistical genetics, genome-wide (hypothesis-free) versus candidate-gene (hypothesis-driven) approaches, and the validation of positive associations. The use of genetically well-characterized populations showing a founder effect, such as the French-Canadian population of Quebec, in genetic association studies, may help to unravel the susceptibility genes of disorders showing complex inheritance, such as preeclampsia. It is necessary to better evaluate the role of the fetal genome in the resulting predisposition to preeclampsia and its complications. Eventually, we may be able to integrate genetic information to better identify the women at risk of developing preeclampsia, and to improve the management of those suffering from this condition.

  8. Association of biochemical markers with the severity of pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ahmed M; Aid, Gamal; Bassiouny, Nehal; Eldin, Doaa S; Dahab, Sherif; Ghamry, Nevein K

    2017-02-01

    To assess the association between pre-eclampsia severity and biochemical and ultrasonography markers. A retrospective study was undertaken of women with severe pre-eclampsia (group 1, n=90), mild pre-eclampsia (group 2, n=90), or a normal pregnancy (group 3, n=90) who attended a hospital in Egypt in October 2013-April 2015. Associations between pre-eclampsia and biochemical, cardiotocography, and ultrasonography markers were investigated. There were significant differences between the groups in C-reactive protein (331.44±112.38, 251.43±59.05, and 23.81±16.19 nmol/L; P≤0.05 for all), platelet count (113.40±36.72, 172.93±57.60, and 212.68±70.00×10 9 /L; P≤0.05 for group 1 comparisons), alanine transaminase (52.24±14.83, 38.34±13.12, and 23.11±6.92 U/L; P≤0.05 for group 1 comparisons), and serum uric acid (600.80±117.19, 481.83±118.97, and 243.89±53.54 μmol/L; P=0.050 for group 3 comparisons). Cardiotocography score was worse among women with severe pre-eclampsia than among those in the other two groups (P=0.039 for both comparisons). Biophysical profile score and umbilical artery resistance index differed by group (P≤0.05 for all). Middle cerebral artery resistance index was lower among women with severe pre-eclampsia (P≤0.05). The levels of C-reactive protein, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, and alanine transaminase, and the platelet count were linked with the presence and severity of pre-eclampsia. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factor assessment after pre-eclampsia in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pre-eclampsia is associated with an increased risk of development of cardiovascular disease later in life. It is not known how general practitioners in the Netherlands care for these women after delivery with respect to cardiovascular risk factor management. Methods Review of medical records of 1196 women in four primary health care centres, who were registered from January 2000 until July 2007 with an International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) code indicating pregnancy. Records were searched for indicators of pre-eclampsia. Of those who experienced pre-eclampsia and of a random sample of 150 women who did not, the following information on cardiovascular risk factor management after pregnancy was extracted from the records: frequency and timing of blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose measurements - and vascular diagnoses. Additionally the sensitivity and specificity of ICPC coding for pre-eclampsia were determined. Results 35 women experienced pre-eclampsia. Blood pressure was more often checked after pregnancy in these women than in controls (57.1% vs. 12.0%, p < 0.001). In 50% of the cases blood pressure was measured within 3 months after delivery with no further follow-up visit. A check for glucose and cholesterol levels was rare, and equally frequent in PE and control women. 20% of the previously normotensive women in the PE group had hypertension at one or more occasions after three months post partum versus none in the control group. The ICPC coding for pre-eclampsia showed a sensitivity of 51.4% and a specificity of 100.0%. Conclusion Despite the evidence of increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in women with a history of pre-eclampsia, follow-up of these women is insufficient and undeveloped in primary care in the Netherlands. PMID:19995418

  10. [Perinatal result with conservative treatment in preeclampsia-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos; de León-Ponce, Manuel Díaz; González-Vargas, Angel; Briones-Vega, Carlos Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Conservative treatment in severe preeclampsia has been documented by several authors citing significant improvement in neonatal outcome lacking a significant increase in maternal complications. Our objective was to inform of our preliminary results using protocolized conservative management in women with preeclampsia-eclampsia, favoring better neonate conditions. We included 34 patients with average age of 28.2 years with documented severe preeclampsia-eclampsia complicating a 36-weeks or less pregnancy, admitted in the obstetric intensive care unit (OICU) between October 2001 and February 2002. Patients received protocolized management consisting of intravascular colume expansion, anti-hypertensive control, target organ protection, monitoring, and clinical observation. We considered conservative management as a 24 or more period offered to patients with satisfactory response to medical treatment and no evidence of binomial compromise. Of our group, 85% corresponded to severe preeclampsia, 9% to eclampsia, 3% to imminence of eclampsia, and 3% to HELLP syndrome. Average stay in OICU was 5.5 days with 3.5 days average management before pregnancy was interrupted. These patients presented mean gestational age of 32.8 weeks during which we observed anemia, low platelets, D dimmer increments, MAP average of 112.8, PCOc 18.6, and BI 0.15. We obtained 36 live newborns of whom 12% four died, two were extremely immatures (510 g and 600 g, respectively); one 980-g newborn presented intraventricular hemorrhage, and a 1,450-g newborn had multiple organ failure. Conservative treatment in patients with severe preeclampsia-eclampsia is a feasible alternative in hospitals with an ICU. Conservative management can improve neonatal survival and prognosis in preterm newborns.

  11. Interleukin-1 alpha variation is associated with the risk of developing preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Masoumeh; Kashani, Elham; Fayyaz, Azadeh; Attar, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Majid

    2015-10-01

    Preeclampsia is a syndrome that affects 5% of all pregnancies, producing substantial maternal and prenatal morbidity and mortality. Several studies have reported that cytokine genes are associated with the persistence of preeclampsia or the severity of the disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between the polymorphisms of interleukin-1 alpha-889 (IL-1A) gene and preeclampsia. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 305 patients with preeclampsia and 325 normal controls from Sayyad Shirazi Hospital of Golestan University. Then subjected to SSP-PCR amplification. STATA software and the chi square test were used for statistic calculations. The frequencies of IL-1A -889 genotypes C/C, T/T and C/T in preeclampsia cases were 34.8%, 8.2%, 57% and in controls were 20.9%, 7.6% and 71.3% respectively. There was a significant 1.5 fold excess frequency in genotype C/C in cases (CI=1.44-3.07, OR=2.1, P=0.0001). There was a significant difference in the frequencies of alleles or genotypes in IL-1A promoter regions between patients with preeclampsia and the control group. Turkomans showed the highest frequency of the C allele and Sistanies had the lowest frequency of the C allele in preeclampsia compared to control groups (CI=1.5-3.9, OR=2.48, P=0.0001). Our findings suggest that the IL-1A-899C/C genotype and C allele are associated with susceptibility to preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RELACIÓN MÉDICO PACIENTE: DERECHOS DEL ADULTO MAYOR

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados. La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  13. Severe preeclampsia and maternal self-report of oral health, hygiene, and dental care.

    PubMed

    Boggess, Kim A; Berggren, Erica K; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol

    2013-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service use before or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant females at the time of prenatal ultrasound and outcomes were ascertained by chart abstraction. The χ(2) test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service use between females with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive females. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for severe preeclampsia. A total of 48 (10%) of 470 females reported ≥2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months before pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. Fifty-one (11%) reported previous periodontal treatment. Twenty-eight (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Females with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR = 3.71; 95% CI = 1.40 to 9.83) than females without a history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service use before or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Maternal self-report of previous periodontal treatment before pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia.

  14. [THE ROLE OF ANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN THE DIAGNOSTICS OF PREGNANCY COMPLICATED WITH PREECLAMPSIA].

    PubMed

    Tagiyeva, I; Aliyeva, S; Bagirova, S; Shamsadinskaya, N; Agaeva, K

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of preeclampsia remains largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that placental ischemia is an early event, leading to placental production of a soluble factor or factors that cause maternal endothelial dysfunction, resulting in the clinical findings of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema. Here, we confirm that placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), an antagonist of vascular growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF), is upregulated in preeclampsia, leading to increased systemic levels of sFlt1. Our research demonstrate that increased circulating sFlt1 in III trimester in patients with preeclampsia is associated with decreased circulating levels of free VEGF and PIGF, resulting in endothelial dysfunction, comparing with control group. These observations suggest that excess circulating sFlt1 contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. 45 pregnant women with preeclampsia of different severity degrees were under observation. Control group included 20 healthy pregnant. Pregnant women with preeclampsia were subdivided into 2 groups. There were 11 (24,4%) pregnant with severe degree of preeclamsia (I group), the II group included 34 pregnant with mild degree of preeclampsia. Increased expression of soluble tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), together with decreased PIGF and VEGF signaling, were first abnormalities described. Thus, determination of levels angiogenic factors: PIGF, VEGF and sFlt-1 is very important for prediction severity of preeclampsia.

  15. Blood lead and preeclampsia: A meta-analysis and review of implications.

    PubMed

    Poropat, Arthur E; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Lanphear, Bruce; Ball, Andrew; Mielke, Howard W

    2018-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest that there is an association between blood lead and preeclampsia. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information on the association between preeclampsia and lead poisoning. Searches of Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct and ProQuest (dissertations and theses) identified 2089 reports, 46 of which were downloaded after reviewing the abstracts, and 11 studies were evaluated as meeting the selection criteria. Evaluation using the ROBINS-I template (Sterne, et al., 2016), indicated moderate risk of bias in all studies. We found that blood lead concentrations were significantly and substantially associated with preeclampsia (k = 12; N = 6069; Cohen's d = 1.26; odds ratio = 9.81; odds ratio LCL = 8.01; odds ratio UCL = 12.02; p = 0.005). Eliminating one study produced a homogeneous meta-analysis and stronger estimates, despite the remaining studies coming from eight separate countries and having countervailing risks of bias. Blood lead concentrations in pregnant women are a major risk factor for preeclampsia, with an increase of 1μg/dL associated with a 1.6% increase in likelihood of preeclampsia, which appears to be the strongest risk factor for preeclampsia yet reported. Pregnant women with historical lead exposure should routinely have blood lead concentrations tested, especially after mid-term. Women with concentrations higher than 5μg/dL should be actively monitored for preeclampsia and be advised to take prophylactic calcium supplementation. All pregnant women should be advised to actively avoid lead exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-eclampsia and offspring cardiovascular health: mechanistic insights from experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Esther F; Newton, Laura; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lazdam, Merzaka; Kelly, Brenda A; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Leeson, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia is increasingly recognized as more than an isolated disease of pregnancy. Women who have had a pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia have a 4-fold increased risk of later cardiovascular disease. Intriguingly, the offspring of affected pregnancies also have an increased risk of higher blood pressure and almost double the risk of stroke in later life. Experimental approaches to identify the key features of pre-eclampsia responsible for this programming of offspring cardiovascular health, or the key biological pathways modified in the offspring, have the potential to highlight novel targets for early primary prevention strategies. As pre-eclampsia occurs in 2-5% of all pregnancies, the findings are relevant to the current healthcare of up to 3 million people in the U.K. and 15 million people in the U.S.A. In the present paper, we review the current literature that concerns potential mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular programming in offspring exposed to pre-eclampsia, considering two major areas of investigation: first, experimental models that mimic features of the in utero environment characteristic of pre-eclampsia, and secondly, how, in humans, offspring cardiovascular phenotype is altered after exposure to pre-eclampsia. We compare and contrast the findings from these two bodies of work to develop insights into the likely key pathways of relevance. The present review and analysis highlights the pivotal role of long-term changes in vascular function and identifies areas of growing interest, specifically, response to hypoxia, immune modification, epigenetics and the anti-angiogenic in utero milieu.

  17. Pre-eclampsia and offspring cardiovascular health: mechanistic insights from experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Esther F.; Newton, Laura; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Lazdam, Merzaka; Kelly, Brenda A.; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Leeson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is increasingly recognized as more than an isolated disease of pregnancy. Women who have had a pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia have a 4-fold increased risk of later cardiovascular disease. Intriguingly, the offspring of affected pregnancies also have an increased risk of higher blood pressure and almost double the risk of stroke in later life. Experimental approaches to identify the key features of pre-eclampsia responsible for this programming of offspring cardiovascular health, or the key biological pathways modified in the offspring, have the potential to highlight novel targets for early primary prevention strategies. As pre-eclampsia occurs in 2–5% of all pregnancies, the findings are relevant to the current healthcare of up to 3 million people in the U.K. and 15 million people in the U.S.A. In the present paper, we review the current literature that concerns potential mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular programming in offspring exposed to pre-eclampsia, considering two major areas of investigation: first, experimental models that mimic features of the in utero environment characteristic of pre-eclampsia, and secondly, how, in humans, offspring cardiovascular phenotype is altered after exposure to pre-eclampsia. We compare and contrast the findings from these two bodies of work to develop insights into the likely key pathways of relevance. The present review and analysis highlights the pivotal role of long-term changes in vascular function and identifies areas of growing interest, specifically, response to hypoxia, immune modification, epigenetics and the anti-angiogenic in utero milieu. PMID:22455350

  18. Cerebral Magnesium Levels in Preeclampsia; A Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Nelander, Maria; Weis, Jan; Bergman, Lina; Larsson, Anders; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Wikström, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used as a prophylaxis for eclamptic seizures. The exact mechanism of action is not fully established. We used phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to investigate if cerebral magnesium (Mg2+) levels differ between women with preeclampsia, normal pregnant, and nonpregnant women. This cross-sectional study comprised 28 women with preeclampsia, 30 women with normal pregnancies in corresponding gestational week (range: 23-41 weeks) and 11 nonpregnant healthy controls. All women underwent 31P-MRS from the parieto-occipital region of the brain and were interviewed about cerebral symptoms. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. Correlations between Mg2+ levels and specific neurological symptoms were estimated with Spearman's rank test. Mean maternal cerebral Mg2+ levels were lower in women with preeclampsia (0.12 mM ± 0.02) compared to normal pregnant controls (0.14 mM ± 0.03) (P = 0.04). Nonpregnant and normal pregnant women did not differ in Mg2+ levels. Among women with preeclampsia, lower Mg2+ levels correlated with presence of visual disturbances (P = 0.04). Plasma levels of Mg2+ did not differ between preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Women with preeclampsia have reduced cerebral Mg2+ levels, which could explain the potent antiseizure prophylactic properties of MgSO4. Within the preeclampsia group, women with visual disturbances have lower levels of Mg2+ than those without such symptoms. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Early pregnancy waist-to-hip ratio and risk of preeclampsia: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Taebi, Mahboubeh; Sadat, Zohreh; Saberi, Farzaneh; Kalahroudi, Masoumeh Abedzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal death and morbidity. Body mass index (BMI) predicts an increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders and preeclampsia. However, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), as a central obesity index, has not been assessed in predicting this disorder in pregnancy. We assumed that WHR might be more sensitive in predicting the risk of preeclampsia, compared with BMI. The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the relationships of BMI and WHR with preeclampsia. This was a prospective cohort study of 1200 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. Anthropometric indices included WHR and BMI, which were measured at the first antenatal visit (⩽ 12 weeks of gestational age). The incidence of preeclampsia was assessed after 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal demographic data and obstetric outcomes were also recorded for each subject. All of the statistical tests were performed using SPSS software, version 16. The overall incidence of preeclampsia in the study population was 4.2%. The maternal WHR and BMI at the beginning of pregnancy were significantly associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively). WHR ⩾ 0.85 and BMI ⩾ 25 kg m(-2) in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy had relative risks of 2.317 (confidence interval (CI): 1.26-4.27) and 3.317 (CI: 1.6-6.86) for preeclampsia. BMI and WHR were anthropometric indicators that presented correlations with preeclampsia. Of these anthropometric indices, BMI had greater predictive value in preeclampsia.

  20. Potential Value of Coagulation Parameters for Suggesting Preeclampsia During the Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Lin, Li

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a relatively common complication of pregnancy and considered to be associated with different degrees of coagulation dysfunction. This study was developed to evaluate the potential value of coagulation parameters for suggesting preeclampsia during the third trimester of pregnancy. Data from 188 healthy pregnant women, 125 patients with preeclampsia in the third trimester and 120 age-matched nonpregnant women were analyzed. Prothrombin time, prothrombin activity, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), antithrombin, platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and plateletcrit were tested. All parameters, excluding prothrombin time, platelet distribution width and plateletcrit, differed significantly between healthy pregnant women and those with preeclampsia. Platelet count, antithrombin and Fg were significantly lower and mean platelet volume and prothrombin activity were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (P < 0.001). Among these parameters, the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for preeclampsia was 0.872 for Fg with an optimal cutoff value of ≤2.87g/L (sensitivity = 0.68 and specificity = 0.98). For severe preeclampsia, the area under the curve for Fg reached up to 0.922 with the same optimal cutoff value (sensitivity = 0.84, specificity = 0.98, positive predictive value = 0.96 and negative predictive value = 0.93). Fg is a biomarker suggestive of preeclampsia in the third trimester of pregnancy, and our data provide a potential cutoff value of Fg ≤ 2.87g/L for screening preeclampsia, especially severe preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is maternal colonization with group B streptococci a risk factor for preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Mulla, Zuber D; Carrillo, Thelma; Kalamegham, Ramaswami; Hernandez, Loretta L; Portugal, Elizabeth; Nuwayhid, Bahij S

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between maternal rectovaginal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) and the outcome of preeclampsia, and to identify other factors such as maternal chocolate consumption that may be associated with preeclampsia on the Texas-Mexico border. A case-control study was conducted among 330 women who delivered at a teaching hospital in El Paso, Texas, during the time period April 2010 to April 2012. Preeclamptic cases (n = 165) and controls free of preeclampsia (n = 165) were matched by gestational age and date of delivery. Conditional logistic regression (with multiple imputation for missing data) was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that were adjusted for maternal age and other factors. Cases (94.6%) and controls (97.0%) were predominantly Hispanic. GBS colonization was not associated with preeclampsia: adjusted OR = 1.73 (95% CI 0.63-4.74, p = 0.29). Maternal consumption of chocolate desserts once daily or more frequently as compared to < 7 times weekly was associated with a 76% reduction in the odds of preeclampsia: adjusted OR = 0.24 (95% CI 0.09-0.63, p = 0.004). Our study did not confirm the protective association between GBS and preeclampsia that was found in 2 existing state hospital datasets. Chocolate consumption during pregnancy was inversely associated with preeclampsia.

  2. First-trimester screening for early and late preeclampsia using maternal characteristics, biomarkers, and estimated placental volume.

    PubMed

    Sonek, Jiri; Krantz, David; Carmichael, Jon; Downing, Cathy; Jessup, Karen; Haidar, Ziad; Ho, Shannon; Hallahan, Terrence; Kliman, Harvey J; McKenna, David

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. First-trimester screening has been shown to be effective in selecting patients at an increased risk for preeclampsia in some studies. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of screening for preeclampsia in the first trimester based on maternal characteristics, medical history, biomarkers, and placental volume. This is a prospective observational nonintervention cohort study in an unselected US population. Patients who presented for an ultrasound examination between 11-13+6 weeks' gestation were included. The following parameters were assessed and were used to calculate the risk of preeclampsia: maternal characteristics (demographic, anthropometric, and medical history), maternal biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein), and estimated placental volume. After delivery, medical records were searched for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Detection rates for early-onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks' gestation) and later-onset preeclampsia (≥34 weeks' gestation) for 5% and 10% false-positive rates using various combinations of markers were calculated. We screened 1288 patients of whom 1068 (82.99%) were available for analysis. In all, 46 (4.3%) developed preeclampsia, with 13 (1.22%) having early-onset preeclampsia and 33 (3.09%) having late-onset preeclampsia. Using maternal characteristics, serum biomarkers, and uterine artery pulsatility index, the detection rate of early-onset preeclampsia for either 5% or 10% false-positive rate was 85%. With the same protocol, the detection rates for preeclampsia with delivery <37 weeks were 52% and 60% for 5% and 10% false-positive rates, respectively. Based on maternal characteristics, the detection rates for late-onset preeclampsia were 15% and 48% for 5% and 10%, while for preeclampsia at ≥37 weeks' gestation the detection rates were 24

  3. Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aji; Wu, Hongyu; Iriyama, Takayuki; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Song, Anren; Liu, Hong; Peng, Zhangzhe; Tang, Lili; Lee, Minjung; Huang, Yun; Ni, Xin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation. The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase enzyme replacement therapy, restored placental adenosine to normal levels, attenuated preeclampsia features, and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in the autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model and ameliorated preeclampsia features and placental DNA hypomethylation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that elevated placental adenosine-mediated DNA hypomethylation predominantly occurs in spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinthine trophoblasts and that this effect is independent of A2B adenosine receptor activation in both preeclampsia models. Extending our mouse findings to humans, we used cultured human trophoblasts to demonstrate that adenosine functions intracellularly and induces DNA hypomethylation without A2B adenosine receptor activation. Altogether, both mouse and human studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying placental DNA hypomethylation and potential therapeutic approaches for preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. New Insights into the Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Espino Y Sosa, Salvador; Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Medina-Bastidas, Diana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe

    2017-07-20

    Preeclampsia is a severe pregnancy complication globally, characterized by poor placentation triggering vascular dysfunction. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exhibit proteolytic activity implicated in the efficiency of trophoblast invasion to the uterine wall, and a dysregulation of these enzymes has been linked to preeclampsia. A decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 interferes with the normal remodeling of spiral arteries at early pregnancy stages, leading to the initial pathophysiological changes observed in preeclampsia. Later in pregnancy, an elevation in MMP-2 and MMP-9 induces abnormal release of vasoactive factors conditioning hypertension. Although these two enzymes lead the scene, other MMPs like MMP-1 and MMP-14 seem to have a role in this pathology. This review gathers published recent evidence about the implications of different MMPs in preeclampsia, and the potential use of these enzymes as emergent biomarkers and biological therapeutic targets, focusing on studies involving human subjects.

  5. Effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Huanhuan; Liang, Qianhong; Knibbs, Luke D; Ren, Meng; Li, Changchang; Bao, Junzhe; Wang, Suhan; He, Yiling; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Xuemei; Zhao, Qingguo; Huang, Cunrui

    2018-06-01

    The impact of ambient air pollution on pregnant women is a concern in China. However, little is known about the association between air pollution and preeclampsia and the potential modifying effects of meteorological conditions have not been assessed. This study aimed to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia, and to explore whether temperature and humidity modify the effects. We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 1.21 million singleton births from the birth registration system in Shenzhen, China, between 2005 and 2012. Daily average measurements of particulate matter <10 μm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), air temperature (T), and dew point (T d ) were collected. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate associations between air pollution and preeclampsia during the first and second trimesters, and during the entire pregnancy. In each time window, we observed a positive gradient of increasing preeclampsia risk with increasing quartiles of PM 10 and SO 2 exposure. When stratified by T and T d in three categories (<5th, 5th -95th, and >95th percentile), we found a significant interaction between PM 10 and T d on preeclampsia; the adverse effects of PM 10 increased with T d . During the entire pregnancy, there was a null association between PM 10 and preeclampsia under T d  < 5th percentile. Preeclampsia risk increased by 23% (95% CI: 19-26%) when 5th < T d  < 95th percentile, and by 34% (16-55%) when T d  > 95th percentile. We also found that air pollution effects on preeclampsia in autumn/winter seasons were stronger than those in the spring/summer. This is the first study to address modifying effects of meteorological factors on the association between air pollution and preeclampsia. Findings indicate that prenatal exposure to PM 10 and SO 2 increase preeclampsia risk in Shenzhen, China, and the effects could be modified by humidity. Pregnant women should

  6. Pre-eclampsia: contribution of maternal constitutional factors and the consequences for cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Barden, Anne

    2006-09-01

    1. Pre-eclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy that is potentially life threatening for both the mother and baby. It encompasses a number of abnormalities that may be present in other clinical conditions. 2. A placenta is essential for the development of pre-eclampsia and can be important in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Normal pregnancy is associated with remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries, which deliver blood to the placental villous space. Remodelling involves invasion by placental cytotrophoblasts that cause the maternal spiral arteries to lose their smooth muscle and become capacitance vessels; this process, known as placentation, is complete by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Poor placentation is associated with small-for-gestational-age fetuses and some cases of pre-eclampsia. It is thought that poor placentation can result in a hypoxic placenta that releases 'toxic substances' into the maternal circulation, contributing to the maternal syndrome. A number of candidate 'toxic substances' have been proposed, but none is universally raised in pre-eclampsia. 3. Although the placenta is necessary for the development of pre-eclampsia, the extent to which placental abnormalities contribute to the condition varies. It is becoming apparent that maternal constitutional factors may also be important in this syndrome. Underlying hypertension, diabetes and obesity strongly predispose to pre-eclampsia. However, a continuum of risk may exist for blood pressure, bodyweight, glucose and lipids, which, in combination with each other and some degree of placental abnormalities, may lead to the development of pre-eclampsia. 4. The present review will focus on the maternal constitutional factors that define the metabolic syndrome and examine their contribution to pre-eclampsia and the long-term consequences for cardiovascular health.

  7. Prognostic Value of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Measured in the First-Trimester on the Severity of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Jen; Huang, Shang-Yu; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hwa; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have suggested that preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease may share common mechanisms. The purpose of this prospective nested case-controlled study was to characterize a variety of cardiovascular disease risk factors measured during the first trimester of pregnancy in predicting subsequent outcomes and the severity of preeclampsia. We ascertained the severity of preeclampsia at the onset of the disease, and the presence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We compared first trimester maternal serum cardiovascular disease risk factors in preeclampsia subjects versus normal pregnancies, early-onset versus late-onset preeclampsia, and preeclampsia with IUGR versus without IUGR. To identify the prognostic value of independent predictors on the severity of preeclampsia, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) using logistic regression analysis. There were 134 cases of preeclampsia and 150 uncomplicated pregnancies, and preeclampsia cases were classified as early-onset (53 cases) or late-onset (81 cases), or as with IUGR (44 cases) or without IUGR (90 cases). Among the cardiovascular disease risk factors, maternal serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and homocysteine were predictors of both early-onset preeclampsia and preeclampsia with IUGR. For the detection of early onset preeclampsia or preeclampsia with IUGR, the AUC for the combination model (0.943 and 0.952, respectively) was significantly higher than with serum hsCRP or serum homocysteine only. Patients with preeclampsia can be subdivided into different severities according to time of onset and fetal weight. Cardiovascular risk factors distinguish a subgroup of these patients. PMID:26844488

  8. Prognostic Value of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Measured in the First-Trimester on the Severity of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Jen; Huang, Shang-Yu; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hwa; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Duan, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease may share common mechanisms. The purpose of this prospective nested case-controlled study was to characterize a variety of cardiovascular disease risk factors measured during the first trimester of pregnancy in predicting subsequent outcomes and the severity of preeclampsia.We ascertained the severity of preeclampsia at the onset of the disease, and the presence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We compared first trimester maternal serum cardiovascular disease risk factors in preeclampsia subjects versus normal pregnancies, early-onset versus late-onset preeclampsia, and preeclampsia with IUGR versus without IUGR. To identify the prognostic value of independent predictors on the severity of preeclampsia, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) using logistic regression analysis.There were 134 cases of preeclampsia and 150 uncomplicated pregnancies, and preeclampsia cases were classified as early-onset (53 cases) or late-onset (81 cases), or as with IUGR (44 cases) or without IUGR (90 cases). Among the cardiovascular disease risk factors, maternal serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and homocysteine were predictors of both early-onset preeclampsia and preeclampsia with IUGR. For the detection of early onset preeclampsia or preeclampsia with IUGR, the AUC for the combination model (0.943 and 0.952, respectively) was significantly higher than with serum hsCRP or serum homocysteine only.Patients with preeclampsia can be subdivided into different severities according to time of onset and fetal weight. Cardiovascular risk factors distinguish a subgroup of these patients.

  9. Characteristics and severity of preeclampsia in young and elderly gravidas with hypertensive disease.

    PubMed

    Rymer-Haskel, Noa; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Hass, Yigal; Rahav, Roni; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Hendler, Israel

    2018-06-01

    Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with increased risk for preeclampsia, however, a paucity of data exists regarding the characteristics of the disease in this age group. Our aim was to compare the characteristics and severity of preeclampsia in older and younger gravidas. A retrospective, small case control study of women diagnosed with preeclampsia in a single tertiary care center. Nulliparous women ≥40 years old with singleton pregnancies ≥ 24 0/7 weeks' gestation were matched (1:2 ratio) with young (20-34 years old) nulliparous women. The rate of severe preeclampsia (60.9 vs 69.6% respectively), HELLP, eclampsia or the need for magnesium treatment did not differ between the groups. However, the AMA group had an increased rate of postpartum presentation or exacerbation of preeclampsia compared to the control group (50.0 vs. 28.3% respectively, p = 0.01). In the AMA group, 93.5% of births were by cesarean section (CS) compared to 52.2% in the control group (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in birthweight, rate of small for gestational age or composite neonatal morbidity between the groups. Preeclampsia at an advanced maternal age carries a similar rate of severe preeclampsia and complications as in young women. However, women over 40 years old have an increased risk for presentation or exacerbation of preeclampsia in the postpartum period and an increased rate of CS compared to younger gravidas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination of serum angiopoietin-2 and uterine artery Doppler for prediction of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Puttapitakpong, Ploynin; Phupong, Vorapong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the combination of serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels and uterine artery Doppler for the detection of preeclampsia in women at 16-18 weeks of gestation and to identify other pregnancy complications that could be predicted with these combined tests. Maternal serum Ang-2 levels were measured, and uterine artery Doppler was performed in 400 pregnant women. The main outcome was preeclampsia. The predictive values of this combination were calculated. Twenty-five women (6.3%) developed preeclampsia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of uterine artery Doppler combined with serum Ang-2 levels for the prediction of preeclampsia were 24.0%, 94.4%, 22.2% and 94.9%, respectively. For the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 57.1%, 94.1%, 14.8% and 99.2%, respectively. Patients with abnormal uterine artery Doppler and abnormal serum Ang-2 levels (above 19.5 ng ml(-1)) were at higher risk for preterm delivery (relative risk=2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.8). Our findings revealed that the combination of uterine artery Doppler and serum Ang-2 levels at 16-18 weeks of gestation can be used to predict early-onset preeclampsia but not overall preeclampsia. Thus, this combination may be a useful early second trimester screening test for the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia.

  11. Maternal serum fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Scifres, Christina M; Catov, Janet M; Simhan, Hyagriv

    2012-03-01

    Serum fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in nonpregnant individuals, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Preeclampsia shares many features with the metabolic syndrome, but the relationship between early pregnancy serum FABP4 levels and the development of preeclampsia is unknown. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that FABP4 is elevated in women who develop preeclampsia before the onset of disease. This was a nested case-control study within a larger prospective cohort of healthy women with singleton gestations. Cases included 22 women who developed preeclampsia, and a random sample of 72 unmatched controls delivered without preeclampsia was identified. Maternal serum FABP4 was measured at less than 13 wk gestation and 24-28 wk gestation, which was before the onset of preeclampsia in all patients. The main outcome measure was preeclampsia (new-onset gestational hypertension and proteinuria for the first time after 20 wk gestation). Maternal serum FABP4 concentrations were higher in women who ultimately developed preeclampsia both at 8-13 wk (20.4±12.3 vs. 10.1±4.7 ng/ml; P<0.01) and at 24-28 wk (20.7±11.7 vs. 9.9±4.5 ng/ml; P<0.01). After controlling for first trimester body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and nulliparity, FABP4 was associated with the development of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.3; P<0.01). Maternal serum FABP4 levels are elevated before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, and this increase occurs independently of maternal body mass index.

  12. Placental stress and pre-eclampsia: a revised view.

    PubMed

    Redman, C W G; Sargent, I L

    2009-03-01

    In pre-eclampsia, poor placentation causes both oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress of the placenta. It is believed placental hypoxia stimulates excessive production of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), which binds and deactivates circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). When maternal endothelium is deprived of VEGF it becomes dysfunctional hence leading to the clinical syndrome of the mother. In this paper the previous claim that poor placentation may predispose more to placental oxidative stress than hypoxia is reiterated. We show why pre-eclampsia is not only an endothelial disease, but also a disorder of systemic inflammation. We question that hypoxia is the only or indeed the main stimulus to release of sFlt-1; and emphasise the role of inflammatory mechanisms. Hypoxia cannot be assumed simply because hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) are upregulated. Concurrent assessments of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor for inflammatory responses are desirable to obtain a more complete picture. We point out that the pre-eclampsia placenta is the source of bioactive circulating factors other than sFlt-1 in concentrations that are much higher than in normal pregnancy. These may also contribute to the final inflammatory syndrome. We propose a modified version of the two-stage model for pre-eclampsia.

  13. Oxidative profiles of LDL and HDL isolated from women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    León-Reyes, G; Maida-Claros, R F; Urrutia-Medina, A X; Jorge-Galarza, E; Guzmán-Grenfell, A M; Fuentes-García, S; Medina-Navarro, R; Moreno-Eutimio, M A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J L; Hicks, J J; Torres-Ramos, Y D

    2017-05-16

    Oxidative stress causes biochemical changes in lipids and proteins; these changes can induce damage to the vascular endothelium and create maternal complications that are characteristic of preeclampsia. In this study, we evaluated the oxidative profile of lipoproteins isolated from women with preeclampsia. Thirty women diagnosed with preeclampsia and thirty women without preeclampsia were included in the study. Lipid-damage biomarkers, including conjugated dienes, lipohydroperoxides and malondialdehyde, were measured. The reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium, the formation of dityrosines, and the carbonylation of proteins were assessed as indicators of protein damage. The protective activity of HDL-c was evaluated by the paraoxonase-I activity present on the HDL-c particles. Serum lipid profiles were also quantified in both groups. Data were analysed using Student's t test and the Pearson correlation coefficient. Our results demonstrated in PE women evident oxidative changes in the lipids and proteins in HDL-c and LDL-c particles and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme PON-I decreased 59.9%. HDL-c exhibited self-defence, as demonstrated by the negative correlation between paraoxonase-I activity and the formation of lipohydroperoxides in HDL-c (r = -0.3755, p < 0.005). LDL-c and HDL-c isolated from women with preeclampsia show oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. We propose an oxidative profile based on the oxidation levels indicated by each of the markers used. We also found that paraoxonase-I is inactivated in the presence of lipohydroperoxides. Antioxidant support might be helpful to reduce oxidative stress in patients with preeclampsia. Further investigations are necessary to define the association between antioxidant activities and preeclampsia.

  14. Novel cardiovascular biomarkers in women with a history of early preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Drost, José T; Maas, Angela H E M; Holewijn, Suzanne; Joosten, Leo A B; van Eyck, Jim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; de Graaf, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia are at increased risk for future cardiovascular disease. Determination of cardiovascular biomarkers may be useful to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of cardiovascular disease development in these women. We performed an analysis in the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales study, a retrospective cohort consisting of 339 women with a history of early preeclampsia and 332 women after normotensive pregnancy. Women attended a follow-up visit ten years after the index pregnancy. A subset of 8 different cardiovascular biomarkers was investigated, reflecting inflammatory, metabolic, thrombotic and endothelial function markers. Associations between PE and these novel biomarkers were analyzed by linear regression analysis and adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Mean age of 671 women of the PREVFEM cohort was 39 years and women were on average 10 years post index pregnancy. Women post preeclampsia had significantly higher levels of SE-selectin (adjusted difference 4.55, 99%CI 0.37; 8.74) and PAPPA (adjusted difference 19.08; 99%CI 13.18; 24.99), whereas ApoB (adjusted difference -0.23 99%CI -0.32; -0.14) was inversely associated with preeclampsia, compared to women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. Adiponectin, leptin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and PAI-1 were not different between both groups. We demonstrated an independent association of preeclampsia with SE-selectin and PAPPA (markers of vascular dysfunction), which may contribute to future cardiovascular events in women post preeclampsia. However, ApoB (an apolipoprotein) was significantly lower and could point at a protective mechanism in our PE study women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct First Trimester Cytokine Profiles for Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Tangerås, Line H; Austdal, Marie; Skråstad, Ragnhild B; Salvesen, Kjell Å; Austgulen, Rigmor; Bathen, Tone F; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia involve dysregulated maternal inflammatory responses to pregnancy, but whether such responses differ between the disorders has not been determined. We aimed to investigate disease-specific early pregnancy serum cytokine profiles of women subsequently developing gestational hypertension or preeclampsia for new insight into the underlying pathogeneses and differences between the disorders. The study cohort consisted of 548 pregnant Norwegian women who were either multiparous with previous gestational hypertension or preeclampsia or were nulliparous. Maternal sera at gestational weeks 11(0)-13(6) were assayed for 27 cytokines, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, creatinine, calcium, uric acid, and placental growth factor. Compared with normotensive women, women with both hypertensive conditions presented an atherogenic lipid profile at early gestation, but only those later developing gestational hypertension had significantly higher serum levels of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-12. Comparing the 2 hypertensive pregnancy disorders, women subsequently developing gestational hypertension had higher serum levels of IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-13, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor than the women subsequently developing preeclampsia. This study identifies early pregnancy differences in serum cytokine profiles for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Reliable pre-eclampsia pathways based on multiple independent microarray data sets.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kaoru; Kondoh, Eiji; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Ujita, Mari; Murakami, Ryusuke; Mogami, Haruta; Brown, J B; Okuno, Yasushi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-02-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a multifactorial disorder characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Gene expression profiling of preeclamptic placenta have provided different and even opposite results, partly due to data compromised by various experimental artefacts. Here we aimed to identify reliable pre-eclampsia-specific pathways using multiple independent microarray data sets. Gene expression data of control and preeclamptic placentas were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. Single-sample gene-set enrichment analysis was performed to generate gene-set activation scores of 9707 pathways obtained from the Molecular Signatures Database. Candidate pathways were identified by t-test-based screening using data sets, GSE10588, GSE14722 and GSE25906. Additionally, recursive feature elimination was applied to arrive at a further reduced set of pathways. To assess the validity of the pre-eclampsia pathways, a statistically-validated protocol was executed using five data sets including two independent other validation data sets, GSE30186, GSE44711. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for genes in a panel of potential pre-eclampsia pathways using placentas of 20 women with normal or severe preeclamptic singleton pregnancies (n = 10, respectively). A panel of ten pathways were found to discriminate women with pre-eclampsia from controls with high accuracy. Among these were pathways not previously associated with pre-eclampsia, such as the GABA receptor pathway, as well as pathways that have already been linked to pre-eclampsia, such as the glutathione and CDKN1C pathways. mRNA expression of GABRA3 (GABA receptor pathway), GCLC and GCLM (glutathione metabolic pathway), and CDKN1C was significantly reduced in the preeclamptic placentas. In conclusion, ten accurate and reliable pre-eclampsia pathways were identified based on multiple independent microarray data sets. A pathway-based classification may be a worthwhile approach to elucidate the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia

  17. What Are the Risks of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia to the Mother?

    MedlinePlus

    ... mother? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are the risks of preeclampsia & eclampsia to the mother? ... for the mother and infant. Women with preeclampsia are at increased risk for damage to the kidneys, ...

  18. Urinary spot albumin:creatinine ratio for documenting proteinuria in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qitao; Gao, Yunfei; Yu, Yanhong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shuoshi; Zhong, Mei

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether a single urinary spot urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) can be used to estimate 24-hour urinary protein excretion in women with preeclampsia. ACR and 24-hour urinary protein excretion were measured in 50 consecutive patients with preeclampsia. ACR was determined in a spot midstream urine sample and the amount of protein excretion was quantified in a 24-hour urine collection performed the following day. The correlation between the spot ACR and 24-hour urine protein excretion was assessed, and the diagnostic value of ACR was expressed in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best cutoff values of the spot ACR for mild preeclampsia (proteinuria ≥ 0.3 g/24 h) and severe preeclampsia (defined in China as proteinuria ≥ 2 g/24 h). A strong correlation was evident between the spot ACR and 24-hour urinary protein excretion (r = .938; P < .001). The optimal spot ACR cutoff point was 22.8 mg/mmol for 0.3 g/24 h of protein excretion (mild preeclampsia) with a sensitivity and specificity of 82.4% and 99.4%, respectively, and 155.6 mg/mmol for 2 g/24 h of protein excretion (severe preeclampsia) with a sensitivity and specificity of 90.6% and 99.6%, respectively. Compared with 24-hour urinary protein excretion, the spot urinary ACR may be a simple, convenient, and accurate indicator of significant proteinuria in women with preeclampsia.

  19. Relationship of Liver X Receptors α and Endoglin Levels in Serum and Placenta with Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Dong, Xing; Wu, Hong-Yan; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xin; Shang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and endoglin have been postulated to play roles in trophoblast invasion and lipid metabolic disturbances. However, the relationship between LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta of patients with preeclampsia remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify correlations between LXRα, endoglin and preeclampsia and provide new feasible methods of clinical prediction and treatment for preeclampsia. We enrolled 45 patients with preeclampsia (24 with moderate preeclampsia and 21 with severe preeclampsia) and 15 normal pregnant women (control group) who were admitted to the Department of Obstetrics of the General Hospital of Beijing Command between October 2012 and July 2013 in this study. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative PCR, tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia than those in control group (P<0.05, each). Moreover, patients with severe preeclampsia displayed significantly higher LXRα and endoglin levels than those with moderate preeclampsia (P<0.05, each). The LXRα sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 66.00%, 80.00%, 89.19% and 48.48%, respectively, while those of endoglin levels were 62.00%, 85.00%, 91.18% and 47.22%, respectively. LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta from patients with preeclampsia were positively correlated (serum: r = 0.486, P<0.01; placenta: r = 0.569, P<0.01). Elevated LXRα and endoglin levels may be associated with preeclampsia pathogenesis and development and could be used as potential predictors for this disorder.

  20. Preeclampsia and the Future Risk of Hypertension: The Pregnant Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Garovic, Vesna D.; August, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular death rates continue to rise for women under age 55, underlying the importance of focusing on female-specific conditions that may increase cardiovascular risk, including pregnancy-related disorders. Hypertension complicates about 5–10% of pregnancies. Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific condition, is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation and remains one of the major causes of maternal deaths in the United States. In addition, preeclampsia may have an impact on women’s health beyond their pregnancies, and has been associated with increased risks for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease and stroke. In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting the association between preeclampsia and future hypertension; possible mechanisms that underlie this association; current approach to women with a history of preeclampsia; and future research that is needed in this field in order to deliver optimal and timely medical care to the affected women. PMID:23397213

  1. Vitamin D and the risk of preeclampsia--a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gidlöf, Sebastian; Silva, Aldo T; Gustafsson, Sven; Lindqvist, Pelle G

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine the relation between vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy and preeclampsia. In a nested case-control study of 2496 pregnant women, we identified 39 women who developed preeclampsia and 120 non-preeclamptic controls. Blood was sampled in 12th gestational week and analyzed for serum vitamin D. Vitamin D levels were similar in women who developed preeclampsia, 52.2 ± 20.5 nmol/L, and controls, 48.6 ± 20.5 nmol/L, p = 0.3. In addition, vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was found in a similar proportion of control group (51.7%) as those with severe preeclampsia (41.2%). Women with vitamin D deficiency were 3 cm shorter than those with normal vitamin D levels (p = 0.002). Our data do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is associated with preeclampsia, but we cannot rule out a relation later in gestation. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Circulating Angiogenic Factors and the Risk of Preeclampsia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Campos-Galicia, Inova; Berumen-Lechuga, María Guadalupe; Molina-Pérez, Carlos José; García-Paleta, Yolanda; Isordia-Salas, Irma; Ramírez-Valenzuela, Karla Leticia

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether angiogenic factors are associated with risk of developing preeclampsia in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We performed a nested case-control study within a cohort of SLE women with singleton pregnancies. The study included 42 patients with SLE who eventually developed preeclampsia and 75 normal SLE pregnancies. Serum samples were collected at 4-week intervals (from weeks 12 to 36). Serum samples were analyzed for soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble endoglin (sEng). Women destined to develop preeclampsia had lower PlGF levels and higher sFlt-1 and sEng levels, and a higher sFlt-1/PlGF ratio than normal pregnancies. These changes became significant at 12 weeks in patients destined to develop either early onset (< 34 weeks, p ≤ 0.003) or late-onset preeclampsia (≥ 34 weeks, p ≤ 0.02). The risk to develop preeclampsia was higher among patients with PlGF concentration values in the lowest quartile or with sFlt-1 and sEng levels, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio, in the highest quartile of the normal SLE pregnancies distribution. The OR were higher and appeared earlier in patients destined to develop early onset preeclampsia (OR ≥ 16.2, from Week 12 onward) than in patients who presented preeclampsia later (OR ≥ 8.9, from Week 24 onward). Changes in circulating concentrations of sFlt-1, PlGF, sEng, and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio precede the onset of preeclampsia in SLE pregnancies. The risk profile of circulating angiogenic factors for developing preeclampsia distinctly evolves depending on whether this condition is manifested earlier or later.

  3. Preeclampsia and toxic metals: a case-control study in Kinshasa, DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Elongi Moyene, Jean-Pierre; Scheers, Hans; Tandu-Umba, Barthélémy; Haufroid, Vincent; Buassa-Bu-Tsumbu, Baudouin; Verdonck, Fons; Spitz, Bernard; Nemery, Benoit

    2016-04-05

    Preeclampsia is frequent in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), especially during the dry season. We tested whether preeclampsia was associated with exposure to environmental metals. Using a case-control design, 88 women hospitalized with preeclampsia (cases) and 88 healthy pregnant women from the antenatal clinic (controls) were included in the study; 67 and 109 women were enrolled during the rainy and dry season, respectively. The concentrations of 24 elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in 24-h urine collections. Differences in the urinary excretion of metals were investigated between cases and controls, and the interaction with season was assessed. Cases and controls were well matched regarding age, parity and duration of pregnancy. In controls, the urinary concentrations of most elements were substantially higher than reference values for adults from industrially developed countries, e.g. for lead: geometric mean (GM) 8.0 μg/L [25(th)-75(th) percentile 3.1-13.8]. The daily urinary excretions of 14 metals were significantly higher in women with preeclampsia than in control women, e.g. for lead: GM 61 μg/day (25(th)-75(th) percentile 8-345) in women with preeclampsia vs 9 μg/day (25(th)-75(th) percentile 3-21) in controls (p < 0.001). A significant interaction was found between season and preeclampsia for several elements, with higher urinary excretions in preeclamptic women than controls during the dry season, but not during the rainy season. This study revealed not only that women with preeclampsia excrete higher amounts of several toxic metals, especially lead, than control women, but also that this excretion exhibits seasonal variation, thus possibly explaining the high incidence and seasonal variation of preeclampsia in Kinshasa. Although the exact sources of this exposure are unknown, these findings underscore the need for preventing environmental exposures to lead and other toxic metals.

  4. Preeclampsia in autologous and oocyte donation pregnancy: is there a different pathophysiology?

    PubMed

    Lashley, Lisa E E L O; Buurma, Aletta; Swings, Godelieve M J S; Eikmans, Michael; Anholts, Jacqueline D H; Bakker, Jaap A; Claas, Frans H J

    2015-06-01

    Oocyte donation (OD) is a specific method of artificial reproductive technology that is accompanied by a higher risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying preeclampsia in OD pregnancies is thought to differ from preeclampsia in autologous pregnancies. As preeclampsia in autologous pregnancies is suggested to be associated with complement activation, we studied C4d deposition, circulating complement components and placental complement regulatory proteins in preeclamptic OD pregnancies. Women with uncomplicated and preeclamptic pregnancies after OD or spontaneous conception were selected. We stained the placentas for C4d, marker for complement activation, measured complement factors C1q, C3 and C4 in maternal sera and quantified the placental mRNA expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59. A significantly (p < 0.03) higher incidence of C4d deposition was observed in placentas from women with preeclampsia compared with uncomplicated pregnancies, both OD and autologous. The level of complement factors in serum did not differ between the groups. Children born in the autologous preeclampsia group were significantly lower in birth weight (p < 10th percentile) compared with the preeclamptic OD group. In addition, the placental mRNA expression level of complement regulatory proteins was significantly lower in uncomplicated and preeclamptic OD compared with the autologous pregnancies. In line with autologous preeclampsia pregnancies, there is excessive activation of complement in preeclamptic OD pregnancies. However, in contrast to autologous pregnancies this is not associated with counterbalancing upregulation of complement regulatory proteins. Furthermore, C4d deposition in OD pregnancies is not related to the severity of preeclampsia, suggesting another trigger or regulatory mechanism of placental C4d deposition in preeclamptic OD pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perinatal outcome in singleton pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and eclampsia in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Phoa, K Y N; Chedraui, P; Pérez-López, F R; Wendte, J F; Ghiabi, S; Vrijkotte, T; Pinto, P

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia in Ecuador is an understudied subject since available epidemiological data are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe perinatal outcomes among singleton pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and eclampsia in a sample of low-income Ecuadorian women. Pregnant women complicated with preeclampsia (mild and severe) and eclampsia (defined according to criteria of the ACOG) delivering at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador were surveyed with a structured questionnaire containing maternal (socio-demographic) and neonatal data. Perinatal outcomes were compared according to severity of clinical presentation. A total of 163 women with preeclampsia [mild (23.9%), severe (68.7%) and eclampsia (7.4%)] were surveyed. Perinatal mortality and stillbirth rate was similar among studied groups (mild vs. severe preeclampsia/eclampsia cases). However, severe cases displayed higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes: lower birth Apgar scores, more preterm births, and more low birth weight and small for gestational age infants. Caesarean-section rate and the number of admissions to intensive or intermediate neonatal care were higher in severe cases. A similar trend was found when analysis excluded preterm gestations. In conclusion, in this specific low-income Ecuadorian population perinatal outcome was adverse in pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia.

  6. Increased leptin levels in preeclampsia: associations with BMI, estrogen and SHBG levels.

    PubMed

    Acromite, Michael; Ziotopoulou, Mary; Orlova, Christine; Mantzoros, Christos

    2004-01-01

    Leptin is secreted mainly by the white adipose tissue but is also synthesized in several non-adipose tissue organs including the placenta. Serum leptin levels are increased in normal pregnancies and are higher in preeclamptic than normal pregnant women. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence of an independent association of serum leptin levels and preeclamsia. We have studied cross-sectionally 18 3rd trimester preeclamptic women, 28 3rd trimester and 30 2nd trimester control women to confirm the reported increase of serum leptin in preeclampsia and to assess whether elevated leptin levels in preeclampsia increase the variance explained by body mass index (BMI), androgens, estrogens and/or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Anthropometric, demographic and hormonal data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression models. Leptin is significantly increased in preeclampsia by univariate analysis, but use of multivariate analysis indicates that the elevated leptin levels are not associated with preeclampsia independently from BMI, estrogens and SHBG. This study confirms that leptin levels are higher in women with preeclampsia than in controls and demonstrates that serum leptin levels do not add to the prediction of preeclampsia after accounting for BMI, estrogen and SHBG levels of preeclamptic women.

  7. Impaired Flow-Mediated Dilation Before, During and After Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Milic, Natasa M.; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S.; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is believed to play a critical role in preeclampsia, however it is unclear whether this dysfunction precedes the pregnancy or is caused by early pathophysiological events. It is also unclear for how long vascular dysfunction may persist post-partum, and whether it represents a mechanism linking preeclampsia with future cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to determine whether women with preeclampsia have worse vascular function compared to women who did not have preeclampsia by performing systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined endothelial dysfunction using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). We included studies published before May 29, 2015 that examined FMD before, during and after preeclampsia. Differences in FMD between study groups were evaluated by standardized mean differences. Out of 610 abstracts identified through PubMED, EMBASE and Web of Science, 37 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. When compared to women who did not have preeclampsia, women who had preeclampsia had lower FMD prior to the development of preeclampsia (~20–29 weeks gestation), at the time of preeclampsia, and for three years post-partum, with the estimated magnitude of the effect ranging between 0.5 and 3 standard deviations. Similar effects were observed when the analysis was limited to studies that excluded women with chronic hypertension, smokers, or both. Vascular dysfunction predates preeclampsia and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Future studies should address whether vascular changes that persist after preeclamptic pregnancies may represent a mechanistic link with the increased risk for future cardiovascular disease. PMID:26711737

  8. Maternal serum bisphenol A levels and risk of pre-eclampsia: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yunzhen; Zhou, Qiongjie; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jiangnan; Xiong, Yu; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Although recent studies have indicated the potential adverse effects of maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on pregnancy such as increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, epidemiological evidence is limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal BPA exposure and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study among 173 women (74 cases of pre-eclampsia and 99 controls). BPA concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the maternal serum samples collected during 16–20 gestational weeks. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the relationship between maternal serum BPA concentrations and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Results BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/l) in 78.6% of the maternal serum samples at three levels: low (<2.24 µg/l), medium (2.24-4.44 µg/l), and high (>4.44 µg/l). BPA concentrations were significantly higher in the serum samples collected from the pre-eclampsia cases than those from controls (median: 3.40 vs. 1.50 µg/l, P < 0.01). With adjustment for maternal age, primiparous and BMI, the odds of developing pre-eclampsia were significantly elevated in subjects with high serum BPA levels compared with those with low levels (adjusted OR = 16.46, 95%CI = 5.42–49.85) regardless of subcategories of pre-eclampsia including severity and onset time. Among the pre-eclampsia subjects, the maternal serum concentration of BPA was not different between the early- and late-onset subjects (median: 3.09 vs. 3.50 µg/l, P = 0.57), but surprisingly higher in mild pre-eclampsia subjects compared with severe pre-eclampsia subjects (median: 5.20 vs. 1.80 µg/l, P < 0.01). Conclusions These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to high level of BPA could be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. PMID:29186464

  9. Original Article: Preeclampsia, Placental Insufficiency and Autism Spectrum Disorder or Developmental Delay

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Cheryl K.; Krakowiak, Paula; Baker, Alice; Hansen, Robin L.; Ozonoff, Sally; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Importance Increasing evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and many forms of developmental delay (DD) originate during fetal development. Preeclampsia may trigger aberrant neurodevelopment through placental, maternal and fetal physiologic mechanisms. Objective To determine whether preeclampsia is associated with ASD and/or DD. Design, Setting and Participants The CHildhhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study is a population-based case-control investigation of ASD and/or DD origins. Children from 20 California counties aged 24-60 months at the time of recruitment, and living in catchment areas with a biologic parent fluent in English or Spanish were enrolled from January 29, 2003 through April 7, 2011. Children with ASD (n=517) and DD (n=194) were recruited through the California Department of Developmental Services, the Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (MIND) Institute and referrals. Controls with typical development (TD) controls (n=350) were randomly selected from birth records and frequency-matched on age, sex, and broad geographic region. Physicians diagnosing preeclampsia were masked to neurodevelopmental outcome, and those assessing neurodevelopmental function were masked to preeclampsia status. Exposure Preeclampsia and placental insufficiency were self-reported and abstracted from medical records. Main Outcome Measure The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised were used to confirm ASD, whereas children with DD and TD were confirmed by Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and were free of autistic symptoms. Hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Results Children with ASD were twice as likely to have been exposed in utero to preeclampsia as controls with TD after adjustment for maternal educational level, parity, and prepregnancy obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.18-4.68); risk increased with

  10. The relationship between urinary tract infection during pregnancy and preeclampsia: causal, confounded or spurious?

    PubMed

    Karmon, Anatte; Sheiner, Eyal

    2008-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal morbidity, although its precise etiology remains elusive. A number of studies suggest that urinary tract infection (UTI) during the course of gestation is associated with elevated risk for preeclampsia, while others have failed to prove such an association. In our medical center, pregnant women who were exposed to at least one UTI episode during pregnancy were 1.3 times more likely to have mild preeclampsia and 1.8 times more likely to have severe preeclampsia as compared to unexposed women. Our results are based on univariate analyses and are not adjusted for potential confounders. This editorial aims to discuss the relationship between urinary tract infection and preeclampsia, as well as examine the current problems regarding the interpretation of this association. Although the relationship between UTI and preeclampsia has been demonstrated in studies with various designs, carried-out in a variety of settings, the nature of this association is unclear. By taking into account timeline, dose-response effects, treatment influences, and potential confounders, as well as by neutralizing potential biases, future studies may be able to clarify the relationship between UTI and preeclampsia by determining if it is causal, confounded, or spurious.

  11. Placental expression of D6 decoy receptor in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Geum Joon; Lee, Eun Sung; Jin, Hye Mi; Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Yeun Sun; Seol, Hyun-Joo; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of the D6 decoy receptor that can bind chemokines and target them for degradation, resulting in inhibition of inflammation in placentas from preeclamptic and normal pregnancies. Methods The current study was carried out in 35 pregnant women (23 patients with preeclampsia and 12 healthy, normotensive pregnant women) during the third trimester of pregnancy. The expressions of D6 decoy receptor in the placenta were determined with real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Results The mRNA and protein of D6 decoy receptor were detected in all of placentas from preeclamptic and normal pregnancies. Placental D6 decoy receptor mRNA expression was significantly lower in patients with preeclampsia than in patients with normal pregnancies. Western blot analyses revealed decreased protein expression in cases of preeclampsia. Conclusion The expression of the D6 decoy receptor in preeclamptic placentas was significantly lower than in normal placentas. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms that link decreased expression of placental D6 decoy receptor and preeclampsia. PMID:26430656

  12. Preeclampsia and reproductive performance in a community of vegans.

    PubMed

    Carter, J P; Furman, T; Hutcheson, H R

    1987-06-01

    Studies at "the Farm," a community of spiritually gathered young people in Summertown, Tenn, have shown that it is possible to sustain a normal pregnancy on a vegan diet. The source of dietary protein (ie, animal or vegetable) does not seem to affect birth weight, as long as vegans are health conscious, receive continuous prenatal care, supplement their diets with prenatal vitamins, calcium, and iron, and apply protein-complementing nutritional principles. Preeclampsia may be caused by a relative prostacyclin deficiency in the face of excessive production of thromboxane A2. A vegan diet (one low in arachidonic acid) might provide protection against this condition, especially if the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid is inhibited by decreased activity of the enzyme delta-6-desaturase. We examined the maternity care records of 775 vegan mothers for symptoms of preeclampsia, and only one case met the clinical criteria. Since preeclampsia in our culture is frequently associated with unrestrained consumption of "fast foods" (foods having high levels of saturated fat) and rapid weight gain, it is possible that a vegan diet could alleviate most, if not all, of the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia.

  13. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to reduced breast cancer risk, and this reduction may be especially marked among women who bear their first child later...in life. In this ongoing case-control study, we examine the hormonal profiles of older Colorado mothers with and without a history of preeclampsia in...premenopausal, and are free of serious chronic disease. Cases are 14 Denver area women who experienced preeclampsia in their first pregnancy; controls are 13

  14. Short-term costs of preeclampsia to the United States health care system.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Warren; Shih, Tiffany; Incerti, Devin; Ton, Thanh G N; Lee, Henry C; Peneva, Desi; Macones, George A; Sibai, Baha M; Jena, Anupam B

    2017-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and adverse neonatal outcomes. Little is known about the extent of the health and cost burden of preeclampsia in the United States. This study sought to quantify the annual epidemiological and health care cost burden of preeclampsia to both mothers and infants in the United States in 2012. We used epidemiological and econometric methods to assess the annual cost of preeclampsia in the United States using a combination of population-based and administrative data sets: the National Center for Health Statistics Vital Statistics on Births, the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative Databases, the US Health Care Cost and Utilization Project database, and a commercial claims data set. Preeclampsia increased the probability of an adverse event from 4.6% to 10.1% for mothers and from 7.8% to 15.4% for infants while lowering gestational age by 1.7 weeks (P < .001). Overall, the total cost burden of preeclampsia during the first 12 months after birth was $1.03 billion for mothers and $1.15 billion for infants. The cost burden per infant is dependent on gestational age, ranging from $150,000 at 26 weeks gestational age to $1311 at 36 weeks gestational age. In 2012, the cost of preeclampsia within the first 12 months of delivery was $2.18 billion in the United States ($1.03 billion for mothers and $1.15 billion for infants), and was disproportionately borne by births of low gestational age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased incidence of preeclampsia in mothers of advanced age conceiving by oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Dior, Uri P; Laufer, Neri; Chill, Henry H; Granovsky-Grisaru, Sorina; Yagel, Simcha; Yaffe, Haim; Gielchinsky, Yuval

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of preeclampsia in women of advanced age who conceived through donated oocytes as compared with natural conceptions. A historical prospective study of singleton live births of parturients ≥ 45 years of age at four university hospitals was conducted. For the purpose of the study, the population was divided by the mode of conception into two groups: oocyte donation and natural conception. The main outcome variable in this study was preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes included pregnancy-induced hypertension and Small for Gestational Age. Two hundred and seventy pregnancies were achieved naturally and 135 women conceived by oocyte donation. Mean age at delivery for the natural conception and oocyte donation groups was 45.7 and 47.8, respectively. Preeclampsia complicated 3 out of 270 (1.1%) natural conception pregnancies and 17 out of 135 (12.6%) oocyte donation conceptions. After adjusting for confounders, oocyte donation pregnancies were found to be associated with a 12-fold increased risk for preeclampsia (P = 0.001). Among oocyte donation pregnancies, the risk of preeclampsia was not affected by parity or age. A substantially increased risk for preeclampsia was found in oocyte donation pregnancies, suggesting that the foreign oocyte may play a specific biologic role in the development of preeclampsia after the age of 45.

  16. MMP-8 C-799T and MMP-8 C+17G polymorphisms in mild and severe preeclampsia: Association between MMP-8 C-799T with susceptibility to severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ziba; Zangeneh, Maryam; Rezaeyan, Arezoo; Shakiba, Ebrahim; Rahimi, Zohreh

    2018-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the role of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) C-799T (rs11225395) and C+17 (rs2155052) polymorphisms in susceptibility to preeclampsia. In a case-control study, 256 pregnant women including 152 women with preeclampsia (86 women with mild preeclampsia and 66 women with severe preeclampsia) and 104 women with normal pregnancy from Western Iran with Kurdish ethnic background were investigated for MMP-8 C-799T and C + 17G polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Comparing the MMP-8 TT genotype with the combined genotype of CC+CT (recessive model) indicated a significantly higher frequency of the MMP-8 TT genotype (47%) in severe preeclamptic patients than that in healthy pregnant women (30.8%) that was associated with 1.99-fold increased risk of severe preeclampsia (95% CI = 1.05-3.77, p = 0.034). The frequency of MMP-8 G allele was 27.3% in all preeclamptic patients compared to 30.2% in controls (p = 0.56). Also, no significant difference was detected comparing the frequency of G allele in mild (26.6%, p = 0.46) and severe preeclamptic patients (28.4%, p = 0.75) with controls (30.2%). Our study demonstrated that the MMP-8 C-799T is associated with the risk of developing severe preeclampsia during pregnancy. However, the MMP-8 C + 17G polymorphism might not be a risk factor for susceptibility to preeclampsia.

  17. Deconstructing the smoking-preeclampsia paradox through a counterfactual framework.

    PubMed

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Zoega, Helga; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Although smoking during pregnancy may lead to many adverse outcomes, numerous studies have reported a paradoxical inverse association between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and preeclampsia. Using a counterfactual framework we aimed to explore the structure of this paradox as being a consequence of selection bias. Using a case-control study nested in the Icelandic Birth Registry (1309 women), we show how this selection bias can be explored and corrected for. Cases were defined as any case of pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia occurring after 20 weeks' gestation and controls as normotensive mothers who gave birth in the same year. First, we used directed acyclic graphs to illustrate the common bias structure. Second, we used classical logistic regression and mediation analytic methods for dichotomous outcomes to explore the structure of the bias. Lastly, we performed both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the amount of bias due to an uncontrolled confounder and corrected for it. The biased effect of smoking was estimated to reduce the odds of preeclampsia by 28 % (OR 0.72, 95 %CI 0.52, 0.99) and after stratification by gestational age at delivery (<37 vs. ≥37 gestation weeks) by 75 % (OR 0.25, 95 %CI 0.10, 0.68). In a mediation analysis, the natural indirect effect showed and OR > 1, revealing the structure of the paradox. The bias-adjusted estimation of the smoking effect on preeclampsia showed an OR of 1.22 (95 %CI 0.41, 6.53). The smoking-preeclampsia paradox appears to be an example of (1) selection bias most likely caused by studying cases prevalent at birth rather than all incident cases from conception in a pregnancy cohort, (2) omitting important confounders associated with both smoking and preeclampsia (preventing the outcome to develop) and (3) controlling for a collider (gestation weeks at delivery). Future studies need to consider these aspects when studying and interpreting the

  18. The role of cytokines as inflammatory mediators in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Udenze, Ifeoma; Amadi, Casimir; Awolola, Nicholas; Makwe, Christian Chigozie

    2015-01-01

    This study is to determine the concentrations of IL-6, TNF α, and C reactive protein (CRP) in women with severe preeclampsia, and compare with those of gestational age- matched normotensive pregnant women and to correlate CRP levels with markers of organ damage in women with preeclampsia. This was a case control study of fifty women with severe preeclampsia and fifty gestational age matched pregnant women with normal blood pressure. The women were drawn from The Antenatal Clinic of The Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Severe pre eclampsia was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mmHg and ≥ 2 + of proteinuria. After obtaining an informed consent, each participant completed a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire sought information on socio-demographic and clinical data. From each participant, mid-stream urine was collected for urinalysis and culture, and blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t test and Chi square test respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P. The women were similar in their socio demographic characteristics. There was a statistically significant difference in the systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure ( p < 0.0001), uric acid ( p < 0.0001), AST ( p < 0.0001), ALP ( p < 0.0001), creatinine ( p < 0.0013), GGT ( p < 0.005), IL 6 ( p < 0.021), CRP ( p < 0.0002), and TNF α ( p < 0.023), between the group with severe preeclampsia and the group with normal blood pressure. This study also reports a significant association between CRP and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, uric acid AST and ALP (p. The inflammatory cytokines, IL6, TNF α and CRP are elevated in severe preeclampsia and may mediate some of the clinical manifestations of the disorder. A role may

  19. Maternal Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Women with Preeclampsia in Maceió, Alagoas

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes; Santos, Arianne Albuquerque; Bezerra, Alexandra Rodrigues; de Barros, Amanda Maria Rocha; Tavares, Myrian Cicyanne Machado

    2016-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia has been associated with several risk factors and events. However, it still deserves further investigation, considering the multitude of related factors that affect different populations. Objective To evaluate the maternal factors and adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women with preeclampsia receiving care in the public health network of the city of Maceió. Methods Prospective cohort study carried out in 2014 in the public health network of the city with a sample of pregnant women calculated based on a prevalence of preeclampsia of 17%, confidence level of 90%, power of 80%, and ratio of 1:1. We applied a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic, personal, and anthropometric data, and retrieved perinatal variables from medical records and certificates of live birth. The analysis was performed with Poisson regression and chi-square test considering p values < 0.05 as significant. Results We evaluated 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia (PWP) and 90 pregnant women without preeclampsia (PWoP). A previous history of preeclampsia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.47 - 1.67, p = 0.000) and black skin color (PR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 - 1.33, p = 0.040) were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. Among the newborns of PWP and PWoP, respectively, 12.5% and 13.1% (p = 0.907) were small for gestational age and 25.0% and 23.2% (p = 0.994) were large for gestational age. There was a predominance of cesarean delivery. Conclusion Personal history of preeclampsia and black skin color were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. There was a high frequency of birth weight deviations and cesarean deliveries. PMID:26761076

  20. Maternal Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Women with Preeclampsia in Maceió, Alagoas.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes; Santos, Arianne Albuquerque; Bezerra, Alexandra Rodrigues; de Barros, Amanda Maria Rocha; Tavares, Myrian Cicyanne Machado

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia has been associated with several risk factors and events. However, it still deserves further investigation, considering the multitude of related factors that affect different populations. To evaluate the maternal factors and adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women with preeclampsia receiving care in the public health network of the city of Maceió. Prospective cohort study carried out in 2014 in the public health network of the city with a sample of pregnant women calculated based on a prevalence of preeclampsia of 17%, confidence level of 90%, power of 80%, and ratio of 1:1. We applied a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic, personal, and anthropometric data, and retrieved perinatal variables from medical records and certificates of live birth. The analysis was performed with Poisson regression and chi-square test considering p values < 0.05 as significant. We evaluated 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia (PWP) and 90 pregnant women without preeclampsia (PWoP). A previous history of preeclampsia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.47 - 1.67, p = 0.000) and black skin color (PR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 - 1.33, p = 0.040) were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. Among the newborns of PWP and PWoP, respectively, 12.5% and 13.1% (p = 0.907) were small for gestational age and 25.0% and 23.2% (p = 0.994) were large for gestational age. There was a predominance of cesarean delivery. Personal history of preeclampsia and black skin color were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. There was a high frequency of birth weight deviations and cesarean deliveries.

  1. Contribution of genome-environment interaction to pre-eclampsia in a Havana Maternity Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lardoeyt, Roberto; Vargas, Gerardo; Lumpuy, Jairo; García, Ramón; Torres, Yuselis

    2013-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy worldwide and is among the leading causes of maternal mortality in Cuba. It is a complex, multifactoral disease, in which interaction of genetic and environmental factors should not be overlooked if the goal is proper risk assessment to support personalized preventive genetic counseling and more effective prenatal care to prevent pregnancy complications. Determine the contribution to pre-eclampsia of interaction between a predisposing genome and adverse environmental factors in pregnant women in a Havana maternity hospital. This was the exploratory phase of a hospital-based case-control study, using January 2007-December 2009 patient records from the Eusebio Hernández University Hospital, a provincial maternity hospital in Havana. Eighty pregnant women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and 160 controls were studied. The main variables were age, parity, nutritional status (measured by BMI), alcohol use, tobacco use, and history of pre-eclampsia in relatives of the pregnant woman (proband) or of her partner. Pearson chi square and Fisher exact test were used to assess statistical significance of associations between variables and odds ratio as a measure of association strength. Familial aggregation was studied and a case-control design used to assess gene-environment interaction, using multiplicative and additive models. Among the environmental risk factors studied, alcohol showed the strongest effect on pre-eclampsia risk (OR 3.87, 95% CI 1.64-9.13). Familial pre-eclampsia clustering was observed; risk was increased for both first-degree (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.62-3.73) and second-degree (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.34-2.68) relatives as well as for husband's relatives (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.40-3.86). There was evidence of interaction between alcohol consumption and family history. Familial aggregation of the disorder was demonstrated, the first Cuban epidemiological evidence of genetic and enviromental

  2. Gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and cytokine release: similarities and differences in endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rashmi; Sen, Suvajit; Han, Bing; Ramadoss, Sivakumar; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia as well as intra-uterine infection during pregnancy affects the function of the endothelium both in the mother and the fetus leading to endothelial dysfunction. Gestational diabetes is also associated with an increased incidence of pre-eclampsia and it is likely that both the hyperglycemia as well as the release of cytokines especially TNFα during hyperglycemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction leading to preeclampsia. Similarly, some but not all studies have suggested that infection of the mother under certain circumstances can also lead to preeclampsia as women with either a bacterial or viral infection were at a higher risk of developing preeclampsia, compared to women without infection and infection also leads to a release in TNFα. Endothelial cells exposed to either high glucose or TNFα leads to an increase in the production of H2O2 and to a decrease in endothelial cell proliferation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are discussed.Gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia as well as intra-uterine infection during pregnancy has profound effects on the fetus and long term effects on the neonate. All three conditions affect the function of the endothelium both in the mother and the fetus leading to endothelial dysfunction. Gestational diabetes is also associated with an increased incidence of pre-eclampsia and it is likely that both the hyperglycemia as well as the release of cytokines especially TNFα during hyperglycemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction leading to preeclampsia. It has also been suggested although not universally accepted that under certain circumstances maternal infection may also predispose to pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia is also associated with the release of TNFα and endothelial dysfunction. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) leading to the endothelial dysfunction by either

  3. Clinical accuracy of inflationary oscillometry in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia: Omron-MIT Elite.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y; Brochut, M C; de Greeff, A; Shennan, A H

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the Omron MIT Elite in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia according to the British Hypertension Society protocol (BHS). Prospective observational study. Antenatal clinics and wards at St. Thomas' Hospital (London, UK). Forty-five pregnant women including 15 with pre-eclampsia. Nine sequential same arm blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken from each woman by trained observers, alternating between mercury sphygmomanometry and the test device. Grading criteria of the BHS protocol (A/B grade=pass; C/D=fail). The Omron MIT Elite achieved a grade A/A in both pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. The mean difference (SD) between the mercury standard and the device in pregnancy was -1.1 (5.2)mmHg and 1.5 (4.8)mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP respectively compared to 0.2 (5.3)mmHg and 2.2 (5.5)mmHg in pre-eclampsia. The Omron MIT Elite can be recommended for use in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia according to the BHS protocol. To date, this is the most accurate automated BP device validated in pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Follistatin-like 3 across gestation in preeclampsia and uncomplicated pregnancies among lean and obese women.

    PubMed

    Founds, Sandra A; Ren, Dianxu; Roberts, James M; Jeyabalan, Arun; Powers, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine circulating maternal follistatin-like 3 (FSTL-3) by gestational age and obesity in pregnancy and preeclampsia. FSTL-3 was quantified in maternal plasma collected in each trimester from prepregnancy body mass index-determined groups: 15 lean and 24 obese controls and 20 obese women who developed preeclampsia. Repeated measures mixed models and logistic regression were conducted (P ≤ .05). FSTL-3 was not related to maternal adiposity. FSTL-3 changed across pregnancy in lean controls and obese preeclampsia but not in obese controls. FSTL-3 was higher in preeclampsia in the second trimester compared to lean controls and in the third trimester compared to both control groups. Elevated FSTL-3 at mid-gestation was associated with an increased odds of preeclampsia (odds ratio 3.15; 95% confidence interval 1.19-8.36; P = .02). Elevated FSTL-3 concentrations were attributable to preeclampsia and were associated with increased likelihood of later developing preeclampsia, suggesting further study as a biomarker prior to clinically evident disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The Two Stage Model of Preeclampsia: Variations on the Theme

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, James M; Hubel, Carl A.

    2009-01-01

    The Two Stage Model of preeclampsia proposes that a poorly perfused placenta (Stage 1) produces factor(s) leading to the clinical manifestations of preeclampsia (Stage2). Stage 1 is not sufficient to cause the maternal syndrome but interacts with maternal constitutional factors (genetic, behavioral or environmental) to result in Stage 2. Recent information indicates the necessity for modifications of this model. It is apparent that changes relevant to preeclampsia and other implantation disorders can be detected in the first trimester, long before the failed vascular remodeling necessary to reduce placental perfusion. In addition, although the factor(s) released from the placenta has usually been considered a toxin, we suggest that what is released may also be an appropriate signal from the fetal/placental unit to overcome reduced nutrient availability that cannot by tolerated by some women who develop preeclampsia. Further, it is evident that linkage is not likely to be by one factor but several, different for different women. Also although the initial model limited the role of maternal constitutional factors to the genesis of Stage 2, this does not appear to be the case. It is evident that the factors increasing risk for preeclampsia are also associated with abnormal implantation. These several modifications have important implications. An earlier origin for Stage 1, which appears to be recognizable by altered concentrations of placental products, could allow earlier intervention. The possibility of a fetal placental factor increasing nutrient availability could provide novel therapeutic options. Different linkages and preeclampsia subtypes could direct specific preventive treatments for different women while the role of maternal constitutional factors to affect placentation provides targets for prepregnancy therapy. The modified Two Stage Model provides a useful guide towards investigating pathophysiology and guiding therapy. PMID:19070896

  6. Aberrant glycosylation of plasma proteins in severe preeclampsia promotes monocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Flood-Nichols, Shannon K; Kazanjian, Avedis A; Tinnemore, Deborah; Gafken, Philip R; Ogata, Yuko; Napolitano, Peter G; Stallings, Jonathan D; Ippolito, Danielle L

    2014-02-01

    Glycosylation of plasma proteins increases during pregnancy. Our objectives were to investigate an anti-inflammatory role of these proteins in normal pregnancies and determine whether aberrant protein glycosylation promotes monocyte adhesion in preeclampsia. Plasma was prospectively collected from nonpregnant controls and nulliparous patients in all 3 trimesters. Patients were divided into cohorts based on the applicable postpartum diagnosis. U937 monocytes were preconditioned with enzymatically deglycosylated plasma, and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was quantified by spectrophotometry. Plasma from nonpregnant controls, first trimester normotensives, and first trimester patients with mild preeclampsia inhibited monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion (P < .05), but plasma from first trimester patients with severe preeclampsia and second and third trimester normotensives did not. Deglycosylating plasma proteins significantly increased adhesion in all the cohorts. These results support a role of plasma glycoprotein interaction in monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and could suggest a novel therapeutic target for severe preeclampsia.

  7. Alternative complement pathway activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy as a predictor of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Anne M.; Murphy, James R.; Byers, Tim; Gibbs, Ronald S.; Neville, Margaret C.; Giclas, Patricia C.; Salmon, Jane E.; Holers, V. Michael

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease classically defined on the basis of hypertension and proteinuria. As shown in animal studies, complement activation is associated with inflammation in the placenta and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The association between complement activation in humans and adverse pregnancy outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether elevated levels of the activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy are predictive of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN This prospective study of 701 women was conducted in Denver, CO. A single plasma sample was obtained from each woman before 20 weeks’ gestation. The cohort was followed up throughout pregnancy for the development of preeclampsia. Analysis included multivariate logistic regression to adjust for established risk factors for preeclampsia. RESULTS Preeclampsia developed in 4.6% of the cohort. Women with elevated Bb (90th or greater percentile) were substantially more likely to develop preeclampsia than women who had levels less than the 90th percentile (unadjusted relative risk [RR], 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 to 7, P = .0009). Other significant risk factors for preeclampsia included nulliparity (RR, 2.1, 95% CI, 1–4), a high body mass index (P = .006 for trend), and maternal medical (preexisting maternal hypertension, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus) disease (RR, 4.4, 95% CI, 2–10). Significant risk factors among multiparous women included a history of hypertension in a previous pregnancy (RR, 5, 95% CI, 1.6 to 16) and a change of paternity (RR, 5.1, 95% CI, 1.6 to 15). Adjustment for risk factors did not attenuate the association between an elevated Bb and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.8, 95% CI, 1.6 to 9, P = .002) in the cohort. After removing women with plasma obtained before 10 weeks, the adjusted OR of Bb in the top decile for preeclampsia was 6.1 (95% CI 2.2, 17, P = .0005). CONCLUSION The complement activation product Bb in

  8. DECREASED LEVEL OF CORD BLOOD CIRCULATING ENDOTHELIAL COLONY-FORMING CELLS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L.; Stiefel, Pablo; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Dominguez-Simeon, Maria J.; Villar, Jose; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder associated with increased cardiovascular risk for the offspring. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that participate in the formation of vasculature during development. However, the effect of preeclampsia on fetal levels of ECFCs is largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether cord blood ECFC abundance and function are altered in preeclampsia. We conducted a prospective cohort study that included women with normal (n=35) and preeclamptic (n=15) pregnancies. We measured ECFC levels in the umbilical cord blood of neonates and characterized ECFC phenotype, cloning-forming ability, proliferation and migration towards VEGF-A and FGF-2, in vitro formation of capillary-like structures, and in vivo vasculogenic ability in immunodeficient mice. We found that the level of cord blood ECFCs was statistically lower in preeclampsia than in control pregnancies (P = .04), a reduction that was independent of other obstetric factors. In addition, cord blood ECFCs from preeclamptic pregnancies required more time to emerge in culture than control ECFCs. However, once derived in culture, ECFC function was deemed normal and highly similar between preeclampsia and control, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. This study demonstrates that preeclampsia affects ECFC abundance in neonates. A reduced level of ECFCs during preeclamptic pregnancies may contribute to an increased risk of developing future cardiovascular events. PMID:24752434

  9. Aspirin plus calcium supplementation to prevent superimposed preeclampsia: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Souza, E.V.; Torloni, M.R.; Atallah, A.N.; dos Santos, G.M.S.; Kulay, L.; Sass, N.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have tested calcium supplementation and aspirin separately to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia but not the effects of combined supplementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of aspirin combined with calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in women with chronic hypertension. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was carried out at the antenatal clinic of a large university hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. A total of 49 women with chronic hypertension and abnormal uterine artery Doppler at 20-27 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 26) or 100 mg aspirin plus 2 g calcium (N = 23) daily until delivery. The main outcome of this pilot study was development of superimposed preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. The rate of superimposed preeclampsia was 28.6% lower among women receiving aspirin plus calcium than in the placebo group (52.2 vs 73.1%, respectively, P=0.112). The rate of fetal growth restriction was reduced by 80.8% in the supplemented group (25 vs 4.8% in the placebo vs supplemented groups, respectively; P=0.073). The rate of preterm birth was 33.3% in both groups. The combined supplementation of aspirin and calcium starting at 20-27 weeks of gestation produced a nonsignificant decrease in the incidence of superimposed preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in hypertensive women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler. PMID:24728212

  10. Prediction of early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery*

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Augusto Henriques Fulgêncio; Evangelista, Aline Aarão; Martins, Raphaela Menin Franco; Leite, Henrique Vítor; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD), a biophysical marker for endothelial dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 91 patients, considered at high risk for development of preeclampsia were submitted to brachial artery FMD between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results Nineteen out of the selected patients developed preeclampsia, 8 in its early form and 11 in the late form. With a cut-off value of 6.5%, the FMD sensitivity for early preeclampsia prediction was 75.0%, with specificity of 73.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 32.4% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%. For the prediction of late preeclampsia, sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 73.2%, PPV = 34.4% and NPV = 96.2% were observed. And for the prediction of all associated forms of preeclampsia, sensitivity = 84.2%, specificity = 73.6%, PPV = 45.7% and NPV = 94.6% were observed. Conclusion FMD of the brachial artery is a test with good accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia, which may represent a positive impact on the follow-up of pregnant women at high risk for developing this syndrome. PMID:25741086

  11. The effect of serum from women with preeclampsia on JAR (trophoblast-like) cell line.

    PubMed

    Mahameed, Safa; Goldman, Shlomit; Gabarin, Diane; Weiss, Amir; Shalev, Eliezer

    2005-09-01

    Pathologic placentation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclamsia. We sought to assess the effect serum obtained from women with preeclampsia would have on JAR human choriocarcinoma cells regarding growth, invasiveness, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion as compared to normotensive pregnant woman. Blood was collected from 11 healthy pregnant women and from10 patients with preeclampsia at 28-33 weeks of gestation. The JAR human choriocarcinoma cell line was cultured in the presence of 10% serum obtained from each group. Cell proliferation, invasiveness, and MMP secretion was measured using a cell proliferation kit, the Matrigel (BD Biosciences, Beit-Ha'Emek, Israel) invasion assay, and gel zymography, respectively. Cell growth increased by 6% when exposed to serum from patients with preeclampsia compared to 30% from controls (P <.01). Trophoblast invasion was significantly (P <.01) reduced in the preeclampsia group (21 +/- 1.9%) compared to controls (27 +/- 2.5%). Valid MMP-2 secretion was reduced by 51% in the preeclampsia group compared to controls (P <.05). Serum obtained from women with preeclampsia contains a factor or factors that exhibit an inhibitory effect on JAR trophoblast cell proliferation, invasiveness, and MMP-2 secretion. These factors may be involved in the pathologic placentation associated with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  12. Acute Maternal Infection and Risk of Pre-Eclampsia: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Caroline; Thomas, Sara L.; Williams, David J.; Campbell, Oona; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection in pregnancy may be involved in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia. However, a clear association between acute maternal infection and pre-eclampsia has not been established. We assessed whether acute urinary tract infection, respiratory tract infection, and antibiotic drug prescriptions in pregnancy (a likely proxy for maternal infection) are associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Methods and Findings We used a matched nested case-control design and data from the UK General Practice Research Database to examine the association between maternal infection and pre-eclampsia. Primiparous women aged at least 13 years and registered with a participating practice between January 1987 and October 2007 were eligible for inclusion. We selected all cases of pre-eclampsia and a random sample of primiparous women without pre-eclampsia (controls). Cases (n = 1533) were individually matched with up to ten controls (n = 14236) on practice and year of delivery. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pre-eclampsia comparing women exposed and unexposed to infection using multivariable conditional logistic regression. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-gestational hypertension, diabetes, renal disease and multifetal gestation, the odds of pre-eclampsia were increased in women prescribed antibiotic drugs (adjusted odds ratio 1.28;1.14–1.44) and in women with urinary tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.22;1.03–1.45). We found no association with maternal respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 0.91;0.72–1.16). Further adjustment for maternal smoking and pre-pregnancy body mass index made no difference to our findings. Conclusions Women who acquire a urinary infection during pregnancy, but not those who have a respiratory infection, are at an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Maternal antibiotic prescriptions are also associated with an increased risk. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying

  13. Low socioeconomic status is a risk factor for preeclampsia: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lindsay M; Coolman, Marianne; Steegers, Eric Ap; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Moll, Henriëtte A; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2008-06-01

    To examine whether maternal socioeconomic status, as indicated by maternal educational level, is associated with preeclampsia, and if so, to what extent known risk factors for preeclampsia mediate the effect of educational level. In the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort study, we examined data of 3547 pregnant women. Odds ratios of preeclampsia for low, mid-low and mid-high educational level compared with high educational level were calculated after adjustment for confounders and additional adjustment for a selection of potential mediators (family history, material factors, psychosocial factors, substance use, working conditions, preexisting medical conditions, maternal anthropometrics and blood pressure at enrollment) that individually caused more than 10% change in the odds ratio for low education. Adjusted for the confounding effects of age, gravidity and multiple pregnancy, women with low educational level were more likely to develop preeclampsia (odds ratio 5.12; 95% confidence interval: 2.20, 11.93) than women with high educational level. After additional adjustment for financial difficulties, smoking in pregnancy, working conditions, body mass index and blood pressure at enrollment, the odds ratio was 4.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.93, 12.52). Low maternal socioeconomic status is a strong risk factor for preeclampsia. Only a small part of this association can be explained by the mediating effects of established risk factors for preeclampsia. Further research is needed to disentangle the pathway from low socioeconomic status to preeclampsia.

  14. Preeclampsia and Long-term Renal Function in Women Who Underwent Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vannevel, Valerie; Claes, Kathleen; Baud, David; Vial, Yvan; Golshayan, Delaviz; Yoon, Eugene W; Hodges, Ryan; Le Nepveu, Anne; Kerr, Peter G; Kennedy, Claire; Higgins, Mary; Resch, Elisabeth; Klaritsch, Philipp; Van Mieghem, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia often complicates pregnancies after maternal kidney transplantation. We aimed to assess whether preeclampsia is associated with kidney function decline either during the pregnancy or in the long term. We performed an international multicenter retrospective cohort study. Renal function at conception, pregnancy outcomes, and short- and long-term graft outcomes were collected for women who were pregnant after renal transplantation and had transplant and obstetric care at the participating centers. In women who had multiple pregnancies during the study period, only the last pregnancy was included. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. We retrieved pregnancy outcomes and long-term renal outcomes for 52 women. Chronic hypertension was present at baseline in 27%. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at start of pregnancy was 52.4±17.5 mL/min/1.73 m. Mean estimated GFR at delivery was 47.6±21.6 mL/min/1.73 m, which was significantly lower than at conception (P=.03). Twenty women (38%) developed preeclampsia. In multivariable analysis, women who developed preeclampsia had a 10.7-mL/min/1.73 m higher drop in estimated GFR between conception and delivery than women who did not develop preeclampsia (P=.02). Long-term estimated GFR follow-up was obtained at a median of 5.8 years (range 1.3-27.5 years). Mean estimated GFR at last follow-up was 38±23 mL/kg/1.73 m. Seventeen women (33%) experienced graft loss over the follow-up period. Incidence of graft loss was similar in women with and without preeclampsia in their last pregnancy (30% and 34%, respectively; P=.99). In multivariable analysis, the decrease in estimated GFR between conception and last follow-up was similar in women who experienced preeclampsia during pregnancy and those who did not (difference -2.69 mL/min/1.73 m, P=.65). Preeclampsia commonly complicates pregnancies after renal transplantation but is not associated with long-term renal dysfunction or graft loss.

  15. Maternal serum bisphenol A levels and risk of pre-eclampsia: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yunzhen; Zhou, Qiongjie; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jiangnan; Xiong, Yu; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-12-01

    Although recent studies have indicated the potential adverse effects of maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on pregnancy such as increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, epidemiological evidence is limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal BPA exposure and the risk of pre-eclampsia. We conducted a nested case-control study among 173 women (74 cases of pre-eclampsia and 99 controls). BPA concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the maternal serum samples collected during 16-20 gestational weeks. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the relationship between maternal serum BPA concentrations and the risk of pre-eclampsia. BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/l) in 78.6% of the maternal serum samples at three levels: low (<2.24 µg/l), medium (2.24-4.44 µg/l), and high (>4.44 µg/l). BPA concentrations were significantly higher in the serum samples collected from the pre-eclampsia cases than those from controls (median: 3.40 vs. 1.50 µg/l, P < 0.01). With adjustment for maternal age, primiparous and BMI, the odds of developing pre-eclampsia were significantly elevated in subjects with high serum BPA levels compared with those with low levels (adjusted OR = 16.46, 95%CI = 5.42-49.85) regardless of subcategories of pre-eclampsia including severity and onset time. Among the pre-eclampsia subjects, the maternal serum concentration of BPA was not different between the early- and late-onset subjects (median: 3.09 vs. 3.50 µg/l, P = 0.57), but surprisingly higher in mild pre-eclampsia subjects compared with severe pre-eclampsia subjects (median: 5.20 vs. 1.80 µg/l, P < 0.01). These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to high level of BPA could be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. Novel SNPs of WNK1 and AKR1C3 are associated with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng-Juan; Li, Lin; Li, Xueyan; Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2018-08-20

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and is one of the most common causes of poor perinatal outcomes. Preeclampsia increases the risk of hypertension in the future. Variants of WNK1 (lysine deficient protein kinase 1), ADRB2 (β2 adrenergic receptor), NEDD4L (ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like), KLK1 (kallikrein 1) contribute to hypertension, and AKR1C3 (aldo-keto reductase family1 member C3), is associated with preeclampsia. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these five candidate preeclampsia susceptibility genes and the related traits in Chinese individuals were investigated. In this study, 13 SNPs of the five genes were genotyped in 276 preeclampsia patients and 229 age- and area-matched normal pregnancies in women of Chinese Northern Han origin. The 95% confidence interval (CI) and odds ratio (OR) were estimated by binary logistic regression. No obvious linkage disequilibrium or haplotypes were observed among these SNPs. Those with GG genotype and allele G of AKR1C3 (rs10508293) had a decreased risk of preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 3.011, 95% CI = 1.758-5.159, and adjusted OR = 1.745, 95% CI = 1.349-2.257, respectively). The AA genotype and allele A of WNK1 (rs1468326) were significantly associated with an increased risk in preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 2.307, 95% CI = 1.206-3.443, and adjusted OR = 1.663, 95% CI = 1.283-2.157, respectively). The findings indicate that the GG genotype of AKR1C3 rs10508293 is associated with decreased risk for preeclampsia and the AA genotype of WNK1 rs1468326 are related with an increased risk for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interleukin-1 family cytokines and their regulatory proteins in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Southcombe, J H; Redman, C W G; Sargent, I L; Granne, I

    2015-01-01

    Maternal systemic inflammation is a feature of pre-eclampsia, a condition in pregnancy characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Pre-eclampsia is caused by the placenta; many placental factors contribute to the syndrome's progression, and proinflammatory cytokines have been identified previously as one such mediator. The interleukin (IL)-1 family of cytokines are key regulators of the inflammatory network, and two naturally occurring regulatory molecules for IL-1 family cytokines, IL-1RA and sST2, have been found previously to be elevated in maternal blood from women with pre-eclampsia. Here we investigate more recently identified IL-1 family cytokines and regulatory molecules, IL-1RAcP, IL-37, IL-18BP, IL-36α/β/γ/Ra and IL-38 in pre-eclampsia. Pregnant women have more circulating IL-18BP and IL-36Ra than non-pregnant women, and sIL-1RAcP is elevated from women with pre-eclampsia compared to normal pregnancies. The placenta expresses all the molecules, and IL-37 and IL-18BP are up-regulated significantly in pre-eclampsia placentas compared to those from normal pregnancies. Together, these changes contribute to the required inhibition of maternal systemic cytotoxic immunity in normal pregnancy; however, in pre-eclampsia the same profile is not seen. Interestingly, the increased circulating levels of sIL-1RAcP and increased placental IL-18BP and IL-37, the latter of which we show to be induced by hypoxic damage to the placenta, are all factors which are anti-inflammatory. While the placenta is often held responsible for the damage and clinical symptoms of pre-eclampsia by the research community, here we show that the pre-eclampsia placenta is also trying to prevent inflammatory damage to the mother. PMID:25693732

  18. Proteinuria in preeclampsia: Not essential to diagnosis but related to disease severity and fetal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xin; Gou, Wenli; Li, Chunfang; Wu, Min; Han, Zhen; Li, Xuelan; Chen, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality globally and proteinuria can be one of the cardinal features of this disease. However, studies about the association of the amount of proteinuria and the severity of preeclampsia, and perinatal outcomes are limited. Data on 239 women with preeclampsia were retrospectively collected from a university teaching hospital from September 2011 to June 2013 and analysed. Data included all clinical parameters and proteinuria in a 24h urine collection. In cases of severe preeclampsia, significantly fewer patients had proteinuria levels <0.3g/L in comparison to any of the other groups with proteinuria >0.3g/L, but there was no difference in cases of severe preeclampsia when proteinuria levels were >0.3g/L. Furthermore, when proteinuria levels were >0.3g/L, the frequency of severe preeclampsia in each group was significantly higher than the frequency of mild pre-eclampsia cases. Time of onset was significantly earlier in patients with proteinuria >3g/L in a 24h urine collection, but time between the onset of preeclampsia and delivery was not correlated with the amount of proteinuria. The birth weight was significantly lower in patients with proteinuria >3g/L. The incidence of fetal growth restriction or stillbirth was significantly higher in patients with proteinuria >5g/L. Our data demonstrate that the amount of proteinuria is not associated with the severe of preeclampsia, once proteinuria is detected, but is related to the severity of preeclampsia. The adverse fetal outcomes appear to be the function of prematurity rather than proteinuria itself. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preeclampsia - will orphan drug status facilitate innovative biological therapies?

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sinuhe

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the development of novel therapies to treat pregnancy-related disorders, such as preeclampsia, is hampered by the paucity of research funding. Hence, it is with great interest to become aware of at least three novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this disorder: exploiting either the anticoagulant activity of antithrombin, the free radical scavenging activity of alpha-1-microglobulin, or the regenerative capacity of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. As these projects are being carried out by small biotech enterprises, the question arises of how they are able to fund such undertakings. A novel strategy adopted by two of these companies is that they successfully petitioned US and EU agencies in order that preeclampsia is accepted in the register of rare or orphan diseases. This provides a number of benefits including market exclusivity, assistance with clinical trials, and dedicated funding schemes. Other strategies to supplement meager research funds, especially to test novel approaches, could be crowdfunding, a venture that relies on intimate interaction with advocacy groups. In other words, preeclampsia meets Facebook. Perhaps similar strategies can be adopted to examine novel therapies targeting either the imbalance in pro- or anti-angiogenic growth factors, complement activation, reduced levels of placenta protein 13, or excessive neutrophil activation evident in preeclampsia.

  20. Thrombophilic mutations in pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Omar, Siti Z; Qvist, Rajes; Khaing, Si L; Muniandy, Sekaran; Bhalla, Sunil

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the existence or prevalence of thrombophilic markers such as Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, protein S, protein C, activated protein C and anti-thrombin in pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive patients. Blood samples were collected from a total number of 124 women at the maternity unit, University of Malaya Medical Center. These included 49 patients with pre-eclampsia, 63 patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension and 12 normal pregnant women. DNA was extracted from the blood samples. Factor V Leiden (Taq I) and prothrombin G20210A (Hind III) genotyping was done on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Anti-thrombin activity and the concentrations of protein C, protein S and activated protein C were measured using the IL Coagulation System (Hemosil). Of the 124 subjects, one pre-eclampsia patient was homozygous for Factor V Leiden mutation but prothrombin G20210A mutation was not present in any of the subjects. The subject with Factor V Leiden mutation also had a low activated protein C resistance and a low protein S concentration. Factor V Leiden mutation is present in the Asian population and may very well serve as one of the genetic factors responsible for pre-eclampsia and other adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Biomarkers of glomerular dysfunction in pre-eclampsia - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Robert N; McCarthy, Cathal

    2018-03-10

    Early detection of pre-eclampsia remains one of the major focuses of antenatal obstetric care. There is often a delay in the diagnosis, mainly due to the non-specific nature of the condition. Podocytes which play a pivotal role in glomerular function become injured in pre-eclampsia leading to subsequent proteinuria. Our aim was to review available studies to determine the clinical utility of biomarkers of podocyte injury in pre-eclampsia. We used QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the clinical utility of podocyte injury biomarkers in predicting pre-eclampsia. This study identified five potential renal biomarkers including podocytes, nephrin, synaptopodin, podocin and podocalyxin. The pooled sensitivity of all biomarkers was 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.82) with a specificity of 0.82 (95% CI 0.79-0.85). The area under the Summary of Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (SROC) was 0.926 (SE 0.30). Urinary nephrin achieved the highest diagnostic values with a sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72-0.88) and specificity of 0.84 (95% CI 0.79-0.84). Biomarkers of glomerular injury show promise as diagnostic aids in pre-eclampsia. A large-scale prospective cohort study is warranted before these biomarkers can be recommended for routine clinical care. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE ISOENZYME BB PLASMA CONCENTRATION IS ELEVATED IN PREGNANCY AND PRETERM PREECLAMPSIA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JoonHo; Romero, Roberto; Dong, Zhong; Lee, Deug-Chan; Dong, Yi; Mittal, Pooja; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kim, Chong Jai

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase is a key enzyme in glycogenolysis. Released with myocardial ischemia, blood concentration of glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) is a marker of acute coronary syndromes. Pregnancy imposes metabolic stress, and preeclampsia is associated with cardiac complications. However, plasma GPBB concentration during pregnancy is unknown. This study was conducted to determine maternal plasma GPBB concentration in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia. Plasma samples from six groups (n=396) were studied: non-pregnant women and pregnant women with normal term delivery, term preeclampsia, term small-for-gestational-age neonates, preterm preeclampsia, and preterm small-for-gestational-age neonates. GPBB concentration was measured with a specific immunoassay. Placental tissues (n=45) obtained from pregnant women with preterm and term preeclampsia, spontaneous preterm delivery, and normal term cases were analyzed for potential GPBB expression by immunoblotting. Median plasma GPBB concentration was higher in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (38.7 ng/ml versus 9.2 ng/mL, P<0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for age, race, and parity. Maternal plasma GPBB concentrations did not change throughout gestation. Preterm but not term preeclampsia cases had higher median plasma GPBB concentration than gestational-age-matched normal pregnancy cases (72.6 ng/ml versus 26.0 ng/ml, P=0.001). Small-for-gestational-age neonates did not affect plasma GPBB concentration. GPBB was detected in the placenta and was less abundant in preterm preeclampsia than in preterm delivery cases (P<0.01). There is physiologic elevation of plasma GPBB concentration during pregnancy; an increase in maternal plasma GPBB is a novel phenotype of preterm preeclampsia. It is strongly suggested that these changes are attributed to GPBB of placental origin. PMID:22215716

  3. Population-based trends in pregnancy hypertension and pre-eclampsia: an international comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jane B; Algert, Charles S; Antonsen, Sussie; Chalmers, James; Cnattingius, Sven; Gokhale, Manjusha; Kotelchuck, Milton; Melve, Kari K; Langridge, Amanda; Morris, Carole; Morris, Jonathan M; Nassar, Natasha; Norman, Jane E; Norrie, John; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Walker, Robin; Weir, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare international trends in pre-eclampsia rates and in overall pregnancy hypertension rates (including gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia). Design Population data (from birth and/or hospital records) on all women giving birth were available from Australia (two states), Canada (Alberta), Denmark, Norway, Scotland, Sweden and the USA (Massachusetts) for a minimum of 6 years from 1997 to 2007. All countries used the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, except Massachusetts which used the 9th revision. There were no major changes to the diagnostic criteria or methods of data collection in any country during the study period. Population characteristics as well as rates of pregnancy hypertension and pre-eclampsia were compared. Results Absolute rates varied across the populations as follows: pregnancy hypertension (3.6% to 9.1%), pre-eclampsia (1.4% to 4.0%) and early-onset pre-eclampsia (0.3% to 0.7%). Pregnancy hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia rates declined over time in most populations. This was unexpected given that factors associated with pregnancy hypertension such as pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal age are generally increasing. However, there was also a downward shift in gestational age with fewer pregnancies reaching 40 weeks. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy hypertension and pre-eclampsia decreased in northern Europe and Australia from 1997 to 2007, but increased in Massachusetts. The use of a different International Classification of Diseases coding version in Massachusetts may contribute to the difference in trend. Elective delivery prior to the due date is the most likely explanation for the decrease observed in Europe and Australia. Also, the use of interventions that reduce the risk of pregnancy hypertension and/or progression to pre-eclampsia (low-dose aspirin, calcium supplementation and early delivery for mild hypertension) may have contributed to the

  4. Impact of Road Traffic Pollution on Pre-eclampsia and Pregnancy-induced Hypertensive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Grandström, Charlotta; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Road traffic is a major source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with hypertension in adults, but pregnant women have been less studied. Methods: We examined single and joint effects of ambient air pollution and road traffic noise on pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997–2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete covariate data and residential address history from conception until live born birth. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise from road traffic (Lden) were modeled at all addresses. Outcome and covariate data were derived from registries, hospital records, and questionnaires. Results: A 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure during first trimester was associated with increased risk of pre-eclampsia (n = 1,880, adjusted odds ratio = 1.07 [95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.14]) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (n = 2,430, adjusted odds ratio = 1.07 [1.01, 1.13]). A 10 dB higher road traffic noise was also associated with increased risk of pre-eclampsia (1.10 [1.02, 1.18]) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (1.08 [1.02, 1.15]). For both exposures, the associations were strongest for mild pre-eclampsia (n = 1,393) and early-onset pre-eclampsia (n = 671), whereas higher risk for severe pre-eclampsia (n = 487) was not evident. In mutually adjusted models, estimates for both exposures decreased and only the association between NO2 and mild pre-eclampsia remained. Conclusions: Road traffic may increase the risk of pre-eclampsia and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy through exposure to both ambient air pollution and noise, although associations with the two exposures were generally not found to be independent of one another. See video abstract, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B112. PMID:27648591

  5. Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial: effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia in subgroups of women according to their characteristics and medical and obstetrical history.

    PubMed

    Poon, Liona C; Wright, David; Rolnik, Daniel L; Syngelaki, Argyro; Delgado, Juan Luis; Tsokaki, Theodora; Leipold, Gergo; Akolekar, Ranjit; Shearing, Siobhan; De Stefani, Luciana; Jani, Jacques C; Plasencia, Walter; Evangelinakis, Nikolaos; Gonzalez-Vanegas, Otilia; Persico, Nicola; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-11-01

    The Combined Multimarker Screening and Randomized Patient Treatment with Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial demonstrated that in women who were at high risk for preterm preeclampsia with delivery at <37 weeks' gestation identified by screening by means of an algorithm that combines maternal factors and biomarkers at 11-13 weeks' gestation, aspirin administration from 11 to 14 until 36 weeks' gestation was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of preterm preeclampsia (odds ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.74; P=0.004). We sought to examine whether there are differences in the effect of aspirin on the incidence of preterm preeclampsia in the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial in subgroups defined according to maternal characteristics and medical and obstetrical history. This was a secondary analysis of data from the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess evidence of differences in the effect of aspirin on incidence of preterm preeclampsia in subgroups defined by maternal age (<30 and ≥30 years), body mass index (<25 and ≥25 kg/m 2 ), racial origin (Afro-Caribbean, Caucasian and other), method of conception (natural and assisted), cigarette smoking (smoker and non-smoker), family history of preterm preeclampsia (present and absent), obstetrical history (nulliparous, multiparous with previous preterm preeclampsia and multiparous without previous preterm preeclampsia), history of chronic hypertension (present and absent). Interaction tests were performed on the full data set of patients in the intention to treat population and on the data set of patients who took ≥ 90% of the prescribed medication. Results are presented as forest plot with P values for the interaction effects, group sizes, event counts and estimated odds ratios. We examined whether the test of interaction was significant at the 5% level with a Bonferroni

  6. Action on Pre-eclampsia: Crisis and recovery.

    PubMed

    Milne, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of the antenatal guidelines developed under the auspices of the charity Action on Preeclampsia since 2001. They are evidence-based and cover the screening and diagnosis of preeclampsia. They include a risk assessment early in pregnancy, referral for specialist input, a two tier schedule of assessment based on risk, signs and symptoms, referral for step-up care and confirmation of diagnosis, including blood tests. They describe methods for improving reliability of proteinuria testing, and reducing errors in the measurement of blood pressure. Management flowcharts are provided. Copyright © 2010 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epigenetic Placental Programming of Preeclampsia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preeclampsia (PE) affects 8-10% of women in the US and long-term consequences include subsequent development of maternal hypertension and hypertension in offspring. As methylation patterns are established during fetal life, we focused on epigenetic alterations in DNA methylation as a plausible expla...

  8. Diet and Pre-eclampsia: A Prospective Multicentre Case-Control Study in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Endeshaw, Mulualem; Abebe, Fantu; Bedimo, Melkamu; Asart, Anemaw

    2015-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia is one of the most commonly encountered hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that accounts for 20-80% of maternal mortality in developing countries, including Ethiopia. For many years, diet has been suggested to play a role in pre-eclampsia. However, the hypotheses have been diverse with inconsistent results across studies, and this has not been studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary habits on the incidence of pre-eclampsia in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia A prospective multicentre unmatched case-control study was conducted among 453 (151 cases and 302 controls) pregnant women attending antepartum or intrapartum care in public health facilities of Bahir Dar City from June to September 2014. The interviewer conducted a face-to-face interview, measured the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and collected the mid-pregnancy haemoglobin level from clinical notes using a standardized and pretested questionnaire. Epi Info 3.5.3 was used for data entry and cleaning, while IBM SPSS Statistics 20 was used for data analysis. Backward stepwise unconditional logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the strength of association of predictive variables with the outcome variable and to control for the effect of confounding variables. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. For every 1-cm increase of MUAC, there was an increase in the incidence rate of pre-eclampsia by a factor of 1.35 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 1.51). A higher incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in women who reported to have consumed coffee daily during pregnancy (AOR=1.78, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.05). Similarly, for women who had anaemia during the first trimester, the incidence of pre-eclampsia was 2.5 times higher than their counterparts (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 7.61). This study also revealed consumption of fruit or vegetables at least three times a week during pregnancy to be protective

  9. Air pollution exposure and preeclampsia among US women with and without asthma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mendola, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.mendola@nih.gov; Wallace, Maeve; Liu, Danping

    Maternal asthma and air pollutants have been independently associated with preeclampsia but rarely studied together. Our objective was to comprehensively evaluate preeclampsia risk based on the interaction of maternal asthma and air pollutants. Preeclampsia and asthma diagnoses, demographic and clinical data came from electronic medical records for 210,508 singleton deliveries. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models estimated preconception, first and second trimester and whole pregnancy exposure to: particulate matter (PM)<2.5 and <10 µm, ozone, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO); PM{sub 2.5} constituents; volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Asthma-pollutant interactionmore » adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preeclampsia were calculated by interquartile range for criteria pollutants and high exposure (≥75th percentile) for PAHs and VOCs. Asthmatics had higher risk associated with first trimester NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} and whole pregnancy elemental carbon (EC) exposure than non-asthmatics, but only EC significantly increased risk (RR=1.11, CI:1.03–1.21). Asthmatics also had a 10% increased risk associated with second trimester CO. Significant interactions were observed for nearly all VOCs and asthmatics had higher risk during all time windows for benzene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene and toluene while most PAHs did not increase risk. - Highlights: • Asthma is common in pregnancy and asthmatic women have increased preeclampsia risk. • Air pollution could differentially increase preeclampsia risk for asthmatic women. • Preeclampsia risk was higher for asthmatics than non-asthmatics after VOC exposure. • Asthmatics also had higher risk after whole pregnancy exposure to elemental carbon. • Pregnant women with asthma appear to be particularly vulnerable to air pollutants.« less

  10. Strong ion and weak acid analysis in severe preeclampsia: potential clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Ortner, C M; Combrinck, B; Allie, S; Story, D; Landau, R; Cain, K; Dyer, R A

    2015-08-01

    The influence of common disturbances seen in preeclampsia, such as changes in strong ions and weak acids (particularly albumin) on acid-base status, has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive acid-base analysis in severe preeclampsia and to identify potential new biological predictors of disease severity. Fifty women with severe preeclampsia, 25 healthy non-pregnant- and 46 healthy pregnant controls (26-40 weeks' gestation), were enrolled in this prospective case-control study. Acid-base analysis was performed by applying the physicochemical approach of Stewart and Gilfix. Mean [sd] base excess was similar in preeclamptic- and healthy pregnant women (-3.3 [2.3], and -2.8 [1.5] mEq/L respectively). In preeclampsia, there were greater offsetting contributions to the base excess, in the form of hyperchloraemia (BE(Cl) -2 [2.3] vs -0.4 [2.3] mEq/L, P<0.001) and hypoalbuminaemia (BE(Alb) 3.6 [1] vs 2.1 [0.8] mEq/L, P<0.001). In preeclampsia, hypoalbuminaemic metabolic alkalosis was associated with a non-reassuring/abnormal fetal heart tracing (P<0.001). Quantitative analysis in healthy pregnancy revealed respiratory and hypoalbuminaemic alkalosis that was metabolically offset by acidosis, secondary to unmeasured anions and dilution. While the overall base excess in severe preeclampsia is similar to that in healthy pregnancy, preeclampsia is associated with a greater imbalance offsetting hypoalbuminaemic alkalosis and hyperchloraemic acidosis. Rather than the absolute value of base excess, the magnitude of these opposing contributors may be a better indicator of the severity of this disease. Hypoalbuminaemic alkalosis may also be a predictor of fetal compromise. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT 02164370. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Vascular Activation in Postmenopausal Women With Histories of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N; Harvey, Ronée E; Miller, Kathleen B; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Malterer, Katherine R; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Joyner, Michael J; Miller, Virginia M

    2018-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is reduced in patients with cognitive decline. Women with a history of preeclampsia are at increased risk for cognitive decline. This study examined an association between pregnancy history and CVR using a subgroup of 40 age- and parity-matched pairs of women having histories of preeclampsia (n=27) or normotensive pregnancy (n=29) and the association of activated blood elements with CVR. Middle cerebral artery velocity was measured by Doppler ultrasound before and during hypercapnia to assess CVR. Thirty-eight parameters of blood cellular elements, microvesicles, and cell-cell interactions measured in venous blood were assessed for association with CVR using principal component analysis. Middle cerebral artery velocity was lower in the preeclampsia compared with the normotensive group at baseline (63±4 versus 73±3 cm/s; P =0.047) and during hypercapnia ( P =0.013-0.056). CVR was significantly lower in the preeclampsia compared with the normotensive group (2.1±1.3 versus 2.9±1.1 cm·s·mm Hg; P =0.009). Globally, the association of the 7 identified principal components with preeclampsia ( P =0.107) and with baseline middle cerebral artery velocity ( P =0.067) did not reach statistical significance. The interaction between pregnancy history and principal components with respect to CVR ( P =0.084) was driven by a nominally significant interaction between preeclampsia and the individual principal component defined by blood elements, platelet aggregation, and interactions of platelets with monocytes and granulocytes ( P =0.008). These results suggest that having a history of preeclampsia negatively affects the cerebral circulation years beyond the pregnancy and that this effect was associated with activated blood elements. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Increasing maternal percentage body fat in early second trimester: a risk factor for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxia; Qiu, Jie; Zhou, Min; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai

    2015-02-01

    To determine if maternal percentage body fat (PBF) or fat free mass (FFM) in the early second trimester of pregnancy influenced the development of preeclampsia. A matched nested case-control study was conducted from a cohort study of 1668 women at Gansu provincial maternal and child care hospital from July 2007 to August 2011 in China. Maternal PBF and FFM were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis during 12th-16th gestational week. The demographic characteristics were all chart abstracted. After childbirth, 70 cases of preeclampsia were matched by race/age with 140 uncomplicated pregnancies women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associated risk factors. Pre-pregnancy body mass index were higher in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with controls (p < 0.001). During 12th-16th gestational week, there were nearly 7-fold increase in the odds of preeclampsia (adjusted OR: 6.84, 95% CI: 4.15-41.60) among women with PBF ≥ 40% versus women with PBF < 40%. But FFM were not at further increased risk of the development of preeclampsia (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.6-3.6). Maternal PBF but not FFM is a predictor of preeclampsia in the early second trimester. Excessive adipose tissue possibly played an important role in developing of preeclampsia.

  13. Decreased level of cord blood circulating endothelial colony-forming cells in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L; Stiefel, Pablo; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Praena-Fernández, Juan M; Dominguez-Simeon, Maria J; Villar, Jose; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Melero-Martin, Juan M

    2014-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder associated with increased cardiovascular risk for the offspring. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that participate in the formation of vasculature during development. However, the effect of preeclampsia on fetal levels of ECFCs is largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether cord blood ECFC abundance and function are altered in preeclampsia. We conducted a prospective cohort study that included women with normal (n=35) and preeclamptic (n=15) pregnancies. We measured ECFC levels in the umbilical cord blood of neonates and characterized ECFC phenotype, cloning-forming ability, proliferation, and migration toward vascular endothelial growth factor-A and fibroblast growth factor-2, in vitro formation of capillary-like structures, and in vivo vasculogenic ability in immunodeficient mice. We found that the level of cord blood ECFCs was statistically lower in preeclampsia than in control pregnancies (P=0.04), a reduction that was independent of other obstetric factors. In addition, cord blood ECFCs from preeclamptic pregnancies required more time to emerge in culture than control ECFCs. However, once derived in culture, ECFC function was deemed normal and highly similar between preeclampsia and control, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. This study demonstrates that preeclampsia affects ECFC abundance in neonates. A reduced level of ECFCs during preeclamptic pregnancies may contribute to an increased risk of developing future cardiovascular events. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Reduced expression of the epidermal growth factor signaling system in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Armant, D R; Fritz, R; Kilburn, B A; Kim, Y M; Nien, J K; Maihle, N J; Romero, R; Leach, R E

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N = 76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p < 0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p < 0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p < 0.05). Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced Expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling System in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Armant, D. Randall; FRITZ, Rani; KILBURN, Brian A.; KIM, Yeon Mee; NIEN, Jyh Kae; MAIHLE, Nita J.; ROMERO, Roberto; LEACH, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Methods Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunocytochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N=76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Results Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p<0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p<0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p< 0.05). Discussion Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. PMID:25589361

  16. Baseline placental growth factor levels for the prediction of benefit from early aspirin prophylaxis for preeclampsia prevention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Gaea S; Allshouse, Amanda A; Winn, Virginia D; Galan, Henry L; Heyborne, Kent D

    2015-10-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels early in pregnancy are lower in women who ultimately develop preeclampsia. Early initiation of low-dose aspirin reduces preeclampsia risk in some high risk women. We hypothesized that low PlGF levels may identify women at increased risk for preeclampsia who would benefit from aspirin. Secondary analysis of the MFMU High-Risk Aspirin study including singleton pregnancies randomized to aspirin 60mg/d (n=102) or placebo (n=72), with PlGF collected at 13w 0d-16w 6d. Within the placebo group, we estimated the probability of preeclampsia by PlGF level using logistic regression analysis, then determined a potential PlGF threshold for preeclampsia prediction using ROC analysis. We performed logistic regression modeling for potential confounders. ROC analysis indicated 87.71pg/ml as the threshold between high and low PlGF for preeclampsia-prediction. Within the placebo group high PlGF weakly predicted preeclampsia (AUC 0.653, sensitivity/specificity 63%/66%). We noted a 2.6-fold reduction in preeclampsia with aspirin in the high-PlGF group (12.15% aspirin vs 32.14% placebo, p=0.057), but no significant differences in preeclampsia in the low PlGF group (21.74% vs 15.91%, p=0.445). Unlike other studies, we found that high rather than low PlGF levels were associated with an increased preeclampsia risk. Low PlGF neither identified women at increased risk of preeclampsia nor women who benefitted from aspirin. Further research is needed to determine whether aspirin is beneficial in women with high PlGF, and whether the paradigm linking low PlGF and preeclampsia needs to be reevaluated. High-risk women with low baseline PlGF, a risk factor for preeclampsia, did not benefit from early initiation of low-dose aspirin. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Shear wave elastography of placenta: in vivo quantitation of placental elasticity in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Yüksel, Mehmet Aytaç; Adaletli, İbrahim; Ustabaşıoğlu, Fethi Emre; Öncül, Mahmut; Madazlı, Rıza; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit; Mihmanlı, İsmail; Kantarcı, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE) for assessing the placenta in preeclampsia disease. METHODS A total of 50 pregnant women in the second or third trimester (23 preeclampsia patients and 27 healthy control subjects) were enrolled in the study. Obstetrical grayscale and Doppler ultrasonography, SWE findings of placenta, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were analyzed and the best SWE cutoff value which represents the diagnosis of preeclampsia was determined. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of preeclampsia were calculated based on SWE measurements. RESULTS Mean stiffness values were much higher in preeclamptic placentas in all regions and layers than in normal controls. The most significant difference was observed in the central placental area facing the fetus where the umbilical cord inserts, with a median of 21 kPa (range, 3–71 kPa) for preeclampsia and 4 kPa (range, 1.5–14 kPa) for the control group (P < 0.01). The SWE data showed a moderate correlation with the uterine artery resistivity and pulsatility indices. The cutoff value maximizing the accuracy of diagnosis was 7.35 kPa (area under curve, 0.895; 95% confidence interval, 0.791–0.998); sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 90%, 86%, 82%, 92%, and 88%, respectively. CONCLUSION Stiffness of the placenta is significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia. SWE appears to be an assistive diagnostic technique for placenta evaluation in preeclampsia. PMID:25858523

  18. First Trimester Urine and Serum Metabolomics for Prediction of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension: A Prospective Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Austdal, Marie; Tangerås, Line H; Skråstad, Ragnhild B; Salvesen, Kjell; Austgulen, Rigmor; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte; Bathen, Tone F

    2015-09-08

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia, are major contributors to maternal morbidity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of metabolomics to predict preeclampsia and gestational hypertension from urine and serum samples in early pregnancy, and elucidate the metabolic changes related to the diseases. Metabolic profiles were obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of serum and urine samples from 599 women at medium to high risk of preeclampsia (nulliparous or previous preeclampsia/gestational hypertension). Preeclampsia developed in 26 (4.3%) and gestational hypertension in 21 (3.5%) women. Multivariate analyses of the metabolic profiles were performed to establish prediction models for the hypertensive disorders individually and combined. Urinary metabolomic profiles predicted preeclampsia and gestational hypertension at 51.3% and 40% sensitivity, respectively, at 10% false positive rate, with hippurate as the most important metabolite for the prediction. Serum metabolomic profiles predicted preeclampsia and gestational hypertension at 15% and 33% sensitivity, respectively, with increased lipid levels and an atherogenic lipid profile as most important for the prediction. Combining maternal characteristics with the urinary hippurate/creatinine level improved the prediction rates of preeclampsia in a logistic regression model. The study indicates a potential future role of clinical importance for metabolomic analysis of urine in prediction of preeclampsia.

  19. Incident Coronary Heart Disease After Preeclampsia: Role of Reduced Fetal Growth, Preterm Delivery, and Parity.

    PubMed

    Riise, Hilde Kristin Refvik; Sulo, Gerhard; Tell, Grethe S; Igland, Jannicke; Nygård, Ottar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte; Austgulen, Rigmor; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti

    2017-03-06

    Preeclampsia is a severe pregnancy disorder often complicated by reduced fetal growth or preterm delivery and is associated with long-term maternal morbidity and mortality. We aimed to assess the association between preeclampsia phenotypes and risk of subsequent coronary heart disease and maternal cardiovascular mortality. Women aged 16 to 49 years who gave birth during 1980-2002 and registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were followed prospectively (1-29 years) for an incident major coronary event and mortality through linkage with the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway 1994-2009 (CVDNOR) project and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Preeclampsia was subdivided based on the presence of a child born small for gestational age or preterm delivery. Among 506 350 women with 1 to 5 singleton births, there were 1275 (0.3%) occurrences of major coronary event, 468 (0.1%) cardiovascular deaths, and 5411 (1.1%) deaths overall. Compared with women without preeclampsia, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for major coronary event was 2.1 (1.73-2.65) after preeclampsia alone, 3.3 (2.37-4.57) after preeclampsia in combination with small for gestational age, and 5.4 (3.74-7.74) after preeclampsia in combination with preterm delivery. Analyses distinguishing women with 1 (n=61 352) or >1 (n=281 069) lifetime pregnancy and analyses with cardiovascular mortality as outcome followed the same pattern. The occurrence of major coronary events was increased among women with preeclampsia and highest for preeclampsia combined with a child born small for gestational age and/or preterm delivery. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Pregnant women with the sickle cell trait are not at increased risk for developing preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Stamilio, David M; Sehdev, Harish M; Macones, George A

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether having the sickle cell trait is independently associated with preeclampsia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1998 pregnant patients who either did or did not have the sickle cell trait. All patients were screened for the sickle trait using the "Sickledex" test. Data on neonatal and maternal outcome, including preeclampsia, and potential confounding variables were abstracted from medical records. Unadjusted, stratified, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify interactions, and confounding between multiple variables and the association between sickle cell trait and preeclampsia. With an anticipated 6.5% rate of preeclampsia, and alpha = 0.05, this cohort study has 80% power to detect a relative risk (RR) of 2.3 for preeclampsia. Univariate analysis revealed that the two cohorts were similar with regard to primiparity, maternal age, chronic diseases, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery, but the sickle cell trait cohort was more likely to have gestational diabetes and had a higher mean body mass index (BMI). In the univariate analysis, the sickle cell trait cohort was not at increased risk for preeclampsia [unadjusted RR = 0.5, 95% CI (0.2-1.6)]. After controlling for potential confounding variables with logistic regression analysis, sickle trait was not independently associated with preeclampsia [adjusted RR = 0.5, 95% CI (0.2- 1.6)]. In contrast to prior work, these data suggest that the sickle cell trait is not an independent risk factor for preeclampsia or postpartum complications. In fact, the data are more consistent with the sickle trait being protective for developing preeclampsia.

  1. Does rat fetal DNA induce preeclampsia in pregnant rats?

    PubMed

    Konečná, B; Borbélyová, V; Celec, P; Vlková, B

    2015-02-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation is higher during preeclampsia. It is unclear whether it is the cause or the consequence of the disease. The aim of this study was to prove whether injected rat fetal DNA induces preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant Wistar rats. They received daily i.p. injections of water or rat fetal DNA (400 μg) from gestation day 14 to 18. Blood pressure, proteinuria, placental and fetal weight were measured at gestation day 19. Plasma DNase activity, proteinuria and creatinine clearance were assessed. There was no significant difference in any of the measured parameters. The results of this study do not confirm the hypothesis that fetal DNA might induce preeclampsia. This is in contrast to others using human fetal DNA in mice. Further studies should be focused on the effects of fetal DNA from the same species protected from DNase activity.

  2. Low maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration increases the risk of severe and mild preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Baca, Katharyn M; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Platt, Robert W; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this case-cohort study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and preeclampsia overall and by severity. From an eligible cohort of 12,861 women who had serum banked from aneuploidy screening in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1999 to 2010, we randomly sampled a subcohort of 2327 pregnancies and all remaining preeclampsia cases (n = 650 cases). Preeclampsia (defined as new-onset hypertension and proteinuria) and its mild and severe forms were identified using ICD-9 codes. Maternal serum collected at 20 weeks or less gestation was measured for 25(OH)D. We used log-binomial regression with restricted cubic splines to estimate the association between 25(OH)D and preeclampsia after adjusting for confounders. Approximately 21% of the randomly selected sample had 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol per L. We found that the adjusted risk of preeclampsia declined as serum 25(OH)D increased to 50 nmol per L and then plateaued (test of nonlinearity P < .05). The adjusted preeclampsia risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol per L, 25 to 49.9 nmol per L, and 50 to 74.9 nmol per L were 2.4 (1.2-4.8), 1.1 (0.69-1.7), and 1.3 (0.89-1.8), respectively, compared with those with 25(OH)D 75 nmol per L and over. Similar associations were observed with severe and mild preeclampsia. Vitamin D deficiency increases risks of severe and mild forms of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between Fas and Fas Ligand gene polymorphisms and pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Elham; Tavakkol-Afshari, Jalil; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Ghaffari-Nazari, Haniyeh; Tahaghoghi-Hajghorbani, Sahar; Jalali, Seyed Amir

    2016-10-01

    In normal pregnancy, the Th1 subtype, responsible for the production of inflammatory cytokines, is reduced, and the Th2 subtype is increased to prohibit inflammation. In pre-eclampsia, the Th1 cell population is increased; thus, subsequent inflammation and trophoblast destruction occur. Polymorphisms in the Fas and Fas Ligand (FasL) promoter regions can influence Fas and FasL expression and accused to increase of Th1 subtype. DNA samples from 153 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and 140 controls were genotyped through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A Fisher's exact test was used to compare the distribution of individual polymorphisms. Fas-1377 AA, AG and GG genotypes were observed in 2.61%, 18.30% and 79.08% in the pre-eclampsia group opposed to 0%, 27.14% and 72.85% in the control group (P = 0.037), respectively. Fas-670 AA, AG and GG genotypes were observed in 37.9%, 41.8% and 20.3% of pre-eclampsia patients compared with 33.6%, 50.7% and 15.7% in healthy pregnant women (P = 0.291), respectively. No statically significant differences in the FasL-844 genotype were observed between the groups (P = 0.69). The Fas-1377G > A polymorphism is associated with a higher risk of pre-eclampsia. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Chung; Yang, Hwai-I; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Yi; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsou, Kuo-Inn; Tsao, Po-Nien

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia) were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI) adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20) and 0.89 (0.63-1.25), respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  5. Circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine and the risk of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis based on 1338 participants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Wang, Xinguo; Xie, Yudou; Wang, Yuzhi; Dong, Lei; Li, Hong; Zhu, Tongyu

    2017-07-04

    Patients with preeclampsia have higher circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). However, whether circulating ADMA is elevated before the diagnosis of preeclampsia has not been determined. A meta-analysis of observational studies that reported circulating ADMA level before the onset of preeclampsia was performed. Pubmed and Embase were searched. Standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the differences in circulating ADMA. A random effect model or a fixed effect model was applied depending on the heterogeneity. The predictive efficacy of circulating ADMA for the incidence of preeclampsia was also explored. Eleven comparisons with 1338 pregnant women were included. The pooled results showed that the circulating ADMA was significantly higher in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia as compared with those did not (SMD: 0.71, p < 0.001) with a moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 43%). Stratified analyses suggested elevation of circulating ADMA is more remarkable in studies with GA of ADMA sampling ≥ 20 weeks (SMD: 0.89, p < 0.01) as compared those with GA of ADMA sampling < 20 weeks (SMD: 0.56, p < 0.01; p for subgroup interaction = 0.03). Differences of maternal age, study design, and ADMA measurement methods did not significantly affect the results. Only two studies evaluated the potential predicting ability of circulating ADMA for subsequent preeclampsia, and retrieved moderate predictive efficacy. Circulating ADMA is elevated before the development of preeclampsia. Studies are needed to evaluate the predictive efficacy of ADMA for the incidence of preeclampsia.

  6. Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia: An Update on the Pharmacological Treatment Applied in Portugal †

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Gonçalo Miguel; Mariana, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are two hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, considered major causes of maternal and perinatal death worldwide. Pre-eclampsia is a multisystemic disease characterized by the development of hypertension after 20 weeks of gestation, with the presence of proteinuria or, in its absence, of signs or symptoms indicative of target organ injury. Eclampsia represents the consequence of brain injuries caused by pre-eclampsia. The correct diagnosis and classification of the disease are essential, since the therapies for the mild and severe forms of pre-eclampsia are different. Thus, this review aims to describe the most advisable antepartum pharmacotherapy for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia applied in Portugal and based on several national and international available guidelines. Slow-release nifedipine is the most recommended drug for mild pre-eclampsia, and labetalol is the drug of choice for the severe form of the disease. Magnesium sulfate is used to prevent seizures caused by eclampsia. Corticosteroids are used for fetal lung maturation. Overall, the pharmacological prevention of these diseases is limited to low-dose aspirin, so it is important to establish the safest and most effective available treatment. PMID:29367581

  7. A transcriptional profile of the decidua in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    LØSET, Mari; MUNDAL, Siv B.; JOHNSON, Matthew P.; FENSTAD, Mona H.; FREED, Katherine A.; LIAN, Ingrid A.; EIDE, Irina P.; BJØRGE, Line; BLANGERO, John; MOSES, Eric K.; AUSTGULEN, Rigmor

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To obtain insight into possible mechanisms underlying preeclampsia using genome-wide transcriptional profiling in decidua basalis. STUDY DESIGN Genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed on decidua basalis tissue from preeclamptic (n = 37) and normal pregnancies (n = 58). Differentially expressed genes were identified and merged into canonical pathways and networks. RESULTS Of the 26,504 expressed transcripts detected, 455 were differentially expressed (P <0.05, FDR P <0.1). Both novel (ARL5B, SLITRK4) and previously reported preeclampsia-associated genes (PLA2G7, HMOX1) were identified. Pathway analysis revealed that ‘tryptophan metabolism’, ‘endoplasmic reticulum stress’, ‘linoleic acid metabolism’, ‘notch signaling’, ‘fatty acid metabolism’, ‘arachidonic acid metabolism’ and ‘NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response’ were overrepresented canonical pathways. CONCLUSION In the present study single genes, canonical pathways and gene-gene networks that are likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, have been identified. Future functional studies are needed to accomplish a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved. PMID:20934677

  8. Association between insulin resistance and preeclampsia in obese non-diabetic women receiving metformin.

    PubMed

    Balani, Jyoti; Hyer, Steve; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Johnson, Antoinette; Shehata, Hassan

    2017-12-01

    To examine whether the reduced incidence of preeclampsia in non-diabetic obese pregnant women treated with metformin is mediated by changes in insulin resistance. This was a secondary analysis of obese pregnant women in a randomised trial (MOP trial). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured in 384 of the 400 women who participated in the MOP trial. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was compared in the metformin and placebo groups and in those that developed preeclampsia versus those that did not develop preeclampsia. At 28 weeks, median HOMA-IR was significantly lower in the metformin group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that there was a significant contribution in the prediction of preeclampsia from maternal history of chronic hypertension and gestational weight gain, but not HOMA-IR either at randomisation ( p  = 0.514) or at 28 weeks ( p  = 0.643). Reduced incidence of preeclampsia in non-diabetic obese pregnant women treated with metformin is unlikely to be due to changes in insulin resistance.

  9. Preeclampsia and health risks later in life: an immunological link.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Sharma, Surendra

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has been now linked to higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several other disorders associated with vulnerable organs. Furthermore, the offspring born to preeclamptic mothers also exhibit an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mental disorders during adulthood. This suggests that preeclampsia not only exposes the mother and the fetus to complications during pregnancy but also programs chronic diseases in later life. The etiology of preeclampsia is thought to be primarily associated with poor placentation and entails excessive maternal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is well established now that the maternal immune system and the placenta are involved in a highly choreographed cross-talk that underlies adequate spiral artery remodeling required for uteroplacental perfusion and free flow of nutrients to the fetus. Since normal pregnancy is associated with a sequence of events represented by temporal events of inflammation (implantation), anti-inflammation (gestation), and inflammation (parturition), it is quite possible that unscheduled alterations in these regulatory responses may lead to pathologic consequences. Although it is not clear whether immunological alterations occur early in pregnancy, it is proposed that dysregulated systemic and placental immunity contribute to impaired

  10. ST2 and IL-33 in Pregnancy and Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Snider, James V.; Tannetta, Dionne S.; Child, Tim; Redman, Christopher W. G.; Sargent, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with a mild systemic inflammatory response and an immune bias towards type 2 cytokine production, whereas pre-eclampsia is characterized by a more intense inflammatory response, associated with endothelial dysfunction and a type 1 cytokine dominance. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a newly described member of the IL-1 family, which binds its receptor ST2L to induce type 2 cytokines. A soluble variant of ST2 (sST2) acts as a decoy receptor to regulate the activity of IL-33. In this study circulating IL-33 and sST2 were measured in each trimester of normal pregnancy and in women with pre-eclampsia. While IL-33 did not change throughout normal pregnancy, or between non-pregnant, normal pregnant or pre-eclamptic women, sST2 was significantly altered. sST2 was increased in the third trimester of normal pregnancy (p<0.001) and was further increased in pre-eclampsia (p<0.001). This increase was seen prior to the onset of disease (p<0.01). Pre-eclampsia is a disease caused by placental derived factors, and we show that IL-33 and ST2 can be detected in lysates from both normal and pre-eclampsia placentas. ST2, but not IL-33, was identified on the syncytiotrophoblast layer, whereas IL-33 was expressed on perivascular tissue. In an in vitro placental perfusion model, sST2 was secreted by the placenta into the ‘maternal’ eluate, and placental explants treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines or subjected to hypoxia/reperfusion injury release more sST2, suggesting the origin of at least some of the increased amounts of circulating sST2 in pre-eclamptic women is the placenta. These results suggest that sST2 may play a significant role in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and increased sST2 could contribute to the type 1 bias seen in this disorder. PMID:21949719

  11. Pregnancy, parturition and preeclampsia in women of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Nakimuli, Annettee; Chazara, Olympe; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Elliott, Alison M; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mirembe, Florence; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Maternal and associated neonatal mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain unacceptably high. In Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda), 2 major causes of maternal death are preeclampsia and obstructed labor and their complications, conditions occurring at the extremes of the birthweight spectrum, a situation encapsulated as the obstetric dilemma. We have questioned whether the prevalence of these disorders occurs more frequently in indigenous African women and those with African ancestry elsewhere in the world by reviewing available literature. We conclude that these women are at greater risk of preeclampsia than other racial groups. At least part of this susceptibility seems independent of socioeconomic status and likely is due to biological or genetic factors. Evidence for a genetic contribution to preeclampsia is discussed. We go on to propose that the obstetric dilemma in humans is responsible for this situation and discuss how parturition and birthweight are subject to stabilizing selection. Other data we present also suggest that there are particularly strong evolutionary selective pressures operating during pregnancy and delivery in Africans. There is much greater genetic diversity and less linkage disequilibrium in Africa, and the genes responsible for regulating birthweight and placentation may therefore be easier to define than in non-African cohorts. Inclusion of African women into research on preeclampsia is an essential component in tackling this major disparity of maternal health. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnancy, parturition and preeclampsia in women of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Nakimuli, Annettee; Chazara, Olympe; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Elliott, Alison M.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mirembe, Florence; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and associated neonatal mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain unacceptably high. In Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda), 2 major causes of maternal death are preeclampsia and obstructed labor and their complications, conditions occurring at the extremes of the birthweight spectrum, a situation encapsulated as the obstetric dilemma. We have questioned whether the prevalence of these disorders occurs more frequently in indigenous African women and those with African ancestry elsewhere in the world by reviewing available literature. We conclude that these women are at greater risk of preeclampsia than other racial groups. At least part of this susceptibility seems independent of socioeconomic status and likely is due to biological or genetic factors. Evidence for a genetic contribution to preeclampsia is discussed. We go on to propose that the obstetric dilemma in humans is responsible for this situation and discuss how parturition and birthweight are subject to stabilizing selection. Other data we present also suggest that there are particularly strong evolutionary selective pressures operating during pregnancy and delivery in Africans. There is much greater genetic diversity and less linkage disequilibrium in Africa, and the genes responsible for regulating birthweight and placentation may therefore be easier to define than in non-African cohorts. Inclusion of African women into research on preeclampsia is an essential component in tackling this major disparity of maternal health. PMID:24184340

  13. Mediators of the association between pre-eclampsia and cerebral palsy: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heimstad, Runa; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte; Austgulen, Rigmor; Lydersen, Stian; Andersen, Guro L; Irgens, Lorentz M; Vik, Torstein

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for cerebral palsy mediated through preterm birth and being born small for gestational age. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Clinical data from the Norwegian Cerebral Palsy Registry were linked with perinatal data prospectively recorded by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Participants All singleton babies who survived the neonatal period during 1996-2006 (849 children with cerebral palsy and 616 658 control children). Main outcome measures Cerebral palsy and cerebral palsy subtypes. Results Children exposed to pre-eclampsia had an excess risk of cerebral palsy (unadjusted odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 3.2) compared with unexposed children. Among children born at term (≥37 weeks), exposure to pre-eclampsia was not associated with an excess risk of cerebral palsy in babies not born small for gestational age (1.2, 0.7 to 2.0), whereas children exposed to pre-eclampsia and born small for gestational age had a significantly increased risk of cerebral palsy (3.2, 1.5 to 6.7). Non-small for gestational age babies born very preterm (<32 weeks) and exposed to pre-eclampsia had a reduced risk of cerebral palsy compared with unexposed children born at the same gestational age (0.5, 0.3 to 0.8), although the risk was not statistically significantly reduced among children exposed to pre-eclampsia and born small for gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.3). Exposure to pre-eclampsia was not associated with a specific cerebral palsy subtype. Conclusions Exposure to pre-eclampsia was associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy, and this association was mediated through the children being born preterm or small for gestational age, or both. Among children born at term, pre-eclampsia was a risk factor for cerebral palsy only when the children were small for gestational age. PMID:23838554

  14. Preeclampsia is associated with increased ambulatory arterial stiffness index in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Al-Far, Hanine F M; Tjessem, Ingvild H; Fuglsang, Jens; Lauszus, Finn F

    2017-09-01

    Treatment of mild to moderate hypertension might not benefit maternal or fetal outcome. This pessimistic point of view may have come about by using non-validated methods for measuring blood pressure in pregnancy combined with inadequate methodology for diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring effects. To determine the association between AASI in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and preeclampsia, and to assess the ability of AASI to diagnose preeclampsia. Repeated 24-h ambulatory blood pressure recordings were performed three times during pregnancy and once three months postpartum in 151 women with T1DM and 50 control women without diabetes. Circadian rhythm was evaluated as the night day ratio, night blood pressure divided by day blood pressure. Of the T1DM women, 33 developed preeclampsia, which was associated with AASI in the 3rd trimester (p<0.05). The best predictor of preeclampsia in T1DM was an AASI of 0.35. The diurnal blood pressure was significantly higher in all trimesters in women who later had preeclampsia. A flattened circadian rhythm was present in T1DM women with preeclampsia compared to women without preeclampsia (night-day ratio: systole 2nd trimester: 0.94±0.07 vs. 0.91±0.05, women with and without preeclampsia, respectively, p=0.015; diastole 2nd trimester: 0.89±0.07 vs. 0.85±0.07, p=0.003). AASI was higher during pregnancy compared to postpartum in women with T1DM (0.31±0.16, 0.31±0.16 and 0.33±0.18 vs. 0.25±0.17; 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester vs. postpartum). Women with T1DM and preeclampsia demonstrate increased arterial stiffness and had early manifestations in the non-dipping of blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspirin versus Placebo in Pregnancies at High Risk for Preterm Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Rolnik, Daniel L; Wright, David; Poon, Liona C; O'Gorman, Neil; Syngelaki, Argyro; de Paco Matallana, Catalina; Akolekar, Ranjit; Cicero, Simona; Janga, Deepa; Singh, Mandeep; Molina, Francisca S; Persico, Nicola; Jani, Jacques C; Plasencia, Walter; Papaioannou, George; Tenenbaum-Gavish, Kinneret; Meiri, Hamutal; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Maclagan, Kate; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-08-17

    Preterm preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal death and complications. It is uncertain whether the intake of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm preeclampsia. In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 1776 women with singleton pregnancies who were at high risk for preterm preeclampsia to receive aspirin, at a dose of 150 mg per day, or placebo from 11 to 14 weeks of gestation until 36 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was delivery with preeclampsia before 37 weeks of gestation. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 152 women withdrew consent during the trial, and 4 were lost to follow up, which left 798 participants in the aspirin group and 822 in the placebo group. Preterm preeclampsia occurred in 13 participants (1.6%) in the aspirin group, as compared with 35 (4.3%) in the placebo group (odds ratio in the aspirin group, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.74; P=0.004). Results were materially unchanged in a sensitivity analysis that took into account participants who had withdrawn or were lost to follow-up. Adherence was good, with a reported intake of 85% or more of the required number of tablets in 79.9% of the participants. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of neonatal adverse outcomes or other adverse events. Treatment with low-dose aspirin in women at high risk for preterm preeclampsia resulted in a lower incidence of this diagnosis than placebo. (Funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Program and the Fetal Medicine Foundation; EudraCT number, 2013-003778-29 ; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN13633058 .).

  16. Dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of subsequent preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Coughlin, Kara B; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Sorensen, Tanya K; Williams, Michelle A

    2008-08-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence documents diverse health benefits, including reduced risks of hypertension, associated with diets high in fiber. Few studies, however, have investigated the extent to which dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy is associated with reductions in preeclampsia risk. We assessed the relationship between maternal dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. We also evaluated cross-sectional associations of maternal early pregnancy plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations with fiber intake. The study population comprised 1,538 pregnant Washington State residents. A 121-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess maternal dietary intake, 3 months before and during early pregnancy; and generalized linear regression procedures were used to derive relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Dietary total fiber intake was associated with reduced preeclampsia risk. After adjusting for confounders, the RR of preeclampsia for women in the highest (> or =21.2 g/day) vs. the lowest quartile (<11.9 g/day) was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.11-0.75). We observed associations of similar magnitude when the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of water-soluble fiber (RR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.86) and insoluble fiber (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.14-0.87) were evaluated. Mean triglyceride concentrations were lower (-11.9 mg/dl, P = 0.02) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were higher (+2.63 mg/dl, P = 0.09) for women in the highest quartile vs. those in the lowest quartile. These findings of reduced preeclampsia risk with higher total fiber intake corroborate an earlier report; and expand the literature by providing evidence, which suggests that dietary fiber may attenuate pregnancy-associated dyslipidemia, an important clinical characteristic of preeclampsia.

  17. Neurodevelopmental consequences in offspring of mothers with preeclampsia during pregnancy: underlying biological mechanism via imprinting genes.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yoko; John, Rosalind M; Janssen, Anna Bugge; Davey, Charles; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Glover, Vivette; Lambertini, Luca

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia is known to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among mothers and their infants. Approximately 3-8% of all pregnancies in the US are complicated by preeclampsia and another 5-7% by hypertensive symptoms. However, less is known about its long-term influence on infant neurobehavioral development. The current review attempts to demonstrate new evidence for imprinting gene dysregulation caused by hypertension, which may explain the link between maternal preeclampsia and neurocognitive dysregulation in offspring. Pub Med and Web of Science databases were searched using the terms "preeclampsia," "gestational hypertension," "imprinting genes," "imprinting dysregulation," and "epigenetic modification," in order to review the evidence demonstrating associations between preeclampsia and suboptimal child neurodevelopment, and suggest dysregulation of placental genomic imprinting as a potential underlying mechanism. The high mortality and morbidity among mothers and fetuses due to preeclampsia is well known, but there is little research on the long-term biological consequences of preeclampsia and resulting hypoxia on the fetal/child neurodevelopment. In the past decade, accumulating evidence from studies that transcend disciplinary boundaries have begun to show that imprinted genes expressed in the placenta might hold clues for a link between preeclampsia and impaired cognitive neurodevelopment. A sudden onset of maternal hypertension detected by the placenta may result in misguided biological programming of the fetus via changes in the epigenome, resulting in suboptimal infant development. Furthering our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which neurodevelopmental trajectories of the fetus/infant are affected by preeclampsia and hypertension will represent an important first step toward preventing adverse neurodevelopment in infants.

  18. C-reactive protein, marker for evaluation of systemic inflammatory response in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mihu, D; Costin, N; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Blaga, Ligia Daniela; Pop, Raluca Bogdana

    2008-01-01

    Determination by a high sensitivity technique of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of inflammation in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnancy and investigation of the relationship between CRP and the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome. The study included 40 women with preeclampsia and 40 control subjects with normal pregnancies in the last trimester of pregnancy. The serum CRP concentration was determined using the universal high sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. The serum CRP concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in preclampsia (5.69 +/- 1.8 mg/L) compared to normal pregnancy (2.89 +/- 1.2 mg/L). In women with preeclampsia, CRP correlated positively and significantly with diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria and uric acid levels. Maternal CRP values also correlated negatively and significantly with fetal weight at birth. Our results demonstrate that serum CRP is increased in preeclampsia and represents a marker of the severity of the preeclamptic syndrome and of fetal weight at birth. Taking into consideration these observations and the fact that CRP testing is rapid and relatively inexpensive, we recommend the use of this acute phase reagent in clinical practice, in all women with preeclampsia in order to establish the prognosis of the disease.

  19. Folic acid supplement use and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    De Ocampo, Maria P G; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Macera, Caroline A; Alcaraz, John E; Moore, Thomas R; Chambers, Christina D

    2018-04-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are among the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest that the use of folic acid may lower the risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of timing and duration of folic acid-containing supplement use on the risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Exposures and outcomes data were obtained through interviews and review of participant's medical records from the MotherToBaby cohort studies across the United States and Canada. Demographics, medical history, lifestyle factors, substance use, and fetal sex were assessed as potential confounders. Unadjusted and adjusted risks for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were examined using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. 3247 women were included in the study. Compared to non-supplement use, early and late supplement use were not significantly associated with the development of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. The odds of developing gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were significantly reduced as the duration of folic acid-containing supplement use increased. Findings from this study suggest that the use of folic acid-containing supplements may mitigate the risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Work, leisure-time physical activity, and risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension.

    PubMed

    Saftlas, Audrey F; Logsden-Sackett, Nyla; Wang, Wenquan; Woolson, Robert; Bracken, Michael B

    2004-10-15

    Few studies of preeclampsia have assessed physical activity level, yet recent evidence suggests that the pathologic mechanisms in preeclampsia are similar to those in cardiovascular disease, for which physical activity is shown to be protective. The authors assessed the independent and combined effects of work and regular leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during early pregnancy on risk of de novo preeclampsia (n = 44) and gestational hypertension (n = 172) among women recruited from 13 obstetric practices in the New Haven, Connecticut, area between 1988 and 1991. Control subjects were normotensive throughout pregnancy (n = 2,422). Information on time at work spent sitting, standing, and walking and on LTPA before and during pregnancy was collected via face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression analyses suggested that women who engaged in any regular LTPA regardless of caloric expenditure (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 1.22), were unemployed (aOR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.21, 2.00), or had nonsedentary jobs (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.37, 1.36) were at decreased risk of preeclampsia. Analyses of gestational hypertension showed no indication of a protective effect of workplace activity, LTPA, or unemployment. Consistent with other studies, these data suggest that regular physical activity during pregnancy may reduce preeclampsia risk.

  1. Increased prevalence of preeclampsia among women undergoing procedural intervention for renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Vance, Chardonnay J; Taylor, Robert N; Craven, Timothy E; Edwards, Matthew S; Corriere, Matthew A

    2015-08-01

    Renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia (RA-FMD) has a higher prevalence among women and a presumed hormonal etiology. Although preeclampsia has a clinical presentation similar to symptomatic RA-FMD and occurs exclusively in women, associations between these 2 diseases have not been characterized. To explore epidemiologic associations between RA-FMD and preeclampsia, we administered a validated screening instrument for preeclampsia to a cohort of women with a history of pregnancy who had previously been treated with procedural intervention for symptomatic RA stenosis. Women with a history of pregnancy who had previously undergone procedural intervention (including angioplasty and/or bypass) for symptomatic RA stenosis were identified from a prospectively maintained operative registry and screened for remote history of preeclampsia using a validated survey instrument. Univariable associations between RA-FMD and preeclampsia among participants with a history of pregnancy were evaluated using t-tests for continuous factors and chi-squared tests for dichotomous factors. Multivariable associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. A total of 144 women were identified who met the study inclusion criteria, including 94 with atherosclerotic RA stenosis and 50 with RA-FMD. Sixty-nine patients were contacted, 59 consented to participate, and 52 had a history of pregnancy (and therefore were at risk for preeclampsia). Participants completed the survey instrument at a mean of 7.1 ± 3.1 vs. 6.9 ± 3.6 years after RA procedural intervention, respectively. Survey responses indicated a history of preeclampsia in 19/52 (36.5%) of participants overall, including 14/27 (51.9%) with RA-FMD versus 5/20 (20.0%) with RA atherosclerosis (P = 0.02). Preeclampsia remained associated with FMD in a multivariable model adjusting for smoking status, age at time of surgery, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (odds ratio [OR] 9.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-60.6, P = 0

  2. A prospective study of maternal carboxyhemoglobin and preeclampsia risk

    PubMed Central

    Rudra, Carole B.; Williams, Michelle A.; Schiff, Melissa A.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Dills, Russell; Yu, Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    Summary We aimed to measure the relation between early-pregnancy maternal carboxyhemoglobin and subsequent preeclampsia risk. We conducted a nested case-control analysis using data from a western Washington State cohort study (1996–2004). We measured maternal whole blood carboxyhemoglobin in 128 women who developed preeclampsia and 419 normotensive controls (mean gestational age at blood draw, 14.8 weeks). After adjustment for confounders, high (≥1%) versus low (<0.7%) carboxyhemoglobin odds ratios [OR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were 4.09 [1.30, 12.9] in parous women, 0.53 [0.23, 1.26] in nulliparous women, and 1.11 [0.55, 2.25] in the overall study population (parity interaction p=0.01). The influence of parity on the association was unexpected. The association between high carboxyhemoglobin and preeclampsia risk in parous women implicates hypoxia at the fetal-maternal interface as a pathogenic mechanism. These results also suggest that the etiology of the disease may differ according to parity. PMID:20078828

  3. New approaches for managing preeclampsia: clues from clinical and basic research.

    PubMed

    George, Eric M

    2014-12-01

    One of the most common, and most vexing, obstetric complications is preeclampsia-a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity. Hallmarked by new-onset hypertension and a myriad of other symptoms, the underlying cause of the disorder remains obscure despite intensive research into its etiology. Although the initiating events are not clear, one common finding in preeclamptic patients is failure to remodel the maternal arteries that supply the placenta, with resulting hypoxia/ischemia. Intensive research over the past 2 decades has identified several categories of molecular dysfunction resulting from placental hypoxia, which, when released into the maternal circulation, are involved in the spectrum of symptoms seen in these patients-in particular, angiogenic imbalance and the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite these new insights, little in the way of new treatments for the management of these patients has been advanced into clinical practice. Indeed, few therapeutic options exist for the obstetrician treating a case of preeclampsia. Pharmacologic management is typically seizure prophylaxis, and, in severe cases, antihypertensive agents for controlling worsening hypertension. Ultimately, the induction of labor is indicated, making preeclampsia a leading cause of premature birth. Here, the molecular mechanisms linking placental ischemia to the maternal symptoms of preeclampsia are reviewed, and several areas of recent research suggesting new potential therapeutic approaches to the management of preeclampsia are identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of albumin and endoplasmic reticulum in pathogenesis Preeclampsia. Changes of GRP78 and placental VEGF in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Aditiawarman

    2014-07-01

    Preeclampsia remains the highest causes of maternal mortality in Indonesia. This disease is known as "the disease of theories" since the etiology of this disease still obscure, but it is clearly accepted that this disease is correlated with placenta. The incidence of this disease increased in dr. Soetomo General Hospital during economic crisis in Indonesia, as nutritional problem occurred, but correlation between nutrition to preeclampsia still unclear. This study was conducted to find out the influence of hypoalbuminemia caused by alteration of amino acids and changes of GRP78 and placental VEGF in preeclampsia. It was cross-sectional study among 10 patients with preeclampsia albumin ⩽ gram/dL and 9 patients with preeclampsia albumin >3g/dL. Placenta collected was homogenized and blood was separated from the cells. Placental lysat, serum and plasma were stored -87°C until laboratory analysis for GRP78 and VEGF. Data were analyzed using student t test, Manova. Pearson correlation, simple and multiple regressions. There were alterations of amino acid's profile among albumin ⩽3g/dL compare with albumin >3g/dL. GRP78 concentration on albumin ⩽3g/dL group was higher, but were not significant. Weak negative correlation between albumins to GRP78 was found. Negative correlation were found in the groups of albumin ⩽3g/dL - GRP⩽425μg/dL, but significant result only on albumin ⩽3g/dL - GRP⩽425μg/dL. Positive correlation were found in the group of albumin >3g/dL - GRP>425μg/dL. Response of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress appeared different depends on levels of albumin (stressor) and GRP78 (stress response protein). Placental VEGF were significantly lower in albumin ⩽3g/dL (p<0.05). Correlation between GRP78 on placental VEGF was negative with coefficient correlation was 3.8%. Placental VEGF profoundly decreased as correlation between albumin and GRP78 stronger. Alteration of amino acids profile influenced Albumin concentration. Hypoalbuminemia was a stressor

  5. Preeclampsia – Will Orphan Drug Status Facilitate Innovative Biological Therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Sinuhe

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the development of novel therapies to treat pregnancy-related disorders, such as preeclampsia, is hampered by the paucity of research funding. Hence, it is with great interest to become aware of at least three novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this disorder: exploiting either the anticoagulant activity of antithrombin, the free radical scavenging activity of alpha-1-microglobulin, or the regenerative capacity of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. As these projects are being carried out by small biotech enterprises, the question arises of how they are able to fund such undertakings. A novel strategy adopted by two of these companies is that they successfully petitioned US and EU agencies in order that preeclampsia is accepted in the register of rare or orphan diseases. This provides a number of benefits including market exclusivity, assistance with clinical trials, and dedicated funding schemes. Other strategies to supplement meager research funds, especially to test novel approaches, could be crowdfunding, a venture that relies on intimate interaction with advocacy groups. In other words, preeclampsia meets Facebook. Perhaps similar strategies can be adopted to examine novel therapies targeting either the imbalance in pro- or anti-angiogenic growth factors, complement activation, reduced levels of placenta protein 13, or excessive neutrophil activation evident in preeclampsia. PMID:25767802

  6. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  7. Role of agonistic autoantibodies against type-1 angiotensin II receptor in the pathogenesis of retinopathy in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Yuxian; Wang, Xiaofang; Zheng, Yanqian; Jin, Zhu; Zhi, Jianming

    2016-07-06

    To investigate the mechanism underlying AT1-AA-induced retinopathy in severe preeclampsia by measuring the positive rate and titer of AT1-AA in plasma from women with severe preeclampsia and normal pregnant women to see whether AT1-AA titer was correlated with the grade of retinopathy. A preeclampsia rat model was also established by intravenous injection of AT1-AA extracted from the plasma of patient suffering from severe preeclampsia. The results showed that the plasma titer and positive rate of AT1-AA were significantly higher in women with severe preeclampsia than normal pregnant women. The antibody titer in cases of severe preeclampsia was associated with the grade of retinopathy, and positively correlated with the level of TNF-α and VEGF. The animal experiment results showed that the modeled rats presented symptoms very similar to symptoms of human preeclampsia, including retinopathy. Ocular fundus examination showed retinal microvascular abnormalities, hemorrhaging and leakage in the severe preeclampsia. Morphological changes included edema, thickening of the INL and ONL, and pigment atrophy. TNF-α and VEGF levels were increased in the vitreous humor and retina of the model rats. Our studies results suggest that abnormal expression of AT1-AA could induce damage to retinal capillary endothelial cells and increase vascular permeability, resulting in retinopathy.

  8. Hypoxic treatment of human dual placental perfusion induces a preeclampsia-like inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Jain, Arjun; Schneider, Henning; Aliyev, Eldar; Soydemir, Fatimah; Baumann, Marc; Surbek, Daniel; Hediger, Matthias; Brownbill, Paul; Albrecht, Christiane

    2014-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a human pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by a placental pro-inflammatory response in combination with an imbalance of angiogenic factors and clinical symptoms, including hypertension and proteinuria. Insufficient uteroplacental oxygenation in preeclampsia due to impaired trophoblast invasion during placentation is believed to be responsible for many of the molecular events leading to the clinical manifestations of this disease. We investigated the use of hypoxic treatment of the dual placental perfusion system as a model for preeclampsia. A modified perfusion technique allowed us to achieve a mean soluble oxygen tension within the intervillous space (IVS) of 5-7% for normoxia and <3% for hypoxia (as a model for preeclampsia). We assayed for the levels of different inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers, as well as other factors, such as endothelin (ET)-1 that are known to be implicated as part of the inflammatory response in preeclampsia. Our results show a significant increase under hypoxia in the levels of different inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 (P=0.002), IL-8 (P<0.0001), TNF-α (P=0.032) and IFN-γ (P=0.009) at 360 min in maternal venous samples (n=6). There was also a significant increase in ET-1 levels under hypoxia both on the maternal side at 30 min (P=0.003) and fetal side at 360 min (P=0.036) (n=6). Other markers of oxidative stress, including malondialdehyde and 8-iso-protaglandin F2α (P=0.009) also show increased levels. Overall, these findings indicate that exposure of ex vivo dually perfused placental tissue to hypoxia provides a useful model for mimicking the inflammatory response characteristic of preeclampsia. This would therefore provide a powerful tool for studying and further delineating the molecular mechanisms involved in the underlying pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  9. Mechanisms of Endothelial Dysfunction in Hypertensive Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Possomato-Vieira, José S.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension, and could lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although the causative factors and pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear, endothelial dysfunction is a major hallmark of preeclampsia. Clinical tests and experimental research have suggested that generalized endotheliosis in the systemic, renal, cerebral and hepatic circulation could decrease endothelium-derived vasodilators such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarization factor and increase vasoconstrictors such as endothelin-1 and thromboxane A2, leading to increased vasoconstriction, hypertension and other manifestation of preeclampsia. In search for the upstream mechanisms that could cause endothelial dysfunction, certain genetic, demographic and environmental risk factors have been suggested to cause abnormal expression of uteroplacental integrins, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, leading to decreased maternal tolerance, apoptosis of invasive trophoblast cells, inadequate spiral arteries remodeling, reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP), and placental ischemia/hypoxia. RUPP may cause imbalance between the anti-angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin and the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, or stimulate the release of other circulating bioactive factors such as inflammatory cytokines, hypoxia-inducible factor-1, reactive oxygen species, and angiotensin AT1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies. These circulating factors could then target endothelial cells and cause generalized endothelial dysfunction. Therapeutic options are currently limited, but understanding the factors involved in endothelial dysfunction could help design new approaches for prediction and management of preeclampsia. PMID:27451103

  10. Fetal hemoglobin, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin are potential predictive first trimester biomarkers for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ulrik Dolberg; Gram, Magnus; Ranstam, Jonas; Thilaganathan, Basky; Kerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R

    2016-04-01

    Overproduction of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the preeclamptic placenta has been recently implicated as a new etiological factor of preeclampsia. In this study, maternal serum levels of HbF and the endogenous hemoglobin/heme scavenging systems were evaluated as predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia in combination with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Case-control study including 433 women in early pregnancy (mean 13.7weeks of gestation) of which 86 subsequently developed preeclampsia. The serum concentrations of HbF, total cell-free hemoglobin, hemopexin, haptoglobin and α1-microglobulin were measured in maternal serum. All patients were examined with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Logistic regression models were developed, which included the biomarkers, ultrasound indices, and maternal risk factors. There were significantly higher serum concentrations of HbF and α1-microglobulin and significantly lower serum concentrations of hemopexin in patients who later developed preeclampsia. The uterine artery Doppler ultrasound results showed significantly higher pulsatility index values in the preeclampsia group. The optimal prediction model was obtained by combining HbF, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin in combination with the maternal characteristics parity, diabetes and pre-pregnancy hypertension. The optimal sensitivity for all preeclampsia was 60% at 95% specificity. Overproduction of placentally derived HbF and depletion of hemoglobin/heme scavenging mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The combination of HbF and α1-microglobulin and/or hemopexin may serve as a prediction model for preeclampsia in combination with maternal risk factors and/or uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal periodontal disease and preeclampsia in Jaipur population.

    PubMed

    Jaiman, Girija; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Sharma, Sanu; Nagpal, Kiran

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is identified as an important cause for mother and newborn mortality. Inspite of extensive research, the exact etiological relations have not been established. Hence, an attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the relationship between the preeclampsia and maternal periodontal disease. The case-control study comprised of thirty pregnant women distributed equally in the case (preeclampsia) and control (healthy) group. Gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, clinical probing depth, and clinical attachment level were measured in both groups. Microbiologic examination for identification of one red complex organism Porphyromonas gingivalis and one orange complex organism Fusobacterium nucleatum were done in plaque and placental blood of cases and controls. The clinical examinations and collection of placental blood were done 24 h before delivery. Periodontal condition in the preeclamptic women was statistically worse compared with the normotensive women. There was no statistically significant association between microorganisms in plaque and placental blood between normotensive control and preeclamptic pregnant women. The preeclamptic women had significantly higher chances of having newborns weighing <2.5 kg than the normotensive women. The preeclamptic women were associated with significantly higher periodontitis and lower fetal birth weight than normotensive women.

  12. The prediction of late-onset preeclampsia: Results from a longitudinal proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Maymon, Eli; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Done, Bogdan; Pacora, Percy; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S; Tarca, Adi L

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset preeclampsia is the most prevalent phenotype of this syndrome; nevertheless, only a few biomarkers for its early diagnosis have been reported. We sought to correct this deficiency using a high through-put proteomic platform. A case-control longitudinal study was conducted, including 90 patients with normal pregnancies and 76 patients with late-onset preeclampsia (diagnosed at ≥34 weeks of gestation). Maternal plasma samples were collected throughout gestation (normal pregnancy: 2-6 samples per patient, median of 2; late-onset preeclampsia: 2-6, median of 5). The abundance of 1,125 proteins was measured using an aptamers-based proteomics technique. Protein abundance in normal pregnancies was modeled using linear mixed-effects models to estimate mean abundance as a function of gestational age. Data was then expressed as multiples of-the-mean (MoM) values in normal pregnancies. Multi-marker prediction models were built using data from one of five gestational age intervals (8-16, 16.1-22, 22.1-28, 28.1-32, 32.1-36 weeks of gestation). The predictive performance of the best combination of proteins was compared to placental growth factor (PIGF) using bootstrap. 1) At 8-16 weeks of gestation, the best prediction model included only one protein, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7), that had a sensitivity of 69% at a false positive rate (FPR) of 20% (AUC = 0.76); 2) at 16.1-22 weeks of gestation, MMP-7 was the single best predictor of late-onset preeclampsia with a sensitivity of 70% at a FPR of 20% (AUC = 0.82); 3) after 22 weeks of gestation, PlGF was the best predictor of late-onset preeclampsia, identifying 1/3 to 1/2 of the patients destined to develop this syndrome (FPR = 20%); 4) 36 proteins were associated with late-onset preeclampsia in at least one interval of gestation (after adjustment for covariates); 5) several biological processes, such as positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway, were perturbed; and 6

  13. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  14. The common single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The Risk of Preeclampsia According to High Thyroid Function in Pregnancy Differs by hCG Concentration.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; Chaker, Layal; Medici, Marco; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Visser, Theo J; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-12-01

    During pregnancy, there is an increased demand for thyroid hormone. The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important physiological stimulator of thyroid function. Already high-normal maternal free T 4 concentrations are associated with a higher risk of preeclampsia. The objective of the investigation was to study our hypothesis that hCG concentrations can distinguish a physiological form of high thyroid function from a more pathological form of high thyroid function and that the risk of preeclampsia would differ accordingly. TSH, free T 4 , hCG, or thyroperoxidase antibody concentrations were determined in pregnant women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. The study was conducted in the general community. A nonselected sample of 5146 pregnant women participated in the study. There were no interventions. Preeclampsia was measured. Women with high hCG-associated high thyroid function did not have a higher risk of preeclampsia than women with normal thyroid function. In contrast, women with low hCG and high thyroid function had a 3.4- to 11.1-fold higher risk of preeclampsia. These risk estimates were amplified in women with a high body mass index. Women with a low hCG and suppressed TSH (<0.10 mU/L) had a 3.2- to 8.9-fold higher risk of preeclampsia. hCG was not associated with preeclampsia, and results remained similar after exclusion of thyroperoxidase antibody-positive women. This study suggests that, in contrast to women with a high hCG associated high thyroid function, women with low hCG and high thyroid function during pregnancy are at a higher risk of developing preeclampsia. The additional measurement of hCG may therefore help to distinguish a more pathological form of high thyroid function and women at a high risk of preeclampsia.

  16. Physical Activity During Pregnancy and Subsequent Risk of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Ryckman, Kelli K; Triche, Elizabeth W; Saftlas, Audrey F

    2016-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is hypothesized to reduce the risk of preeclampsia, but few epidemiologic studies have simultaneously evaluated leisure time PA (LTPA), sedentary activity, occupational activity, and non-occupational, non-leisure time PA. Thus, we assessed the independent and combined effects of these different types of PA during pregnancy on preeclampsia and gestational hypertension risk. Preeclamptic (n = 258), gestational hypertensive (n = 233), and normotensive (n = 182) women identified from Iowa live birth records (2002-2005) were participants in Study of Pregnancy Hypertension in Iowa. Disease status was verified by medical chart review. All PA exposures were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test for associations between various PA types and risk for preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. After adjusting for prepregnancy BMI, increasing levels of LTPA were associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia (trend, p = 0.02). Additionally, increasing amount of time spent active each day was associated with decreasing risks for preeclampsia (adjusted, trend; p = 0.03). Increasing amount of time spent sitting per day was associated with an increasing risk of preeclampsia (adjusted, trend; p = 0.10). Women whose activity averaged >8.25 h per day were at a significantly reduced risk of preeclampsia relative to women active <4.2 h per day (adjusted OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.36, 0.95). Most analyses evaluating the risk of gestational hypertension yielded null results or results that trended in the direction opposite of the preeclampsia results. Consistent with previous studies, these data suggest increasing PA during pregnancy may reduce preeclampsia risk while increasing levels of sedentary activity may increase disease risk.

  17. Disturbed Placental Imprinting in Preeclampsia Leads to Altered Expression of DLX5, a Human-Specific Early Trophoblast Marker

    PubMed Central

    Zadora, Julianna; Singh, Manvendra; Herse, Florian; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Yung, Hong Wa; Huppertz, Berthold; Cartwright, Judith E.; Whitley, Guy; Johnsen, Guro M.; Levi, Giovanni; Isbruch, Annette; Schulz, Herbert; Luft, Friedrich C.; Müller, Dominik N.; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in preeclampsia. Our study aims to investigate whether disturbed imprinting contributes to preeclampsia. Methods: We first aimed to confirm that preeclampsia is a disease of the placenta by generating and analyzing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from healthy controls and patients with preeclampsia. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic placentas and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We used bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and preeclampsia and to predict biological processes affected in preeclampsia. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. In terms of human specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque, and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. Results: We found disturbed placental imprinting in preeclampsia and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5, with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with preeclampsia. As a result of loss of imprinting, DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of preeclamptic placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classic preeclampsia markers. DLX5 is expressed in human but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5high phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress

  18. Disturbed Placental Imprinting in Preeclampsia Leads to Altered Expression of DLX5, a Human-Specific Early Trophoblast Marker.

    PubMed

    Zadora, Julianna; Singh, Manvendra; Herse, Florian; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Yung, Hong Wa; Huppertz, Berthold; Cartwright, Judith E; Whitley, Guy; Johnsen, Guro M; Levi, Giovanni; Isbruch, Annette; Schulz, Herbert; Luft, Friedrich C; Müller, Dominik N; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Hurst, Laurence D; Dechend, Ralf; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2017-11-07

    Preeclampsia is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in preeclampsia. Our study aims to investigate whether disturbed imprinting contributes to preeclampsia. We first aimed to confirm that preeclampsia is a disease of the placenta by generating and analyzing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from healthy controls and patients with preeclampsia. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic placentas and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We used bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and preeclampsia and to predict biological processes affected in preeclampsia. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. In terms of human specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque, and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. We found disturbed placental imprinting in preeclampsia and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5 , with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with preeclampsia. As a result of loss of imprinting, DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of preeclamptic placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classic preeclampsia markers. DLX5 is expressed in human but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5 high phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-response activation in

  19. Fetal tissue Doppler imaging in pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia with or without intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Ren, Yunyun; Yan, Yingliu; Chu, Chen; Gui, Yonghao; Li, Xiaotian

    2012-11-01

    This study's aim was to evaluate the effect of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on fetal cardiac function, and the relationship of the latter with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We did a cross-sectional study of 132 women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, 34 with preeclampsia without IUGR, and 12 with preeclampsia and IUGR. Fetal cardiac structure and function were evaluated using fetal two-dimension ultrasound, pulsed wave Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Data were analyzed by t-tests, ANOVA, Chi-square tests, or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Compared with the normal pregnancy group, mitral/tricuspid early systolic peak velocity of annulus/late diastolic peak velocity of annulus (Sa) and left ventricular (LV)/right ventricular (RV) early diastolic peak velocity at the annulus (Ea) in TDI decreased in preeclampsia with or without IUGR (P < 0.05). LV/RV Ea underwent a gestational decrease in preeclampsia with or without IUGR (P < 0.05). The changes in mitral/tricuspid Sa and LV Sa associated with preeclampsia were even more pronounced with preterm delivery at less than 34 gestational weeks and stillbirth (P < 0.05). Intrauterine growth restriction influences fetal cardiac function in the presence of preeclampsia, and TDI may be a sensitive and preferable method to detect such changes. Fetal LV/RV Ea is a potential marker for early fetal cardiac diastolic impairment, and mitral/tricuspid Sa and LV Sa may be predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Elevated venous thromboembolism risk in preeclampsia: molecular mechanisms and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Egan, Karl; Kevane, Barry; Ní Áinle, Fionnuala

    2015-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a leading cause of maternal death and morbidity in the developed world. Strategies for prevention of VTE in pregnancy have been the subject of recent guidelines and consensus statements. These guidelines recommend thrombosis prevention in women who have risk factors associated with an elevated VTE risk. Preeclampsia is characterized by maternal hypertension and proteinuria developing after 20 weeks gestation, complicating up to 7% of pregnancies and is associated with a massive annual morbidity and mortality burden. Women with preeclampsia have been shown to be at increased risk of VTE with studies to date suggesting that this risk may be up to 5-fold greater than the risk of pregnancy-associated VTE in the general population. Despite the fact that preeclampsia is so common and potentially devastating, our understanding of its pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies remain poor. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the prothrombotic phenotype in preeclampsia are also poorly characterized although a number of potential mechanisms have been postulated. Derangements of platelet and endothelial activation and impairment of endogenous anti-coagulant pathways have been reported and may contribute to the observed VTE risk. Recently, evidence for the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and cell-free DNA in the pathogenesis of VTE has emerged and some evidence exists to suggest that this may be of relevance in preeclampsia. Future studies aimed at understanding the diagnostic and potential therapeutic relevance of this procoagulant state are likely to be of enormous clinical benefit for pregnant women affected with this potentially devastating condition. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  1. Association study between GAS6 gene polymorphisms and risk of preeclampsia in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liyan; Guan, Linbo; Fan, Ping; Liu, Xinghui; Liu, Rui; Chen, Jinxin; Zhu, Yue; Wei, Xing; Liu, Yu; Bai, Huai

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder associated with pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic events. The growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) has been implicated in systemic inflammation and coagulation. Common genetic polymorphisms of GAS6 gene have previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of GAS6 gene polymorphisms with the risk of preeclampsia in Chinese subjects. The case-control population consists of 551 subjects. The genotyping of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms of GAS6 gene, GAS6 834 +7G/A(rs8191974) and +1332C/T (rs1803628), was carried out on genomic DNA using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) analysis. There were significant differences in the +1332C/T genotype and allele frequencies between the patients with preeclampsia and the controls (P=0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The +1332 TT genotype was found to be protective from the development of preeclampsia (odds ratios 0.271, 95% confidence interval 0.077-0.953; P=0.03). Further analysis showed that the TT genotype of the GAS6 +1332C/T conferred a risk of severe preeclampsia (OR=0.597, 95% confidence interval 0.416-0.855; P=0.01). However, there were no differences in the 834+7G/A genotype and allele frequencies between the patients with preeclampsia and the controls. Our data suggest that a TT genotype at +1332C/T polymorphism might be associated with decreased risk for preeclampsia, but the 834+7G/A polymorphism is not associated with the disorder, in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state is associated with the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Geum Joon; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon-Ae; Oh, Min-Jeong; Seo, Hong Seog

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state and the development of preeclampsia. We enrolled 212,463 Korean women who had their first delivery between January, 2011 and December, 2012 and had undergone a national health screening examination through the National Health Insurance during the 1-2 years before their first delivery. Women who had hypertension in the non-pregnant state were excluded. The presence of metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in non-pregnant state was 1.2%. Preeclampsia developed in 3.1% and its prevalence among women with and without metabolic syndrome was 7.3% and 3.0%, respectively. The pre-pregnancy prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women who developed preeclampsia compared to that in those who had a normal pregnancy (1.1% vs. 2.8%; p<0.001). On multivariate regression analysis, women with metabolic syndrome had an increased risk of developing preeclampsia (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.74) compared to that in those without metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, family history of hypertension, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. The risk of preeclampsia increased with a rise in the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state was associated with the development of preeclampsia. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether early intervention for metabolic syndrome before pregnancy can decrease the risk of developing preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Cadmium Levels During Pregnancy and the Relationship with Preeclampsia and Fetal Biometric Parameters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Fan, Fengyun; Wang, Lianyun; Ye, Wen; Zhang, Qiong; Xie, Shuangshuang

    2018-04-12

    Preeclampsia, which is caused by multiple factors, still remains one of the most serious complications of pregnancy. This study was designed to determine cadmium levels in women with preeclampsia compared to those of normotensive women. In this case-control study, maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and placental cadmium levels were measured by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry system in 51 women presenting consecutively with preeclampsia and 51 normotensive pregnant women. Groups were matched for maternal age, parity, and gestational age. Birth outcomes were recorded, such as gestational age at delivery, birth weight, and Apgar score. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) blood cadmium concentration was 1.21 μg/L (0.76-1.84 μg/L) and 1.09 μg/L (0.72-1.31 μg/L) in women with preeclampsia and normotensive, respectively; values for placental cadmium levels of women with preeclampsia and normotensive were 3.61 μg/kg (2.19-4.37 μg/kg) and 4.28 μg/kg (3.06-5.71 μg/kg), respectively. We observed a statistically significant increase in blood and placental cadmium levels in women with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women. After adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal age, parity, gestational age at sample collection, and maternal calcium and magnesium levels, the odds ratio of having preeclampsia in the high tertile was markedly increased (odds ratio, 7.83 [95% CI, 1.64-37.26]) compared with the low tertile. Interestingly, there was no difference in the cadmium level in umbilical cord blood between the groups. Within the preeclamptic group, higher cadmium status was significantly associated with decreased birth weight. Our study suggested that elevated cadmium level in the maternal circulation could potentially increase the risk of preeclampsia. The results also demonstrate that higher cadmium status may contribute to fetal growth restriction in preeclamptic patients.

  4. Increased Angiotensin II Sensitivity Contributes to Microvascular Dysfunction in Women Who Have Had Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Jandu, Sandeep; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Alexander, Lacy M

    2017-08-01

    Women who have had preeclampsia have increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this association remain unclear. Microvascular damage sustained during a preeclamptic pregnancy may persist postpartum. The putative mechanisms mediating this dysfunction include a reduction in NO-dependent dilation and an increased sensitivity to angiotensin II. In this study, we evaluated endothelium-dependent dilation, angiotensin II sensitivity, and the therapeutic effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade (losartan) on endothelium-dependent dilation in vivo in the microvasculature of women with a history of preeclampsia (n=12) and control women who had a healthy pregnancy (n=12). We hypothesized that preeclampsia would have (1) reduced endothelium-dependent dilation, (2) reduced NO-mediated dilation, and (3) increased sensitivity to angiotensin II. We further hypothesized that localized losartan would increase endothelium-dependent vasodilation in preeclampsia. We assessed microvascular endothelium-dependent vasodilator function by measurement of cutaneous vascular conductance responses to graded infusion of acetylcholine (acetylcholine; 10 -7 -102 mmol/L) and a standardized local heating protocol in control sites and sites treated with 15 mmol/L L-NAME ( N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester; NO-synthase inhibitor) or 43 µmol/L losartan. Further, we assessed microvascular vasoconstrictor sensitivity to angiotensin II (10 -20 -10 -4 mol/L). Preeclampsia had significantly reduced endothelium-dependent dilation (-0.3±0.5 versus -1.0±0.4 log EC50 ; P <0.001) and NO-dependent dilation (16±3% versus 39±6%; P =0.006). Preeclampsia also had augmented vasoconstrictor sensitivity to angiotensin II (-10.2±1.3 versus -8.3±0.5; P =0.006). Angiotensin II type I receptor inhibition augmented endothelium-dependent vasodilation and NO-dependent dilation in preeclampsia but had no effect in healthy pregnancy. These data suggest that women who have had

  5. Elucidating the Pathogenesis of Pre-eclampsia Using In Vitro Models of Spiral Uterine Artery Remodelling.

    PubMed

    McNally, Ross; Alqudah, Abdelrahim; Obradovic, Danilo; McClements, Lana

    2017-10-23

    The aim of the study is to perform a critical assessment of in vitro models of pre-eclampsia using complementary human and cell line-based studies. Molecular mechanisms involved in spiral uterine artery (SUA) remodelling and trophoblast functionality will also be discussed. A number of proteins and microRNAs have been implicated as key in SUA remodelling, which could be explored as early biomarkers or therapeutic targets for prevention of pre-eclampsia. Various 2D and 3D in vitro models involving trophoblast cells, endothelial cells, immune cells and placental tissue were discussed to elucidate the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Nevertheless, pre-eclampsia is a multifactorial disease, and the mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are complex and still largely unknown. Further studies are required to provide better understanding of the key processes leading to inappropriate placental development which is the root cause of pre-eclampsia. This new knowledge could identify novel biomarkers and treatment strategies.

  6. Placenta Copper Transport Proteins in Preeclampsia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Placental insufficiency underlying preeclampsia (PE) is associated with impaired placental angiogenesis. As copper (Cu) is essential to angiogenesis, we investigated differences in the expression of placental Cu transporters Menkes (ATP7A), Wilsons (ATP7B) and the Cu chaperone (CCS) for superoxide d...

  7. Blood-based cerebral biomarkers in preeclampsia: Plasma concentrations of NfL, tau, S100B and NSE during pregnancy in women who later develop preeclampsia - A nested case control study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lina; Zetterberg, Henrik; Kaihola, Helena; Hagberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Åkerud, Helena

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate if concentrations of the neuronal proteins neurofilament light chain and tau are changed in women developing preeclampsia and to evaluate the ability of a combination of neurofilament light chain, tau, S100B and neuron specific enolase in identifying neurologic impairment before diagnosis of preeclampsia. A nested case-control study within a longitudinal study cohort was performed. 469 healthy pregnant women were enrolled between 2004-2007 and plasma samples were collected at gestational weeks 10, 25, 28, 33 and 37. Plasma concentrations of tau and neurofilament light chain were analyzed in 16 women who eventually developed preeclampsia and 36 controls throughout pregnancy with single molecule array (Simoa) method and compared within and between groups. S100B and NSE had been analyzed previously in the same study population. A statistical model with receiving characteristic operation curve was constructed with the four biomarkers combined. Plasma concentrations of neurofilament light chain were significantly increased in women who developed preeclampsia in gestational week 33 (11.85 ng/L, IQR 7.48-39.93 vs 6.80 ng/L, IQR 5.65-11.40) and 37 (22.15 ng/L, IQR 10.93-35.30 vs 8.40 ng/L, IQR 6.40-14.30) and for tau in gestational week 37 (4.33 ng/L, IQR 3.97-12.83 vs 3.77 ng/L, IQR 1.91-5.25) in contrast to healthy controls. A combined model for preeclampsia with tau, neurofilament light chain, S100B and neuron specific enolase in gestational week 25 displayed an area under the curve of 0.77, in week 28 it was 0.75, in week 33 it was 0.89 and in week 37 it was 0.83. Median week for diagnosis of preeclampsia was at 38 weeks of gestation. Concentrations of both tau and neurofilament light chain are increased in the end of pregnancy in women developing preeclampsia in contrast to healthy pregnancies. Cerebral biomarkers might reflect cerebral involvement before onset of disease.

  8. Compromised JMJD6 histone demethylase activity impacts on VHL gene repression in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Alahari, Sruthi; Post, Martin; Rolfo, Alessandro; Weksberg, Rosanna; Caniggia, Isabella

    2018-01-24

    The von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein is a key executor of the cellular hypoxic response that is compromised in preeclampsia, a serious disorder complicating 5-7% of pregnancies. To date, the mechanisms controlling VHL gene expression in the human placenta remain elusive. We examined VHL epigenetic regulation in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia, a pathology characterized by placental hypoxia. Placentae were obtained from early-onset (E-PE: n=56; <34 weeks of gestation) and late onset preeclampsia (L-PE: n=19; ≥ 34 weeks of gestation). Placentae from healthy normotensive age-matched preterm and term pregnancies (PTC: n=43; TC: n=23) were included as controls. We measured the activity of Jumonji domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6), a Fe2+ and oxygen-dependent histone demethylase, and examined its function in the epigenetic control of VHL. JMJD6 regulates VHL gene expression in the human placenta. VHL downregulation in preeclampsia is dependent on decreased JMJD6 demethylase activity due to hypoxia and reduced Fe2+ bioavailability. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed decreased association of JMJD6 and its histone targets with the VHL promoter. Findings in preeclampsia were corroborated in a murine model of pharmacological hypoxia using FG-4592. Placentae from FG-4592 treated mice exhibited reduced VHL levels, accompanied by placental morphological alterations and reduced pup weights. Notably, Fe2+ supplementation rescued JMJD6 histone demethylase activity in histone from E-PE and FG-4592-treated mice. Our study uncovers novel epigenetic regulation of VHL and its functional consequences for altered oxygen and iron homeostasis in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  9. Melatonin secretion is impaired in women with preeclampsia and an abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm.

    PubMed

    Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Giannopoulou, Myrto; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Mertens, Peter R; Zintzaras, Elias; Messinis, Ioannis E; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-08-01

    Non-dipping circadian blood pressure (BP) is a common finding in preeclampsia, accompanied by adverse outcomes. Melatonin plays pivotal role in biological circadian rhythms. This study investigated the relationship between melatonin secretion and circadian BP rhythm in preeclampsia. Cases were women with preeclampsia treated between January 2006 and June 2007 in the University Hospital of Larissa. Volunteers with normal pregnancy, matched for chronological and gestational age, served as controls. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP monitoring was applied. Serum melatonin and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were determined in day and night time samples by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Measurements were repeated 2 months after delivery. Thirty-one women with preeclampsia and 20 controls were included. Twenty-one of the 31 women with preeclampsia were non-dippers. Compared to normal pregnancy, in preeclampsia there were significantly lower night time melatonin (48.4 ± 24.7 vs. 85.4 ± 26.9 pg/mL, p<0.001) levels. Adjustment for circadian BP rhythm status ascribed this finding exclusively to non-dippers (p<0.01). Two months after delivery, in 11 of the 21 non-dippers both circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm reappeared. In contrast, in cases with retained non-dipping status (n=10) melatonin secretion rhythm remained impaired: daytime versus night time melatonin (33.5 ± 13.0 vs. 28.0 ± 13.8 pg/mL, p=0.386). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were, overall, similar to serum melatonin. Circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm follow parallel course in preeclampsia, both during pregnancy and, at least 2 months after delivery. Our findings may be not sufficient to implicate a putative therapeutic effect of melatonin, however, they clearly emphasize that its involvement in the pathogenesis of a non-dipping BP in preeclampsia needs intensive further investigation.

  10. Placental Vesicles Carry Active Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Their Activity is Reduced in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Motta-Mejia, Carolina; Kandzija, Neva; Zhang, Wei; Mhlomi, Vuyane; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Burdujan, Alexandra; Tannetta, Dionne; Dragovic, Rebecca; Sargent, Ian L; Redman, Christopher W; Kishore, Uday; Vatish, Manu

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia, a multisystem hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is associated with increased systemic vascular resistance. Placentae from patients with preeclampsia have reduced levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and, thus, less nitric oxide (NO). Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV), comprising microvesicles (STBMV) and exosomes, carry signals from the syncytiotrophoblast to the mother. We hypothesized that STBEV-bound eNOS (STBEV-eNOS), capable of producing NO, are released into the maternal circulation. Dual-lobe ex vivo placental perfusion and differential centrifugation was used to isolate STBEV from preeclampsia (n=8) and normal pregnancies (NP; n=11). Plasma samples of gestational age-matched preeclampsia and NP (n=6) were used to isolate circulating STBMV. STBEV expressed placental alkaline phosphatase, confirming placental origin. STBEV coexpressed eNOS, but not inducible nitric oxide synthase, confirmed using Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunodepletion. STBEV-eNOS produced NO, which was significantly inhibited by N   G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (eNOS inhibitor; P <0.05) but not by N -(3-(aminomethyl) bezyl) acetamidine) (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). STBEV-eNOS catalytic activity was confirmed by visualizing eNOS dimerization. STBEV-eNOS was more abundant in uterine vein compared with peripheral blood, indicating placental origin. STBEV isolated from preeclampsia-perfused placentae had lower levels of STBEV-eNOS (STBMV; P <0.05) and overall lower NO activity (STBMV, not significant; syncytiotrophoblast extracellular exosomes, P <0.05) compared with those from NP. Circulating plasma STBMV from preeclampsia women had lower STBEV-eNOS expression compared with that from NP women ( P <0.01). This is the first observation of functional eNOS expressed on STBEV from NP and preeclampsia placentae, as well as in plasma. The lower STBEV-eNOS NO production seen in preeclampsia may contribute to the decreased NO

  11. Preeclampsia: A review of the pathogenesis and possible management strategies based on its pathophysiological derangements.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Amel A F

    2017-10-01

    This review is divided into three parts. The first part briefly describes the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This is followed by reviewing previously reported management strategies of the disease based on its pathophysiological derangements. Finally, the author defines the safe and acceptable methods/medications that may be used to 'prevent' preeclampsia (in high risk patients) and those that may be used to 'treat' preeclampsia (meant to prolong the pregnancy in patients with established preeclampsia). The review concludes that multi-center trials are required to include multiple drugs in the same management protocol. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Preeclampsia and subsequent risk of cancer: update from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study

    PubMed Central

    CALDERON-MARGALIT, R.; FRIEDLANDER, Y.; YANETZ, R.; DEUTSCH, L.; PERRIN, MC; KLEINHAUS, K.; TIRAM, E.; HARLAP, S.; PALTIEL, O.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between preeclampsia and cancer incidence. Study Design The Jerusalem Perinatal Study is a population-based cohort of all births to 41,206 residents of Western Jerusalem in 1964-76. Cancer incidence to 2004 was assessed by linkage of the cohort with the Israel Cancer Registry. Cox’s proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer among women who had had preeclampsia. Results Preeclampsia was associated with a 1.23-fold increased risk of cancer at all sites, a 37% increased risk of breast cancer, and more than a doubling of ovarian cancer risk. Analysis by morphology yielded significantly increased risks for malignancies classed as cystic mucinous and serous (RR:1.96, 95% Confidence interval:1.00-3.83), and for ductal, lobular and medullary carcinomas (1.40, 1.07-1.83). No differential association was observed by sex of offspring. Conclusions Our study suggests that the previously-described protective effect of preeclampsia on cancer is not universal. PMID:18822400

  13. Exploring knowledge of pre-eclampsia and views on a potential screening test in women with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Amy C; Young, Ian S; McCance, David R; Holmes, Valerie A

    2017-07-01

    to explore knowledge of pre-eclampsia and opinions on potential screening tests for pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes. a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of women planning a pregnancy, currently pregnant or post-partum with experience of pre-eclampsia. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: eleven women with type 1 diabetes were recruited from a pre-pregnancy planning clinic or antenatal clinic. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the women, asking a series of open-ended questions about their current knowledge of pre-eclampsia and their views on screening for pre-eclampsia. Data analysis was conducted using inductive thematic analysis. four main themes were identified: Information, sources of stress, awareness and acceptability of screening. Generally, women's knowledge of pre-eclampsia was limited. Most did not appear to be aware of their increased risk of developing the disease. Similarly, the majority of women were unaware as to why their blood pressure and urine were checked regularly. The introduction of a screening test for pre-eclampsia was favoured, with only a small number of women raising concerns related to the screening tests. health care professionals need to raise awareness of pre-eclampsia in this high risk group. The introduction of a screening test for pre-eclampsia appears to be acceptable in this population, however, further research is required to validate these findings and also to explore the views of women in other high risk groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Prevention of Pre-eclampsia with the Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Low-molecular Weight Heparin - Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Kolarz, Bogdan; Korzeniewski, Michal; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Mierzynski, Radzisław; Przegalinska-Kałamucka, Monika; Oleszczuk, Jan

    Pre-eclampsia appears to be the main cause for the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to be threatened with conditions which potentially may be lethal, such as: disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, liver and renal failure. Pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia is also associated with a greater risk for iatrogenic prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, premature abruption of placenta, and even intrauterine fetal death. In the majority of cases the reasons for arterial hypertension among pregnant women remain obscure. For the past decades, there were many abortive attempts in the use of some microelements, vitamins or specific diets, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been shown that a prevention of pre-eclampsia with the use of a lowmolecular- weight heparins (LMWHs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could considerably reduce the frequency of preeclampsia. In this review, we present the studies concerning the applications of LMWHs and aspirin in the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia and some important data about the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of LMWHs and ASA.

  15. Neurokinin 3 receptor and phosphocholine transferase: missing factors for pathogenesis of C-reactive protein in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Parchim, Nicholas F; Wang, Wei; Iriyama, Takayuki; Ashimi, Olaide A; Siddiqui, Athar H; Blackwell, Sean; Sibai, Baha; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an innate immune mediator, is elevated in the circulation before symptoms in patients with preeclampsia, a severe hypertensive pregnancy disorder with high mortality and morbidity. However, the specific sources underlying increased CRP and the role of elevated CRP in preeclampsia are undefined. Here, we report that circulating CRP levels are significantly increased in a large cohort of normotensive pregnant individuals when compared with nulligravid women and is further increased in patients with preeclampsia. These findings led us to discover further that placental syncytiotrophoblasts are previously unrecognized cellular sources of CRP and underlie elevated CRP in normotensive pregnant women and the additional increase in patients with preeclampsia. Next, we demonstrated that injection of CRP induces preeclampsia features, including hypertension (157 mm Hg CRP treated versus 119 mm Hg control), proteinuria (35.0 mg/μg CRP treated versus 14.1 mg/μg control), kidney, and placental damage and increased levels of sFlt-1 in pregnant mice but not in nonpregnant mice. Our study implicates that phosphocholine transferase, a placental-specific enzyme post-translationally modifying neurokinin B, is essential for the pathogenic role of CRP in preeclampsia through activation of the neurokinin 3 receptor. Overall, our studies have provided significant new insight on the pathogenic role of CRP in preeclampsia and highlighted innovative therapeutic strategies. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Synthesis of sFlt-1 by platelet-monocyte aggregates contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Major, Heather D.; Cambell, Robert A.; Silver, Robert M.; Branch, D. Ware; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. We sought to determine if platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs) produced sFlt-1 and if PMAs contributed to sFlt-1 production in preeclampsia. Study Design Case-control study of sFlt-1 release from PMAs using blood samples from women with preeclampsia matched by gestational age to pregnant controls. A third group of nonpregnant, reproductive-age women comprised an additional control group. Experiments were also performed using blood from non-pregnant women to elucidate if inducing PMAs could stimulate sFlt-1 production, and if so, to determine the necessary receptors and pathways. Results Women with preeclampsia had increased total Flt-1 concentrations in platelets and monocytes at baseline compared to pregnant controls (25 vs. 10 pg/ml, p=0.0003). sFlt-1 production was elicited from monocytes incubated with thrombin-activated platelets from non-pregnant women. sFlt-1 production was regulated at the transcriptional level by p38 and NF-κB dependent pathways. Conclusion Activated platelets in preeclampsia bind monocytes to generate sFlt-1. PMAs are a previously unrecognized source of sFlt-1 that may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation commonly observed in preeclampsia. PMID:24440566

  17. Pitfalls in setting up genetic studies on preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Laivuori, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    This presentation will consider approaches to discover susceptibility genes for a complex genetic disorder such as preeclampsia. The clinical disease presumably results from the additive effects of multiple sequence variants from the mother and the foetus together with environmental factors. Disease heterogeneity and underpowered study designs are likely to be behind non-reproducible results in candidate gene association studies. To avoid spurious findings, sample size and characteristics of the study populations as well as replication studies in an independent study population should be an essential part of a study design. In family-based linkage studies relationship with genotype and phenotype may be modified by a variety of factors. The large number of families needed in discovering genetic variants with modest effect sizes is difficult to attain. Moreover, the identification of underlying mutations has proven difficult. When pooling data or performing meta-analyses from different populations, disease and locus heterogeneity may become a major issue. First genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk loci for preeclampsia. Adequately powered replication studies are critical in order to replicate the initial GWAS findings. This approach requires rigorous multiple testing correction. The expected effect sizes of individual sequence variants on preeclampsia are small, but this approach is likely to decipher new clues to the pathogenesis. The rare variants, gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions as well as noncoding genetic variations and epigenetics are expected to explain the missing heritability. Next-generation sequencing technologies will make large amount of data on genomes and transcriptomes available. Complexity of the data poses a challenge. Different depths of coverage might be chosen depending on the design of the study, and validation of the results by different methods is mandatory. In order to minimize disease heterogeneity in

  18. Comparative gene expression profiling of placentas from patients with severe pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been well documented that pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction (FGR) have a common etiological background, but little is known about their linkage at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms underlying pre-eclampsia and unexplained FGR. Methods We analyzed differentially expressed genes in placental tissue from severe pre-eclamptic pregnancies (n = 8) and normotensive pregnancies with or (n = 8) without FGR (n = 8) using a microarray method. Results A subset of the FGR samples showed a high correlation coefficient overall in the microarray data from the pre-eclampsia samples. Many genes that are known to be up-regulated in pre-eclampsia are also up-regulated in FGR, including the anti-angiogenic factors, FLT1 and ENG, believed to be associated with the onset of maternal symptoms of pre-eclampsia. A total of 62 genes were found to be differentially expressed in both disorders. However, gene set enrichment analysis for these differentially expressed genes further revealed higher expression of TP53-downstream genes in pre-eclampsia compared with FGR. TP53-downstream apoptosis-related genes, such as BCL6 and BAX, were found to be significantly more up-regulated in pre-eclampsia than in FGR, although the caspases are expressed at equivalent levels. Conclusions Our current data indicate a common pathophysiology for FGR and pre-eclampsia, leading to an up-regulation of placental anti-angiogenic factors. However, our findings also suggest that it may possibly be the excretion of these factors into the maternal circulation through the TP53-mediated early-stage apoptosis of trophoblasts that leads to the maternal symptoms of pre-eclampsia. PMID:21810232

  19. Health care provider knowledge and routine management of pre-eclampsia in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Sana; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Salam, Rehana; Vidler, Marianne; Sawchuck, Diane; von Dadelszen, Peter; Zaidi, Shujat; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2016-09-30

    Maternal mortality ratio is 276 per 100,000 live births in Pakistan. Eclampsia is responsible for one in every ten maternal deaths despite the fact that management of this disease is inexpensive and has been available for decades. Many studies have shown that health care providers in low and middle-income countries have limited training to manage patients with eclampsia. Hence, we aimed to explore the knowledge of different cadres of health care providers regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and current management practices. We conducted a mixed method study in the districts of Hyderabad and Matiari in Sindh province, Pakistan. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community health care providers, which included Lady Health Workers and their supervisors; traditional birth attendants and facility care providers. In total seven focus groups and 26 interviews were conducted. NVivo 10 was used for analysis and emerging themes and sub-themes were drawn. All participants were providing care for pregnant women for more than a decade except one traditional birth attendant and two doctors. The most common cause of pre-eclampsia mentioned by community health care providers was stress of daily life: the burden of care giving, physical workload, short birth spacing and financial constraints. All health care provider groups except traditional birth attendants correctly identified the signs, symptoms, and complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and were referring such women to tertiary health facilities. Only doctors were aware that magnesium sulphate is recommended for eclampsia management and prevention; however, they expressed fears regarding its use at first and secondary level health facilities. This study found several gaps in knowledge regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia among health care providers in Sindh. Findings suggest that lesser knowledge regarding management of pre-eclampsia

  20. PP172. Indian scenario of preeclampsia and its consequences and early prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, M C

    2012-07-01

    Preeclampsia remains one of the major obstetrical problems in less-developed countries. The causes of this condition are still unknown, we have designed a prevention protocol with new concept to describe the etiology and cause of preeclampsia. To study the effectiveness of the Jariwala's therapy and etiological causes of preeclapsia. we want to establish the new version of efficient prophylactic management to prevent the concequences of preeclampsia. We have selected 800 cases who have developed preeclampsia during any phase of pregnancy and tried to prevent the developing preeclampsia (predicted with roll over test, color doppler and weight gain and or edema) by Jariwala's protocol. our aim is to reduce the severity of disease process by early prediction and treatment. we have not included the cases who may have completely treated after the inclusion criteria to predict the preclampsia and treated. the inclusion criteris is strictly followed by a protocol designed. Jariwala's therapy is effective in mild to moderate cases of preeclampsia. Till date we have successfully treated 800 cases of mild to moderate preeclapsia with 98% neonates delivered with birth weight of 2kg and more, 92% neonates sent directly to home without any complication; and developed well at home. If we try to treat the blood pressure (during pregnancy) by anti hypertensive we have noticedà IUGR and rebound increase of blood pressure, means decrease maternal blood pressure à decrease placental supplyà deficient nutrientà rebound increase in toxin secretion (by fetus and placenta) à increase in blood pressure to supply more nutrient). So that it is my suggestion that the antihypertensive should be avoided if possible 2: increase permeability of placental membranes due to toxins secreted by fetus to supply more nutrient leads to increase permeability of placental membranes means increase protein loss from kidneys (due to toxins secreted from the fetus and placenta) increase third space

  1. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  2. Competing risks model in screening for preeclampsia by maternal factors and biomarkers at 11-13 weeks gestation.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Neil; Wright, David; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Wright, Alan; Poon, Leona C; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia affects approximately 3% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and death. In the last decade, extensive research has been devoted to early screening for preeclampsia with the aim of reducing the prevalence of the disease through pharmacologic intervention in the high-risk group starting from the first trimester of pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for preeclampsia based on maternal demographic characteristics and medical history (maternal factors) and biomarkers. The data for this study were derived from prospective screening for adverse obstetric outcomes in women who attended for their routine first hospital visit at 11-13 weeks gestation in 2 maternity hospitals in England. We screened 35,948 singleton pregnancies that included 1058 pregnancies (2.9%) that experienced preeclampsia. Bayes theorem was used to combine the a priori risk from maternal factors with various combinations of uterine artery pulsatility index, mean arterial pressure, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, and placental growth factor multiple of the median values. Five-fold cross validation was used to assess the performance of screening for preeclampsia that delivered at <37 weeks gestation (preterm-preeclampsia) and ≥37 weeks gestation (term-preeclampsia) by models that combined maternal factors with individual biomarkers and their combination with screening by maternal factors alone. In pregnancies that experienced preeclampsia, the values of uterine artery pulsatility index and mean arterial pressure were increased, and the values of serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and placental growth factor were decreased. For all biomarkers, the deviation from normal was greater for early than late preeclampsia; therefore, the performance of screening was related inversely to the gestational age at which delivery became necessary for maternal and/or fetal indications. Combined screening by maternal

  3. Leptin to adiponectin ratio in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess leptin/adiponectin ratio in preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total leptin and adiponectin were assessed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The one-way ANOVA and Student's t tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical calculations. Levels of leptin and adiponectin were also adjusted for BMI. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was increased significantly in preeclamptic patients. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was significantly higher in severe preeclamptic patient than in mild preeclampsia. Adjusted leptin/adiponectin ratio was also significantly increased in preeclamptic patients than in normal pregnant women. The findings of the present study suggest that the leptin/adiponectin ratio was increased in preeclamsia and imbalance between the adipocytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  4. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Can, Murat; Guven, Berrak; Bektas, Sibel; Arikan, Ilker

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidant status in preeclamptic placenta. Also, we investigated the apoptotic index of villous trophoblast and proliferation index of cytotrophoblasts. The study included 32 pregnant with preeclampsia and 31 normotensive healthy pregnant women. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were measured in the placenta. For detection of apoptosis and proliferation in trophoblast, apoptosis protease activating factor 1 (APAF-1) and Ki-67 were used. Placental MDA levels in preeclamptic women were significantly higher than normal pregnancies (p=0.002). There was no significant difference between the groups in the TAS levels of placenta (p=0.773). Also, the apoptotic index in villous trophoblasts increased (p<0.001), but proliferation index did not change in preeclampsia (p=0.850). Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in pathological placenta are not balanced by antioxidant systems and proliferation mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between pre-eclampsia and locally derived traffic-related air pollution: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gavin; Haggar, Fatima; Shand, Antonia W; Bower, Carol; Cook, Angus; Nassar, Natasha

    2013-02-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common complication of pregnancy and is a major cause of fetal-maternal mortality and morbidity. Despite a number of plausible mechanisms by which air pollutants might contribute to this process, few studies have investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and traffic emissions, a major contributor to air pollution in urban areas. The authors investigated the association between traffic-related air pollution and risk of pre-eclampsia in a maternal population in the urban centre of Perth, Western Australia. The authors estimated maternal residential exposure to a marker for traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, NO(2)) during pregnancy for 23 452 births using temporally adjusted land-use regression. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations with pre-eclampsia. Each IQR increase in levels of traffic-related air pollution in whole pregnancy and third trimester was associated with a 12% (1%-25%) and 30% (7%-58%) increased risk of pre-eclampsia, respectively. The largest effect sizes were observed for women aged younger than 20 years or 40 years or older, aboriginal women and women with pre-existing and gestational diabetes, for whom an IQR increase in traffic-related air pollution in whole pregnancy was associated with a 34% (5%-72%), 35% (0%-82%) and 53% (7%-219%) increase in risk of pre-eclampsia, respectively. Elevated exposure to traffic-related air pollution in pregnancy was associated with increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Effect sizes were highest for elevated exposures in third trimester and among younger and older women, aboriginal women and women with diabetes.

  6. A prospective study of maternal carboxyhaemoglobin and pre-eclampsia risk.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Carole B; Williams, Michelle A; Schiff, Melissa A; Koenig, Jane Q; Dills, Russell; Yu, Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to measure the relationship between early-pregnancy maternal carboxyhaemoglobin and subsequent pre-eclampsia risk. A nested case-control analysis was conducted using data from a western Washington State cohort study (1996-2004). We measured maternal whole blood carboxyhaemoglobin in 128 women who developed pre-eclampsia and 419 normotensive controls (mean gestational age at blood draw, 14.8 weeks). After adjustment for confounders, high (>/=1%) vs. low (<0.7%) carboxyhaemoglobin odds ratios [OR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were 4.09 [1.30, 12.9] in multiparous women, 0.53 [0.23, 1.26] in primiparae and 1.11 [0.55, 2.25] in the overall study population (parity interaction P = 0.01). The influence of parity on the association was unexpected. The association between high carboxyhaemoglobin and pre-eclampsia risk in multiparae implicates hypoxia at the fetal-maternal interface as a pathogenic mechanism. These results also suggest that the aetiology of the disease may differ according to parity.

  7. Association of Maternal Preeclampsia With Infant Risk of Premature Birth and Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P < .001), severe ROP (aOR, 5.21; 95% CI, 3.44-7.91; P < .001), infant death (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.16-2.38; P = .006), and giving birth to a P-VLBW infant (aOR, 7.74; 95% CI, 6.92-8.67; P < .001). In the P-VLBW subcohort, preeclampsia was inversely associated with the development of all ROP (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P = .003), severe ROP (aOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.36-1.06; P = .08), and infant death (aOR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.11-0.32; P < .001). Preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of developing ROP among an unrestricted cohort but with a reduced risk of ROP among a restricted subcohort of P-VLBW infants. Although the conflicting associations in the full and P-VLBW cohorts

  8. Evaluation of current and new biomarkers in severe preeclampsia: a microarray approach reveals the VSIG4 gene as a potential blood biomarker.

    PubMed

    Textoris, Julien; Ivorra, Delphine; Ben Amara, Amira; Sabatier, Florence; Ménard, Jean-Pierre; Heckenroth, Hélène; Bretelle, Florence; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a placental disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women, and it is associated with a high maternal and neonatal morbidity. However, circulating biomarkers that are able to predict the prognosis of preeclampsia are lacking. Thirty-eight women were included in the current study. They consisted of 19 patients with preeclampsia (13 with severe preeclampsia and 6 with non-severe preeclampsia) and 19 gestational age-matched women with normal pregnancies as controls. We measured circulating factors that are associated with the coagulation pathway (including fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor VIII, antithrombin, protein S and protein C), endothelial activation (such as soluble endoglin and CD146), and the release of total and platelet-derived microparticles. These markers enabled us to discriminate the preeclampsia condition from a normal pregnancy but were not sufficient to distinguish severe from non-severe preeclampsia. We then used a microarray to study the transcriptional signature of blood samples. Preeclampsia patients exhibited a specific transcriptional program distinct from that of the control group of women. Interestingly, we also identified a severity-related transcriptional signature. Functional annotation of the upmodulated signature in severe preeclampsia highlighted two main functions related to "ribosome" and "complement". Finally, we identified 8 genes that were specifically upmodulated in severe preeclampsia compared with non-severe preeclampsia and the normotensive controls. Among these genes, we identified VSIG4 as a potential diagnostic marker of severe preeclampsia. The determination of this gene may improve the prognostic assessment of severe preeclampsia.

  9. Altered Global Gene Expression in First Trimester Placentas of Women Destined to Develop Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Founds, Sandra A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Lyons-Weiler, James F.; Jeyabalan, Arun; Hogge, W. Allen; Conrad, Kirk P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that remains a leading cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is associated with risk for future cardiovascular disease. There are no reliable predictors, specific preventative measures or treatments other than delivery. A widely-held view is that the antecedents of preeclampsia lie with impaired placentation in early pregnancy. Accordingly, we hypothesized dysregulation of global gene expression in first trimester placentas of women who later manifested preeclampsia. Methods Surplus chorionic villus sampling (CVS) tissues were collected at 10–12 weeks gestation in 160 patients with singleton fetuses. Four patients developed preeclampsia, and their banked CVS specimens were matched to 8 control samples from patients with unaffected pregnancies. Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips were utilized for microarray analysis. Naïve Bayes prediction modeling and pathway analysis were conducted. qRT-PCR examined three of the dysregulated genes. Results Thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified in the preeclampsia placentas. qRT-PCR verified the microarray analysis. Thirty-one genes were down-regulated. Many were related to inflammation/immunoregulation and cell motility. Decidual gene dysregulation was prominent. No evidence was found for alterations in hypoxia and oxidative stress regulated genes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show dysregulation of gene expression in the early placentas of women ~6 months before developing preeclampsia, thereby reinforcing a placental origin of the disorder. We hypothesize that placentation in preeclampsia is compromised in the first trimester by maternal and fetal immune dysregulation, abnormal decidualization, or both, thereby impairing trophoblast invasion. Several of the genes provide potential targets for the development of clinical biomarkers in maternal blood during the first trimester. Supplementary

  10. Pre-eclampsia and first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes: a Danish population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, V.; Laursen, T. M.; Johannsen, B. M. W.; Kushner, S. A.; Meltzer-Brody, S.; Munk-Olsen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that postpartum psychiatric episodes may share similar etiological mechanisms with immune-related disorders. Pre-eclampsia is one of the most prevalent immune-related disorders of pregnancy. Multiple clinical features are shared between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric disorders, most prominently a strong link to first pregnancies. Therefore, we aimed to study if pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. Method We conducted a cohort study using the Danish population registry, with a total of 400 717 primiparous women with a singleton delivery between 1995 and 2011. First-lifetime childbirth was the main exposure variable and the outcome of interest was first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. The main outcome measures were monthly incidence rate ratios (IRRs), with the period 11–12 months after birth as the reference category. Adjustments were made for age, calendar period, reproductive history, and perinatal maternal health including somatic and obstetric co-morbidity. Results Primiparous women were at particularly high risk of first-onset psychiatric episodes during the first month postpartum [IRR 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.53–3.40] and pre-eclampsia added to that risk (IRR 4.21, 95% CI 2.89–6.13). Having both pre-eclampsia and a somatic co-morbidity resulted in the highest risk of psychiatric episodes during the 3-month period after childbirth (IRR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72–8.50). Conclusions We confirmed an association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric episodes. The possible explanations for this association, which are not mutually exclusive, include the psychological impact of a serious medical condition such as pre-eclampsia and the neurobiological impact of pre-eclampsia-related vascular pathology and inflammation. PMID:26243040

  11. The prediction of late-onset preeclampsia: Results from a longitudinal proteomics study

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Maymon, Eli; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Done, Bogdan; Pacora, Percy; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Late-onset preeclampsia is the most prevalent phenotype of this syndrome; nevertheless, only a few biomarkers for its early diagnosis have been reported. We sought to correct this deficiency using a high through-put proteomic platform. Methods A case-control longitudinal study was conducted, including 90 patients with normal pregnancies and 76 patients with late-onset preeclampsia (diagnosed at ≥34 weeks of gestation). Maternal plasma samples were collected throughout gestation (normal pregnancy: 2–6 samples per patient, median of 2; late-onset preeclampsia: 2–6, median of 5). The abundance of 1,125 proteins was measured using an aptamers-based proteomics technique. Protein abundance in normal pregnancies was modeled using linear mixed-effects models to estimate mean abundance as a function of gestational age. Data was then expressed as multiples of-the-mean (MoM) values in normal pregnancies. Multi-marker prediction models were built using data from one of five gestational age intervals (8–16, 16.1–22, 22.1–28, 28.1–32, 32.1–36 weeks of gestation). The predictive performance of the best combination of proteins was compared to placental growth factor (PIGF) using bootstrap. Results 1) At 8–16 weeks of gestation, the best prediction model included only one protein, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7), that had a sensitivity of 69% at a false positive rate (FPR) of 20% (AUC = 0.76); 2) at 16.1–22 weeks of gestation, MMP-7 was the single best predictor of late-onset preeclampsia with a sensitivity of 70% at a FPR of 20% (AUC = 0.82); 3) after 22 weeks of gestation, PlGF was the best predictor of late-onset preeclampsia, identifying 1/3 to 1/2 of the patients destined to develop this syndrome (FPR = 20%); 4) 36 proteins were associated with late-onset preeclampsia in at least one interval of gestation (after adjustment for covariates); 5) several biological processes, such as positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor

  12. Increased maternal and fetal cholesterol efflux capacity and placental CYP27A1 expression in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Mansour, Yosef T; Zurkinden, Line; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition that leads to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. A decrease in cholesterol efflux capacity is linked to CVD. We hypothesized that in preeclampsia there would be a disruption of maternal/fetal plasma to efflux cholesterol, as well as differences in the concentrations of both placental sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) and apoA1 binding protein (AIBP). Total, HDL-, and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol effluxes were performed with maternal and fetal plasma from women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls (both n = 17). apoA1 and apoE were quantified by chemiluminescence, and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) by GC-MS. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine placental expression/localization of CYP27A1, AIBP, apoA1, apoE, and SRB1. Maternal and fetal total and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities were increased in preeclampsia (by 10-20%), but ABCA1-mediated efflux was decreased (by 20-35%; P < 0.05). Maternal and fetal apoE concentrations were higher in preeclampsia. Fetal plasma 27-OHC levels were decreased in preeclamptic samples ( P < 0.05). Placental protein expression of both CYP27A1 and AIBP were localized around fetal vessels and significantly increased in preeclampsia ( P = 0.04). Placental 27-OHC concentrations were also raised in preeclampsia ( P < 0.05). Increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity and placental CYP27A1/27-OHC could be a rescue mechanism in preeclampsia, to remove cholesterol from cells to limit lipid peroxidation and increase placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Maternal periodontal disease and preeclampsia in Jaipur population

    PubMed Central

    Jaiman, Girija; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Sharma, Sanu; Nagpal, Kiran

    2018-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is identified as an important cause for mother and newborn mortality. Inspite of extensive research, the exact etiological relations have not been established. Hence, an attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the relationship between the preeclampsia and maternal periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: The case–control study comprised of thirty pregnant women distributed equally in the case (preeclampsia) and control (healthy) group. Gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, clinical probing depth, and clinical attachment level were measured in both groups. Microbiologic examination for identification of one red complex organism Porphyromonas gingivalis and one orange complex organism Fusobacterium nucleatum were done in plaque and placental blood of cases and controls. The clinical examinations and collection of placental blood were done 24 h before delivery. Results: Periodontal condition in the preeclamptic women was statistically worse compared with the normotensive women. There was no statistically significant association between microorganisms in plaque and placental blood between normotensive control and preeclamptic pregnant women. The preeclamptic women had significantly higher chances of having newborns weighing <2.5 kg than the normotensive women. Conclusion: The preeclamptic women were associated with significantly higher periodontitis and lower fetal birth weight than normotensive women. PMID:29568173

  14. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and coefficients of variation in pregnant women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Menezes de Oliveira, Alane Cabral; Albuquerque Santos, Arianne; Rodrigues Bezerra, Alexandra; Machado Tavares, Myrian Cicyanne; Rocha de Barros, Amanda Maria; Costa Ferreira, Raphaela

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress appears to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Evidence suggests that adequate intake of antioxidants can modulate this condition. The objective of this study was to assess the intake of antioxidant nutrients and coefficients of variation in pregnant women with preeclampsia. In a cross-sectional study in the public health network of the city of Maceió, Brazil, a dietary survey was performed consisting of 24-hour food recalls, with subsequent adjustment of nutrients using the estimated average requirement as the cutoff point, and a questionnaire on frequency of consumption of antioxidants. We studied 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia (PWP) and 90 pregnant women without preeclampsia (PWoP) with mean ages of 25.8±6.7 years and 24.1±6.2 years (p=0.519), respectively. A low mean intake of antioxidants (vitamin A, selenium, zinc and copper) was observed in both PWP and PWoP, although intakes of vitamin A (p=0.045) and selenium (p=0.008) were higher in PWoP. In addition, we observed high coefficients of variation in nutrient intakes in both groups, which were higher for vitamin C (p<0.001), vitamin A (p=0.006) and copper (p=0.005) in PWP. Consumption of antioxidant nutrients by pregnant women with preeclampsia is inadequate, with considerable daily variations in intake, which points to a need for nutrition education strategies aimed at improving intakes, because diet is without doubt a key factor in the modulation of oxidative stress caused by preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia: reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; van Rijn, Bas B; Westerveld, H Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W; Fauser, Bart C J M; Goverde, Angelique J

    2010-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable metabolic constitution in women may present itself early in life as a reproductive complication, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and preeclampsia. We evaluated the cardiovascular risk of women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and women with PCOS and assessed their need for implementation of early risk factor-reduction strategies. We performed a standardized evaluation of 240 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 456 women diagnosed with PCOS for established major CVD risk factors. Metabolic syndrome characteristics were analyzed per body mass index category. Mean age was 30.6 and 29.0 years for women with preeclampsia and PCOS, respectively. High percentages of metabolic syndrome were found in both groups (preeclampsia group, 14.6%; and PCOS group, 18.4%), with an incidence of greater than 50% in both groups of women if body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m. Overall, more than 90% of the women qualified for either lifestyle or medical intervention according to the American Heart Association guideline for CVD prevention in women. Women with PCOS and early-onset preeclampsia already show an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile with high need for lifestyle or medical intervention at a young age. We therefore recommend an active role of the gynecologist in routine screening and follow-up of women with reproductive conditions linked to future cardiovascular risk.

  16. The genetics of pre-eclampsia and other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paula J.; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the most frequent medical complication occurring during pregnancy. In this chapter, we aim to address the genetic contribution to these disorders, with specific focus on pre-eclampsia. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying pre-eclampsia remain to be elucidated; however, immune maladaptation, inadequate placental development and trophoblast invasion, placental ischaemia, oxidative stress and thrombosis are all thought to represent key factors in the development of disease. Furthermore, all of these components have genetic factors that may be involved in the pathogenic changes occurring. The familial nature of pre-eclampsia has been known for many years and, as such, extensive genetic research has been carried out in this area using strategies that include candidate gene studies and linkage analysis. Interactions between fetal and maternal genotypes, the effect of environmental factors, and epistasis will also be considered. PMID:21429808

  17. Differences in preeclampsia rates between African American and Caucasian women: trends from the National Hospital Discharge Survey.

    PubMed

    Breathett, Khadijah; Muhlestein, David; Foraker, Randi; Gulati, Martha

    2014-11-01

    African Americans are at higher risk for preeclampsia compared with Caucasians, but longitudinal changes are unknown. We hypothesized that preeclampsia rates among African Americans would be higher than that of Caucasians and over time would maintain a consistent divergence. We analyzed the annual prevalence rates and calculated prevalence odds ratios (POR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for preeclampsia comparing 4,644 African American (weighted 608,109) with 12,131 Caucasian (weighted 1,844,391) women from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (1979-2006), including all women for whom a delivery was associated with preeclampsia. We estimated the race-specific prevalence of preeclampsia while adjusting for age, geographic region, diabetes, essential hypertension, prior myocardial infarction, heart failure, benign essential hypertension complicating a pregnancy, transient hypertension, and gestational diabetes. There was an increasing trend in preeclampsia rates per year from 1979 to 2006 for African Americans [POR 0.76 (95% CI 0.49, 1.03)] and Caucasians [0.29 (95% CI 0.17, 0.41)]. However, there was an initial decrease in prevalence from 1979-1988 among African-Americans [-0.96 (95% CI -1.78, -0.14)] that was not seen in Caucasians [0.12 (95% CI -0.33, 0.57)]. Across all study years, preeclampsia rates remained higher for African Americans compared to Caucasians, from a POR of 0.98 (95% CI 0.96, 1.0) to POR of 1.75 (95% CI 1.73, 1.78). There was an increase in the prevalence of preeclampsia in African Americans compared to Caucasians in the most recent decade under study. This may be explained by healthcare system changes and disparities in obesity. Action is needed to reduce the trajectory of future cardiovascular disease caused by preeclampsia.

  18. Intake of probiotic food and risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Myhre, Ronny; Haugen, Margaretha; Myking, Solveig; Sengpiel, Verena; Magnus, Per; Jacobsson, Bo; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2011-10-01

    Probiotics have been suggested to modify placental trophoblast inflammation, systemic inflammation, and blood pressure, all potentially interesting aspects of preeclampsia. The authors examined the association between consumption of milk-based probiotic products in pregnancy and development of preeclampsia and its subtypes. The study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using a prospective design in 33,399 primiparous women in the years 2002-2008. The intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli was estimated from a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Preeclampsia diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Intake of probiotic milk products was associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia. The association was most prominent in severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 0.96). With probiotic intakes divided into categories representing no, monthly, weekly, or daily intake, a lower risk for preeclampsia (all subtypes) was observed for daily probiotic intake (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96). Lower risks for severe preeclampsia were observed for weekly (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.98) and daily (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.89) intakes. These results suggest that regular consumption of milk-based probiotics could be associated with lower risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women.

  19. Significantly higher number of fetal cells in the maternal circulation of women with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M W; Korver-Hakkennes, K; van Leenen, D; Visser, W; in 't Veld, P A; de Groot, C J; Wladimiroff, J W

    2001-12-01

    Although the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia is unknown, several studies have indicated that abnormal placentation early in pregnancy might play a key role. It has recently been suggested that this abnormal placentation may result in transfusion of fetal cells (feto-maternal transfusion) in women with pre-eclampsia. In the present study, fetal nucleated red blood cells were isolated from 20 women with pre-eclampsia and 20 controls using a very efficient magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) protocol. The number of male cells was determined using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes. Significantly more XY cells could be detected in women with pre-eclampsia (0.61+/-1.2 XY cells/ml blood) compared to women with uncomplicated pregnancies (0.02+/-0.04 XY cells/ml blood) (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.001). These results suggest that fetal cell trafficking is enhanced in women with pre-eclampsia, and this finding may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  1. Large scale aggregate microarray analysis reveals three distinct molecular subclasses of human preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Leavey, Katherine; Bainbridge, Shannon A; Cox, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a life-threatening hypertensive pathology of pregnancy affecting 3-5% of all pregnancies. To date, PE has no cure, early detection markers, or effective treatments short of the removal of what is thought to be the causative organ, the placenta, which may necessitate a preterm delivery. Additionally, numerous small placental microarray studies attempting to identify "PE-specific" genes have yielded inconsistent results. We therefore hypothesize that preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease encompassing several pathology subclasses, and that large cohort placental gene expression analysis will reveal these groups. To address our hypothesis, we utilized known bioinformatic methods to aggregate 7 microarray data sets across multiple platforms in order to generate a large data set of 173 patient samples, including 77 with preeclampsia. Unsupervised clustering of these patient samples revealed three distinct molecular subclasses of PE. This included a "canonical" PE subclass demonstrating elevated expression of known PE markers and genes associated with poor oxygenation and increased secretion, as well as two other subclasses potentially representing a poor maternal response to pregnancy and an immunological presentation of preeclampsia. Our analysis sheds new light on the heterogeneity of PE patients, and offers up additional avenues for future investigation. Hopefully, our subclassification of preeclampsia based on molecular diversity will finally lead to the development of robust diagnostics and patient-based treatments for this disorder.

  2. Consumption of chocolate in pregnant women and risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Boivin, Catherine; Philippe, Kadhel; Turcotte, Stéphane; Lemieux, Simone; Blanchet, Claudine; Bujold, Emmanuel; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-12-20

    Previous studies have been limited in reporting the association between chocolate consumption, measured by interviewer-administered questionnaire or serum theobromine, a biomarker for cocoa, and risk of preeclampsia, and have showed somewhat conflicting results. A systematic review of observational and experimental studies will be carried out. We will examine PubMed, Embase, and the entire Cochrane Library. Studies of chocolate consumption compared or not with placebo or low flavanol chocolate during pregnancy will be evaluated to investigate the effect of chocolate consumption in pregnant women on the risk of preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Screening for inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment will be performed independently by two reviewers in consultation with a third reviewer. Validity of the studies will be ascertained by using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Relative risk of preeclampsia will be the primary measure of treatment effect. Heterogeneity will be explored by subgroup analysis according to confounding factors and bias. This systematic review will contribute to establish the current state of knowledge concerning the possible association between chocolate consumption and prevention of preeclampsia. Furthermore, it will justify if additional experimental trials are necessary to better evaluate the benefits of chocolate consumption on the risk of preeclampsia. This systematic review has been registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews. The registration number is: CRD42013005338.

  3. [Changes in the thrombophilic status in patients with pre-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Baptista-González, H A; Rosenfeld-Mann, F; Saavedra-Trejo, M R; Castro-López, J L; Peñuela-Olaya, M A

    1999-04-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the changes in fibrinolysis and clotting inhibitors in patients with preeclampsia and to describe the connection between preeclampsia and blood pressure values. Two groups of pregnant women were prospectively studied at delivery: group 1 women without preeclampsia and group 2 patients with preeclampsia. The variables that were registered are: diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (Plt), lupus like inhibitor, anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), fibronectina, D dimer, protein S (PS), protein C (PC) and vo Willebrand factor (vWF). 62 pregnant women were included. The patients of group 2 presented high values of Hb (p 0.01), fibronectin (p 0.0001), D-dimer (p 0.01) and lower PC (p 0.04). We found an association between fibronectin and higher values of SBP, DBP, MBP and Hb (p 0.0007) versus lower values of VFW and PC (p 0.002). The low values of total PS were associated with high D-dimer and SBP results (p 0.04 and 0.002 respectively). All patients were ACA/ANA negative. In preclampsia there is a increased hemoconcentration and drop in clotting inhibitors (PC), without fibrinolytic compensatory response (lower D-dimer) and remarked vasopressive effect (hig fibronectin). This changes depend on the stratification of blood pressure. Th SBP and MBP values depend on the haemodynamic changes (Hb, fibronectin), while the increase in DBP expresses a non compensated thrombophilic state.

  4. Diagnostic Performance of Placental Growth Factor in Women With Suspected Preeclampsia Attending Antenatal Facilities in Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ukah, U Vivian; Mbofana, Francisco; Rocha, Beatriz Manriquez; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Mudenyanga, Chishamiso; Usta, Momade; Urso, Marilena; Drebit, Sharla; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    In well-resourced settings, reduced circulating maternal-free placental growth factor (PlGF) aids in either predicting or confirming the diagnosis of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, preterm birth, and delivery within 14 days of testing when preeclampsia is suspected. This blinded, prospective cohort study of maternal plasma PlGF in women with suspected preeclampsia was conducted in antenatal clinics in Maputo, Mozambique. The primary outcome was the clinic-to-delivery interval. Other outcomes included: confirmed diagnosis of preeclampsia, transfer to higher care, mode of delivery, intrauterine fetal death, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Of 696 women, 95 (13.6%) and 601 (86.4%) women had either low (<100 pg/mL) or normal (≥100 pg/mL) plasma PlGF, respectively. The clinic-to-delivery interval was shorter in low PlGF, compared with normal PlGF, women (median 24 days [interquartile range, 10-49] versus 44 [24-81], P =0.0042). Also, low PlGF was associated with a confirmed diagnosis of preeclampsia, higher blood pressure, transfer for higher care, earlier gestational age delivery, delivery within 7 and 14 days, preterm birth, cesarean delivery, lower birth weight, and perinatal loss. In urban Mozambican women with symptoms or signs suggestive of preeclampsia, low maternal plasma PlGF concentrations are associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, whether the diagnosis of preeclampsia is confirmed. Therefore, PlGF should improve the provision of precision medicine to individual women and improve pregnancy outcomes for those with preeclampsia or related placenta-mediated complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Expectant management of preterm preeclampsia in Indonesia and the role of steroids.

    PubMed

    Ernawati; Gumilar, Erry; Kuntoro; Soeroso, Joewono; Dekker, Gus

    2016-01-01

    To present the outcome of expectant management of preterm preeclampsia in Indonesia, and the effect of ongoing treatment with methylprednisolone (MP) on maternal and perinatal outcome. Prospective RCT on 48 patients with early-onset preeclampsia. Following the administration of dexamethasone for fetal lung maturation, patients were randomized to receive 25 mg MP group IV for the first week, decreasing to 12.5 mg during 2nd week and continued till birth, or matching IV placebo treatment (PL group). Prolongation of entry to delivery interval served as primary outcome measurement. The average time gained with expectant management was almost 14 days. However, there was no difference of mean time interval between entry to delivery between the PL (13.8 days) and MP (13.7 days) groups. Antenatal ongoing treatment with IV MP also did not improve maternal and/or perinatal outcome and might be associated with a higher risk for severe maternal infections--in particular tuberculosis. Expectant management of preterm preeclampsia is a realistic option in a major Indonesian perinatal referral center. Steroids (outside the use for fetal lung maturation) should not be used in the expectant management of preterm preeclampsia in Indonesia.

  6. GENETIC VARIANTS, IMMUNE FUNCTION AND RISK OF PRE-ECLAMPSIA AMONG AMERICAN INDIANS

    PubMed Central

    Best, Lyle G.; Nadeau, Melanie; Davis, Kylie; Lamb, Felicia; Bercier, Shellee; Anderson, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence in an American Indian population of genetic variants with putative effects on immune function and determine if they are associated with pre-eclampsia. Methods In a study of 66 cases and 130 matched controls, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with either previously demonstrated or postulated modulating effects on the immune system were genotyped. Allele frequencies and various genetic models were evaluated by conditional logistic regression in both univariate and multiply adjusted models. Results Although most genetic variants lacked evidence of association with pre-eclampsia, the minor allele of the CRP related, rs1205 SNP in a dominant model with adjustment for age at delivery, nulliparity and body mass index, exhibited an odds ratio of 0.259 (95% CI of 0.08 – 0.81, p=0.020) in relation to severe pre-eclampsia (48 cases). The allelic prevalence of this variant was 46.1% in this population. Conclusion Of the six SNPs related to immune function in this study, a functional variant in the 3'UTR of the CRP gene was shown to be associated with severe pre-eclampsia in an American Indian population. PMID:22004660

  7. Circulating and Placental Growth-Differentiation Factor 15 in Preeclampsia and in Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sugulle, Meryam; Dechend, Ralf; Herse, Florian; Weedon-Fekjaer, M. Susanne; Johnsen, Guro M.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget; Anton, Lauren; Luft, Friedrich C.; Wollert, Kai C.; Kempf, Tibor; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), a stress-responsive transforming growth factor-β–related cytokine, is emerging as a new risk marker in patients with cardiovascular disease. We explored GDF-15 in preeclampsia and in diabetic pregnancies, because these conditions are associated with augmented risk for cardiovascular disease, both in mother and in offspring. Plasma from pregnant women (n=267; controls: n=59, preeclampsia: n=85, diabetes mellitus: n=112, and superimposed preeclampsia in diabetes mellitus: n=11), fetal plasma (n=72), and amniotic fluid (n=99) were analyzed by immunoassay for GDF-15. Placental GDF-15 mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblots in 78 and 18 pregnancies, respectively. Conditioned media from preeclamptic (n=6) and control (n=6) villous placenta explants were analyzed by immunoassay for GDF-15. Median maternal GDF-15 concentration was elevated in those with diabetes mellitus, as compared with controls (91 549 versus 79 875 ng/L; P=0.02). Median GDF-15 concentration was higher in patients with preeclampsia than in controls in term maternal blood samples (127 061 versus 80 319 ng/L; P<0.001). In the fetal circulation and amniotic fluid, GDF-15 was elevated in preeclampsia and superimposed preeclampsia in diabetes mellitus, as compared with controls. GDF-15 placental mRNA expression was elevated in preeclampsia, as compared with controls (P=0.002). Placenta immunoblots confirmed a single GDF-15 protein band, and a time-dependent increase in GDF-15 protein was detected in the conditioned media. Our study is the first to show that GDF-15 is dysregulated, both in preeclampsia and in diabetic pregnancies. The mechanisms and diagnostic implications of these findings remain to be explored. PMID:19470878

  8. Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

    2014-01-09

    Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities.

  9. Upregulation of cathepsin C expression contributes to endothelial chymase activation in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang; Lewis, David F; Alexander, J Steven; Wang, Yuping

    2017-12-01

    Chymase is an ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme)-independent angiotensin II-forming enzyme whose expression is increased in the maternal vascular endothelium in preeclampsia. However, mechanisms underlying chymase activation in preeclampsia remain unclear. Cathepsin C is a key enzyme in the activation of several serine proteases including chymase. In this study, we determined whether increased cathepsin C expression/activity might be responsible for the upregulation of chymase expression in preeclampsia. Maternal vascular cathepsin C, chymase and ACE expression were examined through immunohistochemical staining of subcutaneous fat tissue sections of normal and preeclamptic pregnant women. The role of cathepsin C in endothelial chymase and ACE expression was determined in cells treated with cathepsin C. Consequences of chymase activation were then determined by measurement of angiotensin II production in cells treated with the ACE inhibitor captopril and the chymase inhibitor chymostatin, separately and in combination. Expression of both cathepsin C and chymase, but not ACE expression, was markedly increased in the maternal vascular endothelium in subjects with preeclampsia compared with normal pregnant controls. Exogenous cathepsin C induced a dose-dependent increase in expression of mature cathepsin C and chymase, but not ACE, in endothelial cells. Moreover, angiotensin II production was significantly inhibited in cells treated with captopril or chymostatin alone and was further inhibited in cells treated with both inhibitors. These results suggest that cathepsin C upregulation induces chymase activation and subsequently promotes angiotensin II generation in endothelial cells. These data also provide evidence of upregulation of the cathepsin C-chymase-angiotensin signaling axis in maternal vasculature in preeclampsia.

  10. Markers of insulin resistance and sedentary lifestyle are predictors of preeclampsia in women with adverse obstetric results.

    PubMed

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Benchimol-Barbosa, P R

    2011-12-01

    Some thrombophilias and severe preeclampsia may increase the risk for preterm deliveries and fetal death due to placental insufficiency. Our objective was to evaluate clinical and laboratory data as predictors of preeclampsia in a population of mothers with 3rd trimester fetal losses or preterm deliveries. In a longitudinal retrospective study, 54 consecutive women (age range: 16 to 39 years) with normotensive pregnancies were compared to 79 consecutive women with preeclampsia (age range: 16 to 43 years). Weight accrual rate (WAR) was arbitrarily defined as weight gain from age 18 years to the beginning of pregnancy divided by elapsed years. Independent predictors of preeclampsia were past history of oligomenorrhea, WAR >0.8 kg/years, pre-pregnancy or 1st trimester triglyceridemia >150 mg/dL, and elevated acanthosis nigricans in the neck. In a multivariate logistic regression model, two or more predictors conferred an odds ratio of 15 (95%CI [5.9-37]; P < 0.001) to develop preeclampsia (85% specificity, 73% sensitivity, c-statistic of 81 ± 4%; P < 0.0001). Clinical markers related to insulin resistance and sedentary lifestyles are strong independent predictors of preeclampsia in mothers with 3rd trimester fetal losses or preterm deliveries due to placental insufficiency. Women at risk for preeclampsia in this particular population might benefit from measures focused on overcoming insulin resistance.

  11. Existence of compensatory defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and hypertension in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Roland, L; Gagné, A; Bélanger, M-C; Boutet, M; Berthiaume, L; Fraser, W D; Julien, P; Bilodeau, J-F

    2010-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex obstetrical syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. This syndrome is associated with oxidative stress, antioxidant imbalance and impaired production of vasoactive eicosanoids such as thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), a potent vasoconstrictor, and prostacyclin (PGI(2)), a well-known vasodilator. We hypothesized that there was a relationship between antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamin E and coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)), and the production of vasoactive eicosanoids- PGI(2) and TXA(2)-potentially regulated by pro-oxidants and antioxidants in preeclampsia. Therefore, the plasma levels of vitamin E, CoQ(10), TXA(2) and PGI(2) in normotensive (n = 30) and preeclamptic (n = 29) pregnancies were evaluated. Reduced and oxidized forms of vitamin E and CoQ(10) in blood were measured using a HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection. The levels of TXB(2) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), stable metabolites of TXA(2) and PGI(2) respectively, were measured by ELISA. The CoQ(10) oxidized/reduced ratio was significantly higher in preeclamptic compared to normotensive pregnancies (p = 0.04). A strong correlation between plasma levels of reduced vitamin E and CoQ(10), corrected for apolipoprotein B, was observed only in preeclampsia (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001). The 6-keto-PGF(1alpha)/TXB(2) ratio was higher in preeclampsia than in controls (p = 0.02), and this ratio was correlated to the oxidized/reduced ratio of both, vitamin E and CoQ(10) in all pregnancies (p <0.023). The data indicated that CoQ(10) is a sensitive marker of oxidative stress in preeclampsia. The correlation between vitamin E and CoQ(10) suggested a coordinated defense mechanism against oxidation. Furthermore, the higher 6-keto-PGF(1alpha)/TXB(2) ratio that strongly correlated with oxidative stress markers, suggests a mechanism developed by the maternal cardiovascular system to counteract hypertension during preeclampsia.

  12. Cyclosporin A significantly improves preeclampsia signs and suppresses inflammation in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bihui; Yang, Jinying; Huang, Qian; Bao, Junjie; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increased inflammatory response. Immune suppression might be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, improves clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and suppresses inflammation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced preeclampsia rat model. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (PE) rats each received LPS via tail vein on gestational day (GD) 14; group 2 (PE+CsA5) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (5mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 3 (PE+CsA10) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (10mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 4 (pregnant control, PC) rats were treated with the vehicle (saline) used for groups 1, 2 and 3. Systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, biometric parameters and the levels of serum cytokines were measured on day 20. CsA treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced systolic blood pressure and the mean 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the LPS treatment group but were reduced in (LPS+CsA) group (P<0.05). Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 was decreased in the LPS group but was increased in (LPS+CsA) group (P<0.05). Cyclosporine A improved preeclampsia signs and attenuated inflammatory responses in the LPS induced preeclampsia rat model which suggests that immunosuppressant might be an alternative management option for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective Low-Frequency Variants for Preeclampsia in the Fms Related Tyrosine Kinase 1 Gene in the Finnish Population.

    PubMed

    Lokki, A Inkeri; Daly, Emma; Triebwasser, Michael; Kurki, Mitja I; Roberson, Elisha D O; Häppölä, Paavo; Auro, Kirsi; Perola, Markus; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Salmon, Jane E; Meri, Seppo; Daly, Mark; Atkinson, John P; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy-specific vascular disorder characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. Predisposition to preeclampsia is in part heritable. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. We have sequenced 124 candidate genes implicated in preeclampsia to pinpoint genetic variants contributing to predisposition to or protection from preeclampsia. First, targeted exomic sequencing was performed in 500 preeclamptic women and 190 controls from the FINNPEC cohort (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium). Then 122 women with a history of preeclampsia and 1905 parous women with no such history from the National FINRISK Study (a large Finnish population survey on risk factors of chronic, noncommunicable diseases) were included in the analyses. We tested 146 rare and low-frequency variants and found an excess (observed 13 versus expected 7.3) nominally associated with preeclampsia ( P <0.05). The most significantly associated sequence variants were protective variants rs35832528 (E982A; P =2.49E-4; odds ratio=0.387) and rs141440705 (R54S; P =0.003; odds ratio=0.442) in Fms related tyrosine kinase 1. These variants are enriched in the Finnish population with minor allele frequencies 0.026 and 0.017, respectively. They may also be associated with a lower risk of heart failure in 11 257 FINRISK women. This study provides the first evidence of maternal protective genetic variants in preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN EARLY AND LATE ONSET PRE-ECLAMPSIA AMONG GHANAIAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, P W; Adu-Bonsaffoh, K; Antwi-Boasiako, C; Antwi, D A; Gyan, B; Obed, S A

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem pregnancy-related disorder with multiple theories regarding its aetiology resulting in lack of reliable screening tests and well-established measures for primary prevention. However, oxidative stress is increasingly being implicated in the pathogenesi of pre-eclampsia although conflicting findings have been reported. To determine and compare the levels of oxidative stress in early and late onset pre-eclampsia by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant power (TAP) in a cohort of pre-eclamptic women at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana involving pre-eclamptic women between the ages 18 and 45 years who gave written informed consent. Urinary isoprostane levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit whereas the Total Anti-oxidant Power in urine samples was determined using Total Antioxidant Power Colorimetric Microplate Assay kit. The data obtained were analyzed using MEGASTAT statistical software package. We included 102 pre-eclamptic women comprising 68 (66.7%) and 34 (33.3%) with early-onset and late-onset pre-eclampsia respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean maternal age, haematological indices, serum ALT, AST, ALT, albumin, urea, creatinine uric acid and total protein at the time of diagnosis. The mean gestational age at diagnosis of early and late onset pre-eclampsia were 31.65 ± 0.41 and 38.03 ± 0.21 respectively (p ˂ 0.001). Also, there were statistically significant differences between the diastolic blood pressure (BP), systolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in the two categories. The mean urinary Isoprostane excretion was significantly higher in the early onset pre-eclamptic group (3.04 ± 0.34 ng/mg Cr) compared to that of the late onset pre-eclamptic group (2.36 ± 0.45 ng/mg Cr), (p=0.019). Urinary total

  15. Association study between GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and risk of preeclampsia in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guan, Linbo; Fan, Ping; Liu, Xinghui; Liu, Rui; Chen, Yihong; Ye, Liyan; Chen, Jinxin; Zhu, Yue; Liu, Yu; Bai, Huai

    2016-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder associated with oxidative stress. The glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a group of enzymes that protect cells from oxidative stress. Functional genetic polymorphisms of GST genes (GSTT1, GSTM1) have previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of GST gene polymorphisms with the risk of preeclampsia in Chinese subjects. The case-control population consists of 525 subjects. The genotyping of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms was carried out on genomic DNA using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We calculated odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for the confounding variables, to estimate the association between gene polymorphisms and preeclampsia. The GSTT1 null genotype was found to be protective from the development of preeclampsia (odds ratios 0.645, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.989; P=0.044). Further analysis showed that a combination of deletion genotypes of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes conferred an even lower risk of preeclampsia (OR=0.470, 95%CI=0.255-0.866; P=0.015). There is no relationship between the GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms and blood pressure levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. Our data suggest that a GSTT1 null polymorphism might be associated with decreased risk for preeclampsia in the Chinese population, and that this risk decreases with the combination of both GSTT1 and GSTM1 null polymorphisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Nitric Oxide Synthase and Matrix Metalloprotease Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Preeclampsia and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo, Daniela P.; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M.; Lanaro, Carolina; Baptista, Letícia C.; Cecatti, José G.; Surita, Fernanda G.; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Costa, Fernando F.; Franco-Penteado, Carla F.; Fertrin, Kleber Y.; Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in the world, but its appearance is still unpredictable and its pathophysiology has not been entirely elucidated. Genetic studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteases with preeclampsia, but the results are largely inconclusive across different populations. Objectives To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NOS3 (G894T, T-786C, and a variable number of tandem repetitions VNTR in intron 4), MMP2 (C-1306T), and MMP9 (C-1562T) genes with preeclampsia in patients from Southeastern Brazil. Methods This prospective case-control study enrolled 77 women with preeclampsia and 266 control pregnant women. Clinical data were collected to assess risk factors and the presence of severe complications, such as eclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome. Results We found a significant association between the single nucleotide polymorphism NOS3 T-786C and preeclampsia, independently from age, height, weight, or the other SNPs studied, and no association was found with the other polymorphisms. Age and history of preeclampsia were also identified as risk factors. The presence of at least one polymorphic allele for NOS3 T-786C was also associated with the occurrence of eclampsia or HELLP syndrome among preeclamptic women. Conclusions Our data support that the NOS3 T-786C SNP is associated with preeclampsia and the severity of its complications. PMID:26317342

  17. Fetal Microsatellite in the Heme Oxygenase 1 Promoter Is Associated With Severe and Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Utge, Siddheshwar; Klemetti, Miira M; Paananen, Jussi; Pulkki, Kari; Romppanen, Jarkko; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Lakkisto, Päivi; Laivuori, Hannele

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a vascular pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1, encoded by HMOX1 ) is a stress response enzyme crucial for endothelial and placental function. Long version of the guanine-thymine (GT n ) microsatellite in the HMOX1 promoter decreases HO-1 expression, and the long maternal repeat is associated with late-onset preeclampsia. Our aim was to study whether the length of fetal repeat is associated with mother's preeclampsia, whether the length of fetal and maternal repeats affect HO-1 levels in placenta and maternal serum, and whether HO-1 levels are altered in preeclampsia. We genotyped the repeat in the cord blood of 609 preeclamptic and 745 nonpreeclamptic neonates. HO-1 levels were measured in 36 placental samples, and in the first (222 cases/243 controls) and third (176 cases/53 controls) pregnancy trimester serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The long fetal GT n repeat was associated with preeclampsia and its severe and early-onset subtypes. Interaction analysis suggested the maternal and fetal effects to be independent. Placental or serum HO-1 levels were not altered in preeclamptics, possibly reflecting heterogeneity of preeclampsia. Carriers of the long fetal and maternal repeats had lower placental and serum HO-1 levels, respectively, providing functional evidence for the association. We conclude that the long fetal GT n repeat may increase mother's risk for especially severe and early-onset preeclampsia. The fetal and maternal risk alleles likely predispose to different disease subtypes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Possible Common Aetiology behind Maternal Preeclampsia and Congenital Heart Defects in the Child: a Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway Project Study.

    PubMed

    Brodwall, Kristoffer; Leirgul, Elisabeth; Greve, Gottfried; Vollset, Stein Emil; Holmstrøm, Henrik; Tell, Grethe S; Øyen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital heart defects (CHD) is mostly unknown, but maternal factors may modify the infant risk of CHD. We investigated the association between maternal preeclampsia and offspring risk of severe CHD in a nation-wide cohort study. Information on all births registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1994-2009, was completed with information on CHD diagnoses from national health registries and the Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway Project (CVDNOR). Among 914 703 singleton births without chromosomal abnormalities, 32 864 (3.6%) were born after a pregnancy with preeclampsia. The preeclampsia was diagnosed before the 34th week of pregnancy (early-onset preeclampsia) in 2618 (8.0% of preeclamptic pregnancies). CHDs were diagnosed in 10 691 infants; of these, 2473 had severe CHD. The risk of severe CHD was compared between births with and without maternal preeclampsia and estimated with binomial log-linear regression. When adjusting for year of birth, maternal age, parity, and pregestational diabetes, the risk ratio (RR) for severe CHD in offspring of mothers with any preeclampsia was 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.5], and in pregnancies with early-onset preeclampsia, the RR was 2.8 (95% CI 1.8, 4.4). The association between early-onset preeclampsia and specific types of severe CHD was stronger for atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD), with adjusted RR 13.5 (95% CI 6.8, 26.8). Early-onset preeclampsia was strongly associated with infant risk of severe CHD, specifically; the risk of AVSD was 15-fold higher if the mother was diagnosed with early-onset preeclampsia, suggesting common aetiological factors for early-onset preeclampsia and erroneous fetal heart development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of diet- and lifestyle-based metabolic risk-modifying interventions on preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca; Rogozinska, Ewelina; Sivarajasingam, Priya; Khan, Khalid S; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions with the potential to modify metabolic risk factors on the risk of preeclampsia. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane from inception until February 2013. Randomized trials in pregnant women evaluating the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions with the potential to modify metabolic risks such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension on the risk of preeclampsia were included. Two independent reviewers selected studies, extracted data and assessed quality. Results were summarized as pooled relative risks (RR) for dichotomous data. Eighteen studies (8712 women) met our search criteria for inclusion. Six studies evaluated diet (2695 women), six studied mixed interventions with diet, physical activity and lifestyle (1438 women) and six assessed essential fatty acid supplementation (4579 women). The interventions overall reduced the risk of preeclampsia (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.94; p = 0.006 I(2) = 0%) compared with the control group. Dietary interventions reduced the risk of preeclampsia by 33% (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.85; p = 0.001; I(2) = 0%). There was no reduction in the risk of preeclampsia with mixed interventions (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.66-1.32, p = 0.68, I(2) = 0%) or fatty acid supplementation (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71-1.18; p = 0.49, I(2) = 15%). Meta-regression showed a borderline impact of gestational diabetes status (p = 0.05) on the observed effect. Dietary and lifestyle interventions have the potential to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. The effect of additional therapeutic interventions in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on preeclampsia is not known. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (P<0.05) and IL-8 (P<0.01) responses to T-cell activation. Hierarchical clustering revealed 2 distinct inflammatory clusters associated with previous preeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Pre-eclampsia in American Indians/Alaska Natives and Whites: The Significance of Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Kapoor, Anna; Nelson, Lonnie A; Buchwald, Dedra S; Walker, Leslie R; Mueller, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pre-eclampsia, a major cause of maternal morbidity, varies by race, being greater in African Americans, and lower in Asians and Hispanics than in White women. Little is known about its prevalence in American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). We estimated pre-eclampsia risk in AI/ANs compared to Whites, with consideration of the potential effect of obesity, a major risk factor for pre-eclampsia, and a condition disproportionately affecting AI/AN women. Methods This retrospective cohort study of linked birth-hospital discharge data from Washington State (2003-2013) included all AI/AN women and a sample of White first-time mothers with singleton deliveries. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for pre-eclampsia risk in AI/ANs compared to Whites, first controlling for several important risk factors, and subsequently with additional adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Results AI/ANs had an increased risk of pre-eclampsia compared to Whites after controlling for all covariates except BMI (OR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.06-1.29). After further adjustment for BMI, the racial disparity in pre-eclampsia risk was greatly attenuated (OR 1.05, 95 % CI 0.95-1.16). Discussion This population-based study suggests that any increased risk in AI/ANs relative to Whites may be at least partly due to differences in BMI.

  2. Pre-eclampsia in American Indians/Alaska Natives and Whites: The Significance of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lonnie A.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Walker, Leslie R.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pre-eclampsia, a major cause of maternal morbidity, varies by race, being greater in African Americans, and lower in Asians and Hispanics than in White women. Little is known about its prevalence in American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). We estimated pre-eclampsia risk in AI/ANs compared to Whites, with consideration of the potential effect of obesity, a major risk factor for pre-eclampsia, and a condition disproportionately affecting AI/AN women. Methods This retrospective cohort study of linked birth-hospital discharge data from Washington State (2003–2013) included all AI/AN women and a sample of White first-time mothers with singleton deliveries. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for pre-eclampsia risk in AI/ANs compared to Whites, first controlling for several important risk factors, and subsequently with additional adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Results AI/ANs had an increased risk of pre-eclampsia compared to Whites after controlling for all covariates except BMI (OR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.06–1.29). After further adjustment for BMI, the racial disparity in pre-eclampsia risk was greatly attenuated (OR 1.05, 95 % CI 0.95–1.16). Discussion This population-based study suggests that any increased risk in AI/ANs relative to Whites may be at least partly due to differences in BMI. PMID:27461024

  3. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme I/D Polymorphism and Preeclampsia Risk: Evidence of Small-Study Bias

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Norma C; Díaz, Luis A; Páez, Maria C; Mesa, Clara M; Cifuentes, Rodrigo; Monterrosa, Alvaro; González, Adriana; Smeeth, Liam; Hingorani, Aroon D; Casas, Juan P

    2006-01-01

    Background Inappropriate activation of the renin–angiotensin system may play a part in the development of preeclampsia. An insertion/deletion polymorphism within the angiotensin-I converting enzyme gene (ACE-I/D) has shown to be reliably associated with differences in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. However, previous studies of the ACE-I/D variant and preeclampsia have been individually underpowered to detect plausible genotypic risks. Methods and Findings A prospective case-control study was conducted in 1,711 unrelated young pregnant women (665 preeclamptic and 1,046 healthy pregnant controls) recruited from five Colombian cities. Maternal blood was obtained to genotype for the ACE-I/D polymorphism. Crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using logistic regression models were obtained to evaluate the strength of the association between ACE-I/D variant and preeclampsia risk. A meta-analysis was then undertaken of all published studies to February 2006 evaluating the ACE-I/D variant in preeclampsia. An additive model (per-D-allele) revealed a null association between the ACE-I/D variant and preeclampsia risk (crude OR = 0.95 [95% CI, 0.81–1.10]) in the new case-control study. Similar results were obtained after adjusting for confounders (adjusted per-allele OR = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.77–1.06]) and using other genetic models of inheritance. A meta-analysis (2,596 cases and 3,828 controls from 22 studies) showed a per-allele OR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.07–1.49). An analysis stratified by study size showed an attenuated OR toward the null as study size increased. Conclusions It is highly likely that the observed small nominal increase in risk of preeclampsia associated with the ACE D-allele is due to small-study bias, similar to that observed in cardiovascular disease. Reliable assessment of the origins of preeclampsia using a genetic approach may require the establishment of a collaborating consortium to generate a dataset of

  4. Preeclampsia does not share common risk alleles in 9p21 with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Lokki, A Inkeri; Peterson, Hanna; Kivinen, Katja; Hiltunen, Leena; Salmela, Elina; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Maanselkä, Paula; Heino, Sanna; Knuutila, Sakari; Sayed, Ayat; Poston, Lucilla; Brennecke, Shaun P; Johnson, Matthew P; Morgan, Linda; Moses, Eric K; Kere, Juha; Laivuori, Hannele

    2016-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a common and partially genetic pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Association with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes has been reported in 9p21 by several genome-wide association studies. It has been hypothesized that cardiometabolic diseases may share common etiology with preeclampsia. We tested association with the 9p21 region to preeclampsia in the Finnish population by genotyping 23 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 extended preeclampsia families and in a nationwide cohort consisting of 281 cases and 349 matched controls. Replication was conducted in additional datasets. Four SNPs (rs7044859, rs496892, rs564398 and rs7865618) showed nominal association (p ≤ 0.024 uncorrected) with preeclampsia in the case-control cohort. To increase power, we genotyped two SNPs in additional 388 cases and 341 controls from the Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) cohort. Partial replication was also attempted in a UK cohort (237 cases and 199 controls) and in 74 preeclamptic families from Australia/New Zealand. We were unable to replicate the initial association in the extended Finnish dataset or in the two international cohorts. Our study did not find evidence for the involvement of the 9p21 region in the risk of preeclampsia. Key Message Chromosome 9p21 is not associated with preeclampsia.

  5. First trimester uterine artery Doppler, sFlt-1 and PlGF to predict preeclampsia in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Diguisto, Caroline; Piver, Eric; Gouge, Amélie Le; Eboue, Florence; Vaillant, Claudine Le; Maréchaud, Martine; Goua, Valérie; Giraudeau, Bruno; Perrotin, Franck

    2017-07-01

    The study aims to evaluate the accuracy of combining uterine artery Doppler (UAD), PlGF and sFlt-1 in the first trimester for preeclampsia screening. Prospectively enrolled women at high risk of preeclampsia were included. Transabdominal UAD measurements and serum biomarkers were collected between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation in three university hospitals and in one general hospital. The main outcome was preeclampsia. UAD parameters and biomarker levels among women with preeclampsia were compared with those of women in the unaffected group in univariate and multivariate analyses. Out of 226 women included from May 2007 to January 2011, 27 (11.9%) women developed preeclampsia. Among women affected by preeclampsia, the lowest pulsatility index was higher (p = 0.02), bilateral notching was more frequent (p = 0.01), and PlGF was lower (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed for other indicators. The multivariate model, adjusted for laboratory and sonographic indicators, had an area under the curve (AUC) estimated at 0.76, which was not significantly different from the AUC of the univariate model adjusted only for PlGF (p = 0.7). In a high-risk population, PlGF in the first trimester is useful for predicting preeclampsia, but neither sFlt-1 nor any UAD indices improved the prediction of preeclampsia.

  6. Human infectious diseases and risk of preeclampsia: an updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Malihe; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Adam, Ishag; Saber, Vafa; Bagheri, Maryam; Rostami, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In recent years, a growing body of literatures suggests that infections by bacteria, viruses, and parasites and their related inflammations play an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. We searched PubMed, Google scholar, and Cochrane databases using the following search words: "infection and preeclampsia," "bacterial infection and preeclampsia," "viral infection and preeclampsia" and "parasitic infection and preeclampsia." The literature review revealed that many bacteria including Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumonia, and those are involved in periodontal disease or urinary tract infections (UTIs) and some viral agents such as Cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type-2, human immunodeficiency virus, and some parasites especially Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii can be effective in development of PE. Inflammation responses against infections has major role in the inducement of PE. The shift of immunological cytokine profile of Th2 toward Th1 and high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-ɑ, IL-12, IFN-γ, etc.), increase of oxidative stress, increase of anti-angiogenic proteins, increase of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR1), and complement C5a are the main potential mechanisms related to infections and enhanced development of PE. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections could be an effective strategy to reduce the incidence of PE.

  7. Assessment of the diagnostic value of a urinary adipsin rapid strip test for pre-eclampsia: A prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bing; Zhang, Li; Yan, Jianying; Qi, Hongbo; Zhang, Weiyuan; Fan, Ling; Hu, Yayi; Lin, Li; Li, Xiaotian; Hu, Rong; Xie, Lan; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Yanqiao; Li, Li; Zhou, Rong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of the rapid strip test of urinary adipsin for the quick diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. In a multicenter diagnostic test study, we studied the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid strip test of urinary adipsin in women presenting with pre-eclampsia. A total of 204 pre-eclampsia patients and 254 healthy pregnant women were recruited for this study, respectively. The rapid strip test of urinary adipsin was used to detect the adipsin in the urine of each patient. The diagnostic value of the rapid strip test of urinary adipsin for pre-eclampsia was demonstrated by its high sensitivity and specificity (95.10% and 97.64%, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy was 96.51%. The consistency analysis showed that the kappa value was 0.93 compared with the gold standard diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. The rapid strip test of urinary adipsin is a non-invasive test for the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia with high sensitivity and specificity. It could help the quick diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in clinical practice greatly. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Calcium supplementation prevents endothelial cell activation: possible relevance to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Tong, Mancy; Wu, Man; Stone, Peter R; Snowise, Saul; Chamley, Lawrence W

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. A hallmark of preeclampsia is endothelial cell dysfunction/activation in response to 'toxins' from the placenta. Necrotic trophoblastic debris (NTD) is one possible placental toxin and other activators of endothelial cells include inflammatory cytokines. Calcium supplementation appears to protect 'at-risk' women from developing preeclampsia but how is unclear. Placental explants were cultured with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in varied concentrations of calcium. The resultant trophoblastic debris was exposed to endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were exposed to activators including NTD, IL-6, and preeclamptic sera in the presence of varied concentrations of calcium and activation monitored by quantifying cell surface markers by ELISA. Raising the levels of calcium did not prevent the IL-6-induced shedding of NTD from placental explants but did prevent the activation of endothelial cells in response to IL-6, preeclamptic sera, or NTD. Reducing the level of calcium directly induced the activation of endothelial cells. Inhibiting nitric oxide synthetase ablated the ability of high calcium levels to protect endothelial cell activation. The activity of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthetase was blocked with L-N-nitroarginine methyl ester. Our results demonstrate calcium levels do not affect the shedding of trophoblastic debris but are important to endothelial cell activation and supplemental calcium may reverse the activation of the endothelium in preeclamptic women. These results may in part explain the benefits of calcium supplementation in the reduction of risk for developing preeclampsia and provide in-vitro mechanistic support for the use of calcium supplementation in at-risk women.

  9. Inadequate safety reporting in pre-eclampsia trials: a systematic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jmn; Hirsch, M; Pealing, L; Showell, M; Khan, K S; Ziebland, S; McManus, R J

    2018-06-01

    Randomised trials and their syntheses in meta-analyses offer a unique opportunity to assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions. To assess safety reporting in pre-eclampsia trials. Systematic search using bibliographic databases, including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and MEDLINE, from inception to August 2017. Randomised trials evaluating anticonvulsant or antihypertensive medication for pre-eclampsia. Descriptive statistics appraising the adequacy of adverse reaction and toxicity reporting. We included 60 randomised trials. Six trials (10%) were registered with the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, two registry records referred to adverse reactions, stating 'safety and toleration' and 'possible side effects' would be collected. Twenty-six trials (43%) stated the frequency of withdrawals within each study arm, and five trials (8%) adequately reported these withdrawals. Adverse reactions were inconsistently reported across eligible trials: 24 (40%) reported no serious adverse reactions and 36 (60%) reported no mild adverse reactions. The methods of definition or measurement of adverse reactions were infrequently reported within published trial reports. Pre-eclampsia trials regularly omit critical information related to safety. Despite the paucity of reporting, randomised trials collect an enormous amount of safety data. Developing and implementing a minimum data set could help to improve safety reporting, permitting a more balanced assessment of interventions by considering the trade-off between the benefits and harms. National Institute for Health Research (DRF-2014-07-051), UK; Maternity Forum, Royal Society of Medicine, UK. Developing @coreoutcomes could help to improve safety reporting in #preeclampsia trials. @NIHR_DC. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Meta-Analysis of Placental Transcriptome Data Identifies a Novel Molecular Pathway Related to Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Uitert, Miranda; Moerland, Perry D; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Laivuori, Hannele; van der Post, Joris A M; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B

    2015-01-01

    Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite) and protein-protein associations (STRING). This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome). The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300) and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.

  11. Obesity in young age is a risk factor for preeclampsia: a facility based case-control study, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Endeshaw, Mulualem; Abebe, Fantu; Worku, Solomon; Menber, Lalem; Assress, Muluken; Assefa, Muluken

    2016-08-19

    Preeclampsia is one of the most commonly encountered hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. For many years, obesity has been suggested to play a role in preeclampsia. However, the hypotheses have been diverse and often revealed inconsistent results. This study has aimed to estimate the effect of obesity and dietary habits on preeclampsia in Bahir Dar City, north-western Ethiopia. A facility-based unmatched case-control study was conducted on 453 (151 cases and 302 controls) pregnant women, attending antenatal care or skilled delivery at Bahir Dar City. Data were collected through face to face interviews and measurements of mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) at the time of the interviews. Data were cleaned and entered into IBM SPSS version 20 and later analyzed using STATA version 12. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effect of independent variables on preeclampsia. Stratified analysis was conducted to check for presence of confounding and/or effect modification between covariates. The odds of preeclampsia were higher among obese (MUAC ≥25 cm) women than their leaner counterparts (AOR = 3.33, 95 % CI: 1.87, 5.79). Obesity was also found to have a similar magnitude of risk for late onset preeclampsia (AOR = 3.63, 95 % CI: 1.89, 6.97). When stratified by age, the effect of obesity on overall and late onset preeclampsia was significant among young (age < 35 years) women (COR = 1.81, 95 % CI: 1.11, 2.99) and (COR = 2.09, 95 % CI: 1.16, 3.86), respectively. As the age groups became more homogenous through adjusted stratification, obesity showed a particularly significant effect in women age ≤24 and 25-29 years; (AOR = 2.31, 95 % CI: 1.06, 5.12) and (AOR = 3.66, 95 % CI: 1.37, 10.87) respectively. Similarly, the effect of obesity on late onset preeclampsia was evident among younger women age ≤24 and 25-29 years; (AOR = 3.16, 95 % CI: 1.21, 8.24) and (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI: 1.16, 3

  12. Accuracy of angiogenic biomarkers at ⩽20weeks' gestation in predicting the risk of pre-eclampsia: A WHO multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Mariana; Cuesta, Cristina; Khan, Khalid S; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Carroli, Guillermo; Fusey, Shalini; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Lapaire, Olav; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Sequeira, Evan; Zavaleta, Nelly; Frusca, Tiziana; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Lindheimer, Marshall D

    2015-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of angiogenic biomarkers to predict pre-eclampsia. Prospective multicentre study. From 2006 to 2009, 5121 pregnant women with risk factors for pre-eclampsia (nulliparity, diabetes, previous pre-eclampsia, chronic hypertension) from Argentina, Colombia, Peru, India, Italy, Kenya, Switzerland and Thailand had their serum tested for sFlt-1, PlGF and sEng levels and their urine for PlGF levels at ⩽20, 23-27 and 32-35weeks' gestation (index tests, results blinded from carers). Women were monitored for signs of pre-eclampsia, diagnosed by systolic blood pressure ⩾140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ⩾90mmHg, and proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio ⩾0.3, protein ⩾1g/l, or one dipstick measurement ⩾2+) appearing after 20weeks' gestation. Early pre-eclampsia was defined when these signs appeared ⩽34weeks' gestation. Pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia was diagnosed in 198 of 5121 women tested (3.9%) of whom 47 (0.9%) developed it early. The median maternal serum concentrations of index tests were significantly altered in women who subsequently developed pre-eclampsia than in those who did not. However, the area under receiver operating characteristics curve at ⩽20weeks' gestation were closer to 0.5 than to 1.0 for all biomarkers both for predicting any pre-eclampsia or at ⩽34weeks' gestation. The corresponding sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios were poor. Multivariable models combining sEng with clinical features slightly improved the prediction capability. Angiogenic biomarkers in first half of pregnancy do not perform well enough in predicting the later development of pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Mid-trimester maternal ADAM12 levels differ according to fetal gender in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jenny E; Thomas, Grégoire; Tuytten, Robin; Van Herrewege, Yven; Djiokep, Raoul O; Roberts, Claire T; Kenny, Louise C; Simpson, Nigel A B; North, Robyn A; Baker, Philip N

    2015-02-01

    An overrepresentation of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been observed in pregnancies associated with a male fetus. We investigated the association between fetal gender and candidate biomarkers for preeclampsia. Proteins were quantified in samples taken at 20 weeks from women recruited to the SCreening fOr Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study (preeclampsia n = 150; no preeclampsia n = 450). In contrast to placental growth factor, soluble endoglin, and insulin-like growth factor acid labile subunit, levels of metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12) at 20 weeks were dependent on fetal gender in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, for male (n = 73) fetuses the multiples of the median (MoM; interquartile range [IQR] 1.1-1.5) was 1.3, whereas for female fetuses (n = 75) MoM was 1.1 (1.0-1.3); P < .01. Prediction of preeclampsia using ADAM12 levels was improved for pregnancies associated with a male fetus (area under receiver-operator curve [AUC] 0.73 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.80]) than that of a female fetus (AUC 0.62 [0.55-0.70]); P = .03. The data presented here fit a contemporary hypothesis that there is a difference between the genders in response to an adverse maternal environment and suggest that an alteration in ADAM12 may reflect an altered placental response in pregnancies subsequently complicated by preeclampsia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Cell-free total and fetal DNA in first trimester maternal serum and subsequent development of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Robert; Clifton, Rebecca G.; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Reddy, Uma M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Samuels, Philip; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between first trimester cell-free total and fetal DNA in maternal plasma and the subsequent development of preeclampsia. Study Design Nested case-control study of patients enrolled in the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Studies (CAPPS) prediction study of 175 women who did and 175 women who did not develop preeclampsia. The predictive values of cell-free total and fetal DNA and the subsequent development of preeclampsia were measured using ROC curves. Results Cell-free total DNA was higher in African American (median; 25 – 75%; 6.15; 0.14 – 28.73; p = 0.02) and Hispanic (4.95; 0.20 – 26.82; p = 0.037) compared to white women (2.33; 0.03 – 13.10). Levels of cell-free total DNA was also associated with maternal BMI (p = 0.02). Cell-free total DNA levels were similar between women who later developed preeclampsia (3.52; 0.11 – 25.3) and controls (3.74; 0.12 – 21.14, p=0.96). Conclusions There is no significant difference in levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. Levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester are increased in African American and Hispanic compared to white women, and levels increase with increasing BMI. PMID:27398706

  15. Circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, and normal pregnancy: evidence of selective dysregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 homeostasis in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Higgins, J R; Papayianni, A; Brady, H R; Darling, M R; Walshe, J J

    1998-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate circulating levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the peripheral and uteroplacental circulations during normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. This prospective observational study involved 2 patient groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 women with pre-eclampsia and 30 normotensive women followed up longitudinally through pregnancy and post partum. There were an additional 13 women with established gestational hypertension. Group 2 consisted of 20 women with established pre-eclampsia and 19 normotensive control subjects undergoing cesarean delivery. Plasma levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were measured in blood drawn from the antecubital vein (group 1) and from both the antecubital and uterine veins (group 2). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. In group 1 vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels did not change significantly throughout normal pregnancy and post partum. Women with established pre-eclampsia had increased vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels compared with the normotensive pregnancy group (P = .01). Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels were not elevated in women with established gestational hypertension. In group 2 significantly higher levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were detected in the uteroplacental (P < .0001) and peripheral (P < .0001) circulations of pre-eclamptic women by comparison with normotensive women. In the pre-eclamptic group there was a tendency toward higher vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels in the peripheral circulation than in the uteroplacental circulation (P = .06). In contrast to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, circulating levels of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, other major leukocyte adhesion molecules expressed by the endothelium, were not different in pre-eclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Established pre-eclampsia is characterized by selective dysregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 homeostasis. This event

  16. Diagnosis of preeclampsia with soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1/placental growth factor ratio: an inter-assay comparison.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Work Havelund, Kathrine; Dechend, Ralf; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Jensen, Boye L; Nielsen, Jan; Lykkedegn, Sine; Barington, Torben; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2015-02-01

    The angiogenic factor ratio soluble Fms-kinase 1 (sFlt-1)/placental growth factor (PlGF) is a novel diagnostic tool for preeclampsia. We compared the efficacy of the KRYPTOR (BRAHMS) automated assays for sFlt-1 and PlGF with the Elecsys (Roche) assays in a routine clinical setting. Preeclamptic women (n = 39) were included shortly after the time of diagnosis. Normotensive control pregnancies were matched by gestational age (n = 76). The KRYPTOR assays performed comparably or superior to Elecsys (sFlt-1/PlGF area under the curve 0.746 versus 0.735; P = .09; for non-obese 0.820 versus 0.805, P = .047). For early-onset preeclampsia, KRYPTOR area under the curve increased to 0.929 with a 100% specificity for preeclampsia at cut-off 85 and an 88.9% sensitivity for preeclampsia at cut-off 33. For women with preeclampsia and preterm delivery or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, the KRYPTOR sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was manifold increased (P < .01). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio proved especially useful in early-onset preeclampsia, preeclampsia with preterm delivery or HELLP, and among non-obese women. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanomedicine as a potential approach to empower the new strategies for the treatment of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Valero, Lucie; Alhareth, Khair; Gil, Sophie; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Mignet, Nathalie; Fournier, Thierry; Andrieux, Karine

    2018-01-31

    Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy disorder characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and proteinuria. Although the understanding of the disease is increasing, it remains without treatment, other than the delivery of the baby and the placenta. This review sets out to discuss some new developments and strategies in the treatment of preeclampsia. We briefly review the current knowledge on the preeclamptic pathophysiology. We then examine the recent trends in preeclampsia treatment and, in particular, the tracks of potential therapeutic targets. Finally, we focus on the possibilities nanocarriers could offer in the management of preeclampsia. Indeed, nanocarriers could help to prevent transplacental passage and promote placental-specific drug delivery, thereby enhancing efficacy and improving safety. Tendencies are then drawn from the available studies on the optimal characteristics of a nanocarrier to deliver drugs to the placenta. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological Characteristics of Placental Complex in Pregnant Women without Complications in Pregnancy and in the Presence of Severe Preeclampsia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbetov, Turakbai Zh.; Berdalinova, Akzhenis K.; Tusupkalieyv, Akylbek B.; Koishybayev, Arip K.; Zharilkasynov, Karaman Ye.

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO data, preeclampsia develops during late pregnancy in 2-8% of women. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, therefore, the study of the morphological features of placental complex, taking into account gestational complications in postpartum women with severe preeclampsia is an important…

  19. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Poston, Lucilla; Chappell, Lucy; Seed, Paul; Shennan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with oxidative stress, confirmed by measurement of biomarkers and relevant antioxidant enzymes in the placenta and maternal circulation. Studies in vitro have described the pathways by which placental ischaemia can lead to oxidative stress as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is coupled to synthesis of reactive oxygen species. However, clinical trials of antioxidants vitamins C and E, with an associated increase of plasma vitamins C and E concentrations have shown no benefit in prevention of the disorder, which may infer lack of a mechanistic role. Before oxidative stress is dismissed as an irrelevant accompaniment to pre-eclampsia further studies of proven biomarkers of oxidative stress are required to determine whether vitamins C and E supplementation leads to evidence of reversal of oxidative processes and tissue damage. If not, alternative antioxidant strategies may be worthy of consideration. Copyright © 2010 Society of Egyptian Anesthesiologists. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic profiles of placenta in preeclampsia using HR-MAS MRS metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Austdal, Marie; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Tangerås, Line Haugstad; Skei, Bente; Mathew, Seema; Bjørge, Line; Austgulen, Rigmor; Bathen, Tone Frost; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous gestational disease characterized by maternal hypertension and proteinuria, affecting 2-7% of pregnancies. The disorder is initiated by insufficient placental development, but studies characterizing the placental disease components are lacking. Our aim was to phenotype the preeclamptic placenta using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS MRS). Placental samples collected after delivery from women with preeclampsia (n = 19) and normotensive pregnancies (n = 15) were analyzed for metabolic biomarkers including amino acids, osmolytes, and components of the energy and phospholipid metabolism. The metabolic biomarkers were correlated to clinical characteristics and inflammatory biomarkers in the maternal sera. Principal component analysis showed inherent differences in placental metabolic profiles between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Significant differences in metabolic profiles were found between placentas from severe and non-severe preeclampsia, but not between preeclamptic pregnancies with fetal growth restricted versus normal weight neonates. The placental metabolites correlated with the placental stress marker sFlt-1 and triglycerides in maternal serum, suggesting variation in placental stress signaling between different placental phenotypes. HR-MAS MRS is a sensitive method for defining the placental disease component of preeclampsia, identifying several altered metabolic pathways. Placental HR-MAS MRS analysis may improve insight into processes affected in the preeclamptic placenta, and represents a novel long-required tool for a sensitive placental phenotyping of this heterogeneous disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated circulating soluble thrombomodulin activity, tissue factor activity and circulating procoagulant phospholipids: new and useful markers for pre-eclampsia?

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Aurélie; Favier, Rémi; Van Dreden, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    One of the most frequently proposed mechanisms for pre-eclampsia refers to uteroplacental thrombosis. However, the contribution of classical thrombotic risk factors remains questionable. The aims of this study were to investigate the activities of thrombomodulin, tissue factor and procoagulant phospholipids to assess endothelial cell injury in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and to compare them with other classical markers of vascular injury and thrombotic risk. Using three new functional assays we studied the plasma levels of these new markers in 35 healthy women, 30 healthy pregnant women, and 35 women with pre-eclampsia. We found that plasma levels of thrombomodulin activity, tissue factor activity and procoagulant phospholipids were significantly elevated in women with pre-eclampsia versus normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. It is thus suggested that elevated levels of these parameters in pre-eclampsia may reflect vascular endothelium damage, and may be a more valuable biomarker than antigen for the assessment of endothelial damage in pre-eclampsia. The high increased levels of procoagulant phospholipids and tissue factor activities in pre-eclampsia could suggest that the procoagulant potential may be implicated in this complication and makes these markers very promising for the understanding, follow-up and therapeutic handling of complicated pregnancy.

  2. Spot urine protein measurements in normotensive pregnancies, pregnancies with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kattah, Andrea; Milic, Natasa; White, Wendy; Garovic, Vesna

    2017-10-01

    We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of pregnant women presenting to their first obstetrics visits to characterize the changes in spot urine protein-to-creatinine (UPCR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR) in normotensive pregnancies, as well as identify clinical characteristics associated with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia. We measured spot urinary albumin, protein, and creatinine at the first prenatal visit, end of the second trimester, and at delivery. In the normotensive pregnancies ( n = 142), we found that from the beginning of pregnancy to delivery, UACR increased by a median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 14.7 mg/g Cr (3.74-51.8) and UPCR by 60 mg/g Cr (30-130) ( P < 0.001 for both changes). Isolated proteinuria (defined as UPCR > 300 mg/g Cr in the absence of hypertension) was identified in 19/142 (13.4%) normotensive pregnancies. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from early pregnancy to delivery and increases in UACR from early to midpregnancy were associated with isolated proteinuria at delivery. Twelve women developed preeclampsia. Nulliparity, early, and midpregnancy diastolic blood pressures were strongly associated with the development of preeclampsia, but early changes in UACR were not. In conclusion, women who develop isolated proteinuria at delivery have a larger increase in blood pressure than women without proteinuria and have a "microalbuminuric" phase earlier in gestation, unlike women who develop preeclampsia. These findings suggest a different mechanism of urine protein excretion in women with isolated proteinuria as compared with women with preeclampsia, where proteinuria has a more abrupt onset. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Removal of Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 by Dextran Sulfate Apheresis in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Thadhani, Ravi; Hagmann, Henning; Schaarschmidt, Wiebke; Roth, Bernhard; Cingoez, Tuelay; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Wenger, Julia; Lucchesi, Kathryn J; Tamez, Hector; Lindner, Tom; Fridman, Alexander; Thome, Ulrich; Kribs, Angela; Danner, Marco; Hamacher, Stefanie; Mallmann, Peter; Stepan, Holger; Benzing, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is an antiangiogenic protein believed to mediate the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. We conducted an open pilot study to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of therapeutic apheresis with a plasma-specific dextran sulfate column to remove circulating sFlt-1 in 11 pregnant women (20-38 years of age) with very preterm preeclampsia (23-32 weeks of gestation, systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, new onset protein/creatinine ratio >0.30 g/g, and sFlt-1/placental growth factor ratio >85). We evaluated the extent of sFlt-1 removal, proteinuria reduction, pregnancy continuation, and neonatal and fetal safety of apheresis after one (n=6), two (n=4), or three (n=1) apheresis treatments. Mean sFlt-1 levels were reduced by 18% (range 7%-28%) with concomitant reductions of 44% in protein/creatinine ratios. Pregnancy continued for 8 days (range 2-11) and 15 days (range 11-21) in women treated once and multiple times, respectively, compared with 3 days (range 0-14) in untreated contemporaneous preeclampsia controls (n=22). Transient maternal BP reduction during apheresis was managed by withholding pre-apheresis antihypertensive therapy, saline prehydration, and reducing blood flow through the apheresis column. Compared with infants born prematurely to untreated women with and without preeclampsia (n=22 per group), no adverse effects of apheresis were observed. In conclusion, therapeutic apheresis reduced circulating sFlt-1 and proteinuria in women with very preterm preeclampsia and appeared to prolong pregnancy without major adverse maternal or fetal consequences. A controlled trial is warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Vasoactive agents for the prediction of early- and late-onset preeclampsia in a high-risk cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for the prediction of early- and late-onset preeclampsia in a high-risk cohort. Methods We studied serial serum samples collected prospectively at 12 + 0 - 14 + 0, 18 + 0 - 20 + 0, and 26 + 0 - 28 + 0 weeks + days of gestation in 6 women who developed early-onset preeclampsia (before 34 weeks of gestation) and in 21 women who developed late-onset preeclampsia (after 34 weeks of gestation) with automated ElecSys 2010 immunoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Twenty-six high-risk women and 53 women without risk factors with normal pregnancies served as controls. Results Serum PlGF concentrations were lower at 18 + 0 to 20 + 0, and 26 + 0 to 28 + 0 weeks of gestation in women who developed early-onset preeclampsia compared to women who developed late-onset preeclampsia and to controls (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). At 18 + 0 to 20 + 0 weeks of gestation area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for serum PlGF was 99.8% (p = 0.0007, 95% CI 99.0-100.0). At 26 + 0 to 28 + 0 weeks of gestation serum sFlt-1/PlGF ratio explicitly detects those women who developed early-onset preeclampsia (AUC 100.0%, p = 0.0007, 95% CI 100–100). Amongst women with late-onset preeclampsia, those who developed severe form of the disease (N = 8) had significantly higher serum sFlt-1 concentrations at all three timepoints (p = 0.004, p = 0.006, and p = 0.003, respectively) compared to women with non-severe form (N = 13). Conclusions Low serum PlGF concentration predicts early-onset preeclampsia from the second trimester and elevated serum sFlt-1/PlGF ratio from 26 to 28 weeks of gestation. Elevated serum sFlt-1 concentration in the first trimester in women who later develop late-onset, severe preeclampsia may suggest different etiology compared to the late

  5. Identification of key microRNAs and genes in preeclampsia by bioinformatics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shouling; Cao, Nannan; Tang, Yao; Gu, Weirong

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal maternal–foetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to identify the key microRNAs and genes in preeclampsia and uncover their potential functions. We downloaded the miRNA expression profile of GSE84260 and the gene expression profile of GSE73374 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed miRNAs and genes were identified and compared to miRNA-target information from MiRWalk 2.0, and a total of 65 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMIs), including 32 up-regulated miRNAs and 33 down-regulated miRNAs, and 91 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 83 up-regulated genes and 8 down-regulated genes, were identified. The pathway enrichment analyses of the DEMIs showed that the up-regulated DEMIs were enriched in the Hippo signalling pathway and MAPK signalling pathway, and the down-regulated DEMIs were enriched in HTLV-I infection and miRNAs in cancers. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses of the DEGs were performed using Multifaceted Analysis Tool for Human Transcriptome. The up-regulated DEGs were enriched in biological processes (BPs), including the response to cAMP, response to hydrogen peroxide and cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin; no enrichment of down-regulated DEGs was identified. KEGG analysis showed that the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in the Hippo signalling pathway and pathways in cancer. A PPI network of the DEGs was constructed by using Cytoscape software, and FOS, STAT1, MMP14, ITGB1, VCAN, DUSP1, LDHA, MCL1, MET, and ZFP36 were identified as the hub genes. The current study illustrates a characteristic microRNA profile and gene profile in preeclampsia, which may contribute to the interpretation of the progression of preeclampsia and provide novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. PMID:28594854

  6. Consensus strategy in genes prioritization and combined bioinformatics analysis for preeclampsia pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tejera, Eduardo; Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Burgos, Germán; Sánchez, María-Eugenia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Pérez-Castillo, Yunierkis; Borges, Fernanda; Cordeiro, Maria Natália Dias Soeiro; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Rebelo, Irene

    2017-08-08

    Preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease with unknown pathogenesis. Even when recent studies explored this disease using several bioinformatics tools, the main objective was not directed to pathogenesis. Additionally, consensus prioritization was proved to be highly efficient in the recognition of genes-disease association. However, not information is available about the consensus ability to early recognize genes directly involved in pathogenesis. Therefore our aim in this study is to apply several theoretical approaches to explore preeclampsia; specifically those genes directly involved in the pathogenesis. We firstly evaluated the consensus between 12 prioritization strategies to early recognize pathogenic genes related to preeclampsia. A communality analysis in the protein-protein interaction network of previously selected genes was done including further enrichment analysis. The enrichment analysis includes metabolic pathways as well as gene ontology. Microarray data was also collected and used in order to confirm our results or as a strategy to weight the previously enriched pathways. The consensus prioritized gene list was rationally filtered to 476 genes using several criteria. The communality analysis showed an enrichment of communities connected with VEGF-signaling pathway. This pathway is also enriched considering the microarray data. Our result point to VEGF, FLT1 and KDR as relevant pathogenic genes, as well as those connected with NO metabolism. Our results revealed that consensus strategy improve the detection and initial enrichment of pathogenic genes, at least in preeclampsia condition. Moreover the combination of the first percent of the prioritized genes with protein-protein interaction network followed by communality analysis reduces the gene space. This approach actually identifies well known genes related with pathogenesis. However, genes like HSP90, PAK2, CD247 and others included in the first 1% of the prioritized list need to be further

  7. Prediction of Preeclampsia Using the Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1 to Placental Growth Factor Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Cook, Emma; Hund, Martin; Charnock-Jones, D. Stephen; Smith, Gordon C.S.

    2017-01-01

    We sought to assess the ratio of sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) to PlGF (placental growth factor) in maternal serum as a screening test for preeclampsia in unselected nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy. We studied 4099 women recruited to the POP study (Pregnancy Outcome Prediction) (Cambridge, United Kingdom). The sFlt-1:PlGF ratio was measured using the Roche Cobas e411 platform at ≈20, ≈28, and ≈36 weeks of gestational age (wkGA). Screen positive was defined as an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >38, but higher thresholds were also studied. At 28 wkGA, an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >38 had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 32% for preeclampsia and preterm birth, and the PPV was similar comparing women with low and high prior risk of disease. At 36 wkGA, an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >38 had a PPV for severe preeclampsia of 20% in high-risk women and 6.4% in low-risk women. At 36 wkGA, an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >110 had a PPV of 30% for severe preeclampsia, and the PPV was similar comparing low- and high-risk women. Overall, at 36 wkGA, 195 (5.2%) women either had an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio of >110 or an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio >38 plus maternal risk factors: 43% of these women developed preeclampsia, about half with severe features. Among low-risk women at 36 wkGA, an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio ≤38 had a negative predictive value for severe preeclampsia of 99.2%. The sFlt-1:PlGF ratio provided clinically useful prediction of the risk of the most important manifestations of preeclampsia in a cohort of unselected nulliparous women. PMID:28167687

  8. [Care plan for women with cesarean section and pre-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Sabbagh-Sequera, Miriam; Loidi-García, Jose María; Romero-Vázquez, Gloria Maria

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy pathologies in general, and pre-eclampsia in particular, are problems usually treated in post-anesthesia recovery and hospitalization units. Pre-eclampsia is the most frequent form of hypertension associated with pregnancy (50%). It affects from 7% to 10% of pregnant women. It is known as pregnancy and puerperium multisystem syndrome. It is due to a reduction of the systemic perfusion generated by the vasospasms and the activation of the coagulation systems. A clinical case is presented of the immediate post-surgery period of a patient, who has been operated on cesarean section after having been diagnosed with pre-eclampsia. A nursing care plan was prepared, based on Marjory Gordon functional patterns and guided by NANDA-NOC-NIC taxonomy, where 6 nursing diagnoses, which are the basis for the fulfillment of this nursing process, are identified: Risk of infection, excess fluid volume, risk of bleeding, insufficient knowledge about its pathological process, severe pain, and anxiety. The application of this care plan leads to an improvement in the patient care and in the work organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of aspirin dose on the prevention of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Stéphanie; Nicolaides, Kypros; Demers, Suzanne; Hyett, Jon; Chaillet, Nils; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction are major causes of perinatal death and handicap in survivors. Randomized clinical trials have reported that the risk of preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction can be reduced by the prophylactic use of aspirin in high-risk women, but the appropriate dose of the drug to achieve this objective is not certain. We sought to estimate the impact of aspirin dosage on the prevention of preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of daily aspirin or placebo (or no treatment) during pregnancy. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to December 2015, and study bibliographies were reviewed. Authors were contacted to obtain additional data when needed. Relative risks for preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using random-effect models. Dose-response effect was evaluated using meta-regression and reported as adjusted R 2 . Analyses were stratified according to gestational age at initiation of aspirin (≤16 and >16 weeks) and repeated after exclusion of studies at high risk of biases. In all, 45 randomized controlled trials included a total of 20,909 pregnant women randomized to between 50-150 mg of aspirin daily. When aspirin was initiated at ≤16 weeks, there was a significant reduction and a dose-response effect for the prevention of preeclampsia (relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.75; P < .001; R 2 , 44%; P = .036), severe preeclampsia (relative risk, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.83; P = .009; R 2 , 100%; P = .008), and fetal growth restriction (relative risk, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.70; P < .001; R 2 , 100%; P = .044) with higher dosages of aspirin being associated with greater reduction of the 3 outcomes

  10. Preeclampsia before 20 weeks of gestation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mari; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Goto, Kimihiko; Kumahara, Kana; Onishi, Saeko; Iwanari, Sachio; Fumihara, Daiki; Miki, Syo; Ikeda, Masaki; Sato, Kanae; Sato, Hiroshi; Hirose, Masaya; Takeoka, Hiroya

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of preeclampsia before 20 weeks of gestation is rare and usually associated with trophoblastic diseases or antiphospholipid syndrome. Here, we report a case of preeclampsia before 20 weeks of gestation in the absence of the aforementioned disorders. A healthy 30-year-old nulliparous woman presented with new onset of hypertension and proteinuria at 18 weeks of gestation. Fetal ultrasound did not reveal any abnormalities. Empirical steroid treatment was initiated based on a tentative diagnosis of underlying renal disease. The clinical course of the disease was progressive despite steroid treatment and the fetus died in utero 8 days after the initiation of treatment. Following delivery, a renal biopsy was performed and provided a diagnosis of preeclampsia. All symptoms resolved postpartum. This report demonstrates that preeclampsia may occur before 20 weeks of gestation and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pregnant women with new onset of hypertension with proteinuria. Previous published cases are summarized briefly.

  11. Effects of lactation on postpartum blood pressure among women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Countouris, Malamo E; Schwarz, Eleanor B; Rossiter, Brianna C; Althouse, Andrew D; Berlacher, Kathryn L; Jeyabalan, Arun; Catov, Janet M

    2016-08-01

    Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are at an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in later life. Lactation has been associated with a reduced risk of maternal hypertension, both in the postpartum period and later life. However, little is known about whether lactation is also cardioprotective in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy such as preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. This study aimed to characterize the relationship between lactation and postpartum blood pressure among women with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Data were obtained from women who participated in the Prenatal Exposures and Preeclampsia Prevention study (n = 379; 66% African American; 85% overweight or obese). Women enrolled during pregnancy and attended a postpartum visit (on average, 9.1 months after delivery) during which data on lactation duration and blood pressure were collected. The significance of the associations between postpartum blood pressure and lactation among women who remained normotensive during pregnancy, developed gestational hypertension, or developed preeclampsia were assessed with an analysis of variance. Linear regression models were used to adjust for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy weight, and time since delivery. Gestational hypertension affected 42 subjects (11%) and preeclampsia affected 33 (9%). Lactation was reported by 217 (57%) with 78 (21%) reporting ≥ 6 months of lactation. Women who lactated were somewhat older, more educated, and had higher socioeconomic status. Among women who had gestational hypertension, lactation was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (P = .02) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .02). This association persisted after adjustment for age, race, education, prepregnancy weight, and time since delivery. However, for women who had preeclampsia and women who remained normotensive during pregnancy, lactation was not associated with postpartum blood

  12. Community perceptions of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Akeju, David O; Vidler, Marianne; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Sawchuck, Diane; Qureshi, Rahat; von Dadelszen, Peter; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Dada, Olukayode A

    2016-06-08

    Pre-eclampsia is a complication of pregnancy responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. When undetected or poorly managed, it may progress to eclampsia which further worsens the prognosis. While most studies examining pre-eclampsia have used a bio-medical model, this study recognizes the role of the socio-cultural environment, in order to understand perceptions of pre-eclampsia within the community. The study was conducted in Ogun State, Nigeria in 2011-2012. Data were obtained through twenty-eight focus group discussions; seven with pregnant women (N = 80), eight with new mothers (N = 95), three with male decision-makers (N = 35), six with community leaders (N = 68), and three with traditional birth attendants (N = 36). Interviews were also conducted with the heads of the local traditional birth attendants (N = 4) and with community leaders (N = 5). Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed in NVivo 10 software. There was no terminology reportedly used for pre-eclampsia in the native language - Yoruba; however, hypertension has several terms independent of pregnancy status. Generally, 'gìrì âlábôyún' describes seizures specific to pregnancy. The cause of hypertension in pregnancy was thought to be due to depressive thoughts as a result of marital conflict and financial worries, while seizures in pregnancy were perceived to result from prolonged exposure to cold. There seemed to be no traditional treatment for hypertension. However for seizures the use of herbs, concoctions, incisions, and topical application of black soap were widespread. This study illustrates that knowledge of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are limited amongst communities of Ogun State, Nigeria. Findings reveal that pre-eclampsia was perceived as a stress-induced condition, while eclampsia was perceived as a product of prolonged exposure to cold. Thus, heat-related local medicines and herbal concoctions were the

  13. Association between decreased plasma levels of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G and severe pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    He, Yingdong; Chen, Shi; Huang, He; Chen, Qian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of different isoforms of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G) in maternal plasma during early and late pregnancy, and to investigate the expression of sHLA-G isoforms in women with early or late-onset severe preeclampsia. This prospective, nested, case-control study was performed in 24 early-onset severe preeclamptic, 34 late-onset severe preeclamptic, and 74 uncomplicated pregnant women. Plasma levels of sHLA-G1/5 were measured using ELISA. Plasma sHLA-G1 levels in women with late-onset severe preeclampsia were markedly lower compared with normal controls (median: 0 vs. 1.22 ng/mL) at the first trimester, and plasma sHLA-G1 levels in women with early-onset severe preeclampsia were markedly lower compared with normal controls at the second (median: 0 vs. 1.24 ng/mL) and third (median: 0 vs. 1.34 ng/mL) trimesters. There was no difference between the late-onset and early-onset groups at three trimesters. As for sHLA-G5, there was no difference in concentrations among the three groups at any time point. However, compared with controls, more women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia had undetectable sHLA-G5 levels in the first (71.4% and 76.2% vs. 14.1%), second (75.0% and 73.3% vs. 19.0%), and third (100.0% and 70.4% vs. 14.8%, respectively) trimester (all P<0.05). sHLA-G1 levels in the first (odds ratio [OR]=0.254, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.109-0.591, P=0.010), second (OR=0.315, 95% CI=0.158-0.627, P=0.001), and third (OR=0.170, 95% CI=0.054-0.533, P=0.002) trimester was a risk factor for severe preeclampsia. Severe preeclampsia was associated with low/undetectable maternal plasma levels of sHLA-G. Low sHLA-G1 levels might be a risk marker for severe pr