Sample records for pacific arctic sector

  1. Mooring-based monitoring at the mouth of Barrow Canyon and Hope Valley in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Itoh, M.; Nishino, S.

    2016-02-01

    Changes of the Arctic Ocean environment are well known as one of the most remarkable evidences of global warming, attracting social and public attentions as well as scientists'. However, to illustrate on-going changes and predict future condition of the Arctic marine environment, we still do not have enough knowledge of Arctic sea ice and marine environment. In particular, lack of observation data in winter, e.g., under sea ice, still remains a key issue for precise understanding of seasonal cycle on oceanographic condition in the Arctic Ocean. Mooring-based observation is one of the most useful methods to collect year-long data in the Arctic Ocean. We have been conducting long-term monitoring using mooring system in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes through Barrow Canyon where is a major conduit of Pacific-origin water-masses into the Canada Basin have been observed since 2000. We show from an analysis of the mooring results that volume flux through Barrow Canyon was about 60 % of Bering Strait volume flux. Averaged heat flux ranges from 0.9 to 3.07 TW, which could melt 88,000 to 300,000 km2 of 1m thick ice in the Canada Basin, which likely contributed to sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. In winter, we found inter-annual variability in salinity related to coastal polynya activity in the Chukchi Sea and strong upwelling events due to easterly winds. We also initiated year-long mooring observation in the Hope Valley of the southern Chukchi Sea since 2012. Interestingly, winter oceanographic conditions in the Hope Valley are greatly different between in 2012-2013 and in 2013-2014. We speculate that differences of sea ice freeze-up and coastal polynya activity in the southern Chukchi Sea cause significant difference of winter oceanographic condition. It suggests that recent sea ice reduction in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean presumably influences marine environment not only in summer but also

  2. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)-A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Variations in upper ocean water hydrography, planktonic production, pelagic-benthic coupling and sediment carbon cycling are all influenced by sea ice and temperature changes. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. Several regionally critical marine sites in the Pacific Arctic sector that have very high biomass and are focused foraging points for apex predators have been re-occupied during multiple international cruises. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are developing a "Distributed Biological Observatory" (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels. The DBO currently focuses on five regional biological "hotspot" locations along a

  3. Anomalous circulation in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean in July-December 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, G.; Francis, O. P.; Yaremchuk, M.; Zhang, J.; Kulakov, M.; Onat, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Variability of the mean summer-fall ocean state in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSAO) is studied using a dynamically constrained synthesis (4Dvar) of historical in situ observations collected during 1972 to 2008. Specifically, the oceanic response to the cyclonic (1989-1996) and anticyclonic (1972-1978, 1997-2006) phases o f the Arctic Ocean Oscillation (AOO) is assessed for the purpose of quantitatively comparing the 2008 circulation pattern that followed the 2007 ice cover minimum.It is shown that the PSAO circulation during July-December of 2008 was characterized by a pronounced negative Sea Surface Height (SSH) anomaly along theEurasian shelf break, which caused a significant decline of the transport in the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow region into the PSAO and increased the sea level difference betweenthe Bering and Chukchi Seas. This anomaly could be one of the reasons for the observed amplification of the Bering Strait transport carrying fresh Pacific Waters into the PSAO. Largrangian analysis of the optimized solution suggests that the freshwater (FW) accumulation in the Beaufort Gyre has a negligible contribution from the East Siberian Sea and is likely caused by the enhanced FW export from the region north of the Canadian Archipelago/Greenland.The inverse modeling results are confirmed by validation against independent altimetry observations and in situ velocity data from NABOS moorings. It is also shown that presented results are in significantly better agreement with the data than the output of the PIOMAS model run utilized as a first guess solution for the 4dVar analysis.

  4. Marine Mammals and Climate Change in the Pacific Arctic: Impacts & Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme reductions in Arctic sea ice extent and thickness have become a hallmark of climate change, but impacts to the marine ecosystem are poorly understood. As top predators, marine mammals must adapt to biological responses to physical forcing and thereby become sentinels to ecosystem variability and reorganization. Recent sea ice retreats have influenced the ecology of marine mammals in the Pacific Arctic sector. Walruses now often haul out by the thousands along the NW Alaska coast in late summer, and reports of harbor porpoise, humpback, fin and minke whales in the Chukchi Sea demonstrate that these temperate species routinely occur there. In 2010, satellite tagged bowhead whales from Atlantic and Pacific populations met in the Northwest Passage, an overlap thought precluded by sea ice since the Holocene. To forage effectively, baleen whales must target dense patches of zooplankton and small fishes. In the Pacific Arctic, bowhead and gray whales appear to be responding to enhanced prey availability delivered both by new production and advection pathways. Two programs, the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) and the Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR), include tracking of marine mammal and prey species' responses to ecosystem shifts associated with sea ice loss. Both programs provide an integrated-ecosystem baseline in support of the development of a web-based Marine Mammal Health Map, envisioned as a component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). An overarching goal is to identify ecological patterns for marine mammals in the 'new' Arctic, as a foundation for integrative research, local response and adaptive management.

  5. The Arctic Marine Pulses Model: Linking Contiguous Domains in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. E.; Stabeno, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem extends from the northern Bering Sea, across the Chukchi and into the East Siberian and Beaufort seas. Food webs in this domain are short, a simplicity that belies the biophysical complexity underlying trophic linkages from primary production to humans. Existing biophysical models, such as pelagic-benthic coupling and advective processes, provide frameworks for connecting certain aspects of the marine food web, but do not offer a full accounting of events that occur seasonally across the Pacific Arctic. In the course of the Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR) project, a holistic Arctic Marine Pulses (AMP) model was developed that depicts seasonal biophysical `pulses' across a latitudinal gradient, and linking four previously-described contiguous domains, including the: (i) Pacific-Arctic domain = the focal region; (ii) seasonal ice zone domain; (iii) Pacific marginal domain; and (iv) riverine coastal domain. The AMP model provides a spatial-temporal framework to guide research on dynamic ecosystem processes during this period of rapid biophysical changes in the Pacific Arctic. Some of the processes included in the model, such as pelagic-benthic coupling in the Northern Bering and Chukchi seas, and advection and upwelling along the Beaufort shelf, are already the focus of sampling via the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) and other research programs. Other aspects such as biological processes associated with the seasonal ice zone and trophic responses to riverine outflow have received less attention. The AMP model could be enhanced by the application of visualization tools to provide a means to watch a season unfold in space and time. The capability to track sea ice dynamics and water masses and to move nutrients, prey and upper-trophic predators in space and time would provide a strong foundation for the development of predictive human-inclusive ecosystem models for the Pacific Arctic.

  6. Summer Sea ice in the Pacific Arctic sector from the CHINARE-2010 cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, S. F.; Xie, H.; Lei, R.; Huang, W.; Chinare 2010 Arctic Sea Ice Group

    2010-12-01

    The Fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) from July 1 to Sep. 23, 2010, the last Chinese campaign in Arctic Ocean contributing to the fourth International Polar Year (IPY), conducted comprehensive scientific studies on ocean-ice-atmosphere interaction and the marine ecosystem’s response to climatic change in Arctic. This paper presents an overview on sea ice (ice concentration, floe size, melt pond coverage, sea ice and snow thickness) of the Pacific Arctic sector, in particular between 150°W to 180°W to 86°N, based on: (1) underway visual observations of sea ice at half-hourly and automatic cameras recording (both side looking from the icebreaker R.V. Xuelong) every 10 to 15 seconds; (2) a downward-looking video mounted on the left side of the vessel at a height of 7 m above waterline recording overturning of ice floes; (3) on-site measurements of snow and ice thickness using drilling and electromagnetic instrument EM31 (9.8 kHz) at eight short-term (~3 hours each) and one 12-day ice stations; (4) six flights of aerial photogrammetry from helicopter, and (5) Satellite data (AMSE-E ice concentration and ENVISAT ASAR) and NIC ice charts) that extended the observations/measurements along beyond the ship track and airborne flights. In the northward leg, the largest ice concentration zone was in the area starting from ~75°N (July 29), with ice concentration of 60-90% (mean ~80%), ice thickness of 1.5-2m, melt ponds of 10-50% of ice, ridged ice of 10-30% of ice, and floe size of 100’s meters to kms. The 12-day ice station (from Aug 7-19), started at 86.92°N/178.88°W and moved a total of 175.7km, was on an ice floe over 100 km2 in size and ~2 m in mean thickness. There were two heavy and several slight snowfall events in the period (July 29 to Aug 19). Snow thickness varies from 5cm to 15 cm, and melted about 5cm during the 12-day ice camp. In the southward leg, the largest sea ice concentration zone was in the area between 87°N to 80

  7. Bacterial Communities of Surface Mixed Layer in the Pacific Sector of the Western Arctic Ocean during Sea-Ice Melting

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting. PMID:24497990

  8. Bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Pacific sector of the western Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

    PubMed

    Han, Dukki; Kang, Ilnam; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

  9. Early 20th Century Arctic Warming Intensified by Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokinaga, H.; Xie, S. P.; Mukougawa, H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the influence of Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability on the Arctic temperature, with a particular focus on the early 20th century Arctic warming. Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing than at present. We find that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability is the major driver for the early 20th century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early Arctic warming is associated with the cold-to-warm phase shifts of Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal variability modes, a SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal and Atlantic multidecadal oscillations. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air to the North American Arctic. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, cold-to-warm phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.

  10. Early 20th-century Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability

    PubMed Central

    Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid early 20th-century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early 20th-century Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the early 20th-century Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region. PMID:28559341

  11. Early 20th-century Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi

    2017-06-01

    With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid early 20th-century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early 20th-century Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the early 20th-century Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.

  12. Circum-arctic plate accretion - Isolating part of a pacific plate to form the nucleus of the Arctic Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.; Trexler, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    A mosaic of large lithospheric plates rims the Arctic Ocean Basin, and foldbelts between these plates contain numerous allochthonous microplates. A new model for continental drift and microplate accretion proposes that prior to the late Mesozoic the Kula plate extended from the Pacific into the Arctic. By a process of circumpolar drift and microplate accretion, fragments of the Pacific basin, including parts of the Kula plate, were cut off and isolated in the Arctic Ocean, the Yukon-Koyukuk basin in Alaska, and the Bering Sea. ?? 1980.

  13. Towards an Ice-Free Arctic Ocean in Summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascard, Jean Claude

    2014-05-01

    Dividing the Arctic Ocean in two parts, the so-called Atlantic versus the Pacific sector, two distinct modes of variability appear for characterizing the Arctic sea-ice extent from 70°N up to 80°N in both sectors. The Atlantic sector seasonal sea-ice extent is characterized by a longer time scale than the Pacific sector with a break up melting season starting in May and reaching a peak in June-July, one month earlier than the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean revealing a faster time evolution and a larger spatial amplitude than the Atlantic sector. During recent years like 2007, sea-ice extent with sea-ice concentration above 15% retreated from 4 millions km2 to about 1 million km2 in the Arctic Pacific sector between 70° and 80°N except for 2012 when most of sea-ice melted away in this region. That explained most of the differences between the two extreme years 2007 and 2012. In the Atlantic sector, Arctic sea-ice retreated from 2 millions km2 to nearly 0 during recent years including 2007 and 2012. The Atlantic inflow North of Svalbard and Franz Josef Land is more likely responsible for a northward retreat of the ice edge in that region. The important factor is not only that the Arctic summer sea-ice minimum extent decreased by 3 or 4 millions km2 over the past 10 years but also that the melting period was steadily increasing by one to two days every year during that period. An important factor concerns the strength of the freezing that can be quantified in terms of Freezing Degree Days FDD accumulated during the winter-spring season and the strength of the melting (MDD) that can be accumulated during the summer season. FDD and MDD have been calculated for the past 30 years all over the Arctic Ocean using ERA Interim Reanalysis surface temperature at 2m height in the atmosphere. It is clear that FDD decreased significantly by more than 2000 FDD between 1980 and 2012 which is equivalent to the sensible heat flux corresponding to more than a meter of sea

  14. Ecosystem dynamics of the Pacific-influenced Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Amerasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.; Feder, Howard M.; Sirenko, Boris I.

    2006-10-01

    reductions in sea ice in the Pacific-influenced sector of the Arctic have the potential to cause an ecosystem reorganization that may alter this benthic-oriented system to one more dominated by pelagic processes.

  15. Exploring Paleoclimatic and -Oceanographic Consequences for Arctic Beringia by the Eocene Formation and Progressive E-W Lengthening of the Aleutian Ridge (arc) Across the North Pacific Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: During the past ~50 Myr, magmatic growth of the offshore Aleutian Ridge (AR) or arc and its progressive tectonic lengthening to the west cordoned off the NW corner of the Pacific Basin to formed the deep water (3000-4000 m), marginal sea of the Bering Sea Basin (BSB). Cordoning continuously altered the paths, depths, and locations of water-exchange passes controlling the circulation of waters between the north Pacific and the Bering Sea (BS), and, via the fixed Bering Strait, that entering the Pacific sector of the Arctic Basin. PRESENT PATTERN OF PACIFIC-BERING-ARCTIC WATER EXCHANGE: Cool, low salinity water of the Alaska Stream flowing west along the Pacific side of the AR crosses northward into the BS via tectonically controlled, inter-island passes. The largest volume (~9 SV) enters near the western end of the AR via Near Pass. Flow turns back to the east and CCW northward over the BSB. Surface water exits southward around the western end of the AR through the far western, deep-water (~4000 m) pass of Kamchatka Strait. Because water salinity is low, vertical thermohaline circulation (THC) does not occur over the BSB. However, the deposition of the larger Meiji Drift body, which is charged with Bering-sourced, detritus, on the Pacific side of Kamchatka Strait implies THC may have occurred in the past. Deep-water circulation is presently linked to the inflow of Pacific abyssal water via Kamchatka Strait. A small volume (~0.8 SV) of cool, low salinity water entering the BS mainly through eastern, shallow-silled passes continues northward across the broad Beringian shelf to enter the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait. EVOLUTION OF ALEUTIAN RIDGE: At it's inception, the arc massif of the AR likely extended only about 1200 km west of Alaska. Because convergence is increasingly oblique to the west, plate-boundary-driven, right-lateral strike-slip faulting extensionally fragmented the AR and progressively rotated and transported blocks and slivers

  16. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl compounds in surface waters from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cai, Minghong; Zhao, Zhen; Yin, Zhigao; Ahrens, Lutz; Huang, Peng; Cai, Minggang; Yang, Haizhen; He, Jianfeng; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong

    2012-01-17

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in 22 surface water samples (39-76°N) and three sea ice core and snow samples (77-87°N) collected from North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean during the fourth Chinese Arctic Expedition in 2010. Geographically, the average concentration of ∑PFC in surface water samples were 560 ± 170 pg L(-1) for the Northwest Pacific Ocean, 500 ± 170 pg L(-1) for the Arctic Ocean, and 340 ± 130 pg L(-1) for the Bering Sea, respectively. The perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were the dominant PFC class in the water samples, however, the spatial pattern of PFCs varied. The C(5), C(7) and C(8) PFCAs (i.e., perfluoropentanoate (PFPA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)) were the dominant PFCs in the Northwest Pacific Ocean while in the Bering Sea the PFPA dominated. The changing in the pattern and concentrations in Pacific Ocean indicate that the PFCs in surface water were influenced by sources from the East-Asian (such as Japan and China) and North American coast, and dilution effect during their transport to the Arctic. The presence of PFCs in the snow and ice core samples indicates an atmospheric deposition of PFCs in the Arctic. The elevated PFC concentration in the Arctic Ocean shows that the ice melting had an impact on the PFC levels and distribution. In addition, the C(4) and C(5) PFCAs (i.e., perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), PFPA) became the dominant PFCs in the Arctic Ocean indicating that PFBA is a marker for sea ice melting as the source of exposure.

  17. Arctic-North Pacific Coupled Impacts on the Late Autumn Cold in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Baek-Min; Baik, Eun-Hyuk; Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-01-01

    The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is known to bring an anomalously cold (warm) period to southeastern (northwestern) North America during the cold season of its positive phase through a Rossby wave linkage. This study provides evidence that the remote connection between the North Pacific and the downstream temperature over central North America is strengthened by the warm arctic conditions over the Chukchi and East Siberian Sea, especially in the late autumn season. The modulation effect of the Arctic manifests itself as an altered Rossby wave response to a transient vorticity forcing that results from an equatorward storm track shift, which is induced collaboratively by the PDO and the warm Arctic. This observational finding is supported by two independent modeling experiments: 1) an idealized coupled GCM experiment being nudged toward the warm arctic surface condition and 2) a simple stationary wave model (SWM) experiment forced by transient eddy forcing.

  18. Is it 'boom times' for baleen whales in the Pacific Arctic region?

    PubMed

    Moore, Sue E

    2016-09-01

    The marine ecosystem in the Pacific Arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). This alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Specifically, humpback, fin and minke whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are now regularly reported during summer and autumn in the southern Chukchi Sea. These predators of zooplankton and forage fishes join the seasonally resident grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the arctic-endemic bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the expanding open-ocean habitat of the Pacific Arctic. Questions arising include: (i) what changes in whale-prey production and delivery mechanisms have accompanied the loss of sea ice, and (ii) how are these five baleen whale species partitioning the expanding ice-free habitat? While there has been no programme of research specifically focused on these questions, an examination of seasonal occurrence, foraging plasticity and (for bowhead whales) body condition suggests that the current state of Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem may be 'boom times' for baleen whales. These favourable conditions may be moderated, however, by future shifts in ecosystem structure and/or negative impacts to cetaceans related to increased commercial activities in the region. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. On the Influence of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature on the Arctic Winter Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Newman, P. A.; Garfinkel, C. I.

    2012-01-01

    Differences between two ensembles of Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model simulations isolate the impact of North Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the Arctic winter climate. One ensemble of extended winter season forecasts is forced by unusually high SSTs in the North Pacific, while in the second ensemble SSTs in the North Pacific are unusually low. High Low differences are consistent with a weakened Western Pacific atmospheric teleconnection pattern, and in particular, a weakening of the Aleutian low. This relative change in tropospheric circulation inhibits planetary wave propagation into the stratosphere, in turn reducing polar stratospheric temperature in mid- and late winter. The number of winters with sudden stratospheric warmings is approximately tripled in the Low ensemble as compared with the High ensemble. Enhanced North Pacific SSTs, and thus a more stable and persistent Arctic vortex, lead to a relative decrease in lower stratospheric ozone in late winter, affecting the April clear-sky UV index at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes.

  20. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments

    PubMed Central

    Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T.; Platov, Gennady A.; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C.; Nurser, A. J. George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state‐of‐the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. PMID:27818853

  1. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T; Platov, Gennady A; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C; Nurser, A J George

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.

  2. Temperature-Dependent Lipid Storage of Juvenile Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and Co-Occurring North Pacific Gadids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeman, L.; Laurel, B.; Spencer, M. L.; Iseri, P.; Sremba, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change impacts on Arctic ecosystems will largely be determined by temperature-dependent bioenergetics of resident and invading forage fish species. In this study, we experimentally measured total lipids and lipid class storage in the liver and muscle of juvenile Arctic gadids (Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida and saffron cod, Eleginus gracilis) and two North Pacific gadids (walleye pollock, Gadus chalcogrammus and Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus). Experiments were conducted over a 6-wk period across five temperatures (0, 5, 9, 16 and 20 °C) at the Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport, OR, USA. Results indicated clear physiological differences among species in terms of temperature-dependent growth and lipid storage. Arctic cod exhibited highest growth and lipid storage (27 mg/g WW) at the coldest temperature (0 °C) compared to the other gadids, with near maximum growth at 5 °C and onset of mortality above 9 °C. In contrast, saffron cod growth rates steadily increased at temperatures beyond 16 °C, but lipid storage was low overall with only slightly higher lipid storage at warm temperatures (10 to 17 mg/g WW). Both walleye pollock and Pacific cod showed a domed response with increased lipid storage and growth at intermediate temperatures (9 - 12°C) and reduced growth and lipid storage at cold and warm maxima. We did not observe a trade-off between growth rate and lipid accumulation in any species. These results suggest that saffron cod can thrive in a warming Arctic but will be energetically inferior as a prey item to the more temperature-sensitive Arctic cod. Alternatively, North Pacific gadids can energetically resemble Arctic cod at warmer temperatures and could theoretically be an important prey item if their range extends northward with continued climate change.

  3. Is it ‘boom times’ for baleen whales in the Pacific Arctic region?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The marine ecosystem in the Pacific Arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). This alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Specifically, humpback, fin and minke whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are now regularly reported during summer and autumn in the southern Chukchi Sea. These predators of zooplankton and forage fishes join the seasonally resident grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the arctic-endemic bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the expanding open-ocean habitat of the Pacific Arctic. Questions arising include: (i) what changes in whale-prey production and delivery mechanisms have accompanied the loss of sea ice, and (ii) how are these five baleen whale species partitioning the expanding ice-free habitat? While there has been no programme of research specifically focused on these questions, an examination of seasonal occurrence, foraging plasticity and (for bowhead whales) body condition suggests that the current state of Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem may be ‘boom times’ for baleen whales. These favourable conditions may be moderated, however, by future shifts in ecosystem structure and/or negative impacts to cetaceans related to increased commercial activities in the region. PMID:27601724

  4. Summer Sea Ice Motion from the 18 GHz Channel of AMSR-E and the Exchange of Sea Ice between the Pacific and Atlantic Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that sea ice motion in summer can be derived reliably from the 18GHz channel of the AMSR-E instrument on the EOS Aqua platform. The improved spatial resolution of this channel with its lower sensitivity to atmospheric moisture seems to have alleviated various issues that have plagued summer motion retrievals from shorter wavelength observations. Two spatial filters improve retrieval quality: one reduces some of the microwave signatures associated with synoptic-scale weather systems and the other removes outliers. Compared with daily buoy drifts, uncertainties in motion are approx.3-4 km/day. Using the daily motion fields, we examine five years of summer ice area exchange between the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. With the sea-level pressure patterns during the summer of 2006 and 2007 favoring the export of sea ice into the Atlantic Sector, the regional outflow is approx.21% and approx.15% of the total sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector.

  5. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  6. Dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of the winter Arctic Oscillation on summer sea ice extent.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. S.; Stewart, A.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic summer sea ice extent exhibits substantial interannual variability, as is highlighted by the remarkable recovery in sea ice extent in 2013 following the record minimum in the summer of 2012. Here, we explore the mechanism via which Arctic Oscillation (AO)-induced ice thickness changes impact summer sea ice, using observations and reanalysis data. A positive AO weakens the basin-scale anticyclonic sea ice drift and decreases the winter ice thickness by 15cm and 10cm in the Eurasian and the Pacific sectors of the Arctic respectively. Three reanalysis datasets show that the (upward) surface heat fluxes are reduced over wide areas of the Arctic, suppressing the ice growth during the positive AO winters. The winter dynamic and thermodynamic thinning preconditions the ice for enhanced radiative forcing via the ice-albedo feedback in late spring-summer, leading to an additional 8-10 cm of thinning over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. Because of these winter AO-induced dynamic and thermodynamics effects, the winter AO explains about 22% (r = -0.48) of the interannual variance of September sea ice extent from year 1980 to 2015.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey offshore program of resource and geo-environmental studies and topical investigations, Pacific-Arctic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, David William

    1978-01-01

    The Geological Survey 's marine geology investigations in the Pacific-Arctic area are presented in this report in the context of the underlying socio-economic problem of expanding the domestic production of oil and gas and other mineral and hard- and soft-rock resources while maintaining acceptable standards in the marine environment. The primary mission of the Survey 's Pacific-Arctic Branch of Marine Geology is to provide scientifically interpreted information about the (1) resource potential, (2) geo-environmental setting, and (3) overall geologic characteristics of the continental margins (that is, the continental shelf, slope and rise) and adjacent deeper water and shallower coastal areas off California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska and Hawaii and also, where it is of interest to the U.S. Government, more remote deep-sea areas of the Pacific-Arctic realm. (Sinha-OEIS)

  8. Connections between the tropical Pacific Ocean, Arctic sea ice, and anomalous northeastern Pacific ridging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, D. L.; Singh, D.; Horton, D. E.; Mankin, J. S.; Ballard, T.; Thomas, L. N.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The ongoing and severe drought in California is linked to the multi-year persistence of anomalously strong ridging along the west coast of North America, which has deflected the Pacific storm track north of its climatological mean position. Recent work has shown that that highly amplified and strongly meridional atmospheric flow patterns in this region similar to the "Ridiculously Resilient Ridge" have become more common in recent decades. Previous investigations have suggested multiple possible contributors to this conspicuous atmospheric anomaly—including remote teleconnections to unusual tropical Pacific Ocean warmth and/or reduced Arctic sea ice, internal (natural) atmospheric variability, and anthropogenic forcing due to greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we explore observed relationships between mid-tropospheric atmospheric structure in this region and five hypothesized surface forcings: sea ice extent in the (1) Barents/Kara and (2) Beaufort/Chukchi regions, and sea surface temperatures in the (3) extratropical northeastern Pacific Ocean, (4) western tropical Pacific Ocean, and (5) eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Using a predictive model based upon these observed relationships, we also investigate whether the failure of the powerful 2015-2016 El Niño event to bring above-average precipitation to California could have been predicted based upon these teleconnections.

  9. Distribution of Arctic and Pacific copepods and their habitat in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hiroko; Matsuno, Kohei; Fujiwara, Amane; Onuka, Misaki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The advection of warm Pacific water and the reduction in sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean may influence the abundance and distribution of copepods, a key component of food webs. To quantify the factors affecting the abundance of copepods in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas, we constructed habitat models explaining the spatial patterns of large and small Arctic and Pacific copepods separately. Copepods were sampled using NORPAC (North Pacific Standard) nets. The structures of water masses indexed by principle component analysis scores, satellite-derived timing of sea ice retreat, bottom depth and chlorophyll a concentration were integrated into generalized additive models as explanatory variables. The adequate models for all copepods exhibited clear continuous relationships between the abundance of copepods and the indexed water masses. Large Arctic copepods were abundant at stations where the bottom layer was saline; however they were scarce at stations where warm fresh water formed the upper layer. Small Arctic copepods were abundant at stations where the upper layer was warm and saline and the bottom layer was cold and highly saline. In contrast, Pacific copepods were abundant at stations where the Pacific-origin water mass was predominant (i.e. a warm, saline upper layer and saline and a highly saline bottom layer). All copepod groups showed a positive relationship with early sea ice retreat. Early sea ice retreat has been reported to initiate spring blooms in open water, allowing copepods to utilize more food while maintaining their high activity in warm water without sea ice and cold water. This finding indicates that early sea ice retreat has positive effects on the abundance of all copepod groups in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas, suggesting a change from a pelagic-benthic-type ecosystem to a pelagic-pelagic type.

  10. Mooring-based long-term observation of oceanographic condition in the Chukchi Ses and Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Itoh, Motoyo; Nishino, Shigeto; Watanabe, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    Changes of the Arctic Ocean environment are well known as one of the most remarkable evidences of global warming, attracting social and public attentions as well as scientists'. However, to illustrate on-going changes and predict future condition of the Arctic marine environment, we still do not have enough knowledge of Arctic sea ice and marine environment. In particular, lack of observation data in winter, e.g., under sea ice, still remains a key issue for precise understanding of seasonal cycle on oceanographic condition in the Arctic Ocean. Mooring-based observation is one of the most useful methods to collect year-long data in the Arctic Ocean. We have been conducting long-term monitoring using mooring system in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes through Barrow Canyon where is a major conduit of Pacific-origin water-masses into the Canada Basin have been observed since 2000. We show from an analysis of the mooring results that volume flux through Barrow Canyon was about 60 % of Bering Strait volume flux. Averaged heat flux ranges from 0.9 to 3.07 TW, which could melt 88,000 to 300,000 km2 of 1m thick ice in the Canada Basin, which likely contributed to sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. In winter, we found inter-annual variability in salinity related to coastal polynya activity in the Chukchi Sea. In collaboration with Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) project, which is one of the tasks of Sustaining Arctic Observing Network (SAON), we also initiated year-long mooring observation in the Hope Valley of the southern Chukchi Sea since 2012. Interestingly, winter oceanographic conditions in the Hope Valley are greatly different between in 2012-2013 and in 2013-2014. We speculate that differences of sea ice freeze-up and coastal polynya activity in the southern Chukchi Sea cause significant difference of winter oceanographic condition. It suggests that recent sea ice reduction in the Pacific

  11. Anthropogenic 129I in the North Pacific, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Nishino, S.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2015-10-01

    Most of anthropogenic 129I in marine environment are due to discharge from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France) for past few decades. The discharge raised 129I concentration in seawaters in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans to more than 109 atoms L-1, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that in other region. Recently, in March 2011, a large quantity of 129I was released into the western North Pacific due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. To evaluate the influence of these events, we have measured 129I concentration in seawaters in the northern North Pacific Ocean, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012-2013. The 129I concentrations were 1.0-1.8 × 107 atoms L-1 in the surface waters in the vicinity of 47°N 150°E-130°W North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea (<74°N), which are equal to or lower than the 129I concentration level in surface water in the North Pacific Ocean before the F1NPP accident. The vertical profiles in the North Pacific were almost same as that observed in the western North Pacific before the F1NPP accident. The 129I distribution in seawater in the North Pacific to the Chukchi Sea revealed no significant increase of 129I concentration caused by the F1NPP accident. The 129I concentrations were 13-14 × 107 atoms L-1 in surface waters and 80 × 107 atoms L-1 at depths of 300 and 800 m in the Arctic Ocean.

  12. Does Arctic sea ice reduction foster shelf-basin exchange?

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Watanabe, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    The recent shift in Arctic ice conditions from prevailing multi-year ice to first-year ice will presumably intensify fall-winter sea ice freezing and the associated salt flux to the underlying water column. Here, we conduct a dual modeling study whose results suggest that the predicted catastrophic consequences for the global thermohaline circulation (THC), as a result of the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, may not necessarily occur. In a warmer climate, the substantial fraction of dense water feeding the Greenland-Scotland overflow may form on Arctic shelves and cascade to the deep basin, thus replenishing dense water, which currently forms through open ocean convection in the sub-Arctic seas. We have used a simplified model for estimating how increased ice production influences shelf-basin exchange associated with dense water cascading. We have carried out case studies in two regions of the Arctic Ocean where cascading was observed in the past. The baseline range of buoyancy-forcing derived from the columnar ice formation was calculated as part of a 30-year experiment of the pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results indicate that mechanical sea ice divergence associated with lateral advection accounts for a significant part of the interannual variations in sea ice thermal production in the coastal polynya regions. This forcing was then rectified by taking into account sub-grid processes and used in a regional model with analytically prescribed bottom topography and vertical stratification in order to examine specific cascading conditions in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of enhanced ice formation depend on geographical location and shelf-basin bathymetry. In the Pacific sector, strong density stratification in slope waters impedes noticeable deepening of shelf-origin water, even for the strongest forcing applied. In the Atlantic sector, a 1.5x increase of

  13. Subsurface phytoplankton layers in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations underscored the near-ubiquitous presence of subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCM) and their potential importance for total primary production (PP) and pelagic food webs in perennially stratified waters of the Arctic Ocean. The contribution of SCM layers to annual PP is particularly important in oligotrophic areas, where modest nutrient supply to the upper euphotic zone results in weak or short-lived phytoplankton blooms near the surface. The large amount of nutrients present in the Pacific halocline relative to comparable depths in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic may also foster particularly productive SCM along the path of Pacific water. The association between strongly stratified conditions and the SCM in today's Arctic Ocean has broad relevance in providing a glimpse into the future of other oceans whose vertical stratification progressively rises with water temperature and freshwater content. In this regard, there is much to learn on the photosynthetic and nutritive ecology of SCM layers, whose biogeochemical significance depends on the extent to which they rely on allochthonous nitrogen (new production), their contribution to carbon biomass and their ability to influence air-sea CO2 exchange. Here we report on several years of eco-physiological investigations of SCM across the Arctic Ocean, with an aim to provide a basis of comparison with the ecology of SCM in other ocean areas.

  14. Short commentary on marine productivity at Arctic shelf breaks: upwelling, advection and vertical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randelhoff, Achim; Sundfjord, Arild

    2018-04-01

    The future of Arctic marine ecosystems has received increasing attention in recent years as the extent of the sea ice cover is dwindling. Although the Pacific and Atlantic inflows both import huge quantities of nutrients and plankton, they feed into the Arctic Ocean in quite diverse regions. The strongly stratified Pacific sector has a historically heavy ice cover, a shallow shelf and dominant upwelling-favourable winds, while the Atlantic sector is weakly stratified, with a dynamic ice edge and a complex bathymetry. We argue that shelf break upwelling is likely not a universal but rather a regional, albeit recurring, feature of the new Arctic. It is the regional oceanography that decides its importance through a range of diverse factors such as stratification, bathymetry and wind forcing. Teasing apart their individual contributions in different regions can only be achieved by spatially resolved time series and dedicated modelling efforts. The Northern Barents Sea shelf is an example of a region where shelf break upwelling likely does not play a dominant role, in contrast to the shallower shelves north of Alaska where ample evidence for its importance has already accumulated. Still, other factors can contribute to marked future increases in biological productivity along the Arctic shelf break. A warming inflow of nutrient-rich Atlantic Water feeds plankton at the same time as it melts the sea ice, permitting increased photosynthesis. Concurrent changes in sea ice cover and zooplankton communities advected with the boundary currents make for a complex mosaic of regulating factors that do not allow for Arctic-wide generalizations.

  15. Distribution of Arctic and Pacific copepods and their habitat in the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, H.; Matsuno, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Onuka, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ueno, H.; Watanuki, Y.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-11-01

    The advection of warm Pacific water and the reduction of sea-ice extent in the western Arctic Ocean may influence the abundance and distribution of copepods, i.e., a key component in food webs. To understand the factors affecting abundance of copepods in the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, we constructed habitat models explaining the spatial patterns of the large and small Arctic copepods and the Pacific copepods, separately, using generalized additive models. Copepods were sampled by NORPAC net. Vertical profiles of density, temperature and salinity in the seawater were measured using CTD, and concentration of chlorophyll a in seawater was measured with a fluorometer. The timing of sea-ice retreat was determined using the satellite image. To quantify the structure of water masses, the magnitude of pycnocline and averaged density, temperature and salinity in upper and bottom layers were scored along three axes using principal component analysis (PCA). The structures of water masses indexed by the scores of PCAs were selected as explanatory variables in the best models. Large Arctic copepods were abundant in the water mass with high salinity water in bottom layer or with cold/low salinity water in upper layer and cold/high salinity water in bottom layer, and small Arctic copepods were abundant in the water mass with warm/saline water in upper layer and cold/high salinity water in bottom layers, while Pacific copepods were abundant in the water mass with warm/saline in upper layer and cold/high salinity water in bottom layer. All copepod groups were abundant in areas with deeper depth. Although chlorophyll a in upper and bottom layers were selected as explanatory variables in the best models, apparent trends were not observed. All copepod groups were abundant where the sea-ice retreated at earlier timing. Our study might indicate potential positive effects of the reduction of sea-ice extent on the distribution of all groups of copepods in the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Implications of ocean acidification in the Pacific Arctic: Experimental responses of three Arctic bivalves to decreased pH and food availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goethel, Christina L.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.; Miller, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    Recent sea ice retreat and seawater warming in the Pacific Arctic are physical changes that are impacting arctic biological communities. Recently, ocean acidification from increases in anthropogenic CO2 has been identified as an additional stressor, particularly to calcifying organisms like bivalves. These bivalves are common prey items for benthivorous predators such as Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), and diving seaducks, such as Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri). We investigated the effects of decreased pH and food availability on growth (% change in length and wet weight and allometric growth characterizations) and oxygen consumption (mg/L/hour) of three common Arctic bivalves, Macoma calcarea, Astarte montagui, and Astarte borealis. Two sets of experiments were run for seven and eleven weeks, exposing the bivalves to control (8.05 ± 0.02 and 8.19 ± 0.003, respectively) and acidified (7.76 ± 0.01 and 7.86 ± 0.01, respectively) pH treatments. Length, weight, and oxygen consumption were not significantly different among the varying treatments after the seven-week exposure and only one significant effect of decreased pH and one significant effect of decreased food availability were observed after the end of the eleven-week exposure. Specifically, shells of A. borealis displayed a decrease in length in response to decreased pH and M. calcarea showed a decrease in length in response to limited food. The negative effects of pH observed in the experiments on growth and oxygen consumption were small, suggesting that at least two of these species are generally resilient to decreasing pH.

  17. Synoptic Drivers of Precipitation in the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, L.; Hudson, S.; Graham, R.; Renwick, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation in the Arctic has been shown to be increasing in recent decades, from both observational and modelling studies, with largest trends seen in autumn and winter. This trend is attributed to a combination of the warming atmosphere and reduced sea ice extent. The seasonality of precipitation in the Arctic is important as it largely determines whether the precipitation falls as snow or rain. This study assesses the spatial and temporal variability of the synoptic drivers of precipitation in the Atlantic (European) sector of the Arctic. This region of the Arctic is of particular interest as it has the largest inter-annual variability in sea ice extent and is the primary pathway for moisture transport into the Arctic from lower latitudes. This study uses the ECMWF ERA-I reanalysis total precipitation to compare to long-term precipitation observations from Ny Ålesund, Svalbard to show that the reanalysis captures the synoptic variability of precipitation well and that most precipitation in this region is synoptically driven. The annual variability of precipitation in the Atlantic Arctic shows strong regionality. In the Svalbard and Barents Sea region, most of the annual total precipitation occurs during autumn and winter (Oct-Mar) (>60% of annual total), while the high-Arctic (> 80N) and Kara Sea receives most of the annual precipitation ( 60% of annual total) during summer (July-Sept). Using a synoptic classification developed for this region, this study shows that winter precipitation is driven by winter cyclone occurrence, with strong correlations to the AO and NAO indices. High precipitation over Svalbard is also strongly correlated with the Scandinavian blocking pattern, which produces a southerly flow in the Greenland Sea/Svalbard area. An increasing occurrence of these synoptic patterns are seen for winter months (Nov and Jan), which may explain much of the observed winter increase in precipitation.

  18. A Review of Pacific Interdecadal Climate Variability: Possible Mechanisms and Surface Climate Signatures in the Pacific Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantua, N. J.

    2004-12-01

    Many investigators have examined historical surface climate records from the Pacific sector and identified a relatively small number of spatial patterns varying at decadal to interdecadal time scales. "Pacific Decadal Variability" (PDV) is a label that has been used to describe this family of climate variations. Some patterns of PDV are contained completely within the northern extratropics, while others have signatures throughout the Pacific hemisphere on both sides of the equator. Mechanisms for observed patterns of PDV are not yet known, though a wide variety of hypotheses have been proposed. Various ocean-atmosphere mechanisms for PDV are contained within the extratropics, others within the tropics, while others involve tropical-extratropical interactions. Some investigators have proposed external forcing (solar, lunar, or volcanic) as potentially important for driving PDV. A relatively simple hypothesis couples ENSO forcing with upper ocean heat storage for extratropical PDV, and it suggests PDV predictability may be limited to ~2 year lead times. Paleo-PDV reconstructions have been based on materials throughout the Pacific sector using such things as extratropical tree-rings, tropical corals, extratropical clam shell growth rings, and ice cores. These different proxy records have generally provided different perspectives on paleo-PDV behavior.

  19. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We measured radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived 134 Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of 134 Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived 134 Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Modulates the Impacts of Arctic Sea Ice Decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Orsolini, Yvan J.; Wang, Huijun; Gao, Yongqi; He, Shengping

    2018-03-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly declining in the last two decades, concurrent with a shift in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) to its warm phase around 1996/1997. Here we use both observations and model simulations to investigate the modulation of the atmospheric impacts of the decreased sea ice cover in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic (AASIC) by the AMO. We find that the AASIC loss during a cold AMO phase induces increased Ural blocking activity, a southeastward-extended snowpack, and a cold continent anomaly over Eurasia in December through northerly cold air advection and moisture transport from the Arctic. The increased Ural blocking activity and more extended Eurasian snowpack strengthen the upward propagation of planetary waves over the Siberian-Pacific sector in the lower stratosphere and hence lead to a weakened stratospheric polar vortex and a negative Arctic Oscillation (AO) phase at the surface in February. However, corresponding to the AASIC loss during a warm AMO phase, one finds more widespread warming over the Arctic and a reduced snowpack over Northern Eurasia in December. The stratosphere-troposphere coupling is suppressed in early winter and no negative AO anomaly is found in February. We suggest that the cold AMO phase is important to regulate the atmospheric response to AASIC decline, and our study provides insight to the ongoing debate on the connection between the Arctic sea ice and the AO.

  1. Pan-Arctic patterns of planktonic heterotrophic microbial abundance and processes: Controlling factors and potential impacts of warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranger, Roxane; Vaqué, Dolors; Nguyen, Dan; Hébert, Marie-Pier; Lara, Elena

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean is rapidly changing where increasing water temperatures and rapid loss of summer sea-ice will likely influence the structure and functioning of the entire ecosystem. The aim of this study was to synthesize the current state of knowledge on microbial abundances and processes from a regional Pan-Arctic perspective, characterize regulating factors and attempt to predict how patterns may change under a warming scenario. Here we identify some generalized patterns of different microbial variables between the Pacific-fed and the Atlantic-fed sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Bacterial production (BP), abundance and grazing rates by protists (GT) were all higher in the Atlantic-fed region. Bacterial loss by viral lyses (VL) was proportionally more important in the Pacific-fed sector, suggesting a reduced C transfer efficiency within the microbial loop of that region. Using a cross-comparative approach and all available data to build Arrhenius plots, we found a differential response to warming temperatures among various microbial processes. BP and GT responded similarly and more strongly to increases in temperature than VL did, suggesting a shift in the overall influence of viral mortality under a warming scenario. However, together with temperature, resource-related factors also exerted an influence in regulating these rates. We identified large information gaps for more classically studied microbial variable from several Arctic seas. Furthermore, there is limited information on less conventional pathways such as grazing by mixotrophic species, which may be playing a significant role in Arctic microbial trophodynamics. Although generalized patterns could be elucidated, more information is needed to predict and understand how a changing Arctic will alter microbial C pathways and major biogeochemical cycles on regional and seasonal scales.

  2. [Corynosoma hannae Zdzitowiecki, 1984--a parasite of sea leopard from the Pacific sector of Antarctic].

    PubMed

    Striukov, A A; Iurakhno, M V

    2007-01-01

    Specimens of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma hannae Zdzitowiecki, 1984 from the Pacific (Balleni islands) and Atlantic (South Shetland) sectors of Antarctic are compared with those from the Pacific sector of Subantarctic (Auckland and Campbell islands). Probably New Zealand sea lion Phocarctos hookeri (Gray, 1844) is the secondary definitive host for Corynosoma hannae. Description and figures of the specimens examined are provided.

  3. Distribution and structure of pranktonic Archaea in the Arctic Ocean using 2008 - 2010 R/V Mirai cruise samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano (Sato), C.; Akiyama, S.; Uchida, M.; Utsumi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Recent molecular biological techniques indicate that there is widely spreading marine planktonic Archaea in the world's ocean under euphotic zone, and those microbial metabolisms are now recognized the drive forces of the world ocean geochemical cycling. In addition, after the discovery of large amount of marine Archaea, it is pointed out to an accurate calculation of the ocean carbon cycling that the grasp of the Archaea quantitive distribution and their methabolism are indispensable. Remarkably, part of marine Archaea (Crenarchaeota) certainly has carbon fixing ability, thus there is currently great interest in the marine Archaea for getting to understand the carbon cycling. In this study, we evaluated the Archaeal spatial distribution and their biomass in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, where is the Archaeal quantitative data was less and strongly needed to reveal the marine bacterial carbon cycling due to resent changing the Arctic region such as extensive melting ice. The Arctic Ocean cruise by R/V MIRAI was done from August to October in 2008 - 2010 in the Chukchi Sea, Canada Basin and East Siberian Sea. In these cruises, vertical seawater samples were collected with 12 L Niskin bottles with CTD system at total 30 stations to investigate the distributions of bacterial population density. The Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) technique targeting Crenarchaeal, Euryarchaeal and Eubacterial rRNA was used for identifying and enumerating marine microbial cells under florescent microscope. These cells were counted and measured the size, and calculated the biomass. From the results, in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, it was determined that the fraction of Archaea was abundant under euphotic zone like as other oceans, and the vertical distribution of planktonic Archaea were obviously different by each sea area. Especially in East Siberian Sea, the fraction of Crenarchaeota was relatively high near bottom

  4. The role of sustained observations and data co-management in Arctic Ocean governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Lee, O. A.; Rupp, S. T.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid environmental change, a rise in maritime activities and resource development, and increasing engagement by non-Arctic nations are key to major shifts underway in Arctic social-environmental systems (SES). These shifts are triggering responses by policy makers, regulators and a range of other actors in the Arctic Ocean region. Arctic science can play an important role in informing such responses, in particular by (i) providing data from sustained observations to serve as indicators of change and major transitions and to inform regulatory and policy response; (ii) identifying linkages across subsystems of Arctic SES and across regions; (iii) providing predictions or scenarios of future states of Arctic SES; and (iv) informing adaptation action in response to rapid change. Policy responses to a changing Arctic are taking a multi-faceted approach by advancing international agreements through the Arctic Council (e.g., Search and Rescue Agreement), global forums (e.g., IMO Polar Code) or private sector instruments (e.g., ISO code for offshore structures). At the regional level, co-management of marine living resources involving local, indigenous stakeholders has proven effective. All of these approaches rely on scientific data and information for planning and decision-making. Examples from the Pacific Arctic sector illustrate how such relevant data is currently collected through a multitude of different government agencies, universities, and private entities. Its effective use in informing policy, planning and emergency response requires coordinated, sustained acquisition, common standards or best practices, and data sharing agreements - best achieved through data co-management approaches. For projections and scenarios of future states of Arctic SES, knowledge co-production that involves all relevant stakeholders and specifically addresses major sources of uncertainty is of particular relevance in an international context.

  5. Quantifying Source Sector and Region Contributions of BC and Dust Deposition on the Arctic Snow and the Resulting Albedo Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani, N.; Gregory, C.; Kulkarni, S.

    2017-12-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from mid-latitude sources to the Arctic is the main contributor to the Arctic PM loadings and deposition. Light absorbing particles such as Black Carbon (BC) and dust are considered of great climatic importance and are the main absorbers of sunlight in the atmosphere. Wet and dry deposition of light absorbing particles (LAPs) on snow and ice cause reduction of snow and ice albedo. LAPs have significant radiative forcing and effect on snow albedo causing snow and ice to warm and melt more quickly. There are large uncertainties in estimating radiative forcing of LAPs. In this study, the potential impacts of LAPs from different emission source regions and sectors on snow albedo in the Arctic are studied. A modeling framework including Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the University of Iowa's Sulfur Transport and dEpostion model (STEM) is used to simulate the seasonality and transport of LAPs from different geographical sources and sectors (i.e. transportation, residential, industry, biomass burning and power) to the Arctic. The main geographical source contributor to the Arctic BC annual deposition flux is China. However, there is a distinct seasonal variation for the contributions of geographical source emissions to BC deposition. During the spring, when the deposition flux is highest, the contribution of biomass burning attributes for up to 40% of total deposition at Alert and Barrow. However, during the winter, the anthropogenic sectors contribute up to 95% of total BC deposition. The simulated snow BC mixing ratios are evaluated using the observed BC snow concentration values from previous studies including Doherty et al., 2010. The simulations show the BC deposition causes 0.6% snow albedo decrease during spring 2008 over the Arctic.

  6. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO): A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific region of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. The developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is composed of focused biological and oceanographic sampling at biological "hot spot" sites for lower and higher trophic organisms on a latitudinal S-to-N array. The DBO is being developed by an international consortium of scientists in the Pacific Arctic as a change detection array to systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change. Coordinated ship-based observations over various seasons, together with satellite and mooring data collections at the designated sites, can provide an early detection system for biological and ecosystem response to climate warming. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. As a ramp up to a fully operational observatory, hydrographic transects and select

  7. Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants and Plasticizers in Ocean Sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxin; Xie, Zhiyong; Lohmann, Rainer; Mi, Wenying; Gao, Guoping

    2017-04-04

    The presence of organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers in surface sediment from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean was observed for the first time during the fourth National Arctic Research Expedition of China in the summer of 2010. The samples were analyzed for three halogenated OPEs [tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate], three alkylated OPEs [triisobutyl phosphate (TiBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate, and tripentyl phosphate], and triphenyl phosphate. Σ 7 OPEs (total concentration of the observed OPEs) was in the range of 159-4658 pg/g of dry weight. Halogenated OPEs were generally more abundant than the nonhalogenated OPEs; TCEP and TiBP dominated the overall concentrations. Except for that of the Bering Sea, Σ 7 OPEs values increased with increasing latitudes from Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean, while the contributions of halogenated OPEs (typically TCEP and TCPP) to the total OPE profile also increased from the Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean, indicating they are more likely to be transported to the remote Arctic. The median budget of 52 (range of 17-292) tons for Σ 7 OPEs in sediment from the Central Arctic Ocean represents only a very small amount of their total production volume, yet the amount of OPEs in Arctic Ocean sediment was significantly larger than the sum of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the sediment, indicating they are equally prone to long-range transport away from source regions. Given the increasing level of production and usage of OPEs as substitutes of PBDEs, OPEs will continue to accumulate in the remote Arctic.

  8. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  9. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the North Pacific to the Arctic: Field measurements and fugacity model simulation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hongwei; Chen, Mian; Liu, Mengyang; Chen, Meng; Duan, Mengshan; Huang, Peng; Hong, Jiajun; Lin, Yan; Cheng, Shayen; Wang, Xuran; Huang, Mengxue; Cai, Minggang

    2017-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have accumulated ubiquitously inArctic environments, where re-volatilization of certain organic pollutants as a result of climate change has been observed. To investigate the fate of semivolatile organic compounds in the Arctic, dissolved PAHs in the surface seawaters from the temperate Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean, as well as a water column in the Arctic Ocean, were collected during the 4th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in summer 2010. The total concentrations of seven dissolved PAHs in surface water ranged from 1.0 to 5.1 ng L -1 , decreasing with increasing latitude. The vertical profile of PAHs in the Arctic Ocean was generally characteristic of surface enrichment and depth depletion, which emphasized the role of vertical water stratification and particle settling processes. A level III fugacity model was developed in the Bering Sea under steady state assumption. Model results quantitatively simulated the transfer processes and fate of PAHs in the air and water compartments, and highlighted a summer air-to-sea flux of PAHs in the Bering Sea, which meant that the ocean served as a sink for PAHs, at least in summer. Acenaphthylene and acenaphthene reached equilibrium in air-water diffusive exchange, and any perturbation, such as a rise in temperature, might lead to disequilibrium and remobilize these compounds from their Arctic reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trends and variability of cloud fraction cover in the Arctic, 1982-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Parmiggiani, Flavio

    2018-05-01

    Climatology, trends and variability of cloud fraction cover (CFC) data over the Arctic (north of 70°N), were analysed over the 1982-2009 period. Data, available from the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM SAF), are derived from satellite measurements by AVHRR. Climatological means confirm permanent high CFC values over the Atlantic sector during all the year and during summer over the eastern Arctic Ocean. Lower values are found in the rest of the analysed area especially over Greenland and the Canadian Archipelago, nearly continuously during all the months. These results are confirmed by CFC trends and variability. Statistically significant trends were found during all the months over the Greenland Sea, particularly during the winter season (negative, less than -5 % dec -1) and over the Beaufort Sea in spring (positive, more than +5 % dec -1). CFC variability, investigated by the Empirical Orthogonal Functions, shows a substantial "non-variability" in the Northern Atlantic Ocean. Statistically significant correlations between CFC principal components elements and both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index and Pacific North America patterns are found.

  11. Arctic biogeography: The paradox of the marine benthic fauna and flora.

    PubMed

    Dunton, K

    1992-06-01

    The marine benthic fauna and flora that inhabit the shallow arctic sublittoral zone comprise a relatively young marine assemblage characterized by species of either Pacific or Atlantic affinity and notably few endemics. The young character of nearshore arctic communities, as well as their biogeographical composition, is largely a product of the Pleistocene glaciation. However, analysis of more recent collections and comparison between the origins of the benthic fauna and flora present some interesting paradoxes to biogeographers. One enigma is the low frequency of algal species with Pacific affinities in the Arctic, especially in the Chukchi, Beaufort and East Siberian Seas of the Eastern Arctic, which receive direct inputs of northward-flowing Pacific waters. In contrast, animal species with Pacific affinities are found throughout the nearshore regions of the Arctic, reaching their highest frequency in the marginal seas between the New Siberian Islands and the Canadian Archipelago. Organization of published and unpublished data, additional field collections, and the use of cladistics and molecular DNA techniques by systematists are a high priority for future research in reconstructing the evolution of the arctic biotic assemblage. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxin; Halsall, Crispin J; Xie, Zhiyong; Koetke, Danijela; Mi, Wenying; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gao, Guoping

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surficial sediments along a marine transect from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The highest average Σ 18 PAHs concentrations were observed along the continental slope of the Canada Basin in the Arctic (68.3 ± 8.5 ng g -1 dw), followed by sediments in the Chukchi Sea shelf (49.7 ± 21.2 ng g -1 dw) and Bering Sea (39.5 ± 11.3 ng g -1 dw), while the Bering Strait (16.8 ± 7.1 ng g -1 dw) and Central Arctic Ocean sediments (13.1 ± 9.6 ng g -1 dw) had relatively lower average concentrations. The use of principal components analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR) indicated that on average oil related or petrogenic sources contributed ∼42% of the measured PAHs in the sediments and marked by higher concentrations of two methylnaphthalenes over the non-alkylated parent PAH, naphthalene. Wood and coal combustion contributed ∼32%, and high temperature pyrogenic sources contributing ∼26%. Petrogenic sources, such as oil seeps, allochthonous coal and coastally eroded material such as terrigenous sediments particularly affected the Chukchi Sea shelf and slope of the Canada Basin, while biomass and coal combustion sources appeared to have greater influence in the central Arctic Ocean, possibly due to the effects of episodic summertime forest fires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Remarkable separability of the circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, K. E.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; Sigmond, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice loss has an important effect on local climate through increases in ocean to atmosphere heat flux and associated feedbacks, and may influence midlatitude climate by changing large-scale circulation that can enhance or counter changes that are due to greenhouse gases. The extent to which climate change in a warming world can be understood as greenhouse gas-induced changes that are modulated by Arctic sea ice loss depends on how additive the responses to the separate influences are. Here we use a novel sea ice nudging methodology in the Canadian Earth System Model, which has a fully coupled ocean, to isolate the effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to determine their additivity and sensitivity to mean state. We find that the separate effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled CO2 are remarkably additive and relatively insensitive to mean climate state. This separability is evident in several thermodynamic and dynamic fields throughout most of the year, from hemispheric to synoptic scales. The extent to which the regional response to sea ice loss sometimes agrees with and sometimes cancels the response to CO2 is quantified. In this model, Arctic sea ice loss enhances the CO2-induced surface air temperature changes nearly everywhere and zonal wind changes over the Pacific sector, whereas sea ice loss counters CO2-induced sea level pressure changes nearly everywhere over land and zonal wind changes over the Atlantic sector. This separability of the response to Arctic sea ice loss from the response to CO2 doubling gives credence to the body of work in which Arctic sea ice loss is isolated from the forcing that modified it, and might provide a means to better interpret the diverse array of modeling and observational studies of Arctic change and influence.

  14. First record of the larvae of tanner crab Chionoecetes bairdi in the Chukchi Sea: A future northward expansion in the Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeira, Jose M.; Matsuno, Kohei; Tanaka, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2018-06-01

    In the Bering Sea, warming and reduction of summer sea-ice cover are driving species ranges towards the Arctic. Tanner crab, Chionoecetes bairdi, is a commercially important species in the SE Bering Sea with a northerly range margin in 62ºN. In this paper, using plankton samples collected in the Pacific sub-Arctic/Arctic sector during summer, we report for the first time the presence of larval stages (zoea II) of C. bairdi far from its northern limit of the distribution, in the south of St. Lawrence Island during 1991, and even crossing the Bering Strait into the Chukchi Sea during 1992. We suggest that the long planktonic phase (3-5 months), in combination with the oceanographic circulation, may facilitate eventual long-distance transport.

  15. Diversity of cultured photosynthetic flagellates in the northeast Pacific and Arctic Oceans in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, S.; Gourvil, P.; Siano, R.; Chanoine, M.; Marie, D.; Lessard, S.; Sarno, D.; Vaulot, D.

    2012-11-01

    During the MALINA cruise (summer 2009), an extensive effort was undertaken to isolate phytoplankton strains from the northeast (NE) Pacific Ocean, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and the Beaufort Sea. In order to characterise the main photosynthetic microorganisms occurring in the Arctic during the summer season, strains were isolated by flow cytometry sorting (FCS) and single cell pipetting before or after phytoplankton enrichment of seawater samples. Strains were isolated both onboard and back in the laboratory and cultured at 4 °C under light/dark conditions. Overall, we isolated and characterised by light microscopy and 18 S rRNA gene sequencing 104 strains of photosynthetic flagellates which grouped into 21 genotypes (defined by 99.5% 18 S rRNA gene sequence similarity), mainly affiliated to Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta. The taxon most frequently isolated was an Arctic ecotype of the green algal genus Micromonas (Arctic Micromonas), which was nearly the only phytoplankter recovered within the picoplankton (< 2 μm) size range. Strains of Arctic Micromonas as well as other strains from the same class (Mamiellophyceae) were identified in further detail by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon. The MALINA Micromonas strains share identical 18 S rRNA and ITS sequences suggesting high genetic homogeneity within Arctic Micromonas. Three other Mamiellophyceae strains likely belong to a new genus. Other green algae from the genera Nephroselmis, Chlamydomonas, and Pyramimonas were also isolated, whereas Heterokontophyta included some unidentified Pelagophyceae, Dictyochophyceae (Pedinellales), and Chrysophyceae (Dinobryon faculiferum). Moreover, we isolated some Cryptophyceae (Rhodomonas sp.) as well as a few Prymnesiophyceae and dinoflagellates. We identified the dinoflagellate Woloszynskia cincta by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 28 S rRNA gene sequencing. Our morphological analyses show that this species possess

  16. Inter-Relationship Between Subtropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, and the North Atlantic Oscillation in Recent Summers and Winters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Cullather, Richard I.; Nowicki, Sophie M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2017-01-01

    The inter-relationship between subtropical western-central Pacific sea surface temperatures (STWCPSST), sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea (SICBS), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are investigated for the last 37 summers and winters (1980-2016). Lag-correlation of the STWCPSST×(-1) in spring with the NAO phase and SICBS in summer increases over the last two decades, reaching r = 0.4-0.5 with significance at 5 percent, while winter has strong correlations in approximately 1985-2005. Observational analysis and the atmospheric general circulation model experiments both suggest that STWCPSST warming acts to increase the Arctic geopotential height and temperature in the following season. This atmospheric response extends to Greenland, providing favorable conditions for developing the negative phase of the NAO. SIC and surface albedo tend to decrease over the Beaufort Sea in summer, linked to the positive surface net shortwave flux. Energy balance considering radiative and turbulent fluxes reveal that available energy that can heat surface is larger over the Arctic and Greenland and smaller over the south of Greenland, in response to the STWCPSST warming in spring. XXXX Arctic & Atlantic: Positive upper-level height/T anomaly over the Arctic and Greenland, and a negative anomaly over the central-eastern Atlantic, resembling the (-) phase of the NAO. Pacific: The negative height/T anomaly over the mid-latitudes, along with the positive anomaly over the STWCP, where 1degC warming above climatology is prescribed. Discussion: It is likely that the Arctic gets warm and the NAO is in the negative phase in response to the STWCP warming. But, there are other factors (e.g., internal variability) that contribute to determination of the NAO phase: not always the negative phase of the NAO in the event of STWCP warming (e.g.: recent winters and near neutral NAO in 2017 summer).

  17. Future Arctic temperature change resulting from a range of aerosol emissions scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Wobus, Cameron; Flanner, Mark; Sarofim, Marcus C.; ...

    2016-05-17

    The Arctic temperature response to emissions of aerosols – specifically black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate – depends on both the sector and the region where these emissions originate. Thus, the net Arctic temperature response to global aerosol emissions reductions will depend strongly on the blend of emissions sources being targeted. We use recently published equilibrium Arctic temperature response factors for BC, OC, and sulfate to estimate the range of present-day and future Arctic temperature changes from seven different aerosol emissions scenarios. Globally, Arctic temperature changes calculated from all of these emissions scenarios indicate that present-day emissions frommore » the domestic and transportation sectors generate the majority of present-day Arctic warming from BC. However, in all of these scenarios, this warming is more than offset by cooling resulting from SO 2 emissions from the energy sector. Thus, long-term climate mitigation strategies that are focused on reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from the energy sector could generate short-term, aerosol-induced Arctic warming. As a result, a properly phased approach that targets BC-rich emissions from the transportation sector as well as the domestic sectors in key regions – while simultaneously working toward longer-term goals of CO 2 mitigation – could potentially avoid some amount of short-term Arctic warming.« less

  18. Evidence for Pacific Climate Regime Shifts as Preserved in a Southeast Alaska Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Thompson, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate modes emanating from the Pacific sector have far-reaching effects across the globe. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) reflects anomalies in the sea surface temperature and pressure fields over the tropical Pacific, but climate implications from these anomalies extend to monsoon regions of Asia to North America and even Europe. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) explains sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific sector and influences the long-term behavior of the ENSO cycle as well as the storm track over North America expressed as the Pacific/North American Pattern (PNA). The impacts of both climate change and drastically reduced Arctic sea ice cover on these teleconnection patterns are poorly understood, and with little knowledge about their past behavior, predicting the changes in these climate modes is extremely difficult. An ice core from the col between Mt. Bona and Mt. Churchill in southeast Alaska provides an opportunity to examine the PDO prior to both the start of instrumental records and the more recent effects of anthropogenic climate change. The Bona-Churchill records of isotopic, dust, and chemical composition are compared to nearby meteorological station and 20th century reanalysis data to evaluate their strength as climate recorders. Climate indices such as the PDO and PNA, along with indices created to describe the strength and position of the Aleutian Low and Siberian High, are incorporated into the analysis to determine if proxy relationships are altered under different climate regimes. Satellite records of sea ice extent within the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, when compared to the Bona-Churchill data, show a distinct change in behavior in the mid-1990s possibly in response to the temporary negative shift in the PDO. This behavioral shift is explored and placed into a broader climate context to determine whether similar events have occurred in the past or if this shift is unique to a rapidly warming Arctic.

  19. Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, David G.; Hop, Haakon; Mundy, Christopher J.; Else, Brent; Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Ehn, Jens K.; Assmy, Philipp; Daase, Malin; Candlish, Lauren M.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly due to a warming Arctic climate with commensurate reductions in sea ice extent and thickness. This Pan-Arctic review summarizes the main changes in the Arctic ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface, with implications for primary- and secondary producers in the ice and the underlying water column. Changes in the Arctic MIZ were interpreted for the period 1979-2010, based on best-fit regressions for each month. Trends of increasingly open water were statistically significant for each month, with quadratic fit for August-November, illustrating particularly strong seasonal feedbacks in sea-ice formation and decay. Geographic interpretations of physical and biological changes were based on comparison of regions with significant changes in sea ice: (1) The Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean including the Canada Basin and the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian seas; (2) The Canadian Arctic Archipelago; (3) Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay; and (4) the Barents and Kara seas. Changes in ice conditions in the Barents sea/Kara sea region appear to be primarily forced by ocean heat fluxes during winter, whereas changes in the other sectors appear to be more summer-autumn related and primarily atmospherically forced. Effects of seasonal and regional changes in OSA-system with regard to increased open water were summarized for photosynthetically available radiation, nutrient delivery to the euphotic zone, primary production of ice algae and phytoplankton, ice-associated fauna and zooplankton, and gas exchange of CO2. Changes in the physical factors varied amongst regions, and showed direct effects on organisms linked to sea ice. Zooplankton species appear to be more flexible and likely able to adapt to variability in the onset of primary production. The major changes identified for the ice-associated ecosystem are with regard to production timing and abundance or biomass of ice flora and fauna, which are related to

  20. Risk of predation and weather events affect nest site selection by sympatric Pacific (Gavia pacifica) and Yellow-billed (Gavia adamsii) loons in Arctic habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.

    2014-01-01

    Pacific (Gavia pacifica) and Yellow-billed (G. adamsii) loons nest sympatrically in Arctic regions. These related species likely face similar constraints and requirements for nesting success; therefore, use of similar habitats and direct competition for nesting habitat is likely. Both of these loon species must select a breeding lake that provides suitable habitat for nesting and raising chicks; however, characteristics of nest site selection by either species on interior Arctic lakes remains poorly understood. Here, logistic regression was used to compare structural and habitat characteristics of all loon nest locations with random points from lakes on the interior Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. Results suggest that both loon species select nest sites to avoid predation and exposure to waves and shifting ice. Loon nest sites were more likely to be on islands and peninsulas (odds ratio = 16.13, 95% CI = 4.64–56.16) than mainland shoreline, which may help loons avoid terrestrial predators. Further, nest sites had a higher degree of visibility (mean degrees of visibility to 100 and 200 m) of approaching predators than random points (odds ratio = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.22–5.39). Nests were sheltered from exposure, having lower odds of being exposed to prevailing winds (odds ratio = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.13–0.92) and lower odds of having high fetch values (odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22–0.96). Differences between Pacific and Yellow-billed loon nesting sites were subtle, suggesting that both species have similar general nest site requirements. However, Yellow-billed Loons nested at slightly higher elevations and were more likely to nest on peninsulas than Pacific Loons. Pacific Loons constructed built up nests from mud and vegetation, potentially in response to limited access to suitable shoreline due to other territorial loons. Results suggest that land managers wishing to protect habitats for these species should focus on lakes with islands as well as shorelines

  1. Decadal shifts in autumn migration timing by Pacific Arctic beluga whales are related to delayed annual sea ice formation.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Donna D W; Laidre, Kristin L; Stafford, Kathleen M; Stern, Harry L; Suydam, Robert S; Richard, Pierre R

    2017-06-01

    Migrations are often influenced by seasonal environmental gradients that are increasingly being altered by climate change. The consequences of rapid changes in Arctic sea ice have the potential to affect migrations of a number of marine species whose timing is temporally matched to seasonal sea ice cover. This topic has not been investigated for Pacific Arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that follow matrilineally maintained autumn migrations in the waters around Alaska and Russia. For the sympatric Eastern Chukchi Sea ('Chukchi') and Eastern Beaufort Sea ('Beaufort') beluga populations, we examined changes in autumn migration timing as related to delayed regional sea ice freeze-up since the 1990s, using two independent data sources (satellite telemetry data and passive acoustics) for both populations. We compared dates of migration between 'early' (1993-2002) and 'late' (2004-2012) tagging periods. During the late tagging period, Chukchi belugas had significantly delayed migrations (by 2 to >4 weeks, depending on location) from the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Spatial analyses also revealed that departure from Beaufort Sea foraging regions by Chukchi whales was postponed in the late period. Chukchi beluga autumn migration timing occurred significantly later as regional sea ice freeze-up timing became later in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas. In contrast, Beaufort belugas did not shift migration timing between periods, nor was migration timing related to freeze-up timing, other than for southward migration at the Bering Strait. Passive acoustic data from 2008 to 2014 provided independent and supplementary support for delayed migration from the Beaufort Sea (4 day yr -1 ) by Chukchi belugas. Here, we report the first phenological study examining beluga whale migrations within the context of their rapidly transforming Pacific Arctic ecosystem, suggesting flexible responses that may enable their persistence yet also complicate predictions of how

  2. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  3. Record low sea-ice concentration in the central Arctic during summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinping; Barber, David; Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Qinghua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Hongjie

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic sea-ice extent has shown a declining trend over the past 30 years. Ice coverage reached historic minima in 2007 and again in 2012. This trend has recently been assessed to be unique over at least the last 1450 years. In the summer of 2010, a very low sea-ice concentration (SIC) appeared at high Arctic latitudes—even lower than that of surrounding pack ice at lower latitudes. This striking low ice concentration—referred to here as a record low ice concentration in the central Arctic (CARLIC)—is unique in our analysis period of 2003-15, and has not been previously reported in the literature. The CARLIC was not the result of ice melt, because sea ice was still quite thick based on in-situ ice thickness measurements. Instead, divergent ice drift appears to have been responsible for the CARLIC. A high correlation between SIC and wind stress curl suggests that the sea ice drift during the summer of 2010 responded strongly to the regional wind forcing. The drift trajectories of ice buoys exhibited a transpolar drift in the Atlantic sector and an eastward drift in the Pacific sector, which appeared to benefit the CARLIC in 2010. Under these conditions, more solar energy can penetrate into the open water, increasing melt through increased heat flux to the ocean. We speculate that this divergence of sea ice could occur more often in the coming decades, and impact on hemispheric SIC and feed back to the climate.

  4. Diversity of cultured photosynthetic flagellates in the North East Pacific and Arctic Oceans in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, S.; Gourvil, P.; Siano, R.; Chanoine, M.; Marie, D.; Lessard, S.; Sarno, D.; Vaulot, D.

    2012-06-01

    During the MALINA cruise (summer 2009) an extensive effort was undertaken to isolate phytoplankton strains from the North East (NE) Pacific Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Beaufort Sea. Strains were isolated by flow cytometry sorting (FCS) and pipetting before or after phytoplankton enrichment of seawater samples. Strains were isolated both onboard and back in the laboratory and cultured at 4 °C under light/dark conditions. Overall, we isolated and characterised by light microscopy and 18S rRNA gene sequencing 104 strains of photosynthetic flagellates which grouped into 21 genotypes (defined by 99.5% 18S rRNA gene sequence similarity) mainly affiliated to Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta. The taxon most frequently isolated was an Arctic ecotype of the green algal genus Micromonas (Arctic Micromonas) which was almost the only phytoplankter recovered within picoplankton (≤ 2 μm) size range. Strains of Arctic Micromonas as well as three unidentified strains related to the same genus were identified in further details by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon. The MALINA Micromonas strains share identical 18S rRNA and ITS sequences suggesting high genetic homogeneity within Arctic Micromonas. The unidentified strains form a genotype likely belonging to a new genus within the family Mamiellaceae to which Micromonas belongs. Other green algae genotypes from the genera Nephroselmis, Chlamydomonas, Pyramimonas were also isolated whereas Heterokontophyta included Pelagophyceae, Dictyochophyceae and Chrysophyceae. Dictyochophyceae included Pedinellales which could not be identified to the genus level whereas Chrysophyceae comprised Dinobryon faculiferum. Moreover, we isolated Rhodomonas sp. as well as a few Haptophyta and dinoflagellates. We identified the dinoflagellate Woloszynskia cincta by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and 28S rRNA gene sequencing. Our morphological analyses show that this species possess the diagnostic

  5. Influence of climate variability on near-surface ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Wang, Yuhang; Jiang, Tianyu; Deng, Yi; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Solberg, Sverre

    2014-04-01

    Near-surface ozone depletion events (ODEs) generally occur in the Arctic spring, and the frequency shows large interannual variations. We use surface ozone measurements at Barrow, Alert, and Zeppelinfjellet to analyze if their variations are due to climate variability. In years with frequent ODEs at Barrow and Alert, the western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern is usually in its negative phase, during which the Pacific jet is strengthened but the storm track originated over the western Pacific is weakened. Both factors tend to reduce the transport of ozone-rich air mass from midlatitudes to the Arctic, creating a favorable environment for the ODEs. The correlation of ODE frequencies at Zeppelinfjellet with WP indices is higher in the 2000s, reflecting stronger influence of the WP pattern in recent decade to cover ODEs in broader Arctic regions. We find that the WP pattern can be used to diagnose ODE changes and subsequent environmental impacts in the Arctic spring.

  6. Using fluorescent dissolved organic matter to trace and distinguish the origin of Arctic surface waters

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Granskog, Mats A.; Bracher, Astrid; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Dodd, Paul A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (fmw), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized. In Fram Strait and EGS, a robust correlation between visible wavelength fluorescence and fmw was apparent, suggesting it as a reliable tracer of polar waters. However, a pattern was observed which linked the organic matter characteristics to the origin of polar waters. At depth in Davis Strait, visible wavelength FDOM was correlated to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and traced deep-water DOM turnover. In surface waters FDOM characteristics could distinguish between surface waters from eastern (Atlantic + modified polar waters) and western (Canada-basin polar waters) Arctic sectors. The findings highlight the potential of designing in situ multi-channel DOM fluorometers to trace the freshwater origins and decipher water mass mixing dynamics in the region without laborious samples analyses. PMID:27667721

  7. Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic reconstruction of the Arctic

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smith, D.G.

    1985-04-01

    The plate tectonic evolution of the Arctic is reassessed in the context of the known histories of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans, and of the tectono-stratigraphic development of the lands around the Arctic Ocean. Computer map-drawing facilities were used to provide geometrical constraints on the reconstructions, which are presented to in the form of eight palinispatic maps. Stratigraphic similarities among presently dispersed continental areas identify fragments of a former Barents plate. Collision of this plate with the Euramerican plate was the cause of the Late Devonian Ellesmerian orogeny. In later Paleozoic time, the Siberian continent also joined Pangeamore » by collision with the combined Barents and Euramerican plates along the Ural-Taymyr suture. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the Arctic is concerned with the fragmentation and dispersal of the former Barents plate, as well as the accretion of new continental fragments from the Pacific.« less

  8. Energy Content of Arctic Forage Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollenweider, J.; Heintz, R.; Callahan, M.; Robertson, A.; Barton, M. B.; Sousa, L.; Mueter, F. J.; Mosher, S.; Moran, J.; Logerwell, E.; Boswell, K. M.; Sformo, T.; Farley, E.

    2016-02-01

    Global changes in climate conditions are most extreme in high latitudes and have the potential to restructure Arctic marine fish assemblages. Of concern is the ability for fish to adapt to changing habitats, the potential for range expansion from lower latitudes, and resultant introduction of competitors and/or predators. Bioenergetic models are useful tools to understand potential cascading trophic effects, and fish energy density is a key parameter in these models. We present energy density (kJ/g dry mass) values for 28 Arctic fish species collected in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas between 2005 and 2014. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) was the most energy-rich species (25.0 kJ/g), followed by two species of primary importance to subsistence people, Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) and Bering cisco (Coregonus laurettae) (24.9 kJ/g and 23.5 kJ/g, respectively). The abundant and ecologically important Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) was the most energy-rich gadid, averaging 22.7 kJ/g and having 6% more energy than walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) (21.5 kJ/g) and 11% more energy than saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) (20.5 kJ/g). In general, pelagic species such as juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp) had the highest energy content, whereas benthic species such as sculpin (Cottidae), flatfish (Pleuronectidae), eelblennies (Stichaeidae) and eelpouts (Zoarcidae) were amongst the lowest. The high energy content of Arctic cod and their ubiquitous distribution in the water column makes them valuable prey for both demersal and pelagic predators.

  9. A Paleo Perspective on Arctic and Mid-latitude Linkages from a Southeast Alaska Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Thompson, L. G.; Bolzan, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recent extreme weather events in the Northern Hemisphere have been linked to anomalously amplified jet stream patterns, North Pacific marine heatwaves, retreating Arctic sea ice extent, and/or the combination thereof. The role of the Arctic in influencing mid-latitude weather and extreme events is a burgeoning topic of climate research that is limited primarily to the recent decades in which Arctic amplification and shrinking Arctic sea ice extent are occurring. Paleo-proxy data afford an opportunity to place the changing Arctic and its far-reaching climatic consequences in the longer context of Earth's climate history and allow identification of time periods with conditions analogous to the present. Ice core-derived annual net accumulation from the Bona-Churchill (BC) ice core, retrieved in 2002 from the Wrangell-St. Elias mountain range in southeast Alaska, is used to explore the historical characteristics of the regional North Pacific climate and the further afield teleconnections. Variability of accumulation on BC is driven primarily by shifts in the position of the Aleutian Low which influences the available moisture sources for the drill site. The accumulation record is also related to sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska, defined here by the North Pacific Mode and somewhat colloquially as the North Pacific "blob". Thus due to its connection with the Aleutian Low and North Pacific sea surface temperatures, this uniquely situated ice core record indirectly captures the phasing of troughs and ridges in the polar jet stream over North America, and thereby facilitates examination of the atmospheric wave structure prior to the instrumental record. The relationships among the ice core accumulation record and various North Pacific climate features are presented along with evidence identifying specific time periods possibly characterized by persistently amplified wave patterns.

  10. Winter snow conditions on Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Graham, Robert M.; Liston, Glen E.; Polashenski, Chris; Rösel, Anja; Gerland, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    Snow is a crucial component of the Arctic sea ice system. Its thickness and thermal properties control heat conduction and radiative fluxes across the ocean, ice, and atmosphere interfaces. Hence, observations of the evolution of snow depth, density, thermal conductivity, and stratigraphy are crucial for the development of detailed snow numerical models predicting energy transfer through the snow pack. Snow depth is also a major uncertainty in predicting ice thickness using remote sensing algorithms. Here we examine the winter spatial and temporal evolution of snow physical properties on first-year (FYI) and second-year ice (SYI) in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean, during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition (January to March 2015). During N-ICE2015, the snow pack consisted of faceted grains (47%), depth hoar (28%), and wind slab (13%), indicating very different snow stratigraphy compared to what was observed in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean during the SHEBA campaign (1997-1998). Average snow bulk density was 345 kg m-3 and it varied with ice type. Snow depth was 41 ± 19 cm in January and 56 ± 17 cm in February, which is significantly greater than earlier suggestions for this region. The snow water equivalent was 14.5 ± 5.3 cm over first-year ice and 19 ± 5.4 cm over second-year ice.

  11. Measurement of Ice-nucleating Particles over the Western North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean during a R/V Mirai Cruise in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, K.; Tobo, Y.; Taketani, F.; Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) was performed using aerosol samples collected during a cruise of R/V Mirai across the western North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean from August to October, 2016. We used the National Institute of Polar Research Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (NIPR-CRAFT) device to examine the immersion freezing efficiency of the collected aerosols in the temperature range of -25°C to 0°C and measured the number concentration of atmospheric INPs. The INP concentrations varied over about three orders of magnitude during the cruise. Over the Arctic Ocean (i.e., >70°N), the INPs were <0.08 L-1. In comparison with the Arctic Ocean, INPs were abundant over the Bering Sea and western North Pacific; 0.03-5.5 L-1 during the first half leg and 0.3-41 L-1 during the returning leg. According to on-board measurement of black carbon concentrations and model simulations, extremely high concentrations of INPs during the returning leg would be attributed to transport of smoke from fires in Siberia. Different INP concentrations during the cruise indicates that INPs in marine air can vary dramatically in response to long-range transport of continental aerosols, such as smoke, in addition to local emissions from the sea surface. The observed concentrations of INPs were reasonably well expressed by power law fits with the number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles simultaneously measured with a Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) during the cruise, which suggests that biological aerosol particles may play a role in determining INP populations in the marine air of this case.

  12. Correlated declines in Pacific arctic snow and sea ice cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Robert P.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, Gennady I.; Drobot, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of future climate suggest that global warming will reduce Arctic snow and ice cover, resulting in decreased surface albedo (reflectivity). Lowering of the surface albedo leads to further warming by increasing solar absorption at the surface. This phenomenon is referred to as “temperature–albedo feedback.” Anticipation of such a feedback is one reason why scientists look to the Arctic for early indications of global warming. Much of the Arctic has warmed significantly. Northern Hemisphere snow cover has decreased, and sea ice has diminished in area and thickness. As reported in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment in 2004, the trends are considered to be outside the range of natural variability, implicating global warming as an underlying cause. Changing climatic conditions in the high northern latitudes have influenced biogeochemical cycles on a broad scale. Warming has already affected the sea ice, the tundra, the plants, the animals, and the indigenous populations that depend on them. Changing annual cycles of snow and sea ice also affect sources and sinks of important greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane), further complicating feedbacks involving the global budgets of these important constituents. For instance, thawing permafrost increases the extent of tundra wetlands and lakes, releasing greater amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Variable sea ice cover may affect the hemispheric carbon budget by altering the ocean–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. There is growing concern that amplification of global warming in the Arctic will have far-reaching effects on lower latitude climate through these feedback mechanisms. Despite the diverse and convincing observational evidence that the Arctic environment is changing, it remains unclear whether these changes are anthropogenically forced or result from natural variations of the climate system. A better understanding of what controls the seasonal distributions of snow and ice

  13. Squaring the Arctic Circle: connecting Arctic knowledge with societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the coming years the landscape of the Arctic will change substantially- environmentally, politically, and economically. Furthermore, Arctic change has the potential to significantly impact Arctic and non-Arctic countries alike. Thus, our science is in-demand by local communities, politicians, industry leaders and the public. During these times of transition it is essential that the links between science and society be strengthened further. Strong links between science and society is exactly what is needed for the development of better decision-making tools to support sustainable development, enable adaptation to climate change, provide the information necessary for improved management of assets and operations in the Arctic region, and and to inform scientific, economic, environmental and societal policies. By doing so tangible benefits will flow to Arctic societies, as well as for non-Arctic countries that will be significantly affected by climate change. Past experience has shown that the engagement with a broad range of stakeholders is not always an easy process. Consequently, we need to improve collaborative opportunities between scientists, indigenous/local communities, private sector, policy makers, NGOs, and other relevant stakeholders. The development of best practices in this area must build on the collective experiences of successful cross-sectorial programmes. Within this session we present some of the outreach work we have performed within the EU programme ICE-ARC, from community meetings in NW Greenland through to sessions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP Conferences, industry round tables, and an Arctic side event at the World Economic Forum in Davos.

  14. Processes of multibathyal aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, J.G.; Robbins, L.L.; Anderson, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    During 3 years of study (2010–2012), the western Arctic Ocean was found to have unique aragonite saturation profiles with up to three distinct aragonite undersaturation zones. This complexity is produced as inflow of Atlantic-derived and Pacific-derived water masses mix with Arctic-derived waters, which are further modified by physiochemical and biological processes. The shallowest aragonite undersaturation zone, from the surface to ∼30 m depth is characterized by relatively low alkalinity and other dissolved ions. Besides local influence of biological processes on aragonite undersaturation of shallow coastal waters, the nature of this zone is consistent with dilution by sea-ice melt and invasion of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. A second undersaturated zone at ∼90–220 m depth (salinity ∼31.8–35.4) occurs within the Arctic Halocline and is characterized by elevated pCO2 and nutrients. The nature of this horizon is consistent with remineralization of organic matter on shallow continental shelves bordering the Canada Basin and the input of the nutrients and CO2 entrained by currents from the Pacific Inlet. Finally, the deepest aragonite undersaturation zone is at greater than 2000 m depth and is controlled by similar processes as deep aragonite saturation horizons in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The comparatively shallow depth of this deepest aragonite saturation horizon in the Arctic is maintained by relatively low temperatures, and stable chemical composition. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of these aragonite undersaturation zones, and the time scales over which they operate will be crucial to refine predictive models.

  15. Spatial distribution of aquatic marine fungi across the western Arctic and sub-arctic.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Brandon T; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise L; Collins, Roy E; Gradinger, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Fungi are important parasites of primary producers and nutrient cyclers in aquatic ecosystems. In the Pacific-Arctic domain, fungal parasitism is linked to light intensities and algal stress that can elevate disease incidence on algae and reduce diatom concentrations. Fungi are vastly understudied in the marine realm and knowledge of their function is constrained by the current understanding of fungal distribution and drivers on global scales. To investigate the spatial distribution of fungi in the western Arctic and sub-Arctic, we used high throughput methods to sequence 18S rRNA, cloned and sequenced 28S rRNA and microscopically counted chytrid-infected diatoms. We identified a broad distribution of fungal taxa predominated by Chytridiomycota and Dikarya. Phylogenetic analysis of our Chytridiomycota clones placed Arctic marine fungi sister to the order Lobulomycetales. This clade of fungi predominated in fungal communities under ice with low snowpack. Microscopic examination of fixed seawater and sea ice samples revealed chytrids parasitizing diatoms collected across the Arctic that notably infected 25% of a single diatom species in the Bering Sea. The Pezizomycotina comprised > 95% of eukaryotic sequence reads in Greenland, providing preliminary evidence for osmotrophs being a substitute for algae as the base of food webs. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Arctic Research Plan: FY2017-2021

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starkweather, Sandy; Jeffries, Martin O; Stephenson, Simon; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Loehman, Rachel A.; von Biela, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is an Arctic nation—Americans depend on the Arctic for biodiversity and climate regulation and for natural resources. America’s Arctic—Alaska—is at the forefront of rapid climate, environmental, and socio-economic changes that are testing the resilience and sustainability of communities and ecosystems. Research to increase fundamental understanding of these changes is needed to inform sound, science-based decision- and policy-making and to develop appropriate solutions for Alaska and the Arctic region as a whole. Created by an Act of Congress in 1984, and since 2010 a subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) in the Executive Office of the President, the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) plays a critical role in advancing scientific knowledge and understanding of the changing Arctic and its impacts far beyond the boundaries of the Arctic. Comprising 14 Federal agencies, offices, and departments, IARPC is responsible for the implementation of a 5-year Arctic Research Plan in consultation with the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, the Governor of the State of Alaska, residents of the Arctic, the private sector, and public interest groups.

  17. The Immediacy of Arctic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, J. E.; Wang, M.; Soreide, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing temperature changes in the Arctic are large relative to lower latitudes; a process known as Arctic Amplification. Arctic temperatures have increased at least 3 times the rate of mid-latitude temperatures relative to the late 20th century, due to multiple interacting feedbacks driven by modest global change. Even if global temperature increases are contained to +2° C by 2040, Arctic (North of 60° N) monthly mean temperatures in fall will increase by +5° C. The Arctic is very likely to be sea ice free during summer before 2040, with the sea ice free duration limited to <5 months. Snow cover will be absent in May and June on most land masses. Whether these changes impact mid-latitude weather events is complex and controversial, as the time period for observing such linkages is short [<10 years] and involves understanding direct forcing by Arctic changes on a chaotic climatic system. Although chaotic internal variability dominates the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, Arctic thermodynamic influences can reinforce regional weather patterns. Extreme Arctic temperature events, as a combination of mean temperature increases combined with natural variability, will become common, nearing and exceeding previous thresholds. Such an event as an analog for the future was the +4° C anomalies for Alaska in November-December 2014 related to recent warm Pacific sea surface temperatures. Thus for the next few decades out to 2040, continuing rapid environmental changes in the Arctic are very likely, despite any mitigation activities, and the appropriate response is to plan for adaptation to meet these mean and extreme event changes. Mitigation is essential to forestall further disasters in the second half of the century. It is important to note such future rapid Arctic amplification, and the potential for environmental surprises, to support those making planning decisions and encourage action.

  18. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  19. The phenology of Arctic Ocean surface warming.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael; Dickinson, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we explore the seasonal relationships (i.e., the phenology) between sea ice retreat, sea surface temperature (SST), and atmospheric heat fluxes in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean, using satellite and reanalysis data. We find that where ice retreats early in most years, maximum summertime SSTs are usually warmer, relative to areas with later retreat. For any particular year, we find that anomalously early ice retreat generally leads to anomalously warm SSTs. However, this relationship is weak in the Chukchi Sea, where ocean advection plays a large role. It is also weak where retreat in a particular year happens earlier than usual, but still relatively late in the season, primarily because atmospheric heat fluxes are weak at that time. This result helps to explain the very different ocean warming responses found in two recent years with extreme ice retreat, 2007 and 2012. We also find that the timing of ice retreat impacts the date of maximum SST, owing to a change in the ocean surface buoyancy and momentum forcing that occurs in early August that we term the Late Summer Transition (LST). After the LST, enhanced mixing of the upper ocean leads to cooling of the ocean surface even while atmospheric heat fluxes are still weakly downward. Our results indicate that in the near-term, earlier ice retreat is likely to cause enhanced ocean surface warming in much of the Arctic Ocean, although not where ice retreat still occurs late in the season.

  20. Arctic Ocean Pathways in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; van Gennip, Simon J.; Kelly, Stephen J.; Popova, Ekaterina E.; Yool, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    In the last three decades, changes in the Arctic environment have been occurring at an increasing rate. The opening up of large areas of previously sea ice-covered ocean affects the marine environment with potential impacts on Arctic ecosystems, including through changes in Arctic access, industries and societies. Changes to sea ice and surface winds result in large-scale shifts in ocean circulation and oceanic pathways. This study presents a high-resolution analysis of the projected ocean circulation and pathways of the Arctic water masses across the 21st century. The analysis is based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the ocean general circulation model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) at the 1/4-degree horizontal resolution. The atmospheric forcing is from HadGEM2-ES model output from IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) simulations performed for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5), and follow the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. During the 21st century the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increased by in excess of 4 deg. C. Annual mean Arctic sea ice thickness drops to less than 0.5m, and the Arctic Ocean is ice-free in summer from the mid-century. We use an off-line tracer technique to investigate Arctic pathways of the Atlantic and Pacific waters (AW and PW respectively) under this future climate. The AW tracers have been released in the eastern Fram Strait and in the western Barents Sea, whereas the PW tracer has been seeded in the Bering Strait. In the second half of the century the upper 1000 m ocean circulation shows a reduction in the eastward AW flow along the continental slopes towards the Makarov and Canada basins and a deviation of the PW flow away from the Beaufort Sea towards the Siberian coast. Strengthening of Arctic boundary current and intensification of the cyclonic gyre in the Nansen basin of the Arctic Ocean is accompanied by

  1. Towards effective prevention and control of helminth neglected tropical diseases in the Western Pacific Region through multi-disease and multi-sectoral interventions.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Jun; Ehrenberg, John P; Nealon, Joshua; Fürst, Thomas; Aratchige, Padmasiri; Gonzales, Glenda; Chanthavisouk, Chitsavang; Hernandez, Leda M; Fengthong, Tayphasavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) cause serious health, social and economic burdens in the countries of the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. Among the NTDs, helminth infections are particularly prominent with regard to the number of infected individuals and health impact. Co-endemicity is common among impoverished and marginalized populations. To achieve effective and sustainable control of helminth NTDs, a deeper understanding of the social-ecological systems governing their endemicity and strategies beyond preventive chemotherapy are required to tackle the multiple causes of infection and re-infection. We discuss the feasibility of implementing multi-disease, multi-sectoral intervention packages for helminth NTDs in the Western Pacific Region. After reviewing the main determinants for helminth NTD endemicity and current control strategies, key control activities that involve or concern other programmes within and beyond the health sector are discussed. A considerable number of activities that have an impact on more than one helminth NTD are identified in a variety of sectors, suggesting an untapped potential for synergies. We also highlight the challenges of multi-sectoral collaboration, particularly of involving non-health sectors. We conclude that multi-sectoral collaboration for helminth NTD control is feasible if the target diseases and sectors are carefully selected. To do so, an incentive analysis covering key stakeholders in the sectors is crucial, and the disease-control strategies need to be well understood. The benefits of multi-disease, multi-sectoral approaches could go beyond immediate health impacts by contributing to sustainable development, raising educational attainment, increasing productivity and reducing health inequities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atmosphere-Ocean Variations in the Indo-Pacific Sector during ENSO Episodes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Ngar-Cheung; Nath, Mary Jo

    2003-01-01

    The influences of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on air-sea interaction in the Indian-western Pacific (IWP) Oceans have been investigated using a general circulation model. Observed monthly sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the deep tropical eastern/central Pacific (DTEP) have been inserted in the lower boundary of this model through the 1950-99 period. At all maritime grid points outside of DTEP, the model atmosphere has been coupled with an oceanic mixed layer model with variable depth. Altogether 16 independent model runs have been conducted.Composite analysis of selected ENSO episodes illustrates that the prescribed SST anomalies in DTEP affect the surface atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns in IWP through displacements of the near-equatorial Walker circulation and generation of Rossby wave modes in the subtropics. Such atmospheric responses modulate the surface fluxes as well as the oceanic mixed layer depth, and thereby establish a well-defined SST anomaly pattern in the IWP sector several months after the peak in ENSO forcing in DTEP. In most parts of the IWP region, the net SST tendency induced by atmospheric changes has the same polarity as the local composite SST anomaly, thus indicating that the atmospheric forcing acts to reinforce the underlying SST signal.By analyzing the output from a suite of auxiliary experiments, it is demonstrated that the SST perturbations in IWP (which are primarily generated by ENSO-related atmospheric changes) can, in turn, exert notable influences on the atmospheric conditions over that region. This feedback mechanism also plays an important role in the eastward migration of the subtropical anticyclones over the western Pacific in both hemispheres.

  3. 77 FR 66564 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Essential Fish Habitat Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...-XA500 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Essential Fish Habitat Amendments AGENCY: National... Scallop Fishery off Alaska (Scallop FMP); and Amendment 1 to the FMP for Fish Resources of the Arctic Management Area (Arctic FMP). These amendments update the existing essential fish habitat (EFH) provisions in...

  4. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  5. Arctic reconstruction from an Alaskan viewpoint

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Crane, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Field, seismic, structural, and stratigraphic data were used to reconstruct the geologic history of the Arctic in 10-m.y. time slices from the present to mid-Jurassic - the initial opening of the Arctic Ocean. A basic assumption is that Lomonosov Ridge, Alpha Ridge, Mendeleyev Ridge, and Chukchi Plateau are all foundered continental plates. Opening of the Arctic occurs in two stages: Late Jurassic - Cretaceous for the Canada basin and Neogene for the Eurasian basin. Opening is facilitated by two subparallel transform shears - the Arctic (Kaltag-Porcupine) on the east and the Chukchi on the west. Deformation is essentially tensional onmore » the Barents side of the Arctic and shear-compressional on the Alaska side. The development of Chutkoya, North Slope, Brooks Range, north-west Canada, Seward Peninsula, and central Alaska can be sequentially related to Arctic opening, modified by impingement on the northern terrane of allochthonous terranes arriving from the south - the Pacific plates of Tintina, Denali, Orca (Prince William-Chugach-Yakutat), Anadyr, Khatyrka, Kolyman, and other minor terranes. The North Slope of Alaska, a passive, rifted, subsided margin, is restored to line up with a similar margin on Alpha Ridge. Northeastern Alaska (the Romanzof Mountain area) lines up opposite the north end of the Sverdrup Rim, near Prince Patrick and Borden Islands.« less

  6. Climate of the Arctic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Walsh, John E

    2008-03-01

    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  7. 77 FR 47356 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Essential Fish Habitat Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...-XA500 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Essential Fish Habitat Amendments AGENCY: National... Pacific Fishery Management Council submitted the following essential fish habitat (EFH) amendments to NMFS... Scallop Fishery off Alaska; and Amendment 1 to the FMP for Fish Resources of the Arctic Management Area...

  8. Oceanographic Aspects of Recent Changes in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J. H.

    2002-12-01

    In the Arctic recent decadal-scale changes have marked the atmosphere, ocean, and land. Connections between the oceanographic changes and large-scale atmospheric circulation changes are emerging. Surface atmospheric pressure has shown a declining trend over the Arctic. In the 1990s, the Arctic Ocean circulation took on a more cyclonic character, and the front separating Atlantic-derived waters of the Eurasian Basin and the Pacific-derived waters of the Canadian Basin shifted counterclockwise. The temperature of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean reached record levels. The cold halocline, which isolates the surface from the warm Atlantic water, grew thinner disappearing entirely from the Amundsen Basin at one point [Steele and Boyd, 1998]. Arctic sea ice extent has decreased 3% per decade since the 1970s [Parkinson et al., 1999]. Sea ice thickness over much of the Arctic decreased 43% between 1958-1976 and 1993-1997 [Rothrock et al., 1999]. Arctic ecosystems have responded to these changes. Sea ice studies in the late 1990s indicate that the sea ice algal species composition changed from decades before, with the species recently being characterized by more brackish and freshwater forms. Barents Sea fisheries have shifted north following reductions in ice extent. Pacific salmon species have been found entering rivers in the Arctic. There is evidence that this complex of pan-Arctic changes is connected with the rising trend in the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Northern Hemisphere atmospheric polar vortex in the 1990s. Theoretical evidence that a positive trend in the AO index might be indicative of greenhouse warming raises the possibility that the recent complex of changes is an Arctic characteristic of global climate change. Also, the changes in ice cover manifest a connection between the complex of change and global climate through ice-albedo feedback, by which reductions in ice cover reduce the amount of sunlight reflected from the earth's surface. Another important

  9. Connecting Arctic Research Across Boundaries through the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R. H.; Myers, B.; Wiggins, H. V.; Zolkos, J.

    2017-12-01

    The complexities inherent in Arctic research demand a unique focus on making connections across the boundaries of discipline, institution, sector, geography, knowledge system, and culture. Since 1988, ARCUS has been working to bridge these gaps through communication, coordination, and collaboration. Recently, we have worked with partners to create a synthesis of the Arctic system, to explore the connectivity across the Arctic research community and how to strengthen it, to enable the community to have an effective voice in research funding policy, to implement a system for Arctic research community knowledge management, to bridge between global Sea Ice Prediction Network researchers and the science needs of coastal Alaska communities through the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook, to strengthen ties between Polar researchers and educators, and to provide essential intangible infrastructure that enables cost-effective and productive research across boundaries. Employing expertise in managing for collaboration and interdisciplinarity, ARCUS complements and enables the work of its members, who constitute the Arctic research community and its key stakeholders. As a member-driven organization, everything that ARCUS does is achieved through partnership, with strong volunteer leadership of each activity. Key organizational partners in the United States include the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, National Academy of Sciences Polar Research Board, and the North Slope Science Initiative. Internationally, ARCUS maintains strong bilateral connections with similarly focused groups in each Arctic country (and those interested in the Arctic), as well as with multinational organizations including the International Arctic Science Committee, the Association of Polar Early Career Educators, the University of the Arctic, and the Arctic Institute of North America. Currently, ARCUS is applying the best practices of the science of team science

  10. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C.; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J.

    2014-01-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans. PMID:24862402

  11. The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.; McDowell, Graham; Jones, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic climate is rapidly changing, with wide ranging impacts on natural and social systems. A variety of adaptation policies, programs and practices have been adopted to this end, yet our understanding of if, how, and where adaptation is occurring is limited. In response, this paper develops a systematic approach to characterize the current state of adaptation in the Arctic. Using reported adaptations in the English language peer reviewed literature as our data source, we document 157 discrete adaptation initiatives between 2003 and 2013. Results indicate large variations in adaptation by region and sector, dominated by reporting from North America, particularly with regards to subsistence harvesting by Inuit communities. Few adaptations were documented in the European and Russian Arctic, or have a focus on the business and economy, or infrastructure sectors. Adaptations are being motivated primarily by the combination of climatic and non-climatic factors, have a strong emphasis on reducing current vulnerability involving incremental changes to existing risk management processes, and are primarily initiated and led at the individual/community level. There is limited evidence of trans-boundary adaptations or initiatives considering potential cross-scale/sector impacts.

  12. Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    On July 12, 2011, crew from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy retrieved a canister dropped by parachute from a C-130, which brought supplies for some mid-mission fixes. The ICESCAPE mission, or "Impacts of Climate on Ecosystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment," is NASA's two-year shipborne investigation to study how changing conditions in the Arctic affect the ocean's chemistry and ecosystems. The bulk of the research takes place in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas in summer 2010 and 2011. Credit: NASA/Kathryn Hansen For updates on the five-week ICESCAPE voyage, visit the mission blog at: go.usa.gov/WwU NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. The Impact of Transported Pollution on Arctic Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.; Stohl, A.; Arneth, A.; Berntsen, T.; Burkhart, J. F.; Flanner, M. G.; Kupiainen, K.; Shepherd, M.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Skov, H.; Vestreng, V.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic temperatures have increased at almost twice the global average rate over the past 100 years. Warming in the Arctic has been accompanied by an earlier onset of spring melt, a lengthening of the melt season, changes in the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet, and a decrease in sea ice extent. Short-lived, climate warming pollutants such as black carbon (BC) have recently gained attention as a target for immediate mitigation of Arctic warming in addition to reductions in long lived greenhouse gases. Model calculations indicate that BC increases surface temperatures within the Arctic primarily through deposition on snow and ice surfaces with a resulting decrease in surface albedo and increase in absorbed solar radiation. In 2009, the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) established an Expert Group on BC with the goal of identifying source regions and energy sectors that have the largest impact on Arctic climate. Here we present the results of this work and investigate links between mid-latitude pollutants and Arctic climate.

  14. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  15. Atmospheric teleconnections between the Arctic and the Baltic Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobson, L.; Jakobson, E.

    2017-12-01

    The observed enhanced warming of the Arctic, referred to as the AA, is expected to be related to further changes that impact mid-latitudes and the rest of the world. Our aim is to clarify how the climatic parameters in the Baltic Sea and Arctic regions are associated. Knowledge of such connections helps to define regions in the Arctic that could be with higher extent associated with the Baltic Sea region climate change. We used monthly mean reanalysis data from NCEP-CFSR and ERA-Interim. The strongest teleconnections between the same parameter (temperature, SLP, specific humidity, wind speed) at the Baltic Sea region and the Arctic are found in winter, but they are clearly affected by the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. After removal of the AO index variability, correlations in winter were everywhere below ±0.5, while in other seasons there remained regions with strong (|R|>0.5, p<0.002) correlations. Strong correlations are also present between different climate variables at the Baltic Sea region and different regions of the Arctic. Temperature from 1000 to 500 hPa level at the Baltic Sea region have a strong negative correlation with the Greenland sector (the region between 20 - 80W and 55 - 80N) during all seasons except summer. The positive temperature anomaly of mild winter at the Greenland sector shifts towards east during the next seasons, reaching to Scandinavia/Baltic Sea region in summer. The Greenland sector is the region which gives the most significant correlations with the climatic parameters (temperature, wind speed, specific humidity, SLP) of the Baltic Sea region. These relationships can be explained by the AO index variability only in winter. In other seasons there has to be other influencing factors. The results of this study are valuable for selecting regions in the Arctic that have statistically the largest effect on climate in the Baltic Sea region.

  16. Trends in aerosol optical depth in the Russian Arctic and their links with synoptic climatology.

    PubMed

    Shahgedanova, Maria; Lamakin, Mikhail

    2005-04-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) are examined using observations of direct solar radiation in the Eurasian Arctic for 1940-1990. AOD is estimated using empirical methods for 14 stations located between 66.2 degrees N and 80.6 degrees N, from the Kara Sea to the Chukchi Sea. While AOD exhibits a well-known springtime maximum and summertime minimum at all stations, atmospheric turbidity is higher in spring in the western (Kara-Laptev) part of the Eurasian Arctic. Between June and August, the eastern (East Siberian-Chukchi) sector experiences higher transparency than the western part. A statistically significant positive trend in AOD was observed in the Kara-Laptev sector between the late 1950s and the early 1980s predominantly in spring when pollution-derived aerosol dominates the Arctic atmosphere but not in the eastern sector. Although all stations are remote, those with positive trends are located closer to the anthropogenic sources of air pollution. By contrast, a widespread decline in AOD was observed between 1982 and 1990 in the eastern Arctic in spring but was limited to two sites in the western Arctic. These results suggest that the post-1982 decline in anthropogenic emissions in Europe and the former Soviet Union has had a limited effect on aerosol load in the Arctic. The post-1982 negative trends in AOD in summer, when marine aerosol is present in the atmosphere, were more common in the west. The relationships between AOD and atmospheric circulation are examined using a synoptic climatology approach. In spring, AOD depends primarily on the strength and direction of air flow. Thus strong westerly and northerly flows result in low AOD values in the East Siberian-Chukchi sector. By contrast, strong southerly flow associated with the passage of depressions results in high AOD in the Kara-Laptev sector and trajectory analysis points to the contribution of industrial regions of the sub-Arctic. In summer, low pressure gradient or

  17. The Stress-Strain State of Recent Structures in the Northeastern Sector of the Russian Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaeva, L. P.; Imaev, V. S.; Mel'nikova, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Complex research to determine the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust and the types of seismotectonic destruction for the northeastern sector of the Russian Arctic was conducted. The principles of regional ranking of neotectonic structures were developed according to the activity of geodynamic processes, and argumentation for their class differentiation is presented. The structural-tectonic position, the parameters of the deep structure, the system of active faults, and the tectonic stress fields, calculated on the basis of both tectonophysical analysis of discontinuous and folded late Cenozoic deformations and seismological data, were analyzed. This complex of investigations made it possible to determine the directions of the main axes of deformations of the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust and to reveal the regularity in the change of tectonic regimes.

  18. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    Treesearch

    Chadwick V. Jay; Bruce G. Marcot; David C. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental...

  19. Collaborations for Arctic Sea Ice Information and Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield Guy, L.; Wiggins, H. V.; Turner-Bogren, E. J.; Rich, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The dramatic and rapid changes in Arctic sea ice require collaboration across boundaries, including between disciplines, sectors, institutions, and between scientists and decision-makers. This poster will highlight several projects that provide knowledge to advance the development and use of sea ice knowledge. Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook (SIWO: https://www.arcus.org/search-program/siwo) - SIWO is a resource for Alaskan Native subsistence hunters and other interested stakeholders. SIWO provides weekly reports, during April-June, of sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in the northern Bering and southern Chukchi seas. Collaboration among scientists, Alaskan Native sea-ice experts, and the Eskimo Walrus Commission is fundamental to this project's success. Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN: https://www.arcus.org/sipn) - A collaborative, multi-agency-funded project focused on seasonal Arctic sea ice predictions. The goals of SIPN include: coordinate and evaluate Arctic sea ice predictions; integrate, assess, and guide observations; synthesize predictions and observations; and disseminate predictions and engage key stakeholders. The Sea Ice Outlook—a key activity of SIPN—is an open process to share and synthesize predictions of the September minimum Arctic sea ice extent and other variables. Other SIPN activities include workshops, webinars, and communications across the network. Directory of Sea Ice Experts (https://www.arcus.org/researchers) - ARCUS has undertaken a pilot project to develop a web-based directory of sea ice experts across institutions, countries, and sectors. The goal of the project is to catalyze networking between individual investigators, institutions, funding agencies, and other stakeholders interested in Arctic sea ice. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH: https://www.arcus.org/search-program) - SEARCH is a collaborative program that advances research, synthesizes research findings, and broadly communicates the results to support

  20. Future change in ocean productivity: Is the Arctic the new Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Coward, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most characteristic features in ocean productivity is the North Atlantic spring bloom. Responding to seasonal increases in irradiance and stratification, surface phytopopulations rise significantly, a pattern that visibly tracks poleward into summer. While blooms also occur in the Arctic Ocean, they are constrained by the sea-ice and strong vertical stratification that characterize this region. However, Arctic sea-ice is currently declining, and forecasts suggest this may lead to completely ice-free summers by the mid-21st century. Such change may open the Arctic up to Atlantic-style spring blooms, and do so at the same time as Atlantic productivity is threatened by climate change-driven ocean stratification. Here we use low and high-resolution instances of a coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model, NEMO-MEDUSA, to investigate productivity. Drivers of present-day patterns are identified, and changes in these across a climate change scenario (IPCC RCP 8.5) are analyzed. We find a globally significant decline in North Atlantic productivity (> -20%) by 2100, and a correspondingly significant rise in the Arctic (> +50%). However, rather than the future Arctic coming to resemble the current Atlantic, both regions are instead transitioning to a common, low nutrient regime. The North Pacific provides a counterexample where nutrients remain high and productivity increases with elevated temperature. These responses to climate change in the Atlantic and Arctic are common between model resolutions, suggesting an independence from resolution for key impacts. However, some responses, such as those in the North Pacific, differ between the simulations, suggesting the reverse and supporting the drive to more fine-scale resolutions. This article was corrected on 5 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.

  1. Recent Trends in the Arctic Navigable Ice Season and Links to Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslanik, J.; Drobot, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the potential effects of Arctic climate warming is an increase in the navigable ice season, perhaps resulting in development of the Arctic as a major shipping route. The distance from western North American ports to Europe through the Northwest Passage (NWP) or the Northern Sea Route (NSR) is typically 20 to 60 percent shorter than travel through the Panama Canal, while travel between Europe and the Far East may be reduced by as much as three weeks compared to transport through the Suez Canal. An increase in the navigable ice season would also improve commercial opportunities within the Arctic region, such as mineral and oil exploration and tourism, which could potentially expand the economic base of Arctic residents and companies, but which would also have negative environmental impacts. Utilizing daily passive-microwave derived sea ice concentrations, trends and variability in the Arctic navigable ice season are examined from 1979 through 2001. Trend analyses suggest large increases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Beaufort Sea, with decreases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Bering Sea. Interannual variations in the navigable ice season largely are governed by fluctuations in low-frequency atmospheric circulation, although the specific annular modes affecting the length of the navigable ice season vary by region. In the Beaufort and East Siberian seas, variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation control the navigable ice season, while variations in the East Pacific anomaly play an important role in controlling the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas. In Hudson Bay, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Baffin Bay, interannual variations in the navigable ice season are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  2. Amplified North Atlantic warming in the late Pliocene by changes in Arctic gateways

    DOE PAGES

    Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Jahn, Alexandra; Feng, Ran; ...

    2016-12-26

    Under previous reconstructions of late Pliocene boundary conditions, climate models have failed to reproduce the warm sea surface temperatures reconstructed in the North Atlantic. Using a reconstruction of mid-Piacenzian paleogeography that has the Bering Strait and Canadian Arctic Archipelago Straits closed, however, improves the simulation of the proxy-indicated warm sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic in the Community Climate System Model. We find that the closure of these small Arctic gateways strengthens the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, by inhibiting freshwater transport from the Pacific to the Arctic Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to the Labrador Sea, leading tomore » warmer sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic. In conclusion, this indicates that the state of the Arctic gateways may influence the sensitivity of the North Atlantic climate in complex ways, and better understanding of the state of these Arctic gateways for past time periods is needed.« less

  3. Tracking Biological and Ecosystem Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Pacific Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Moore, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Changing seasonal sea ice conditions and seawater temperatures strongly influence biological processes and marine ecosystems at high latitudes. In the Pacific Arctic, persistent regions termed "hotspots", are localized areas with high benthic macroinfaunal biomass that have been documented over four decades (see Figure). These regions are now being more formally tracked to relate physical forcing and ecosystem response as an Arctic Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) supported by the US National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan and international partners. These hotspots are important foraging areas for upper trophic level benthic feeders, such as marine mammals and seabirds. South of St. Lawrence Island (SLI) in the northern Bering Sea, benthic feeding spectacled eiders, bearded seals and walruses are important winter consumers of infauna, such as bivalves and polychaetes. Gray whales have historically been a major summer consumer of benthic amphipods in the Chirikov Basin to the north of SLI, although summertime sightings of gray whales declined in the Chirikov from the 1980s up until at least 2002. The SE Chukchi Sea hotspot, as are the other hotspots, is maintained by export of high chlorophyll a that is produced locally as well as advected by water masses transiting northward through the system. Both walrus and gray whales are known to forage in this hotspot seasonally on high biomass levels of benthic prey. Notably the center of the highest benthic biomass regions has shifted northward in three of the DBO hotspots in recent years. This has coincided with changing sediment grain size, an indicator of current speed, and is also likely a response to changes in primary production in the region. Studies of these broad biological responses to changing physical drivers have been facilitated through development of the DBO cooperative effort by both US and international scientists. The DBO includes a series of coordinated, multi-trophic level observations that

  4. Toward Evaluating the Predictability of Arctic-related Climate Variations: Initial Results from ArCS Project Theme 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasumi, H.

    2016-12-01

    We present initial results from the theme 5 of the project ArCS, which is a national flagship project for Arctic research in Japan. The goal of theme 5 is to evaluate the predictability of Arctic-related climate variations, wherein we aim to: (1) establish the scientific basis of climate predictability; and (2) develop a method for predicting/projecting medium- and long-term climate variations. Variability in the Arctic environment remotely influences middle and low latitudes. Since some of the processes specific to the Arctic environment function as a long memory of the state of the climate, understanding of the process of remote connections would lead to higher-precision and longer-term prediction of global climate variations. Conventional climate models have large uncertainty in the Arctic region. By making Arctic processes in climate models more sophisticated, we aim to clarify the role of multi-sphere interaction in the Arctic environment. In this regard, our newly developed high resolution ice-ocean model has revealed the relationship between the oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean and the synoptic scale atmospheric variability. We also aim to reveal the mechanism of remote connections by conducting climate simulations and analyzing various types of climate datasets. Our atmospheric model experiments under possible future situations of Arctic sea ice cover indicate that reduction of sea ice qualitatively alters the basic mechanism of remote connection. Also, our analyses of climate data have identified the cause of recent more frequent heat waves at Eurasian mid-to-high latitudes and clarified the dynamical process which forms the West Pacific pattern, a dominant mode of the atmospheric anomalous circulation in the West Pacific region which also exhibits a significant signal in the Arctic stratosphere.

  5. Extensive under-ice turbulence microstructure measurements in the central Arctic Ocean in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Benjamin; Janout, Markus; Graupner, Rainer; Hoelemann, Jens; Hampe, Hendrik; Hoppmann, Mario; Horn, Myriel; Juhls, Bennet; Korhonen, Meri; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Pisarev, Sergey; Randelhoff, Achim; Savy, John-Philippe; Villacieros, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a strongly stratified low-energy environment, where tides are weak and the upper ocean is protected by an ice cover during much of the year. Interior mixing processes are dominated by double diffusion. The upper Arctic Ocean features a cold surface mixed layer, which, separated by a sharp halocline, protects the sea ice from the warmer underlying Atlantic- and Pacific-derived water masses. These water masses carry nutrients that are important for the Arctic ecosystem. Hence vertical fluxes of heat, salt, and nutrients are crucial components in understanding the Arctic ecosystem. Yet, direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain and hence sparse. In 2015, two multidisciplinary R/V Polarstern expeditions to the Arctic Ocean resulted in a series of under-ice turbulence microstructure measurements. These cover different locations across the Eurasian and Makarov Basins, during the melt season in spring and early summer as well as during freeze-up in late summer. Sampling was carried out from ice floes with repeated profiles resulting in 4-24 hour-long time series. 2015 featured anomalously warm atmospheric conditions during summer followed by unusually low temperatures in September. Our measurements show elevated dissipation rates at the base of the mixed layer throughout all stations, with significantly higher levels above the Eurasian continental slope when compared with the Arctic Basin. Additional peaks were found between the mixed layer and the halocline, in particular at stations where Pacific Summer water was present. This contribution provides first flux estimates and presents first conclusions regarding the impact of atmospheric and sea ice conditions on vertical mixing in 2015.

  6. The Arctic Vortex in March 2011: A Dynamical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Newman, Paul A.; Garfinkel,Chaim I.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the record ozone loss observed in March 2011, dynamical conditions in the Arctic stratosphere were unusual but not unprecedented. Weak planetary wave driving in February preceded cold anomalies in t he polar lower stratosphere in March and a relatively late breakup of the Arctic vortex in April. La Nina conditions and the westerly phas e of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) were observed in March 201 1. Though these conditions are generally associated with a stronger vortex in mid-winter, the respective cold anomalies do not persist t hrough March. Therefore, the La Nina and QBO-westerly conditions cannot explain the observed cold anomalies in March 2011. In contrast, po sitive sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific may ha ve contributed to the unusually weak tropospheric wave driving and s trong Arctic vortex in late winter 2011.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acids in surface seawater from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean: Contamination, distribution and transportation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zheng, Hongyuan; Wang, Tieyu; Cai, Minghong; Wang, Pei

    2018-03-16

    The bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic properties of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) resulted in strict regulations on PFAAs, especially in developed countries. Consequently, the industry manufacturing of PFAAs shifts from long-chain to short-chain. In order to better understand the pollution situation of PFAAs in marine environment under this new circumstance, the occurrence of 17 linear PFAAs was investigated in 30 surface seawater samples from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean (123°E to 24°W, 32 to 82°N) during the sixth Chinese Arctic Expedition in 2014. Total concentrations of PFAAs (∑PFAAs) were between 346.9 pg per liter (pg/L) to 3045.3 pg/L. The average concentrations of ∑PFAAs decreased in the order of East China Sea (2791.4 pg/L, n = 2), Sea of Japan (East Sea) (832.8 pg/L, n = 6), Arctic Ocean (516.9 pg/L, n = 7), Chukchi Sea (505.2 pg/L, n = 4), Bering Sea (501.2 pg/L, n = 8) and Sea of Okhotsk (417.7 pg/L, n = 3). C4 to C9 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in more than 80% of the surface water samples. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the most prevalent compound and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the second abundant homolog. The concentration of individual PFAAs in the surface seawater of East China Sea was much higher than other sampling seas. As the spatial distribution of PFAAs in the marine environment was mainly influenced by the river inflow from the basin countries, which proved the large input from China. Furthermore, the marginal seas of China were found with the greatest burden of PFOA comparing the pollution level in surface seawater worldwide. PFBA concentration in the surrounding seas of China was also high, but distributed more evenly with an obvious increase in recent years. This large-scale monitoring survey will help the improvement and development of PFAAs regulations and management, where production shift should be taken into consideration. Copyright

  8. Sea Ice Evolution in the Pacific Arctic by Selected CMIP5 Models: the Present and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Yang, Q.; Overland, J. E.; Stabeno, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    With fast declining of sea ice cover in the Arctic, the timing of sea ice break-up and freeze-up is an urgent economic, social and scientific issue. Based on daily sea ice concentration data we assess three parameters: the dates of sea ice break-up and freeze-up and the annual sea ice duration in the Pacific Arctic. The sea ice duration is shrinking, with the largest trend during the past decade (1990-2015); this declining trend will continue based on CMIP5 model projections. The seven CMIP5 models used in current study are able to simulate all three parameters well when compared with observations. Comparisons made at eight Chukchi Sea mooring sites and the eight Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) boxes show consistent results as well. The 30-year averaged trend for annual sea ice duration is projected to be -0.68 days/year to -1.2 days/year for 2015-2044. This is equivalent 20 to 36 days reduction in the annual sea ice duration. A similar magnitude of the negative trend is also found at all eight DBO boxes. The reduction in annual sea ice duration will include both earlier break-up dates and later freeze-up date. However, models project that a later freeze-up contributes more than early break-up to the overall shortening of annual sea ice duration. Around the Bering Strait future changes are the smallest, with less than 20-days change in duration during next 30 years. Upto 60 days reduction of the sea ice duration is projected for the decade of 2030-2044 in the East Siberia, the Chukchi and the Beaufort Seas.

  9. A Meteoric Water Budget for the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkire, Matthew B.; Morison, James; Schweiger, Axel; Zhang, Jinlun; Steele, Michael; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Dickinson, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    A budget of meteoric water (MW = river runoff, net precipitation minus evaporation, and glacial meltwater) over four regions of the Arctic Ocean is constructed using a simple box model, regional precipitation-evaporation estimates from reanalysis data sets, and estimates of import and export fluxes derived from the literature with a focus on the 2003-2008 period. The budget indicates an approximate/slightly positive balance between MW imports and exports (i.e., no change in storage); thus, the observed total freshwater increase observed during this time period likely resulted primarily from changes in non-MW freshwater components (i.e., increases in sea ice melt or Pacific water and/or a decrease in ice export). Further, our analysis indicates that the MW increase observed in the Canada Basin resulted from a spatial redistribution of MW over the Arctic Ocean. Mean residence times for MW were estimated for the Western Arctic (5-7 years), Eastern Arctic (3-4 years), and Lincoln Sea (1-2 years). The MW content over the Siberian shelves was estimated (˜14,000 km3) based on a residence time of 3.5 years. The MW content over the entire Arctic Ocean was estimated to be ≥44,000 km3. The MW export through Fram Strait consisted mostly of water from the Eastern Arctic (3,237 ± 1,370 km3 yr-1) whereas the export through the Canadian Archipelago was nearly equally derived from both the Western Arctic (1,182 ± 534 km3 yr-1) and Lincoln Sea (972 ± 391 km3 yr-1).

  10. Arctic Amplification and Potential Mid-Latitude Weather Linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures and other changes continued in the Arctic over the last decade, even though the rate of global warming has decreased in part due to a cool Pacific Ocean. Thus Arctic temperatures have increased at least 3 times the rate of mid-latitude temperatures. Credibility for persistent Arctic change comes from multiple indicators which are now available for multiple decades. Further, the spatial pattern of Arctic Amplification differs from patterns of natural variability. The role of the Arctic in the global climate system is based on multiple interacting feedbacks represented by these indicators as a causal basis for Arctic Amplification driven by modest global change. Many of these processes act on a regional basis and their non-linear interactions are not well captured by climate models. For example, future loss of sea ice due to increases in CO2 are demonstrated by these models but the rates of loss appear slow. It is reasonable to suspect that Arctic change which can produce the largest temperature anomalies on the planet and demonstrate recent extremes in the polar vortex could be linked to mid-latitude weather, especially as Arctic change will continue over the next decades. The meteorological community remains skeptical, however, in the sense of "not proven." Natural variability in chaotic atmospheric flow remains the main dynamic process, and it is difficult to determine whether Arctic forcing of a north-south linkage is emerging from the most recent period of Arctic change since 2007. Nonetheless, such a hypothesis is worthy of investigation, given the need to further understand Arctic dynamic atmospheric processes, and the potential for improving mid-latitude seasonal forecasts base on high-latitude forcing. Several AGU sessions and other forums over the next year (WWRP, IASC,CliC) address this issue, but the topic is not ready for a firm answer. The very level of controversy indicates the state of the science.

  11. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E S; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-07-09

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time.

  12. Acoustic detections of summer and winter whales at Arctic gateways in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, K.; Laidre, K. L.; Moore, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in sea ice phenology have been profound in regions north of arctic gateways, where the seasonal open-water period has increased by 1.5-3 months over the past 30 years. This has resulted in changes to the Arctic ecosystem, including increased primary productivity, changing food web structure, and opening of new habitat. In the "new normal" Arctic, ice obligate species such as ice seals and polar bears may fare poorly under reduced sea ice while sub-arctic "summer" whales (fin and humpback) are poised to inhabit new seasonal ice-free habitats in the Arctic. We examined the spatial and seasonal occurrence of summer and "winter" (bowhead) whales from September through December by deploying hydrophones in three Arctic gateways: Bering, Davis and Fram Straits. Acoustic occurrence of the three species was compared with decadal-scale changes in seasonal sea ice. In all three Straits, fin whale acoustic detections extended from summer to late autumn. Humpback whales showed the same pattern in Bering and Davis Straits, singing into November and December, respectively. Bowhead whale detections generally began after the departure of the summer whales and continued through the winter. In all three straits, summer whales occurred in seasons and regions that used to be ice-covered. This is likely due to both increased available habitat from sea ice reductions and post-whaling population recoveries. At present, in the straits examined here, there is spatial, but not temporal, overlap between summer and winter whales. In a future with further seasonal sea ice reductions, however, increased competition for resources between sub-Arctic and Arctic species may arise to the detriment of winter whales.

  13. Intraplate Seamounts of the Northwest Sector of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirlin, E. G.; Mironov, Yu. V.; Rodkin, M. W.; Chesalova, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    A method is proposed for identifying seamounts in the northwest sector of the Pacific based on the following criteria: a closed, close to isometric contour of the isobaths at the base of a structure, its quasi-conical shape, and angles of slope exceeding 5° within the limits of the closed contour. A catalog of the mountains has been compiled, consisting of 1995 objects and their quantitative characteristics. The catalog data were statistically processed, and the following was calculated: the correlation between the number of seamounts from the radius of their base and volume, the distribution of the number of mountains, and the total volume within the study area. It is shown that seamounts are characterized as multiscale, and they are located very unevenly: areas with and without their accumulation are distinguished, and the composition of volcanic rocks is typically isotopically and geochemically heterogeneous. It is concluded that currently there is no single geodynamic model that can explain the revealed phenomena in their entirety. At the same time, the data suggest that the nature of some magma chambers that feed intraplate volcanoes is caused by transformation of energy in the lithosphere as a nonlinear open system.

  14. Public sector refraction and spectacle dispensing in low-resource countries of the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Palagyi, Anna; Williams, Carmel; Brian, Garry

    2008-05-01

    Given that uncorrected refractive error is a frequent cause of vision impairment, and that there is a high unmet need for spectacles, an appraisal of public sector arrangements for the correction of refractive error was conducted in eight Pacific Island countries. Mixed methods (questionnaire and semi-structured interviews) were used to collect information from eye care personnel (from Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga and Tuvalu) attending a regional eye health workshop in 2005. Fiji, Tonga and Vanuatu had Vision 2020 eye care plans that included refraction services, but not spectacle provision. There was wide variation in public sector spectacle dispensing services, but, except in Samoa, ready-made spectacles and a full cost recovery pricing strategy were the mainstay. There were no systems for the registration of personnel, nor guidelines for clinical or systems management. The refraction staff to population ratio varied considerably. Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu had the best coverage by services, either fixed or outreach. Most services had little promotional activity or community engagement. To be successful, it would seem that public sector refraction services should answer a real and perceived need, fit within prevailing policy and legislation, value, train, retain and equip employees, be well managed, be accessible and affordable, be responsive to consumers, and provide ongoing good quality outcomes. To this end, a checklist to aid the initiation and maintenance of refraction and spectacle systems in low-resource countries has been constructed.

  15. The emergence of modern sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Knies, Jochen; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Belt, Simon T; Baranwal, Soma; Fietz, Susanne; Rosell-Melé, Antoni

    2014-11-28

    Arctic sea ice coverage is shrinking in response to global climate change and summer ice-free conditions in the Arctic Ocean are predicted by the end of the century. The validity of this prediction could potentially be tested through the reconstruction of the climate of the Pliocene epoch (5.33-2.58 million years ago), an analogue of a future warmer Earth. Here we show that, in the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean, ice-free conditions prevailed in the early Pliocene until sea ice expanded from the central Arctic Ocean for the first time ca. 4 million years ago. Amplified by a rise in topography in several regions of the Arctic and enhanced freshening of the Arctic Ocean, sea ice expanded progressively in response to positive ice-albedo feedback mechanisms. Sea ice reached its modern winter maximum extension for the first time during the culmination of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation, ca. 2.6 million years ago.

  16. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert; Babb, David G.; Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Rysgaard, Søren; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Barber, David G.

    2017-12-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April-May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature-salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean-glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different thermohaline structures indicating the different origin and pathways of the on-shore and off-shore branches of the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait.

  17. Ecosystem characteristics and processes facilitating persistent macrobenthic biomass hotspots and associated benthivory in the Pacific Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Cooper, Lee W.; Danielson, Seth L.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Clarke, Janet T.; Day, Robert H.; Frey, Karen E.; Gradinger, Rolf R.; Kędra, Monika; Konar, Brenda; Kuletz, Kathy J.; Lee, Sang H.; Lovvorn, James R.; Norcross, Brenda L.; Okkonen, Stephen R.

    2015-08-01

    The northern Bering and Chukchi Seas are areas in the Pacific Arctic characterized by high northward advection of Pacific Ocean water, with seasonal variability in sea ice cover, water mass characteristics, and benthic processes. In this review, we evaluate the biological and environmental factors that support communities of benthic prey on the continental shelves, with a focus on four macrofaunal biomass "hotspots." For the purpose of this study, we define hotspots as macrofaunal benthic communities with high biomass that support a corresponding ecological guild of benthivorous seabird and marine mammal populations. These four benthic hotspots are regions within the influence of the St. Lawrence Island Polynya (SLIP), the Chirikov Basin between St. Lawrence Island and Bering Strait (Chirikov), north of Bering Strait in the southeast Chukchi Sea (SECS), and in the northeast Chukchi Sea (NECS). Detailed benthic macrofaunal sampling indicates that these hotspot regions have been persistent over four decades of sampling due to annual reoccurrence of seasonally consistent, moderate-to-high water column production with significant export of carbon to the underlying sediments. We also evaluate the usage of the four benthic hotspot regions by benthic prey consumers to illuminate predator-prey connectivity. In the SLIP hotspot, spectacled eiders and walruses are important winter consumers of infaunal bivalves and polychaetes, along with epibenthic gastropods and crabs. In the Chirikov hotspot, gray whales have historically been the largest summer consumers of benthic macrofauna, primarily feeding on ampeliscid amphipods in the summer, but they are also foraging further northward in the SECS and NECS hotspots. Areas of concentrated walrus foraging occur in the SLIP hotspot in winter and early spring, the NECS hotspot in summer, and the SECS hotspot in fall. Bottom up forcing by hydrography and food supply to the benthos influences persistence and composition of benthic prey

  18. New view on tectonic structure of Siberian Sector of the Amerasian Basin (Arctic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, Yu. I.

    2014-05-01

    In 2012, JSC Sevmorgeo with assistance of several research institutions of Federal Agency of Mineral Resources (Rosnedra) and Ministry of Defense carried out a unique set of offshore seismic and geological studies in the Mendeleev Rise area and adjacent areas of the Amerasia Basin. Two specially re-equipped icebreakers ("Kapitan Dranitsin" and "Dixon") were used in this campaign. The main results of the expedition were 5315 km of multichannel seismic profiles both with long and short streamers (4500 m and 600 m, respectively), 480 km long refraction profile crossing Mendeleev Rise. Seismic acquisition with short streamers was accompanied by deployment of sonobuoys. Geological studies included deep-water drilling and sea-bottom sampling by dredge, gravity corer, grab and by specially equipped research submarine. The newly acquired geological and geophysical data allowed for the following conclusions: 1. The Mendeleev Rise, the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge and Chukchi Plateau are the direct continuations of the East Siberian Sea tectonic structures. It is confirmed by direct tracking of some morphostructures, faults, gravity and magnetic anomalies from the shelf to deep-water highs. 2. The East Arctic Shelf and the adjacent Arctic Ocean represent offshore extent of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma crustal domain constituted by a mosaic of separate blocks of the Pre-Cambrian basement (Okhotsk, Omulevka, Omolon, Wrangel-Gerald and Central Arctic) and Late Mesozoic orogens. This area differs significantly from the Ellesmerian crustal domain located to the east (including the Northwind Ridge, which coincides with inferred eastern boundary of the Mesozoides). The Central Arctic domain includes structures of the Mendeleev Ridge and the Chukchi Plateau. Western boundary of this block is inferred along the Spur of Geophysicists, which separates the Podvodnikov Basin into two unequal parts with different basement structure. From the south, southwest and west, the Central Arctic domain is

  19. Communicating Climate and Ecosystem Change in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J. A.; Rodionov, S.

    2005-12-01

    arctic change detection site and provides support to the North Pacific Fisheries Management Council and other interested parties. The site anticipates multiple uses by providing access and analysis tools for a set of Bering Sea indicator time series.

  20. Genomics of Arctic cod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is an abundant marine fish that plays a vital role in the marine food web. To better understand the population genetic structure and the role of natural selection acting on the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), a molecule often associated with adaptations to temperature, we analyzed genetic data collected from 11 biparentally-inherited nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and nucleotide sequence data from from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and, for a subset of individuals, the entire mitogenome. In addition, due to potential of species misidentification with morphologically similar Polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis), we used ddRAD-Seq data to determine the level of divergence between species and identify species-specific markers. Based on the findings presented here, Arctic cod across the Pacific Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas) comprise a single panmictic population with high genetic diversity compared to other gadids. High genetic diversity was indicated across all 13 protein-coding genes in the mitogenome. In addition, we found moderate levels of genetic diversity in the nuclear microsatellite loci, with highest diversity found in the Chukchi Sea. Our analyses of markers from both marker classes (nuclear microsatellite fragment data and mtDNA cytb sequence data) failed to uncover a signal of microgeographic genetic structure within Arctic cod across the three regions, within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, or between near-shore or offshore habitats. Further, data from a subset of mitogenomes revealed no genetic differentiation between Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas populations for Arctic cod, Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), or Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus). However, we uncovered significant differences in the distribution of microsatellite alleles between the southern Chukchi and central and eastern Beaufort Sea samples of Arctic cod. Finally, using ddRAD-Seq data, we

  1. Microbial Biogeography on the Legacies of Historical Events in the Arctic Subsurface Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dukki; Nam, Seung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic marine environment consists of various microbial habitats. The niche preference of microbial assemblages in the Arctic Ocean has been surveyed with the modern environmental change by oceanographic traits such as sea-ice dynamics, current circulation, and sedimentation. The North Pacific inflow from the shallow and narrow Bering Strait is highly susceptible to sea-level fluctuations, and thus the water mass exchange mediated by the history of sea-ice between the North Pacific and the Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean. Over geological timescale, the climate change may provide putative evidences for ecological niche for the Arctic microbial assemblages as well as geological records in response to the paleoclimate change. In the present study, the multidisciplinary approach, based on microbiology, geology, and geochemistry, was applied to survey the microbial assemblages in the Arctic subsurface sediments and help further integrate the microbial biogeography and biogeochemical patterns in the Arctic subsurface biosphere. Our results describe microbial assemblages with high-resolution paleoceanographic records in the Chukchi Sea sediment core (ARA02B/01A-GC; 5.4 mbsf) to show the processes that drive microbial biogeographic patterns in the Arctic subsurface sediments. We found microbial habitat preferences closely linked to Holocene paleoclimate records as well as geological, geochemical, and microbiological evidence for the inference of the sulphate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the Chukchi Sea. Especially, the vertically distributed predominant populations of Gammaproteobacteria and Marine Group II Euryarchaeota in the ARA02B/01A-GC consistent with the patterns of the known global SMTZs and Holocene sedimentary records, suggesting that in-depth microbiological profiles integrated with geological records may be indirectly useful for reconstructing Arctic paleoclimate changes. In the earliest phase of Mid Holocene in the ARA02B/01A-GC with concentrated

  2. Air Mass Origin in the Arctic and its Response to Future Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orbe, Clara; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Holzer, Mark; Oman, Luke; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We present the first climatology of air mass origin in the Arctic in terms of rigorously defined air mass fractions that partition air according to where it last contacted the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Results from a present-day climate integration of the GEOSCCM general circulation model reveal that the Arctic lower troposphere below 700 mb is dominated year round by air whose last PBL contact occurred poleward of 60degN, (Arctic air, or air of Arctic origin). By comparison, approx. 63% of the Arctic troposphere above 700 mb originates in the NH midlatitude PBL, (midlatitude air). Although seasonal changes in the total fraction of midlatitude air are small, there are dramatic changes in where that air last contacted the PBL, especially above 700 mb. Specifically, during winter air in the Arctic originates preferentially over the oceans, approx. 26% in the East Pacific, and approx. 20% in the Atlantic PBL. By comparison, during summer air in the Arctic last contacted the midlatitude PBL primarily over land, overwhelmingly so in Asia (approx. 40 %) and, to a lesser extent, in North America (approx. 24%). Seasonal changes in air-mass origin are interpreted in terms of seasonal variations in the large-scale ventilation of the midlatitude boundary layer and lower troposphere, namely changes in the midlatitude tropospheric jet and associated transient eddies during winter and large scale convective motions over midlatitudes during summer.

  3. An extreme Arctic cyclone in August 2016 and its predictability on medium-range timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagami, Akio; Matsueda, Mio; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    An extremely strong Arctic cyclone (AC) developed in August 2016. The AC exhibited a minimum sea level pressure (SLP) of 967.2 hPa and covered the entire Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean at 0000UTC on 16 August. At this time the AC was comparable to the strong AC observed in August 2012, in terms of horizontal extent, position, and intensity as measured by SLP. Two processes contributed to the explosive development of the AC: growth due to baroclinic instability, similar to extratropical cyclones, during the early part of the development stage, and later nonlinear development via the merging of upper warm cores. The AC was maintained for more than one month through multiple mergings with cyclones both generated in the Arctic and migrating northward from lower latitudes, as a result of the high cyclone activity in summer 2016. This study also investigated the predictability of the AC using operational medium-range ensemble forecasts: CMC (Canada), ECMWF (EU), JMA (Japan), NCEP (USA), and UKMO (UK), available at the The Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) database. The minimum SLP of the AC at 0000UTC on 16 August was well predicted by ECMWF 6-day, NCEP and UKMO 5-day, CMC 4-day, and JMA 3-day in advance. The predictability of the minimum SLP of the AC in August 2016 was much higher than that of the AC in 2012 August. Whereas most of the members well predicted the cyclogenesis of the AC, the growth due to baroclinic instability was weaker in some members. Even if the baroclinic growth was predicted well, predicted AC did not develop when the nonlinear development via the merging was not predict accurately. The accurate prediction of the processes in both early and later parts of the development stage was important for the accurate prediction of the development of the AC.

  4. Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McConnell, J.R.; Edwards, R.

    2008-08-26

    Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before approximate to 1980, when modern measurements began, although heavy-metal pollution in the Arctic was widespread during recent decades. Lacking detailed, long-term measurements until now, ecologists, health researchers, and policy makers generally have assumed that contamination was highest during the 1960s and 1970s peak ofmore » industrial activity in North America and Europe. We present continuous 1772-2003 monthly and annually averaged deposition records for highly toxic thallium, cadmium, and lead from a Greenland ice core showing that atmospheric deposition was much higher than expected in the early 20th century, with tenfold increases from preindustrial levels by the early 1900s that were two to five times higher than during recent decades. Tracer measurements indicate that coal burning in North America and Europe was the likely source of these metals in the Arctic after 1860. Although these results show that heavy-metal pollution in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic is substantially lower today than a century ago, contamination of other sectors may be increasing because of the rapid coal-driven growth of Asian economies.« less

  5. 78 FR 53731 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) Ecosystem Committee will meet in... agenda will be as follows: Development of Ecosystem-based management (EMB) vision statement; Operationalizing EBM in Council projects, including the Aleutian Islands Fishery Ecosystem Plan, the Arctic Fishery...

  6. Freshwater and its role in the Arctic Marine System: Sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, E. C.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Haine, T. W. N.; Bacon, S.; Bluhm, B. A.; Lique, C.; Melling, H.; Polyakov, I. V.; Straneo, F.; Timmermans, M.-L.; Williams, W. J.

    2016-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a fundamental node in the global hydrological cycle and the ocean's thermohaline circulation. We here assess the system's key functions and processes: (1) the delivery of fresh and low-salinity waters to the Arctic Ocean by river inflow, net precipitation, distillation during the freeze/thaw cycle, and Pacific Ocean inflows; (2) the disposition (e.g., sources, pathways, and storage) of freshwater components within the Arctic Ocean; and (3) the release and export of freshwater components into the bordering convective domains of the North Atlantic. We then examine physical, chemical, or biological processes which are influenced or constrained by the local quantities and geochemical qualities of freshwater; these include stratification and vertical mixing, ocean heat flux, nutrient supply, primary production, ocean acidification, and biogeochemical cycling. Internal to the Arctic the joint effects of sea ice decline and hydrological cycle intensification have strengthened coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere (e.g., wind and ice drift stresses, solar radiation, and heat and moisture exchange), the bordering drainage basins (e.g., river discharge, sediment transport, and erosion), and terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., Arctic greening, dissolved and particulate carbon loading, and altered phenology of biotic components). External to the Arctic freshwater export acts as both a constraint to and a necessary ingredient for deep convection in the bordering subarctic gyres and thus affects the global thermohaline circulation. Geochemical fingerprints attained within the Arctic Ocean are likewise exported into the neighboring subarctic systems and beyond. Finally, we discuss observed and modeled functions and changes in this system on seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales and discuss mechanisms that link the marine system to atmospheric, terrestrial, and cryospheric systems.

  7. Increasing frequency and duration of Arctic winter warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. M.; Cohen, L.; Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Rinke, A.; Hudson, S. R.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Record low Arctic sea ice extents were observed during the last three winter seasons (March). During each of these winters, near-surface air temperatures close to 0°C were observed, in situ, over sea ice in the central Arctic. Recent media reports and scientific studies suggest that such winter warming events were unprecedented for the Arctic. Here we use in situ winter (December-March) temperature observations, such as those from Soviet North Pole drifting stations and ocean buoys, to determine how common Arctic winter warming events are. The earliest record we find of a winter warming event was in March 1896, where a temperature of -3.7˚C was observed at 84˚N during the Fram expedition. Observations of winter warming events exist over most of the Arctic Basin. Despite a limited observational network, temperatures exceeding -5°C were measured in situ during more than 30% of winters from 1954 to 2010, by either North Pole drifting stations or ocean buoys. Correlation coefficients between the atmospheric reanalysis, ERA-Interim, and these in-situ temperature records are shown to be on the order of 0.90. This suggests that ERA-Interim is a suitable tool for studying Arctic winter warming events. Using the ERA-Interim record (1979-2016), we show that the North Pole (NP) region typically experiences 10 warming events (T2m > -10°C) per winter, compared with only five in the Pacific Central Arctic (PCA). We find a positive trend in the overall duration of winter warming events for both the NP region (4.25 days/decade) and PCA (1.16 days/decade), due to an increased number of events of longer duration.

  8. Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, August; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Charkin, Alexander; Shakhova, Natalia; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) in haze and deposited on snow and ice can have strong effects on the radiative balance of the Arctic. There is a geographic bias in Arctic BC studies toward the Atlantic sector, with lack of observational constraints for the extensive Russian Siberian Arctic, spanning nearly half of the circum-Arctic. Here, 2 y of observations at Tiksi (East Siberian Arctic) establish a strong seasonality in both BC concentrations (8 ng⋅m−3 to 302 ng⋅m−3) and dual-isotope–constrained sources (19 to 73% contribution from biomass burning). Comparisons between observations and a dispersion model, coupled to an anthropogenic emissions inventory and a fire emissions inventory, give mixed results. In the European Arctic, this model has proven to simulate BC concentrations and source contributions well. However, the model is less successful in reproducing BC concentrations and sources for the Russian Arctic. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that, in contrast to earlier studies, contributions from gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%), and open fires (12%) are relatively small, with the major sources instead being domestic (35%) and transport (38%). The observation-based evaluation of reported emissions identifies errors in spatial allocation of BC sources in the inventory and highlights the importance of improving emission distribution and source attribution, to develop reliable mitigation strategies for efficient reduction of BC impact on the Russian Arctic, one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth. PMID:28137854

  9. Geological Structure and History of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Kashubin, Sergey; Pospelov, Igor; Tolmacheva, Tatiana; Petrov, Eugeny

    2016-04-01

    New data on geological structure of the deep-water part of the Arctic Basin have been integrated in the joint project of Arctic states - the Atlas of maps of the Circumpolar Arctic. Geological (CGS, 2009) and potential field (NGS, 2009) maps were published as part of the Atlas; tectonic (Russia) and mineral resources (Norway) maps are being completed. The Arctic basement map is one of supplements to the tectonic map. It shows the Eurasian basin with oceanic crust and submerged margins of adjacent continents: the Barents-Kara, Amerasian ("Amerasian basin") and the Canada-Greenland. These margins are characterized by strained and thinned crust with the upper crust layer, almost extinct in places (South Barents and Makarov basins). In the Central Arctic elevations, seismic studies and investigation of seabed rock samples resulted in the identification of a craton with the Early Precambrian crust (near-polar part of the Lomonosov Ridge - Alpha-Mendeleev Rise). Its basement presumably consists of gneiss granite (2.6-2.2 Ga), and the cover is composed of Proterozoic quartzite sandstone and dolomite overlain with unconformity and break in sedimentation by Devonian-Triassic limestone with fauna and terrigenous rocks. The old crust is surrounded by accretion belts of Timanides and Grenvillides. Folded belts with the Late Precambrian crust are reworked by Caledonian-Ellesmerian and the Late Mesozoic movements. Structures of the South Anuy - Angayucham ophiolite suture reworked in the Early Cretaceous are separated from Mesozoides proper of the Pacific - Verkhoyansk-Kolyma and Koryak-Kamchatka belts. The complicated modern ensemble of structures of the basement and the continental frame of the Arctic Ocean was formed as a result of the conjugate evolution and interaction of the three major oceans of the Earth: Paleoasian, Paleoatlantic and Paleopacific.

  10. Using NWP to assess the influence of the Arctic atmosphere on midlatitude weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmler, Tido; Jung, Thomas; Kasper, Marta A.; Serrar, Soumia

    2018-01-01

    The influence of the Arctic atmosphere on Northern Hemisphere midlatitude tropospheric weather and climate is explored by comparing the skill of two sets of 14-day weather forecast experiments using the ECMWF model with and without relaxation of the Arctic atmosphere towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data during the integration. Two pathways are identified along which the Arctic influences midlatitude weather: a pronounced one over Asia and Eastern Europe, and a secondary one over North America. In general, linkages are found to be strongest (weakest) during boreal winter (summer) when the amplitude of stationary planetary waves over the Northern Hemisphere is strongest (weakest). No discernible Arctic impact is found over the North Atlantic and North Pacific region, which is consistent with predominantly southwesterly flow. An analysis of the flow-dependence of the linkages shows that anomalous northerly flow conditions increase the Arctic influence on midlatitude weather over the continents. Specifically, an anomalous northerly flow from the Kara Sea towards West Asia leads to cold surface temperature anomalies not only over West Asia but also over Eastern and Central Europe. Finally, the results of this study are discussed in the light of potential midlatitude benefits of improved Arctic prediction capabilities.

  11. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  12. The great 2012 Arctic Ocean summer cyclone enhanced biological productivity on the shelves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinlun; Ashjian, Carin; Campbell, Robert; Hill, Victoria; Spitz, Yvette H; Steele, Michael

    2014-01-01

    [1] A coupled biophysical model is used to examine the impact of the great Arctic cyclone of early August 2012 on the marine planktonic ecosystem in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSA). Model results indicate that the cyclone influences the marine planktonic ecosystem by enhancing productivity on the shelves of the Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev seas during the storm. Although the cyclone's passage in the PSA lasted only a few days, the simulated biological effects on the shelves last 1 month or longer. At some locations on the shelves, primary productivity (PP) increases by up to 90% and phytoplankton biomass by up to 40% in the wake of the cyclone. The increase in zooplankton biomass is up to 18% on 31 August and remains 10% on 15 September, more than 1 month after the storm. In the central PSA, however, model simulations indicate a decrease in PP and plankton biomass. The biological gain on the shelves and loss in the central PSA are linked to two factors. (1) The cyclone enhances mixing in the upper ocean, which increases nutrient availability in the surface waters of the shelves; enhanced mixing in the central PSA does not increase productivity because nutrients there are mostly depleted through summer draw down by the time of the cyclone's passage. (2) The cyclone also induces divergence, resulting from the cyclone's low-pressure system that drives cyclonic sea ice and upper ocean circulation, which transports more plankton biomass onto the shelves from the central PSA. The simulated biological gain on the shelves is greater than the loss in the central PSA, and therefore, the production on average over the entire PSA is increased by the cyclone. Because the gain on the shelves is offset by the loss in the central PSA, the average increase over the entire PSA is moderate and lasts only about 10 days. The generally positive impact of cyclones on the marine ecosystem in the Arctic, particularly on the shelves, is likely to grow with increasing

  13. The great 2012 Arctic Ocean summer cyclone enhanced biological productivity on the shelves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinlun; Ashjian, Carin; Campbell, Robert; Hill, Victoria; Spitz, Yvette H; Steele, Michael

    2014-01-01

    [1] A coupled biophysical model is used to examine the impact of the great Arctic cyclone of early August 2012 on the marine planktonic ecosystem in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSA). Model results indicate that the cyclone influences the marine planktonic ecosystem by enhancing productivity on the shelves of the Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev seas during the storm. Although the cyclone's passage in the PSA lasted only a few days, the simulated biological effects on the shelves last 1 month or longer. At some locations on the shelves, primary productivity (PP) increases by up to 90% and phytoplankton biomass by up to 40% in the wake of the cyclone. The increase in zooplankton biomass is up to 18% on 31 August and remains 10% on 15 September, more than 1 month after the storm. In the central PSA, however, model simulations indicate a decrease in PP and plankton biomass. The biological gain on the shelves and loss in the central PSA are linked to two factors. (1) The cyclone enhances mixing in the upper ocean, which increases nutrient availability in the surface waters of the shelves; enhanced mixing in the central PSA does not increase productivity because nutrients there are mostly depleted through summer draw down by the time of the cyclone's passage. (2) The cyclone also induces divergence, resulting from the cyclone's low-pressure system that drives cyclonic sea ice and upper ocean circulation, which transports more plankton biomass onto the shelves from the central PSA. The simulated biological gain on the shelves is greater than the loss in the central PSA, and therefore, the production on average over the entire PSA is increased by the cyclone. Because the gain on the shelves is offset by the loss in the central PSA, the average increase over the entire PSA is moderate and lasts only about 10 days. The generally positive impact of cyclones on the marine ecosystem in the Arctic, particularly on the shelves, is likely to grow with increasing

  14. Status and Impacts of Arctic Freshwater Export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, T. W. N.

    2017-12-01

    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980-2000, with an extra ≈5000 km3—about 25%—being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runoff have increased between these periods (most of the evidence comes from models). Despite flux increases from 2001 to 2011, it is uncertain if the marine freshwater source through Bering Strait for the 2000s has changed, as observations in the 1980s and 1990s are incomplete. The marine freshwater fluxes draining the Arctic through Fram and Davis straits are also insignificantly different. In this way, the balance of sources and sinks of freshwater to the Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), and Baffin Bay shifted to about 1200±730 km3yr-1 freshening the region, on average, during the 2000s. The observed accumulation of liquid freshwater is consistent with this increased supply and the loss of freshwater from sea ice (Figure, right). Evidence exists that such discharges can impact the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and hence Atlantic sector climate. Nevertheless, it appears that the observed AMOC variability since 2004, when high quality measurements began, is not attributable to anthropogenic influence. This work is based on, and updated from, Haine et al. (2015), Carmack et al. (2016), and Haine (2016). Haine, T. W. N. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning. Nature Geoscience, 9, 479-480, 10.1038/ngeo2748, 2016. T. W. N. Haine et al., Arctic Freshwater Export: Status, Mechanisms, and Prospects, Global Planetary Change, 125, 13-35, 10.1016/j.glopacha.2014.11.013, 2015. E. Carmack et al., Fresh water and its role in the Arctic Marine System: sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans. J. G. Res. Biogeosciences, 10.1002/2015JG003140, 2016.

  15. Late Quaternary Variability of Arctic Sea Ice: Insights From Biomarker Proxy Records and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. H.; Fahl, K.; Gierz, P.; Niessen, F.; Lohmann, G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last about four decades, coinciding with global warming and atmospheric CO2increase, the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has decreased dramatically, a decrease much more rapid than predicted by climate models. The driving forces of this change are still not fully understood. In this context, detailed paleoclimatic records going back beyond the timescale of direct observations, i.e., high-resolution Holocene records but also records representing more distant warm periods, may help to to distinguish and quantify more precisely the natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing of global climate change and related sea ice decrease. Here, we concentrate on sea ice biomarker records representing the penultimate glacial/last interglacial (MIS 6/MIS 5e) and the Holocene time intervals. Our proxy records are compared with climate model simulations using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM). Based on our data, polynya-type sea ice conditions probably occurred off the major ice sheets along the northern Barents and East Siberian continental margins during late MIS 6. Furthermore, we demonstrate that even during MIS 5e, i.e., a time interval when the high latitudes have been significantly warmer than today, sea ice existed in the central Arctic Ocean during summer, whereas sea ice was significantly reduced along the Barents Sea continental margin influenced by Atlantic Water inflow. Assuming a closed Bering Strait (no Pacific Water inflow) during early MIS 5, model simulations point to a significantly reduced sea ice cover in the central Arctic Ocean, a scenario that is however not supported by the proxy record and thus seems to be less realistic. Our Holocene biomarker proxy records from the Chukchi Sea indicate that main factors controlling the millennial Holocene variability in sea ice are probably changes in surface water and heat flow from the Pacific into the Arctic Ocean as well as the long-term decrease in summer insolation

  16. Atmospheric moisture transport: the bridge between ocean evaporation and Arctic ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, L.; Vázquez, M.; Nieto, R.; Trigo, R. M.

    2015-09-01

    Changes in the atmospheric moisture transport have been proposed as a vehicle for interpreting some of the most significant changes in the Arctic region. The increasing moisture over the Arctic during the last decades is not strongly associated with the evaporation that takes place within the Arctic area itself, despite the fact that the sea ice cover is decreasing. Such an increment is consistent and is more dependent on the transport of moisture from the extratropical regions to the Arctic that has increased in recent decades and is expected to increase within a warming climate. This increase could be due either to changes in circulation patterns which have altered the moisture sources, or to changes in the intensity of the moisture sources because of enhanced evaporation, or a combination of these two mechanisms. In this short communication we focus on the more objective assessment of the strong link between ocean evaporation trends and Arctic Sea ice melting. We will critically analyse several recent results suggesting links between moisture transport and the extent of sea ice in the Arctic, this being one of the most distinct indicators of continuous climate change both in the Arctic and on a global scale. To do this we will use a sophisticated Lagrangian approach to develop a more robust framework on some of these previous disconnecting results, using new information and insights. Results reached in this study stress the connection between two climate change indicators, namely an increase in evaporation over source regions (mainly the Mediterranean Sea, the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean in the paths of the global western boundary currents and their extensions) and Arctic ice melting precursors.

  17. It's in Their Bones: 2000 Years of Pacific Walrus Adaptability and Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misarti, N.; Horstmann, L.; Clark, C. T.; Charapata, P.; Olson, L.; Fulton, T. L.; Jensen, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the many species affected by climate change in the Arctic, and receiving attention from the general public, is the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Walruses are of critical importance to subsistence consumers in Alaska (and other Arctic regions) both for practical, financial reasons as well as cultural ones. Despite the quality data from in-depth studies of Pacific walruses over the last 40-50 years, it is difficult to implement proposed co-management and conservation plans based on data from such a relatively short time span; much less to project the impact of further changes to the Arctic ecosystem on both walruses and humans subsisting on them. We are presenting the first data from our project, integrating several disciplines including archaeology, ethnology, biology, and ecology utilizing proxy data, such as DNA, stable isotope (SI), steroid hormones, and trace element analysis as well as ascertain long-term trends of walrus feeding ecology, foraging location, and stock genetics over the last 2000 years. Each set of proxy data acts as a building block to better understand walruses, and how they adapt to change in the Arctic ecosystem. Our preliminary data show that steroid hormone levels change during some decades, including most recently, compared with prehistoric levels and might be associated with walrus population size. SI has revealed several shifts in feeding habits; the last 5 years are significantly different from the historic time periods as well as the prehistoric time frame. Both SI and hormone data are corroborated by traditional ecological knowledge.

  18. Key Findings of the AMAP 2015 Assessment on Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone as Arctic Climate Forcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) established an Expert Group on Short-Lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs) in 2009 with the goal of reviewing the state of science surrounding SLCFs in the Arctic and recommending science tasks to improve the state of knowledge and its application to policy-making. In 2011, the result of the Expert Group's work was published in a technical report entitled The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate (AMAP, 2011). That report focused entirely on black carbon (BC) and co-emitted organic carbon (OC). The SLCFs Expert Group then expanded its scope to include all species co-emitted with BC as well as tropospheric ozone. An assessment report, entitled Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone as Arctic Climate Forcers, was published in 2015. The assessment includes summaries of measurement methods and emissions inventories of SLCFs, atmospheric transport of SLCFs to and within the Arctic, modeling methods for estimating the impact of SLCFs on Arctic climate, model-measurement inter-comparisons, trends in concentrations of SLCFs in the Arctic, and a literature review of Arctic radiative forcing and climate response. In addition, three Chemistry Climate Models and five Chemistry Transport Models were used to calculate Arctic burdens of SLCFs and precursors species, radiative forcing, and Arctic temperature response to the forcing. Radiative forcing was calculated for the direct atmospheric effect of BC, BC-snow/ice effect, and cloud indirect effects. Forcing and temperature response associated with different source sectors (Domestic, Energy+Industry+Waste, Transport, Agricultural waste burning, Forest fires, and Flaring) and source regions (United States, Canada, Russia, Nordic Countries, Rest of Europe, East and South Asia, Arctic, mid-latitudes, tropics, southern hemisphere) were calculated. To enable an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of regional emission mitigation options, the normalized impacts (i.e., impacts per unit

  19. Object-based Image Classification of Arctic Sea Ice and Melt Ponds through Aerial Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.; Li, Z.; Lei, R.

    2013-12-01

    information; (2) random forest ensemble classifier can distinguish the following objects: water, submerged ice, shadow, and ice/snow; and (3) polygon neighbor analysis can further separate melt ponds from submerged ice according to the spatial neighboring relationship. Our results illustrate the spatial distribution and morphological characters of melt ponds in different latitudes of the Arctic Pacific sector. This method can be applied to massive photos and images taken in past years and future years, in deriving the detailed sea ice and melt pond distribution and changes through years.

  20. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Equatorial Spread F: Results and Observations in the Pacific Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveiro, H. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Klenzing, J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Stoneback, R.; Heelis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of plasma density irregularities in the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) is described. The simulation evolves under realistic background conditions including bottomside plasma shear flow and vertical current. It also incorporates C/NOFS satellite data which partially specify the forcing. A combination of generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability (GRT) and collisional shear instability (CSI) produces growing waveforms with key features that agree with C/NOFS satellite and ALTAIR radar observations in the Pacific sector, including features such as gross morphology and rates of development. The transient response of CSI is consistent with the observation of bottomside waves with wavelengths close to 30 km, whereas the steady state behavior of the combined instability can account for the 100+ km wavelength waves that predominate in the F region.

  1. The Arctic: Glacial Refugium or Area of Secondary Contact? Inference from the Population Genetic Structure of the Thick-Billed Murre (Uria lomvia), with Implications for Management.

    PubMed

    Tigano, Anna; Damus, Martin; Birt, Tim P; Morris-Pocock, Jamie A; Artukhin, Yuri B; Friesen, Vicki L

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary glaciations affected the distribution of many species. Here, we investigate whether the Arctic represented a glacial refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum or an area of secondary contact following the ice retreat, by analyzing the genetic population structure of the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), a seabird that breeds throughout the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Arctic Oceans. The thick-billed murre is a species of socio-economic importance and faces numerous threats including hunting, oil pollution, gill netting, and climate change. We compared variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (n = 424), supplemented by 4 microsatellite loci (n = 445), among thick-billed murres sampled throughout their range. MtDNA data indicated that colonies comprise 4 genetically differentiated groups (Φst = 0.11-0.81): 1) Atlantic Ocean plus New Siberian Islands region, 2) Cape Parry, 3) Chukchi Sea, and 4) Pacific Ocean. Microsatellite variation differed between Atlantic and Pacific populations. Otherwise, little substructure was found within either ocean. Atlantic and Pacific populations appear to have been genetically isolated since the last interglacial period and should be considered separate evolutionary significant units for management. The Chukchi Sea and Cape Parry appear to represent areas of secondary contact, rather than arctic refugial populations. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Remote Linkages to Anomalous Winter Atmospheric Ridging over the Northeastern Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, Daniel L.; Singh, Deepti; Horton, Daniel E.; Mankin, Justin S.; Ballard, Tristan C.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2017-01-01

    Severe drought in California between 2013 and 2016 has been linked to the multiyear persistence of anomalously high atmospheric pressure over the northeastern Pacific Ocean, which deflected the Pacific storm track northward and suppressed regional precipitation during California's winter 'rainy season.' Multiple hypotheses have emerged regarding why this high pressure ridge near the west coast of North America was so resilient-including unusual sea surface temperature patterns in the Pacific Ocean, reductions in Arctic sea ice, random atmospheric variability, or some combination thereof. Here we explore relationships between previously documented atmospheric conditions over the North Pacific and several potential remote oceanic and cryospheric influences using both observational data and a large ensemble of climate model simulations. Our results suggest that persistent wintertime atmospheric ridging similar to that implicated in California's 2013-2016 drought can at least partially be linked to unusual Pacific sea surface temperatures, and that Pacific Ocean conditions may offer some degree of cool-season foresight in this region despite the presence of substantial internal variability.

  3. Remote Linkages to Anomalous Winter Atmospheric Ridging Over the Northeastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Daniel L.; Singh, Deepti; Horton, Daniel E.; Mankin, Justin S.; Ballard, Tristan C.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2017-11-01

    Severe drought in California between 2013 and 2016 has been linked to the multiyear persistence of anomalously high atmospheric pressure over the northeastern Pacific Ocean, which deflected the Pacific storm track northward and suppressed regional precipitation during California's winter "rainy season." Multiple hypotheses have emerged regarding why this high pressure ridge near the west coast of North America was so resilient—including unusual sea surface temperature patterns in the Pacific Ocean, reductions in Arctic sea ice, random atmospheric variability, or some combination thereof. Here we explore relationships between previously documented atmospheric conditions over the North Pacific and several potential remote oceanic and cryospheric influences using both observational data and a large ensemble of climate model simulations. Our results suggest that persistent wintertime atmospheric ridging similar to that implicated in California's 2013-2016 drought can at least partially be linked to unusual Pacific sea surface temperatures and that Pacific Ocean conditions may offer some degree of cool-season foresight in this region despite the presence of substantial internal variability.

  4. Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses: distribution, phylogeny and evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    KUZMIN, I. V.; HUGHES, G. J.; BOTVINKIN, A. D.; GRIBENCHA, S. G.; RUPPRECHT, C. E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Forty-one newly sequenced isolates of Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses, were genetically compared to each other and to those available from GenBank. Four phylogenetic lineages of Arctic viruses were identified. Arctic-1 viruses circulate in Ontario, Arctic-2 viruses circulate in Siberia and Alaska, Arctic-3 viruses circulate circumpolarly, and a newly described lineage Arctic-4 circulates locally in Alaska. The oldest available isolates from Siberia (between 1950 and 1960) belong to the Arctic-2 and Arctic-3 lineages and share 98·6–99·2% N gene identity with contemporary viruses. Two lineages of Arctic-like viruses were identified in southern Asia and the Middle East (Arctic-like-1) and eastern Asia (Arctic-like-2). A time-scaled tree demonstrates that the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Arctic and Arctic-like viruses is dated between 1255 and 1786. Evolution of the Arctic viruses has occurred through a northerly spread. The Arctic-like-2 lineage diverged first, whereas Arctic viruses share a TMRCA with Arctic-like-1 viruses. PMID:17599781

  5. Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses: distribution, phylogeny and evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, I V; Hughes, G J; Botvinkin, A D; Gribencha, S G; Rupprecht, C E

    2008-04-01

    Forty-one newly sequenced isolates of Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses, were genetically compared to each other and to those available from GenBank. Four phylogenetic lineages of Arctic viruses were identified. Arctic-1 viruses circulate in Ontario, Arctic-2 viruses circulate in Siberia and Alaska, Arctic-3 viruses circulate circumpolarly, and a newly described lineage Arctic-4 circulates locally in Alaska. The oldest available isolates from Siberia (between 1950 and 1960) belong to the Arctic-2 and Arctic-3 lineages and share 98.6-99.2% N gene identity with contemporary viruses. Two lineages of Arctic-like viruses were identified in southern Asia and the Middle East (Arctic-like-1) and eastern Asia (Arctic-like-2). A time-scaled tree demonstrates that the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Arctic and Arctic-like viruses is dated between 1255 and 1786. Evolution of the Arctic viruses has occurred through a northerly spread. The Arctic-like-2 lineage diverged first, whereas Arctic viruses share a TMRCA with Arctic-like-1 viruses.

  6. Structural-tectonic zoning of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Oleg; Sobolev, Nikolay; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey; Kashubin, Sergey; Grikurov, Garrik; Tolmacheva, Tatiana; Rekant, Pavel; Petrov, Evgeny

    2017-04-01

    . From the north, Ellesmerides are limited by the Precambrian continental blocks - North Kara and Mendeleev Rise, the sedimentary cover within which is represented by undisturbed Paleozoic and Mesozoic deposits. Analysis of the geological and tectonic maps and the map of the Arctic basement structure indicates that the heterogeneous crustal structure of the Arctic Ocean and its continental framing were formed as a result of simultaneous development and interaction of three large paleo-oceans in the Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic - Paleo-Asian, Proto-Atlantic and Paleo-Pacific oceans. A conceptual model that represents our understanding of structural relationships and crustal types of the main Arctic Basin structures is quite simple. The Arctic Basin is bounded by continental margins with continental crust: relatively elevated Barents-Kara - in the west, and generally submerged Amerasia margin - in the east. The latter represents a continental "bridge" formed by thinned and stretched continental crust. It connects two opposite continents - Laurentia and Eurasia, and is essentially a fragmented, tectonically mobile structure.

  7. Impacts of ocean albedo alteration on Arctic sea ice restoration and Northern Hemisphere climate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Caldeira, Ken; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    The Arctic Ocean is expected to transition into a seasonally ice-free state by mid-century, enhancing Arctic warming and leading to substantial ecological and socio-economic challenges across the Arctic region. It has been proposed that artificially increasing high latitude ocean albedo could restore sea ice, but the climate impacts of such a strategy have not been previously explored. Motivated by this, we investigate the impacts of idealized high latitude ocean albedo changes on Arctic sea ice restoration and climate. In our simulated 4xCO₂ climate, imposing surface albedo alterations over the Arctic Ocean leads to partial sea ice recovery and a modestmore » reduction in Arctic warming. With the most extreme ocean albedo changes, imposed over the area 70°–90°N, September sea ice cover stabilizes at ~40% of its preindustrial value (compared to ~3% without imposed albedo modifications). This is accompanied by an annual mean Arctic surface temperature decrease of ~2 °C but no substantial global mean temperature decrease. Imposed albedo changes and sea ice recovery alter climate outside the Arctic region too, affecting precipitation distribution over parts of the continental United States and Northeastern Pacific. For example, following sea ice recovery, wetter and milder winter conditions are present in the Southwest United States while the East Coast experiences cooling. We conclude that although ocean albedo alteration could lead to some sea ice recovery, it does not appear to be an effective way of offsetting the overall effects of CO₂ induced global warming.« less

  8. Impacts of ocean albedo alteration on Arctic sea ice restoration and Northern Hemisphere climate

    DOE PAGES

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Caldeira, Ken; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is expected to transition into a seasonally ice-free state by mid-century, enhancing Arctic warming and leading to substantial ecological and socio-economic challenges across the Arctic region. It has been proposed that artificially increasing high latitude ocean albedo could restore sea ice, but the climate impacts of such a strategy have not been previously explored. Motivated by this, we investigate the impacts of idealized high latitude ocean albedo changes on Arctic sea ice restoration and climate. In our simulated 4xCO₂ climate, imposing surface albedo alterations over the Arctic Ocean leads to partial sea ice recovery and a modestmore » reduction in Arctic warming. With the most extreme ocean albedo changes, imposed over the area 70°–90°N, September sea ice cover stabilizes at ~40% of its preindustrial value (compared to ~3% without imposed albedo modifications). This is accompanied by an annual mean Arctic surface temperature decrease of ~2 °C but no substantial global mean temperature decrease. Imposed albedo changes and sea ice recovery alter climate outside the Arctic region too, affecting precipitation distribution over parts of the continental United States and Northeastern Pacific. For example, following sea ice recovery, wetter and milder winter conditions are present in the Southwest United States while the East Coast experiences cooling. We conclude that although ocean albedo alteration could lead to some sea ice recovery, it does not appear to be an effective way of offsetting the overall effects of CO₂ induced global warming.« less

  9. Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Huang, Jianping; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Tian; Jin, Hongchun

    2015-11-01

    Asian dust can be transported long distances from the Taklimakan or Gobi desert to North America across the Pacific Ocean, and it has been found to have a significant impact on ecosystems, climate, and human health. Although it is well known that Asian dust is transported all over the globe, there are limited observations reporting Asian dust transported to the Arctic. We report a case study of a large-scale heavy dust storm over East Asia on 19 March 2010, as shown by ground-based and space-borne multi-sensor observations, as well as NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and HYSPLIT trajectories. Our analysis suggests that Asian dust aerosols were transported from northwest China to the Arctic within 5 days, crossing eastern China, Japan and Siberia before reaching the Arctic. The results indicate that Asian dust can be transported for long distances along a previously unreported transport path. Evidence from other dust events over the past decade (2001-2010) also supports our results, indicating that dust from 25.2% of Asian dust events has potentially been transported directly to the Arctic. The transport of Asian dust to the Arctic is due to cyclones and the enhanced East Asia Trough (EAT), which are very common synoptic systems over East Asia. This suggests that many other large dust events would have generated long-range transport of dust to the Arctic along this path in the past. Thus, Asian dust potentially affects the Arctic climate and ecosystem, making climate change in the Arctic much more complex to be fully understood.

  10. The Arctic sea ice cover of 2016: a year of record-low highs and higher-than-expected lows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Alek A.; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Holland, Paul R.; Boisvert, Linette N.; Bliss, Angela C.; Kimura, Noriaki; Meier, Walter N.

    2018-02-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover of 2016 was highly noteworthy, as it featured record low monthly sea ice extents at the start of the year but a summer (September) extent that was higher than expected by most seasonal forecasts. Here we explore the 2016 Arctic sea ice state in terms of its monthly sea ice cover, placing this in the context of the sea ice conditions observed since 2000. We demonstrate the sensitivity of monthly Arctic sea ice extent and area estimates, in terms of their magnitude and annual rankings, to the ice concentration input data (using two widely used datasets) and to the averaging methodology used to convert concentration to extent (daily or monthly extent calculations). We use estimates of sea ice area over sea ice extent to analyse the relative "compactness" of the Arctic sea ice cover, highlighting anomalously low compactness in the summer of 2016 which contributed to the higher-than-expected September ice extent. Two cyclones that entered the Arctic Ocean during August appear to have driven this low-concentration/compactness ice cover but were not sufficient to cause more widespread melt-out and a new record-low September ice extent. We use concentration budgets to explore the regions and processes (thermodynamics/dynamics) contributing to the monthly 2016 extent/area estimates highlighting, amongst other things, rapid ice intensification across the central eastern Arctic through September. Two different products show significant early melt onset across the Arctic Ocean in 2016, including record-early melt onset in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic. Our results also show record-late 2016 freeze-up in the central Arctic, North Atlantic and the Alaskan Arctic sector in particular, associated with strong sea surface temperature anomalies that appeared shortly after the 2016 minimum (October onwards). We explore the implications of this low summer ice compactness for seasonal forecasting, suggesting that sea ice area could be a more reliable

  11. Space use of a dominant Arctic vertebrate: Effects of prey, sea ice, and land on Pacific walrus resource selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William; Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Taylor, Rebecca L.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Jewett, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Sea ice dominates marine ecosystems in the Arctic, and recent reductions in sea ice may alter food webs throughout the region. Sea ice loss may also stress Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), which feed on benthic macroinvertebrates in the Bering and Chukchi seas. However, no studies have examined the effects of sea ice on foraging Pacific walrus space use patterns. We tested a series of hypotheses that examined walrus foraging resource selection as a function of proximity to resting substrates and prey biomass. We quantified walrus prey biomass with 17 benthic invertebrate families, which included bivalves, polychaetes, amphipods, tunicates, and sipunculids. We included covariates for distance to sea ice and distance to land, and systematically developed a series of candidate models to examine interactions among benthic prey biomass and resting substrates. We ranked candidate models with Bayesian Information Criterion and made inferences on walrus resource selection based on the top-ranked model. Based on the top model, biomass of the bivalve family Tellinidae, distance to ice, distance to land, and the interaction of distances to ice and land all positively influenced walrus foraging resource selection. Standardized model coefficients indicated that distance to ice explained the most variation in walrus foraging resource selection followed by Tellinidae biomass. Distance to land and the interaction of distances to ice and land accounted for similar levels of variation. Tellinidae biomass likely represented an index of overall bivalve biomass, indicating walruses focused foraging in areas with elevated levels of bivalve and tellinid biomass. Our results also emphasize the importance of sea ice to walruses. Projected sea ice loss will increase the duration of the open water season in the Chukchi Sea, altering the spatial distribution of resting sites relative to current foraging areas and possibly affecting the spatial structure of benthic communities.

  12. Modelling the impacts of a dipole-like climatic state over the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasha Karami, Mehdi; de Vernal, Anne; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic dipole anomaly (ADA) features a pattern with opposite sea-level pressure anomalies over the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. Changes in the predominance of Arctic atmospheric circulation modes and the shift towards a dipole mode in the past decade played a role in the summer sea ice loss and sea ice-freshwater export from the Arctic to the North Atlantic. Reconstruction of sea ice cover variations during Holocene also suggests opposite anomalies in the Barents Sea versus either the western Arctic or the Fram Strait area similar to the ADA pattern. It is vital to study such physical processes that cause dramatic changes in the Arctic sea ice recalling the link between the ADA and the current climate change. Here we focus on the question of how a persistent ADA-like state affects the Arctic sea ice distribution and its outflow to the Atlantic Ocean. For this purpose, an eddy-permitting regional configuration of the NEMO coupled ocean/sea-ice model is used. The regional domain covers the Arctic Ocean and the Northern-Hemisphere Atlantic, with a horizontal resolution of 1/4 degree at the equator (ANHA4). For the present-day simulations, boundary conditions are obtained by taking the average over the years with a positive ADA and those with a negative ADA. In the Holocene scenario, global climate model data are used to force our regional model. To exclude the role of Bering Strait and the heat flux from the Pacific Ocean, we repeat the experiments with a closed Bering Strait since a nearly closed Bering configuration was possible for the Early Holocene. The model results are compared with the paleoclimate data from Arctic and subarctic seas.

  13. Integrated Arctic Observation System Development Under Horizon 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandven, S.

    2016-12-01

    The overall objective of INTAROS is to develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the in situ observing network. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism, fishing), in order to strengthen the societal and economic role of the Arctic region and support the EU strategy for the Arctic and related maritime and environmental policies.

  14. Nitrification and its influence on biogeochemical cycles from the equatorial Pacific to the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Takuhei; Ijichi, Minoru; Isobe, Kazuo; Hashihama, Fuminori; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Ehama, Makoto; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hamasaki, Koji; Furuya, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We examined nitrification in the euphotic zone, its impact on the nitrogen cycles, and the controlling factors along a 7500 km transect from the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean. Ammonia oxidation occurred in the euphotic zone at most of the stations. The gene and transcript abundances for ammonia oxidation indicated that the shallow clade archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers throughout the study regions. Ammonia oxidation accounted for up to 87.4% (average 55.6%) of the rate of nitrate assimilation in the subtropical oligotrophic region. However, in the shallow Bering and Chukchi sea shelves (bottom ⩽67 m), the percentage was small (0–4.74%) because ammonia oxidation and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers were low, the light environment being one possible explanation for the low activity. With the exception of the shallow bottom stations, depth-integrated ammonia oxidation was positively correlated with depth-integrated primary production. Ammonia oxidation was low in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll subarctic region and high in the Bering Sea Green Belt, and primary production in both was influenced by micronutrient supply. An ammonium kinetics experiment demonstrated that ammonia oxidation did not increase significantly with the addition of 31–1560 nm ammonium at most stations except in the Bering Sea Green Belt. Thus, the relationship between ammonia oxidation and primary production does not simply indicate that ammonia oxidation increased with ammonium supply through decomposition of organic matter produced by primary production but that ammonia oxidation might also be controlled by micronutrient availability as with primary production. PMID:26918664

  15. ARM Aerial Facility ArcticShark Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Hubbell, M.; Mei, F.; Carroll, P.; Mendoza, A.; Ireland, C.; Lewko, K.

    2017-12-01

    The TigerShark Block 3 XP-AR "ArcticShark" Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), developed and manufactured by Navmar Applied Sciences Corporation (NASC), is a single-prop, 60 hp rotary-engine platform with a wingspan of 6.5 m and Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight of 295 Kg. The ArcticShark is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and has been operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since March 2017. The UAS will serve as an airborne atmospheric research observatory for DOE ARM, and, once fully operational, can be requested through ARM's annual call for proposals. The Arctic Shark is anticipated to measure a wide range of radiative, aerosol, and cloud properties using a variable instrument payload weighing up to 46 Kg. SATCOM-equipped, it is capable of taking measurements up to altitudes of 5.5 Km over ranges of up to 500 Km. The ArcticShark operates at airspeeds of 30 to 40 m/s, making it capable of slow sampling. With a full fuel load, its endurance exceeds 8 hours. The aircraft and its Mobile Operations Center (MOC) have been hardened specifically for operations in colder temperatures.ArcticShark's design facilitates rapid integration of various types of payloads. 2500 W of its 4000 W electrical systems is dedicated to payload servicing. It has an interior payload volume of almost 85 L and four wing-mounted pylons capable of carrying external probes. Its payload bay volume, electrical power, payload capacity, and flight characteristics enable the ArcticShark to accommodate multiple combinations of payloads in numerous configurations. Many instruments will be provided by the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF), but other organizations may eventually propose instrumentation for specific campaigns. AAF-provided measurement capabilities will include the following atmospheric state and thermodynamics: temperature, pressure, winds; gases: H2O and CO2; up- and down-welling broadband infrared and visible radiation; surface temperature; aerosol number concentration

  16. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, David C.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Atwood, Todd C.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  17. Optical properties of melting first-year Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Bonnie; Perovich, Donald K.; Webster, Melinda A.; Polashenski, Christopher; Dadic, Ruzica

    2015-11-01

    The albedo and transmittance of melting, first-year Arctic sea ice were measured during two cruises of the Impacts of Climate on the Eco-Systems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) project during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Spectral measurements were made for both bare and ponded ice types at a total of 19 ice stations in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. These data, along with irradiance profiles taken within boreholes, laboratory measurements of the optical properties of core samples, ice physical property observations, and radiative transfer model simulations are employed to describe representative optical properties for melting first-year Arctic sea ice. Ponded ice was found to transmit roughly 4.4 times more total energy into the ocean, relative to nearby bare ice. The ubiquitous surface-scattering layer and drained layer present on bare, melting sea ice are responsible for its relatively high albedo and relatively low transmittance. Light transmittance through ponded ice depends on the physical thickness of the ice and the magnitude of the scattering coefficient in the ice interior. Bare ice reflects nearly three-quarters of the incident sunlight, enhancing its resiliency to absorption by solar insolation. In contrast, ponded ice absorbs or transmits to the ocean more than three-quarters of the incident sunlight. Characterization of the heat balance of a summertime ice cover is largely dictated by its pond coverage, and light transmittance through ponded ice shows strong contrast between first-year and multiyear Arctic ice covers.

  18. Postgraduate Research in Pacific Education: Interpretivism and Other Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Greg; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines research by postgraduate students in education at the University of the South Pacific (USP) between 1968 and 2009. These experienced educators, who later return to their original education sector to influence policy and practice in some way, are producing new knowledge intimately connected to Pacific education systems. The…

  19. Was the Eocene Arctic a Source Area for Exotic Plants and Mammals? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J. J.; Harrington, G. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Today’s High Arctic is undergoing rapid warming, but the impact on its animal and plant communities is not clear. As a deep time analog to better understand and predict the impacts of global warming on the Arctic biota, early Eocene (52-53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut in Canada’s High Arctic (~79°N latitude) preserve evidence of diverse terrestrial ecosystems that supported dense forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, snakes, primates, tapirs, brontotheres, and hippo-like Coryphodon. The fossil localities were just a few degrees further south and still well above the Arctic Circle during the early Eocene; consequently, the biota experienced months of continuous sunlight as well as darkness, the Arctic summer and winter, respectively. The flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions than at present, and recently published analyses of biogenic phosphate from fossil fish, turtle, and mammal estimate warm summers (19 - 20 C) and mild, above-freezing winters. In general, temperature estimates for the early Eocene Arctic can be compared to those found today in temperate rainforests in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The early Eocene Arctic mammalian fauna shares most genera with coeval mid-latitude faunas thousands of kilometers to the south in the US Western Interior, and several genera also are shared with Europe and Asia. Recent analyses suggest that the large herbivores such as hippo-like Coryphodon were year-round inhabitants in the Eocene Arctic forests. Although several of the Eocene Arctic mammalian taxa are hypothesized to have originated in either mid-latitude North America or Asia, the earlier occurrence of certain clades (e.g., tapirs) in the Arctic raises the possibility of a northern high-latitude origin. Analysis of the early Eocene Arctic palynoflora indicates comparable richness to early Eocene plant communities in the US Western Interior, but nearly 50% of its species (mostly angiosperms) are

  20. The Best Modern Analog for Eocene Arctic Forests is within Today's Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Eberle, J.; Sternberg, L. O.; Ellsworth, P.; Eberth, D.; Sweet, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the 25 years that have passed since the first extensive descriptions of the Fossil Forests that persisted above the Arctic Circle during the Eocene (~45-54 Ma), no less than four locations have been suggested as modern analogs. These locations represent a diverse collection of biomes and temperature/precipitation environments, and include the southeastern Unites States and southeastern Asia (based on flora and fauna assemblages), southern Chile and the U.S. Pacific Northwest (based on biomass and productivity estimates), and Pacific Northwestern U.S. and Canada (based on mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation). Here we report on new isotope datasets that allow for a prediction of best modern analog based on a quantitative characterization of paleoseasonality. First, we report high-resolution carbon isotope data from fossil tree rings that record the ratio of summer to winter precipitation. Second, we report analyses of the oxygen isotope composition of phenylglucosazone, a compound isolated from fossil cellulose that straightforwardly records the oxygen isotope composition of meteoric water available to the tree. Together, our analyses indicate that the fossil forests of the Eocene Arctic thrived under a summer-dominated, high-intensity, seasonal precipitation regime, with at least 279 mm of rainfall during the wettest month. A quantitative comparison of mean-annual temperature and precipitation, fossil and modern plant communities, and the seasonality indices, highlights the Korean peninsula as the most appropriate modern analog for the Arctic Eocene forests, in preference to the North and South American analogs previously proposed.

  1. Seasonal differences in the response of Arctic cyclones to climate change in CESM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Jonathan J.; Holland, Marika M.; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2017-06-01

    The dramatic warming of the Arctic over the last three decades has reduced both the thickness and extent of sea ice, opening opportunities for business in diverse sectors and increasing human exposure to meteorological hazards in the Arctic. It has been suggested that these changes in environmental conditions have led to an increase in extreme cyclones in the region, therefore increasing this hazard. In this study, we investigate the response of Arctic synoptic scale cyclones to climate change in a large initial value ensemble of future climate projections with the CESM1-CAM5 climate model (CESM-LE). We find that the response of Arctic cyclones in these simulations varies with season, with significant reductions in cyclone dynamic intensity across the Arctic basin in winter, but with contrasting increases in summer intensity within the region known as the Arctic Ocean cyclone maximum. There is also a significant reduction in winter cyclogenesis events within the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian sea region. We conclude that these differences in the response of cyclone intensity and cyclogenesis, with season, appear to be closely linked to changes in surface temperature gradients in the high latitudes, with Arctic poleward temperature gradients increasing in summer, but decreasing in winter.

  2. Summers with low Arctic sea ice linked to persistence of spring atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsch, Marie-Luise; Skific, Natasa; Graversen, Rune G.; Tjernström, Michael; Francis, Jennifer A.

    2018-05-01

    The declining trend of Arctic September sea ice constitutes a significant change in the Arctic climate system. Large year-to-year variations are superimposed on this sea-ice trend, with the largest variability observed in the eastern Arctic Ocean. Knowledge of the processes important for this variability may lead to an improved understanding of seasonal and long-term changes. Previous studies suggest that transport of heat and moisture into the Arctic during spring enhances downward surface longwave radiation, thereby controlling the annual melt onset, setting the stage for the September ice minimum. In agreement with these studies, we find that years with a low September sea-ice concentration (SIC) are characterized by more persistent periods in spring with enhanced energy flux to the surface in forms of net longwave radiation plus turbulent fluxes, compared to years with a high SIC. Two main atmospheric circulation patterns related to these episodes are identified: one resembles the so-called Arctic dipole anomaly that promotes transport of heat and moisture from the North Pacific, whereas the other is characterized by negative geopotential height anomalies over the Arctic, favoring cyclonic flow from Siberia and the Kara Sea into the eastern Arctic Ocean. However, differences between years with low and high September SIC appear not to be due to different spring circulation patterns; instead it is the persistence and intensity of processes associated with these patterns that distinguish the two groups of anomalous years: Years with low September SIC feature episodes that are consistently stronger and more persistent than years with high SIC.

  3. Copepod grazing on phytoplankton in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Polar Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Rich, Juanita; Dagg, Michael; Peterson, Jay

    Mesozooplankton abundance, community structure and copepod grazing on phytoplankton were examined during the austral spring 1997 and summer 1998 as part of the US JGOFS project in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic polar front. Mesozooplankton abundance and biomass were highest at the polar front and south of the front. Biomass increased by 1.5-2-times during the course of the study . Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, C. simillimus, Rhincalanus gigas and Neocalanus tonsus were the dominant large copepods found in the study. Oithona spp and pteropods were numerically important components of the zooplankton community. The copepod and juvenile krill community consumed 1-7% of the daily chlorophyll standing stock, equivalent to 3-21% of the daily phytoplankton production. There was an increased grazing pressure at night due to both increased gut pigment concentrations as well as increases in zooplankton numbers. Phytoplankton carbon contributed a significant fraction (>50%) of the dietary carbon for the copepods during spring and summer. The relative importance of phytoplankton carbon to the diet increased south of the polar front, suggested that grazing by copepods could be important to organic carbon and biogenic silica flux south of the polar front.

  4. Effect of Recent Sea Surface Temperature Trends on the Arctic Stratospheric Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke; Hurwitz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The springtime Arctic polar vortex has cooled significantly over the satellite era, with consequences for ozone concentrations in the springtime transition season. The causes of this cooling trend are deduced by using comprehensive chemistry-climate model experiments. Approximately half of the satellite era early springtime cooling trend in the Arctic lower stratosphere was caused by changing sea surface temperatures (SSTs). An ensemble of experiments forced only by changing SSTs is compared to an ensemble of experiments in which both the observed SSTs and chemically- and radiatively-active trace species are changing. By comparing the two ensembles, it is shown that warming of Indian Ocean, North Pacific, and North Atlantic SSTs, and cooling of the tropical Pacific, have strongly contributed to recent polar stratospheric cooling in late winter and early spring, and to a weak polar stratospheric warming in early winter. When concentrations of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases are fixed, polar ozone concentrations show a small but robust decline due to changing SSTs. Ozone changes are magnified in the presence of changing gas concentrations. The stratospheric changes can be understood by examining the tropospheric height and heat flux anomalies generated by the anomalous SSTs. Finally, recent SST changes have contributed to a decrease in the frequency of late winter stratospheric sudden warmings.

  5. Measurements of the dissolved inorganic carbon system and associated biogeochemical parameters in the Canadian Arctic, 1974-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbrecht, K. E.; Miller, L. A.; Davelaar, M.; Zimmermann, S.; Carmack, E.; Johnson, W. K.; Macdonald, R. W.; McLaughlin, F.; Mucci, A.; Williams, W. J.; Wong, C. S.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.

    2014-03-01

    We have assembled and conducted primary quality control on previously publicly unavailable water column measurements of the dissolved inorganic carbon system and associated biogeochemical parameters (oxygen, nutrients, etc.) made on 26 cruises in the subarctic and Arctic regions dating back to 1974. The measurements are primarily from the western side of the Canadian Arctic, but also include data that cover an area ranging from the North Pacific to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The data were subjected to primary quality control (QC) to identify outliers and obvious errors. This data set incorporates over four thousand individual measurements of total inorganic carbon (TIC), alkalinity, and pH from the Canadian Arctic over a period of more than 30 years and provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of temporal changes in the inorganic carbon system in northern waters and the Arctic Ocean. The data set is available for download on the CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center) website: Arctic_Database/"target="_blank">http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/oceans/IOS_Arctic_Database/ (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.IOS_ARCT_CARBN).

  6. Long-Term Geochemical and Geodynamic Segmentation of the Paleo-Pacific Margin of Gondwana: Insight From the Antarctic and Adjacent Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. A.; Cottle, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Combined zircon geochemistry and geochronology of Mesozoic volcaniclastic sediments of the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, yield a comprehensive record of both the timing and geochemical evolution of the magmatic arc along the Antarctic sector of the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. Zircon age populations at 266-183 Ma, 367-328 Ma, and 550-490 Ma correspond to episodic arc activity from the Ediacaran to the Jurassic. Zircon trace element geochemistry indicates a temporal shift from granitoid-dominated source(s) during Ediacaran to Early Ordovician times to mafic sources in the Devonian through Early Jurassic. Zircon initial ɛHf shifts to more radiogenic Hf isotope compositions following the Ross Orogeny and is inferred to reflect juvenile crustal growth within an extensional arc system during progressive slab rollback. These new ages and Hf isotopic record are similar to those from the Australian sector, indicating that these regions constituted an 3,000 km laterally continuous extensional arc from at least the Carboniferous to the Permian. Conversely, the South American sector records enriched zircon Hf isotopic compositions and compressional/advancing arc tectonics during the same time period. Our new data constrain the location of this profound along-arc geochemical and geodynamic "switch" to the vicinity of the Thurston Island block of West Antarctica.

  7. Philinidae, Laonidae and Philinorbidae (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea: Philinoidea) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Valdés, Ángel; Cadien, Donald B; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-08-08

    Based on morphological data a total of nine native species of Philinidae are recognized from the northeastern Pacific including the Bering Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Four of them have been previously described: Philine ornatissima Yokoyama, 1927, Philine bakeri Dall, 1919, Philine polystrigma (Dall, 1908), and Philine hemphilli Dall, 1919. Five of them are new and described herein: Philine mcleani sp. nov., Philine baxteri sp. nov., Philine malaquiasi sp. nov., Philine wareni sp. nov., and Philine harrisae sp. nov. These species display a substantial degree of variation in internal and external morphological traits (i.e., presence/absence of gizzard plates, different radular structure and tooth morphology, various reproductive anatomical features) and it is likely that they belong to different clades (genera). However, in the absence of a comprehensive phylogeny for Philine, they are here provisionally regarded as Philine sensu lato. In addition to the nine native species, two introduced species: Philine orientalis A. Adams, 1854 and Philine auriformis Suter, 1909 are here illustrated and compared to the native species to facilitate identification. Finally, two species previously considered members of Philinidae are examined anatomically and confirmed as members of Laonidae, Laona californica (Willett, 1944) and Philinorbidae, Philinorbis albus (Mattox, 1958), based on morphological data.

  8. Continuous pCO2 time series from Ocean Networks Canada cabled observatories at the northeast Pacific shelf edge and in the sub-tidal Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniper, S. Kim; Sastri, Akash; Mihaly, Steven; Duke, Patrick; Else, Brent; Thomas, Helmuth; Miller, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Marine pCO2 sensor technology has progressed to the point where months-long time series from remotely-deployed pCO2 sensors can be used to document seasonal and higher frequency variability in pCO2 and its relationship to oceanographic processes. Ocean Networks Canada recently deployed pCO2 sensors on two cabled platforms: a bottom-moored (400 m depth), vertical profiler at the edge of the northeast Pacific continental shelf off Vancouver Island, Canada, and a subtidal seafloor platform in the Canadian High Arctic (69˚ N) at Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Both platforms streamed continuous data to a shore-based archive from Pro-Oceanus pCO2 sensors and other oceanographic instruments. The vertical profiler time series revealed substantial intrusions of corrosive (high CO2/low O2), saltier, colder water masses during the summertime upwelling season and during winter-time reversals of along-slope currents. Step-wise profiles during the downcast provided the most reliable pCO2 data, permitting the sensor to equilibrate to the broad range of pCO2 concentrations encountered over the 400 metre depth interval. The Arctic pCO2 sensor was deployed in August 2015. Reversing seasonal trends in pCO2 and dissolved oxygen values can be related to the changing balance of photosynthesis and respiration under sea ice, as influenced by irradiance. Correlation of pCO2 and dissolved oxygen sensor data and the collection of calibration samples have permitted evaluation of sensor performance in relation to operational conditions encountered in vertical profiling and lengthy exposure to subzero seawater.

  9. Interannual Variability of the Atlantic Water in the Arctic Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    3778-3784, 1987. 4. Anderson L.G., Bjork G., Holby 0., Jones E.P., Kattner G., Kolterman K.P., Liljebad B ., Lindegren R., Rudels B ., Swift J. Water...Res., part A, 36, pp. 475 - 482 , 1989. 6. Antonov J. Recent climatic changes of the vertical thermal structure of the North Atlantic Ocean and the...North Pacific Ocean. - J. of Climate, v.6, pp.1928-1942, 1993. 7. Blinov N.I. and Popkov S.N. About the heat exchange of Atlantic Waters in the Arctic

  10. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  11. Arctic climatechange and its impacts on the ecology of the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Greene, Charles H; Pershing, Andrew J; Cronin, Thomas M; Ceci, Nicole

    2008-11-01

    Arctic climate change from the Paleocene epoch to the present is reconstructed with the objective of assessing its recent and future impacts on the ecology of the North Atlantic. A recurring theme in Earth's paleoclimate record is the importance of the Arctic atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere in regulating global climate on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. A second recurring theme in this record is the importance of freshwater export from the Arctic in regulating global- to basin-scale ocean circulation patterns and climate. Since the 1970s, historically unprecedented changes have been observed in the Arctic as climate warming has increased precipitation, river discharge, and glacial as well as sea-ice melting. In addition, modal shifts in the atmosphere have altered Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and the export of freshwater into the North Atlantic. The combination of these processes has resulted in variable patterns of freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean and the emergence of salinity anomalies that have periodically freshened waters in the North Atlantic. Since the early 1990s, changes in Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and freshwater export have been associated with two types of ecological responses in the North Atlantic. The first of these responses has been an ongoing series of biogeographic range expansions by boreal plankton, including renewal of the trans-Arctic exchanges of Pacific species with the Atlantic. The second response was a dramatic regime shift in the shelf ecosystems of the Northwest Atlantic that occurred during the early 1990s. This regime shift resulted from freshening and stratification of the shelf waters, which in turn could be linked to changes in the abundances and seasonal cycles of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and higher trophic-level consumer populations. It is predicted that the recently observed ecological responses to Arctic climate change in the North Atlantic will continue into the near future if current trends

  12. Creating collaboration opportunities for marine research across the Arctic: The SEARCH-ACCESS partnership and an emerging sea ice prediction research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Bitz, C. M.; Gascard, J.; Kaminski, T.; Karcher, M. J.; Kauker, F.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J. C.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid Arctic environmental and socio-economic change presents major challenges and opportunities to Arctic residents, government agencies and the private sector. The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover, in particular, are in the midst of transformative change, ranging from declines in sea-ice thickness and summer ice extent to threats to coastal communities and increases in maritime traffic and offshore resource development. The US interagency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and the European Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS) project are addressing both scientific research needs and stakeholder information priorities to improve understanding and responses to Arctic change. Capacity building, coordination and integration of activities at the international level and across sectors and stakeholder groups are major challenges that have to be met. ACCESS and SEARCH build on long-standing collaborations with a focus on environmental change in the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system and the most pressing research needs to inform marine policy, resource management and threats to Arctic coastal communities. To illustrate the approach, key results and major conclusions from this international coordination and collaboration effort, we focus on a nascent sea-ice prediction research network. This activity builds on the Arctic Sea Ice Outlook that was initiated by SEARCH and the European DAMOCLES project (a precursor to ACCESS) and has now grown into an international community of practice that synthesizes, evaluates and discusses sea-ice predictions on seasonal to interannual scales. Key goals of the effort which is now entering into a new phase include the comparative evaluation of different prediction approaches, including the combination of different techniques, the compilation of reference datasets and model output, guidance on the design and implementation of observing system efforts to improve predictions and information transfer into private

  13. Assessment of Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Predictability in CMIP5 Decadal Hindcasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chao-Yuan; Liu, Jiping (Inventor); Hu, Yongyun; Horton, Radley M.; Chen, Liqi; Cheng, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of coupled global climate models to predict decadal variability of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. We analyze decadal hindcasts/predictions of 11 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Decadal hindcasts exhibit a large multimodel spread in the simulated sea ice extent, with some models deviating significantly from the observations as the predicted ice extent quickly drifts away from the initial constraint. The anomaly correlation analysis between the decadal hindcast and observed sea ice suggests that in the Arctic, for most models, the areas showing significant predictive skill become broader associated with increasing lead times. This area expansion is largely because nearly all the models are capable of predicting the observed decreasing Arctic sea ice cover. Sea ice extent in the North Pacific has better predictive skill than that in the North Atlantic (particularly at a lead time of 3-7 years), but there is a reemerging predictive skill in the North Atlantic at a lead time of 6-8 years. In contrast to the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice decadal hindcasts do not show broad predictive skill at any timescales, and there is no obvious improvement linking the areal extent of significant predictive skill to lead time increase. This might be because nearly all the models predict a retreating Antarctic sea ice cover, opposite to the observations. For the Arctic, the predictive skill of the multi-model ensemble mean outperforms most models and the persistence prediction at longer timescales, which is not the case for the Antarctic. Overall, for the Arctic, initialized decadal hindcasts show improved predictive skill compared to uninitialized simulations, although this improvement is not present in the Antarctic.

  14. Spatial Distributions of DDTs in the Water Masses of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Sobek, Anna; Salvadó, Joan A; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-07-18

    There is a scarcity of data on the amount and distribution of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in intermediate and deep ocean water masses. Here, the distribution and inventories of DDTs in water of the Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin are presented. The occurrence of ∑ 6 DDT (0.10-66 pg L -1 ) in the surface water was dominated by 4,4'-DDE. In the Central Arctic Ocean increasing concentrations of DDE with depth were observed in the Makarov and Amundsen basins. The increasing concentrations down to 2500 m depth is in accordance with previous findings for PCBs and PBDEs. Similar concentrations of DDT and DDEs were found in the surface water, while the relative contribution of DDEs increased with depth, demonstrating a transformation over time and depth. Higher concentrations of DDTs were found in the European part of the Arctic Ocean; these distributions likely reflect a combination of different usage patterns, transport, and fate of these compounds. For instance, the elevated concentrations of DDTs in the Barents and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean indicate the northbound Atlantic current as a significant conveyor of DDTs. This study contributes to the very rare data on OCPs in the vast deep-water compartments and combined with surface water distribution across the Arctic Ocean helps to improve our understanding of the large-scale fate of DDTs in the Arctic.

  15. What Happens when Sea Ice Retreats, Peatlands Form, and a Landbridge Drowns? A Molecular View of the Last Deglacial from the Pacific-Arctic Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocis, J. J.; Petsch, S.; Castañeda, I. S.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic peatlands and thermokarst lakes (TK) are thought to play a significant role in changing atmospheric methane concentration (AMC) during the last deglacial. However, there is debate concerning timing of their initiation and extent they drove variations in AMC. Models show sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can also play a significant role. Yet, changes in peatland/TK lake areal extent in response to those dynamics as continental shelves were submerged are often not considered. To examine such connections, we report on molecular proxies in marine records that reveal change in terrestrial organic matter (TOM) export, SIC, and SSTs as sea levels rose during the last 18 ka in the Pacific-Arctic Gateway. Here, TOM input to the ocean was tracked by measuring the flux of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, n-alkyl lipids, and pentacyclic triterpenoids. SIC and SSTs were reconstructed using modern calibrations of highly branched isoprenoid alkene abundances in surface sediments from the Bering and Chukchi Seas. SSTs were also reconstructed based on the relative abundance of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. Our sediment records reveal increased flux of TOM coincides with peatland/TK lake initiation, reduced SIC (~20%), and warmer SSTs (~4°C) as AMC increased during the Bølling-Allerød (BA). Terrestrial flux dramatically reduced as SIC increased (~50%) and SSTs cooled as AMC fell during the Younger Dryas. Most notably, TOM export rapidly rebounds as AMC abruptly rose throughout the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), when SSTs warmed by ~3°C and SIC diminished and peatland areal extent increased. Using multi-proxy evidence in combination with a simple model that accounts for submergence of peatland/TK lake area, we estimate that the exposed Beringian shelf emitted an amount of CH4 comparable to previously reported peatland emissions in Alaska during the BA and HTM. The GDGT-based methane index (MI) was <0.3 throughout

  16. Scenarios Creation and Use in the Arctic Council's Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic Council's Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA), conducted 2004-2009, used a scenarios-based approach to reveal the complexity of future Arctic marine navigation and to develop a set of plausible futures. The initial task was to use experts and stakeholders in brainstorming sessions to identify the key drivers and uncertainties for Arctic marine navigation. AMSA scenario participants identified 120 driving forces or factors that may influence future levels of marine activity. This effort illustrated the broad, global connections that can impact future use of the Arctic Ocean. Two primary factors were selected to anchor, as axes of uncertainty, the scenarios matrix: resources and trade (the level of demand for Arctic natural resources and trade); and, governance (the degree of relative stability of rules and standards for marine use both within the Arctic and internationally). Four scenarios were created by crossing the two primary drivers: a Polar Lows scenario (low demand and unstable governance); an Arctic Race scenario (high demand and unstable governance); a Polar Preserve scenario (low demand and stable governance); and, an Arctic Saga scenario (high demand and stable governance). The AMSA scenarios effort proved to be an effective and powerful way to communicate to the Arctic Council diplomats, Arctic indigenous peoples, maritime stakeholders and many other actors in the global community the complexities influencing the future of Arctic shipping and marine operations. The scenarios approach facilitated unconstrained thinking and identified the many plausible linkages of the Arctic to the global economic system. The AMSA scenarios work was influential in the Arctic ministers' approval of the framework set of AMSA recommendations that are being implemented today to enhance Arctic marine safety and environmental protection.

  17. Freshwater and polynya components of the shelf-derived Arctic Ocean halocline in summer 2007 identified by stable oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, D.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Andersen, N.; Torres-Valdes, S.; Bakker, K.; Abrahamsen, E.

    2011-12-01

    With the aim of determining the origin of freshwater in the halocline, fractions of river water and sea-ice meltwater (or brine influence from sea-ice formation) in the upper 150 m were quantified by a combination of salinity and δ18O and nutrients in the Eurasian basins and the Makarov Basin. Our study indicates which layers of the Arctic Ocean halocline are primarily influenced by sea-ice formation in coastal polynyas and which are primarily influenced by sea-ice formation over the open ocean. With the ongoing changes in sea-ice coverage in the Arctic Ocean it can be expected that these processes will change in the immediate future and that the relative contributions to the halocline will change accordingly. Within the Eurasian Basin a west to east oriented front between net melting and production of sea-ice is observed. Outside the Atlantic regime dominated by net sea-ice melting, a pronounced layer influenced by brines released during sea-ice formation is present at about 30 to 50 m water depth with a maximum over the Lomonosov Ridge. The geographically distinct definition of this maximum demonstrates the rapid release and transport of signals from the shelf regions in discrete pulses within the Transpolar Drift. We use the ratio of sea-ice derived brine influence and river water to link the maximum in brine influence within the Transpolar Drift with a pulse of shelf waters from the Laptev Sea likely released in summer 2005. For a distinction of Atlantic and Pacific-derived contributions the initial phosphate corrected for mineralization with oxygen (PO*) and alternatively the nitrate to phosphate ratio (N/P) in each sample were used. While PO*-based assessments systematically underestimate the contribution of Pacific-derived waters, N/P-based calculations overestimate Pacific-derived waters within the Transpolar Drift due to denitrification in bottom sediments of the Laptev Sea. The extent of Pacific-derived water in the Arctic Ocean was approximately limited

  18. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS): Connecting Arctic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R. H.; Wiggins, H. V.; Creek, K. R.; Sheffield Guy, L.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will highlight the recent activities of the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) to connect Arctic research. ARCUS is a nonprofit membership organization of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic science community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. Coordination for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at

  19. Explore Arctic Health.

    PubMed

    Lebow, Mahria

    2014-04-01

    The Arctic Health web site is a portal to Arctic-specific, health related content. The site provides expertly organized and annotated resources pertinent to northern peoples and places, including health information, research publications and environmental information. This site also features the Arctic Health Publications Database, which indexes an array of Arctic-related resources.

  20. Arctic circulation regimes

    PubMed Central

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. PMID:26347536

  1. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to showmore » the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.« less

  2. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  3. AROME-Arctic: New operational NWP model for the Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süld, Jakob; Dale, Knut S.; Myrland, Espen; Batrak, Yurii; Homleid, Mariken; Valkonen, Teresa; Seierstad, Ivar A.; Randriamampianina, Roger

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the EU-funded project ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society), MET Norway aimed 1) to describe the present monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the Arctic; and 2) to identify the key factors limiting the forecasting capabilities and to give recommendations on key areas to improve the forecasting capabilities in the Arctic. We have observed that the NWP forecast quality is lower in the Arctic than in the regions further south. Earlier research indicated that one of the factors behind this is the composition of the observing system in the Arctic, in particular the scarceness of conventional observations. To further assess possible strategies for alleviating the situation and propose scenarios for a future Arctic observing system, we have performed a set of experiments to gain a more detailed insight in the contribution of the components of the present observing system in a regional state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic NWP model using the AROME physics (Seity et al, 2011) at 2.5 km horizontal resolution - AROME-Arctic. Our observing system experiment studies showed that conventional observations (Synop, Buoys) can play an important role in correcting the surface state of the model, but prove that the present upper-air conventional (Radiosondes, Aircraft) observations in the area are too scarce to have a significant effect on forecasts. We demonstrate that satellite sounding data play an important role in improving forecast quality. This is the case with satellite temperature sounding data (AMSU-A, IASI), as well as with the satellite moisture sounding data (AMSU-B/MHS, IASI). With these sets of observations, the AROME-Arctic clearly performs better in forecasting extreme events, like for example polar lows. For more details see presentation by Randriamampianina et al. in this session. The encouraging performance of AROME-Arctic lead us to implement it with more observations and improved settings into daily runs with the objective to

  4. Does Funding for Arctic Research Align with Research Priorities and Policy Needs? Trends in the USA, Canada and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, M. S.; Ibarguchi, G.; Rajdev, V.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past twenty years, increasing awareness and understanding of changes in the Arctic system, the stated desires of Arctic Peoples to be engaged in the research process, and a growing international interest in the region's resources have informed various stakeholders to undertake many Arctic science planning activities. Some examples of science planning include priority-setting for research, knowledge translation, stakeholder engagement, improved coordination, and international collaboration. The International Study of Arctic Change recently initiated an analysis of the extent to which alignment exists among stated science priorities, recognized societal needs, and funding patterns of the major North American and European agencies. In this paper, we present a decade of data on international funding patterns and data on two decades of science planning. We discuss whether funding patterns reflect the priority research questions and identified needs for information that are articulated in a myriad of Arctic research planning documents. The alignment in many areas remains poor, bringing into question the purpose of large-scale science planning if it does not lead to funding of those priorities identified by Arctic stakeholder communities (scientists, Arctic Peoples, planners, policy makers, the private sector, and others).

  5. First oceanographic observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in Northeast Greenland: Tracing the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergei A.; Rudels, Bert; Babb, David G.; Pedersen, Leif T.; Rysgaard, Soeren; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Barber, David G.

    2016-04-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in North Eastern Greenland were collected from the land-fast ice in April-May 2015 as a part of the Arctic Science Partnership collaboration during the first research campaign at the Villum Research Station. They were complemented by (i) the ice-tethered profiler (ITP) and Acoustic Dopler Current Profiler (ADCP) mooring observations in ~300 m of the tidewater glacier outlet from the Flade Isblink Ice Cap and (ii) CTDs taken in June-July 2015 along the Wandel Sea continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-15 sea ice drift. The CTD profiles deeper than 100 m are used to reveal the origin of water masses and determine the extent to which these water masses have interacted with ambient water from the continental slope. The subsurface water layer from ~20-70 m depth is comprised of freshened water (30-32 psu) that is likely associated with the Pacific Water outflow from the Arctic Ocean through the western Fram Strait. The underlying halocline layer centered at ~80 m (~33 psu) separates the Pacific Water layer from a deeper (<140 m) layer of modified Polar Water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic Water outflow through Fram Strait. The Atlantic Water layer with temperature above 0°C is recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline layer shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient Polar Water mass across the continental slope. Mooring data shows an enhanced shelf-slope interaction responding the storm event in 23-24 April 2015 with northerly winds exceeding 10 m/s. The on-shelf transport of a cold and turbid water from the upper continental slope results in enhanced interleaving within the depth range of the halocline layer (~70-100 m). Our observations of Pacific Water in the Wandel Sea subsurface layer are set in the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea for 2002-2011 and downstream

  6. Atmospheric Mercury Transport and Chemistry in Western Canada and the Arctic: Results from the IPY Project INCATPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. S.; Steffen, A.; Hung, H.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated levels of mercury and other pollutants are an ongoing threat to the health of Arctic people and wildlife, despite the vast distance that separates the region from major anthropogenic sources of these contaminants. The International Polar Year (IPY) project INterContinental Atmospheric Transport of anthropogenic Pollutants to the Arctic (INCATPA) is investigating the transport of pollutants, specifically persistent organic pollutants and mercury, from source regions to the remote Arctic. Transport from Asia is of particular interest since Asian sources comprise a significant and increasing fraction of global mercury emissions. The INCATPA project is also studying how climate change may affect atmospheric chemistry and transport of these pollutants in the Arctic. Mercury studies under INCATPA have involved concurrent measurements of ambient mercury during the period 2007-2009 at new and ongoing sites in Arctic and Pan-Pacific regions. These data include a first look at ambient mercury levels in areas of western Canada where mercury had not previously been monitored. At some sites, mercury measurements were analyzed along with supplementary data to assess contributions from local and long-distance sources. Long-term Arctic monitoring data were also used to address how climate change may already be affecting mercury chemistry and deposition in this region. As IPY and the INCATPA project wind down, their legacy is a continuation of mercury monitoring at these sites and new international scientific relationships to support growing international cooperation on the delivery of sound science for the development of public policy on mercury.

  7. Arctic Black Carbon Initiative: Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from Power & Industry in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresko, J.; Hodson, E. L.; Cheng, M.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.; Storey, J.

    2012-12-01

    Deposition of black carbon (BC) on snow and ice is widely considered to have a climate warming effect by reducing the surface albedo and promoting snowmelt. Such positive climate feedbacks in the Arctic are especially problematic because rising surface temperatures may trigger the release of large Arctic stores of terrestrial carbon, further amplifying current warming trends. Recognizing the Arctic as a vulnerable region, the U.S. government committed funds in Copenhagen in 2009 for international cooperation targeting Arctic BC emissions reductions. As a result, the U.S. Department of State has funded three research and demonstration projects with the goal to better understand and mitigate BC deposition in the Russian Arctic from a range of sources. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Arctic BC initiative presented here is focused on mitigating BC emissions resulting from heat and power generation as well as industrial applications. A detailed understanding of BC sources and its transport and fate is required to prioritize efforts to reduce BC emissions from sources that deposit in the Russian Arctic. Sources of BC include the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, fuel oil, diesel) and the combustion of biomass (e.g. wildfires, agricultural burning, residential heating and cooking). Information on fuel use and associated emissions from the industrial and heat & power sectors in Russia is scarce and difficult to obtain from the open literature. Hence, our project includes a research component designed to locate Arctic BC emissions sources in Russia and determine associated BC transport patterns. We use results from the research phase to inform a subsequent assessment/demonstration phase. We use a back-trajectory modeling method (potential source contribution function - PSCF), which combines multi-year, high-frequency measurements with knowledge about atmospheric transport patterns. The PSCF modeling allows us to map the probability (by season and year) at course

  8. Science Partnerships for a Sustainable Arctic: the Marine Mammal Nexus (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Marine mammals are both icons of Arctic marine ecosystems and fundamental to Native subsistence nutrition and culture. Eight species are endemic to the Pacific Arctic, including the polar bear, walrus, ice seals (4 species), beluga and bowhead whales. Studies of walrus and bowheads have been conducted over the past 30 years, to estimate population size and elucidate patterns of movement and abundance. With regard to the three pillars of the SEARCH program, these long-term OBSERVATIONS provide a foundation for research seeking to UNDERSTAND and RESPOND to the effects of rapid climate change on the marine ecosystem. Specifically, research on the coastal ecosystem near Barrow, Alaska focuses on late-summer feeding habitat for bowheads in an area where whales are hunted in autumn. This work is a partnership among agency, academic and local scientists and the residents of Barrow, all of whom seek to better UNDERSTAND how recent dramatic changes in sea ice, winds and offshore industrial activities influence whale movements and behavior. In regard to RESPONDING to climate change, the nascent Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook (SIWO) is a science partnership that projects sea ice and wind conditions for five villages in the Bering Strait region. The objective of the SIWO is to provide information on physical conditions in the marine environment at spatial and temporal scales relevant to walrus hunters. Marine mammals are a strong and dynamic nexus for partnerships among scientists, Arctic residents, resource managers and the general public - as such, they are essential elements to any science plan for a sustainable Arctic.

  9. North Pacific decadal climate variability since 1661

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biondi, Franco; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    Climate in the North Pacific and North American sectors has experienced interdecadal shifts during the twentieth century. A network of recently developed tree-ring chronologies for Southern and Baja California extends the instrumental record and reveals decadal-scale variability back to 1661. The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is closely matched by the dominant mode of tree-ring variability that provides a preliminary view of multiannual climate fluctuations spanning the past four centuries. The reconstructed PDO index features a prominent bidecadal oscillation, whose amplitude weakened in the late l700s to mid-1800s. A comparison with proxy records of ENSO suggests that the greatest decadal-scale oscillations in Pacific climate between 1706 and 1977 occurred around 1750, 1905, and 1947.

  10. A Review of Magnetic Anomaly Field Data for the Arctic Region: Geological Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; vonFrese, Ralph; Roman, Daniel; Frawley, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Due to its inaccessibility and hostile physical environment remote sensing data, both airborne and satellite measurements, has been the main source of geopotential data over the entire Arctic region. Ubiquitous and significant external fields, however, hinder crustal magnetic field studies These potential field data have been used to derive tectonic models for the two major tectonic sectors of this region, the Amerasian and Eurasian Basins. The latter is dominated by the Nansen-Gakkel or Mid-Arctic Ocean Ridge and is relatively well known. The origin and nature of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges, Chukchi Borderland and Canada Basin of the former are less well known and a subject of controversy. The Lomonosov Ridge divides these large provinces. In this report we will present a summary of the Arctic geopotential anomaly data derived from various sources by various groups in North America and Europe and show how these data help us unravel the last remaining major puzzle of the global plate tectonic framework. While magnetic anomaly data represent the main focus of this study recently derived satellite gravity data are playing a major role in Arctic studies.

  11. A Review of Magnetic Anomaly Field Data for the Arctic Region: Geological Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; vonFrese, Ralph; Roman, Daniel; Frawley, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Due to its inaccessibility and hostile physical environment remote sensing data, both airborne and satellite measurements, has been the main source of geopotential data over the entire Arctic region. Ubiquitous and significant external fields, however, hinder crustal magnetic field studies. These potential field data have been used to derive tectonic models for the two major tectonic sectors of this region, the Amerasian and Eurasian Basins. The latter is dominated by the Nansen-Gakkel or Mid-Arctic Ocean Ridge and is relatively well known. The origin and nature of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges, Chukchi Borderland and Canada Basin of the former are less well known and a subject of controversy. The Lomonosov Ridge divides these large provinces. In this report we will present a summary of the Arctic geopotential anomaly data derived from various sources by various groups in North America and Europe and show how these data help us unravel the last remaining major puzzle of the global plate tectonic framework. While Magnetic anomaly data represent the main focus of this study recently derived satellite gravity data (Laxon and McAdoo, 1998) are playing a major role in Arctic studies.

  12. INTAROS: Development of an integrated Arctic observation system under Horizon 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sandven, Stein; Sagen, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    INTAROS is a research and innovation action funded under the H2020-BG-09 call for the five-year period 2016-2021. INTAROS will develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation (EO) data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. EO data will therefore be integrated into iAOS based on existing products and databases. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing Arctic observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the selected networks. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote, including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. Multidisciplinary data integrated under INTAROS will contribute to better understanding of interactions and coupling in the complex Arctic ice-ocean-land-atmosphere system. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism

  13. Seasonal Storminess in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Annually, extra-tropical cyclones present a high impact natural hazard to the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan regions. In these regions, extensive subsistence and commercial fishing, new oil and gas field development, tourism, growing interest in and exploitation of new commercial shipping potential, and increasing military and Coast Guard activity, all represent potential parties impacted by storms in these waters. It is of interest to many parties to begin developing capacity to provide some indication of storm activity at a monthly- to seasonal-outlook (30 to 90 days) timeframe. Using storm track data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center for the North Pacific and Alaskan region, an experimental seasonal storminess outlook product, using eigen-based methods similar to the operational seasonal temperature and precipitation products currently produced at NOAA CPC, has been created and tested in hindcast mode using predicted states of ENSO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). A sample of the seasonal storminess outlook product will be shown along with a discussion of the utility of individual teleconnection patterns in the generation of the product.

  14. Arctic rabies--a review.

    PubMed

    Mørk, Torill; Prestrud, Pål

    2004-01-01

    Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  15. Arctic Haze Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is perturbed by nature/anthropogenic aerosol sources known as the Arctic haze, was firstly observed in 1956 by J. Murray Mitchell in Alaska (Mitchell, 1956). Pacyna and Shaw (1992) summarized that Arctic haze is a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km while the source for layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km mainly comes from episodic transportation of anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Arctic haze of low troposphere was found to be of a very strong seasonal variation characterized by a summer minimum and a winter maximum in Alaskan (Barrie, 1986; Shaw, 1995) and other Arctic region (Xie and Hopke, 1999). An anthropogenic factor dominated by together with metallic species like Pb, Zn, V, As, Sb, In, etc. and nature source such as sea salt factor consisting mainly of Cl, Na, and K (Xie and Hopke, 1999), dust containing Fe, Al and so on (Rahn et al.,1977). Black carbon and soot can also be included during summer time because of the mix of smoke from wildfires. The Arctic air mass is a unique meteorological feature of the troposphere characterized by sub-zero temperatures, little precipitation, stable stratification that prevents strong vertical mixing and low levels of solar radiations (Barrie, 1986), causing less pollutants was scavenged, the major revival pathway for particulates from the atmosphere in Arctic (Shaw, 1981, 1995; Heintzenberg and Larssen, 1983). Due to the special meteorological condition mentioned above, we can conclude that Eurasian is the main contributor of the Arctic pollutants and the strong transport into the Arctic from Eurasia during winter caused by the high pressure of the climatologically persistent Siberian high pressure region (Barrie, 1986). The paper intends to address the atmospheric characteristics of Arctic haze by comparing the clear day and haze day using different dataset

  16. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous convergent margins of Northeastern Asia with Northwestern Pacific and Proto-Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Sergey; Luchitskaya, Marina; Tuchkova, Marianna; Moiseev, Artem; Ledneva, Galina

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin of Northeastern Asia includes many island arc terranes that differ in age and tectonic position. Two convergent margins are reconstructed for Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous time: Uda-Murgal and Alazeya - Oloy island arc systems. A long tectonic zone composed of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks is recognized along the Asian continent margin from the Mongol-Okhotsk thrust-fold belt on the south to the Chukotka Peninsula on the north. This belt represents the Uda-Murgal arc, which was developed along the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Northwestern Meso-Pacific. Several segments are identified in this arc based upon the volcanic and sedimentary rock assemblages, their respective compositions and basement structures. The southern and central parts of the Uda-Murgal island arc system were a continental margin belt with heterogeneous basement represented by metamorphic rocks of the Siberian craton, the Verkhoyansk terrigenous complex of Siberian passive margin and the Koni-Taigonos late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic island arc with accreted oceanic terranes. At the present day latitude of the Pekulney and Chukotka segments there was an ensimatic island arc with relicts of the South Anyui oceanic basin in backarc basin. Alazeya-Oloy island arc systems consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic complexes that belong to the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Proto-Artic Ocean. It separated structures of the North American and Siberian continents. The Siberian margin was active whereas the North American margin was passive. The Late Jurassic was characterized by termination of a spreading in the Proto-Arctic Ocean and transformation of the latter into the closing South Anyui turbidite basin. In the beginning the oceanic lithosphere and then the Chukotka microcontinent had been subducted beneath the Alazeya-Oloy volcanic belt

  17. Trophodynamics of some PFCs and BFRs in a western Canadian Arctic marine food web.

    PubMed

    Tomy, Gregg T; Pleskach, Kerri; Ferguson, Steve H; Hare, Jonathon; Stern, Gary; Macinnis, Gordia; Marvin, Chris H; Loseto, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    The trophodynamics of per- and polyfluorinated compounds and bromine-based flame retardants were examined in components of a marine food web from the western Canadian Arctic. The animals studied and their relative trophic status in the food web, established using stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta15N), were beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) > ringed seal (Phoca hispida) > Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) > Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) approximately equal to Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) > pelagic amphipod (Themisto libellula) > Arctic copepod (Calanus hyperboreus). For the brominated diphenyl ethers, the lipid adjusted concentrations of the seven congeners analyzed (Sigma7BDEs: -47, -85, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -209) ranged from 205.4 +/- 52.7 ng/g in Arctic cod to 2.6 +/- 0.4 ng/g in ringed seals. Mean Sigma7BDEs concentrations in Arctic copepods, 16.4 ng/g (n = 2, composite sample), were greater than those in the top trophic level (TL) marine mammals and suggests that (i) Arctic copepods are an important dietary component that delivers BDEs to the food web and (ii) because these compounds are bioaccumulative, metabolism and depletion of BDE congeners in top TL mammals is an important biological process. There were differences in the concentration profiles of the isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the food web. The most notable difference was observed for beluga, where the alpha-isomer was enriched (accounting for approximately 90% of the SigmaHBCD body burden), relative to its primary prey species, Arctic cod, where the alpha-isomer accounted for only 20% of the SigmaHBCD body burden (beta: 4% and gamma: 78%). For the C8-C11 perfluorinated carboxylic acids, the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all greater than unity and increased with increasing carbon chain length. PFOS and its neutral precursor, PFOSA, also had TMF values greater than one. There were also pronounced differences in the PFOSA to PFOS ratio in ringed seal (0.04) and in

  18. Future loss of Arctic sea-ice cover could drive a substantial decrease in California's rainfall.

    PubMed

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Santer, Benjamin D; Bonfils, Céline; Lucas, Donald D; Chiang, John C H; Zimmerman, Susan

    2017-12-05

    From 2012 to 2016, California experienced one of the worst droughts since the start of observational records. As in previous dry periods, precipitation-inducing winter storms were steered away from California by a persistent atmospheric ridging system in the North Pacific. Here we identify a new link between Arctic sea-ice loss and the North Pacific geopotential ridge development. In a two-step teleconnection, sea-ice changes lead to reorganization of tropical convection that in turn triggers an anticyclonic response over the North Pacific, resulting in significant drying over California. These findings suggest that the ability of climate models to accurately estimate future precipitation changes over California is also linked to the fidelity with which future sea-ice changes are simulated. We conclude that sea-ice loss of the magnitude expected in the next decades could substantially impact California's precipitation, thus highlighting another mechanism by which human-caused climate change could exacerbate future California droughts.

  19. Holocene Paleoceanographic Environments at the Chukchi-Alaskan Margin: Implications for Future Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyak, L.; Nam, S. I.; Dipre, G.; Kim, S. Y.; Ortiz, J. D.; Darby, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of the North Pacific oceanic and atmospheric system on the Arctic Ocean result in accelerated sea-ice retreat and related changes in hydrography and biota in the western Arctic. Paleoclimatic records from the Pacific sector of the Arctic are key for understanding the long-term history of these interactions. As opposed to stratigraphically long but strongly compressed sediment cores recovered from the deep Arctic Ocean, sediment depocenters on the Chukchi-Alaskan margin yield continuous, medium to high resolution records formed since the last deglaciation. While early Holocene conditions were non-analogous to modern environments due to the effects of prolonged deglaciation and insufficiently high sea levels, mid to late Holocene sediments are more relevant for recent and modern climate variability. Notably, a large depocenter at the Alaskan margin has sedimentation rates estimated as high as a few millimeters per year, thus providing a decadal to near-annual resolution. This high accumulation can be explained by sediment delivery via the Alaskan Coastal Current originating from the Bering Sea and supposedly controlled by the Aleutian Low pressure center. Preliminary results from sediment cores recovering the last several centuries, along with a comparison with other paleoclimatic proxy records from the Arctic-North Pacific region, indicate a persistent role of the Aleutian Low in the Bering Strait inflow and attendant deposition. More proxy studies are underway to reconstruct the history of this circulation system and its relationship with sea ice extent. The expected results will improve our understanding of natural variability in oceanic and atmospheric conditions at the Chukchi-Alaskan margin, a critical area for modulating the Arctic climate change.

  20. Amplified North Atlantic Warming in the Late Pliocene by Changes in Arctic Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Jahn, A.; Feng, R.; Brady, E. C.; Hu, A.; Lofverstrom, M.

    2017-12-01

    Reconstructions of the late Pliocene (mid-Piacenzian, 3.3 - 3.0 million years ago) sea surface temperature (SST) find much warmer conditions in the North Atlantic than modern. The much warmer SSTs, up to 8.8°C from sites with good dating and replicates from several different types of proxies, have been difficult for climate models to reproduce. Even with the slow feedbacks of a reduced Greenland ice sheet and expansion of boreal forests to the Arctic Ocean over Canada and Eurasia, models cannot warm the North Atlantic sufficiently to match the reconstructed SSTs. An enhancement of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the late Pliocene, proposed as a possible mechanism based on ocean core records of δ13C, also is not present in the model simulations. Here, we present CESM simulations using a new reconstruction of late Pliocene paleogeography that has the Bering Strait (BS) and Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) Straits closed. We find that the closure of these small Arctic gateways strengthens the AMOC, by inhibiting freshwater (FW) transport from the Pacific to the Arctic Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to the Labrador Sea, leading to warmer sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic. The cutoff of the short export route through the CAA results in a more saline Labrador and south Greenland Sea with increased deep convection. At the same time, as all FW now leaves the Arctic east of Greenland, there is a freshening of and decreased deepwater formation in the Norwegian Sea. Overall, the AMOC strengthens. This past time period has implications for a future Earth under more responsible scenarios of emissions. Late Pliocene atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are estimated to have ranged between 350 and 450 ppmv and the paleogeography is relatively similar to modern. Our study indicates that the state of the Arctic gateways may influence the sensitivity of the North Atlantic climate in complex ways, and better understanding of the

  1. NSF-supported education/outreach program takes young researchers to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Walsh, J. E.; Hock, R.; Kaden, U.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kholodov, A. L.; Bret-Harte, M. S.; Sparrow, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    Today, more than ever, an integrated cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to explain changes in the Arctic and understand their implications for the human environment. Advanced training and active involvement of early-career scientists is an important component of this cross-disciplinary approach. This effort led by the International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) started in 2003. The newly supported project in 2013 is planning four summer schools (one per year) focused on four themes in four different Arctic locations. It provides the participants with an interdisciplinary perspective on Arctic change and its impacts on diverse sectors of the North. It is linked to other ongoing long-term observational and educational programs (e.g. NABOS, Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System; LTER, Long Term Environmental Research) and targets young scientists by using the interdisciplinary and place-based setting to broaden their perspective on Arctic change and to enhance their communication skills. Each course for 15-20 people consists of classroom and hands-on components and work with a multidisciplinary group of mentors on projects devoted to themes exemplified by the location. A specialist from the School of Education at UAF evaluates student's progress during the summer schools. Lessons learned during the 12 years of conducting summer schools, methods of attracting in-kind support and approaches to teaching students are prominently featured in this study. Activities during the most recent school, conducted in Fairbanks and LTER Toolik Lake Field Station in 2015 are the focus of this presentation.

  2. Arctic potential - Could more structured view improve the understanding of Arctic business opportunities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintsala, Henna; Niemelä, Sami; Tervonen, Pekka

    2016-09-01

    The increasing interest towards the Arctic has been witnessed during the past decades. However, the commonly shared definitions of the Arctic key concepts have not yet penetrated national and international arenas for political and economic decision making. The lack of jointly defined framework has made different analyses related to the Arctic quite limited considering the magnitude of economic potential embedded in Arctic. This paper is built on the key findings of two separate, yet connected projects carried out in the Oulu region, Finland. In this paper's approach, the Arctic context has been defined as a composition of three overlapping layers. The first layer is the phenomenological approach to define the Arctic region. The second layer is the strategy-level analysis to define different Arctic paths as well as a national level description of a roadmap to Arctic specialization. The third layer is the operationalization of the first two layers to define the Arctic business context and business opportunities. The studied case from Oulu region indicates that alternative futures for the Arctic competences and business activities are in resemblance with only two of the four identified strategic pathways. Introduction of other pathways to regional level actors as credible and attractive options would require additional, systematic efforts.

  3. A Linkage of Recent Arctic Summer Sea Ice and Snowfall Variability of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, K.; Honda, M.; Ukita, J.

    2014-12-01

    In spite of its mid-latitude location, Japan has a markedly high amount of snowfall, which owes much to the presence of cold air-break from Siberia and thus depends on the strength of the Siberian high and the Aleutian low. With this background this study examines the relationship between interannual variability and spatial patterns of snowfall in Japan with large-scale atmospheric and sea ice variations. The lag regression map of the winter snowfall in Japan on the time series of the Arctic SIE from the preceding summer shows a seesaw pattern in the snowfall, suggesting an Arctic teleconnection to regional weather. From the EOF analyses conducted on the snowfall distribution in Japan, we identify two modes with physical significance. The NH SIC and SLP regressed on PC1 show a sea ice reduction in the Barents and Kara Seas and anomalous strength of the Siberia high as discussed in Honda et al. (2009) and other studies, which support the above notion that the snowfall variability of Japan is influenced by Arctic sea ice conditions. Another mode is related to the AO/NAO and the hemispheric scale double sea-ice seesaw centered over the sub-Arctic region: one between the Labrador and Nordic Seas in the Atlantic and the other between the Okhotsk and Bering Seas from the Pacific as discussed in Ukita et al. (2007). Together, observations point to a significant role of the sea-ice in determining mid-latitude regional climate and weather patterns.

  4. NSF-supported education/outreach program takes young researchers to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Walsh, J. E.; Hock, R.; Repina, I.; Kaden, U.; Bartholomew, L.

    2014-12-01

    Today, more than ever, an integrated cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to explain changes in the Arctic and understand their implications for the human environment. Advanced training and active involvement of early-career scientists is an important component of this cross-disciplinary approach. This effort led by the International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) started in 2003. The newly supported project in 2013 is planning four summer schools (one per year) focused on four themes in four different Arctic locations. It provides the participants with an interdisciplinary perspective on Arctic change and its impacts on diverse sectors of the North. It is linked to other ongoing long-term observational and educational programs (e.g. NABOS, Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System; LTER, Long Term Environmental Research) and targets young scientists by using the interdisciplinary and place-based setting to broaden their perspective on Arctic change and to enhance their communication skills. Each course for 15-20 people consists of classroom and hands-on components and work with a multidisciplinary group of mentors on projects devoted to themes exemplified by the location. An education/outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum covers the activities and teaches students the important science communications skills. A specialist from the School of Education at UAF evaluates student's progress during the summer schools. Lessons learned during the 12 years of conducting summer schools, methods of attracting in-kind support and approaches to teaching students are prominently featured in this study. Activities during the two most recent schools, one conducted in the Arctic Ocean jointly with the 2013 NABOS expedition and another on an Alaskan glacier in 2014 is another focus of this work.

  5. Coordinating for Arctic Conservation: Implementing Integrated Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring, Data Management and Reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, M.; Svoboda, M.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors (e.g. development, climate change, contaminants, etc.) while established research and monitoring programs remain largely uncoordinated, lacking the ability to effectively monitor, understand and report on biodiversity trends at the circumpolar scale. The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends. This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity, but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a "management" time frame. To meet these challenges and in response to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment's recommendation to expand and enhance arctic biodiversity monitoring, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group of the Arctic Council launched the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP). The CBMP is led by Environment Canada on behalf of Canada and the Arctic Council. The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Towards this end, the CBMP has established three Expert Monitoring Groups representing major Arctic

  6. Ice-Free Arctic Ocean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years, according to a new report. The melting is accelerating, and researchers were unable to identify any natural processes that might slow the deicing of the Arctic. "What really makes the Arctic different…

  7. The challenges of marine spatial planning in the Arctic: Results from the ACCESS programme.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rosemary; Evans, Alan

    2017-12-01

    Marine spatial planning is increasingly used to manage the demands on marine areas, both spatially and temporally, where several different users may compete for resources or space, to ensure that development is as sustainable as possible. Diminishing sea-ice coverage in the Arctic will allow for potential increases in economic exploitation, and failure to plan for cross-sectoral management could have negative economic and environmental results. During the ACCESS programme, a marine spatial planning tool was developed for the Arctic, enabling the integrated study of human activities related to hydrocarbon exploitation, shipping and fisheries, and the possible environmental impacts, within the context of the next 30 years of climate change. In addition to areas under national jurisdiction, the Arctic Ocean contains a large area of high seas. Resources and ecosystems extend across political boundaries. We use three examples to highlight the need for transboundary planning and governance to be developed at a regional level.

  8. The oceanic biological pump modulates the atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Ojeda, María-José; Dachs, Jordi

    2012-05-29

    Semivolatile persistent organic pollutants have the potential to reach remote environments, such as the Arctic Ocean, through atmospheric transport and deposition. Here we show that this transport of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Arctic Ocean is strongly retarded by the oceanic biological pump. A simultaneous sampling of atmospheric, seawater and plankton samples was performed in July 2007 in the Greenland Current and Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean. The atmospheric concentrations declined during atmospheric transport over the Greenland Current with estimated half-lives of 1-4 days. These short half-lives can be explained by the high air-to-water net diffusive flux, which is similar in magnitude to the estimated settling fluxes in the water column. Therefore, the decrease of atmospheric concentrations is due to sequestration of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls by enhanced air-water diffusive fluxes driven by phytoplankton uptake and organic carbon settling fluxes (biological pump).

  9. Pacific patterns of dust deposition, iron supply and export production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, G.; Anderson, R. F.; Park, J.; Schwartz, R.; Pahnke, K.; Struve, T.; Lamy, F.; Gersonde, R.

    2015-12-01

    The scarcity of iron limits marine export production and carbon uptake in about a quarter of the global ocean where the surface concentration of nitrate and phosphate is high, as biological utilization of these macronutrients is incomplete. Of these high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, the Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems, both in the modern and in the past. Recent work in the Subantarctic South Atlantic (Martínez-Garcia et al., 2009, 2014, Anderson et al., 2014) suggests that dust-driven iron fertilization lowered atmospheric CO2 by up to 40 ppm in the latter half of each glacial cycle of the late Pleistocene, with the increase in Subantarctic productivity consuming a greater fraction of the surface nutrients and thus driving more storage of carbon in the ocean interior. The other sectors of the Southern Ocean remain poorly constrained, including the Pacific Sector, that accounts for the largest surface area of the Subantarctic Southern Ocean. Here we report records of dust deposition, iron supply and export production from a set of cores from the Subantarctic Pacific (PS75, Lamy et al 2014) and initial results about the origin of dust transported to the Subantarctic Pacific Ocean from radiogenic isotopes and rare earth elements. We test how tightly dust and biological productivity are coupled over glacial/interglacial and millennial timescales in the Subantarctic Pacific and place the region in a context of global patterns of biological productivity, nutrient utilization and iron fertilization by dust, including comparisons to the other Pacific HNLC regions, the Subarctic North Pacific and equatorial Pacific.

  10. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  11. Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of Short-Lived Climate Forcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing short lived climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.

  12. Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of Short-Lived Climate Forcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing short lived climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.

  13. Arctic Refuge

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Summer in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge     View Larger Image This colorful image of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Beaufort Sea was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging ...

  14. Large eddy simulation of heat entrainment under Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Gelderloos, Renske; Yang, Di; Meneveau, Charles; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    Sea ice cover in the Arctic has declined rapidly in recent decades. To better understand ice loss through bottom melting, we choose to study the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean, which is characterized by a perennial anomalously warm Pacific Summer Water (PSW) layer residing at the base of the mixed layer and a summertime Near-Surface Temperature Maximum (NSTM) layer trapping heat from solar radiation. The interaction of these warm layers with a moving ice basal surface is investigated using large eddy simulation. We find that the presence of the NSTM enhances heat entrainment from the mixed layer. Another conclusion from our work is that there is no heat entrained from the PSW layer, even at the largest ice-drift velocity of 0.3 m s-1 considered. We propose a scaling law for the heat flux at the ice basal surface which depends on the initial temperature anomaly in the NSTM layer and the ice-drift velocity. A case study of `The Great Arctic Cyclone of 2012' gives a turbulent heat flux from the mixed layer that is approximately 70% of the total ocean-to-ice heat flux estimated from the PIOMAS model often used for short-term predictions. Present results highlight the need for large-scale climate models to account for the NSTM layer. We acknowledge funding from NOAA Grant NA15OAR4310172, the NSF, and the University of Houston start-up fund.

  15. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  16. The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Fahnestock, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program (AVS) is a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) and funded by the National Science Foundation. AVS provides small grants to researchers and other Arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. The program aims to: initiate and encourage arctic science education in communities with little exposure to arctic research; increase collaboration among the arctic research community; nurture communication between arctic researchers and community residents; and foster arctic science education at the local level. Individuals, community organizations, and academic organizations can apply to host a speaker. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Preference is given to tours that reach broad and varied audiences, especially those targeted to underserved populations. Between October 2000 and July 2013, AVS supported 114 tours spanning 9 different countries, including tours in 23 U.S. states. Tours over the past three and a half years have connected Arctic experts with over 6,600 audience members. Post-tour evaluations show that AVS consistently rates high for broadening interest and understanding of arctic issues. AVS provides a case study for how face-to-face interactions between arctic scientists and general audiences can produce high-impact results. Further information can be found at: http://www.arcus.org/arctic-visiting-speakers.

  17. Diversity of Arctic Pelagic Prokaryotes with an emphasis on photoheterotrophic bacteria: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, D.; Humily, F.; Jeanthon, C.

    2014-02-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a unique marine environment with respect to seasonality of light, temperature, perennial ice cover and strong stratification. Other important distinctive features are the influence of extensive continental shelves and its interactions with Atlantic and Pacific water masses and freshwater from sea ice melt and rivers. These characteristics have major influence on the biological and biogeochemical processes occurring in this complex natural system. Heterotrophic bacteria are crucial components of marine food webs and have key roles in controlling carbon fluxes in the oceans. Although it was previously thought that these organisms relied on the organic carbon in seawater for all of their energy needs, several recent discoveries now suggest that pelagic bacteria can depart from a strictly heterotrophic lifestyle by obtaining energy through unconventional mechanisms that are linked to the penetration of sunlight into surface waters. These photoheterotrophic mechanisms may play a significant role in the energy budget in the euphotic zone of marine environments. We can suspect that this role could be of greater importance in the Arctic Ocean where environmental changes triggered by climate change could favor the photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Here we review advances in our knowledge of the diversity of marine photoheterotrophic bacteria and discuss their significance in the Arctic Ocean gained in the framework of the Malina cruise.

  18. Influence of atmospheric energy transport on amplification of winter warming in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Genrikh; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Urazgildeeva, Aleksandra; Bobylev, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    The study was performed on base reanalysis ERA/Interim to discover the link between amplified warming in the high Arctic and the atmospheric transport of heat and water vapor through the 70 ° N. The partitioning transports across the Atlantic and Pacific "gates" is established the link between variations of atmospheric flux through the "gates" and a larger part of the variability of the average surface air temperature, water vapor content and its trends in the winter 1980-2014. Influence of winter (December-February) atmospheric transport across the Atlantic "gate" at the 1000 hPa on variability of average for January-February surface air temperature to north 70° N is estimated correlation coefficient 0.75 and contribution to the temperature trend 40%. These results for the first time denote the leading role of increasing atmospheric transport on the amplification of winter warming in the high Arctic. The investigation is supported with RFBR project 15-05-03512.

  19. Engaging new generation of Arctic researchers: 14 years and counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Walsh, J. E.; Hock, R.; Loucks, D. J.; Kaden, U.

    2016-12-01

    Today, more than ever, an integrated cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to explain changes in the Arctic and understand their implications for the human environment. Advanced training and active involvement of early-career scientists is an important component of this cross-disciplinary approach. This effort led by the International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) started in 2003. The NSF supported project that started in 2013 conducted four summer schools (one per year) focused on four themes in four different Arctic locations. It provided the participants with an interdisciplinary perspective on Arctic change and its impacts on diverse sectors of the North. It is linked to other ongoing long-term observational and educational programs (e.g. NABOS, Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System; LTER, Long Term Environmental Research) and targets young scientists by using the interdisciplinary and place-based setting to broaden their perspective on Arctic change and to enhance their communication skills. Each course for 15-25 people consisted of classroom and hands-on components and work with a multidisciplinary group of mentors on projects devoted to themes exemplified by the location. A specialist from the School of Education at UAF evaluated student's progress during the summer schools. Additionally, an anthropologist attended the 2016 summer school to study how students learn to build and assess models, as well as examine students' and instructors' attitudes toward science communication, which provided additional feedback about learning and teaching in these settings. Lessons learned during the 14 years of conducting summer schools, methods of attracting in-kind support and approaches to teaching students are prominently featured in this study. Activities during the two most recent schools, one conducted at the Toolik Lake Field Station on the Alaskan North Slope and another at the International Arctic Research Center

  20. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  1. Increases in the Pacific inflow to the Arctic from 1990 to 2015, and insights into seasonal trends and driving mechanisms from year-round Bering Strait mooring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodgate, Rebecca A.

    2018-01-01

    Year-round in situ Bering Strait mooring data (1990-2015) document a long-term increase (∼0.01 Sv/yr) in the annual mean transport of Pacific waters into the Arctic. Between 2002 and 2015, all annual mean transports (except 2005 and 2012) are greater than the previously accepted climatology (∼0.8 Sv). The record-length maximum (2014: 1.2 ± 0.1 Sv) is 70% higher than the record-length minimum (2001: 0.7 ± 0.1 Sv), corresponding to a reduction in the flushing time of the Chukchi Sea (to ∼4.5 months from ∼7.5 months). The transport increase results from stronger northward flows (not fewer southward flow events), yielding a 150% increase in kinetic energy, presumably with impacts on bottom suspension, mixing, and erosion. Curiously, we find no significant trends in annual mean flow in the Alaskan Coastal Current (ACC), although note that these data are only available 2002-2015. Record-length trends in annually integrated heat and freshwater fluxes (primarily driven by volume flux trends) are large (0.06 ± 0.05 × 1020 J/yr; 30 ± 20 km3/yr; relative to -1.9 °C and 34.8 psu), with heat flux lows in 2001 and 2012 (∼3 × 1020 J) and highs in 2007 and 2015 (∼5.5 × 1020 J), and a freshwater range of ∼2300 km3 (2001) to ∼3500 km3 (2014). High-flow year 2015 (volume transport ∼1.1 Sv) has the highest annual mean temperature recorded, ∼0.7 °C, astoundingly warmer than the record-length mean of 0.0 ± 0.2 °C, while low-flow year 2012 (∼0.8 Sv) is also remarkably cold (∼-0.6 °C), likely due to anomalously weak northward flow in January-March, partly driven by anomalously strong southward winds in March. A seasonal decomposition of properties of the main flow shows significant freshening in winter (∼0.03 psu/yr, January-March) likely due to sea-ice changes, but no trend (or perhaps salinization) in the rest of the year. A seasonal warming trend in the strait proper in May and June (∼0.04 °C/yr) is reflected in a trend to earlier arrival (0.9

  2. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    PubMed

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  3. ArcticDEM; A Publically Available, High Resolution Elevation Model of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Bates, Brian; Willamson, Cathleen; Peterman, Kennith

    2016-04-01

    A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Arctic is needed for a large number of reasons, including: measuring and understanding rapid, ongoing changes to the Arctic landscape resulting from climate change and human use and mitigation and adaptation planning for Arctic communities. The topography of the Arctic is more poorly mapped than most other regions of Earth due to logistical costs and the limits of satellite missions with low-latitude inclinations. A convergence of civilian, high-quality sub-meter stereo imagery; petascale computing and open source photogrammetry software has made it possible to produce a complete, very high resolution (2 to 8-meter posting), elevation model of the Arctic. A partnership between the US National Geospatial-intelligence Agency and a team led by the US National Science Foundation funded Polar Geospatial Center is using stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe's Worldview-1, 2 and 3 satellites and the Ohio State University's Surface Extraction with TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) software running on the University of Illinois's Blue Water supercomputer to address this challenge. The final product will be a seemless, 2-m posting digital surface model mosaic of the entire Arctic above 60 North including all of Alaska, Greenland and Kamchatka. We will also make available the more than 300,000 individual time-stamped DSM strip pairs that were used to assemble the mosaic. The Arctic DEM will have a vertical precision of better than 0.5m and can be used to examine changes in land surfaces such as those caused by permafrost degradation or the evolution of arctic rivers and floodplains. The data set can also be used to highlight changing geomorphology due to Earth surface mass transport processes occurring in active volcanic and glacial environments. When complete the ArcticDEM will catapult the Arctic from the worst to among the best mapped regions on Earth.

  4. Measurement of Arctic sea-ice thickness by submarine 5 years after SCICEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Nicholas E.; Wadhams, Peter

    In April 2004 the Royal Navy submarine HMS Tireless became the first UK submarine to conduct environmental monitoring in the Arctic Ocean since 1996. As the last US SCICEX (Scientific Ice Expeditions) cruise was in 2000, this has been the only opportunity for a civilian scientist to carry out measurement of ice draft and oceanography over a wide area of the Arctic. This paper presents preliminary results and compares them with similar investigations in the 1970s-90s. The route of Tireless covered a large area of the European sector of the Arctic from 5° E to 62° W. Transects were carried out from the marginal ice zone in Fram Strait up to the North Pole and along the 85° N parallel north of Greenland. As part of work for the European Commission IRIS project, image intensity from the advanced synthetic aperture radar instrument on the European Space Agency's Envisat satellite has been compared with ice draft from the submarine. The raw data were found to be highly variable, so a moving average was applied, producing a correlation of 0.79. Tireless carried a full oceanographic sensor suite and expendable probes for investigation into changes in the Arctic Ocean. The results from these show further erosion of the Arctic cold halocline layer by advancing Atlantic Water compared to previous climatologies and fieldwork expeditions. Preliminary ice-draft data from 85° N show deeper ice keels than those encountered by a submarine on the same route in 1987.

  5. Local and large-scale atmospheric responses to reduced Arctic sea ice and ocean warming in the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, David F.; Cassano, John J.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2012-06-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to explore the sensitivity of the large-scale atmospheric energy and moisture budgets to prescribed changes in Arctic sea ice and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Observed sea ice fractions and SSTs from 1996 and 2007, representing years of high and low sea ice extent, are used as lower boundary conditions. A pan-Arctic domain extending into the North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans is used. ERA-Interim reanalysis data from 1994 to 2008 are employed as initial and lateral forcing data for each high and low sea ice simulation. The addition of a third ensemble, with a mixed SST field between years 1996 and 2007 (using 2007 SSTs above 66°N and 1996 values below), results in a total of three 15-member ensembles. Results of the simulations show both local and remote responses to reduced sea ice. The local polar cap averaged response is largest in October and November, dominated by increased turbulent heat fluxes resulting in vertically deep heating and moistening of the Arctic atmosphere. This warmer and moister atmosphere is associated with an increase in cloud cover, affecting the surface and atmospheric energy budgets. There is an enhancement of the hydrologic cycle, with increased evaporation in areas of sea ice loss paired with increased precipitation. Most of the Arctic climate response results from within-Arctic changes, although some changes in the hydrologic cycle reflect circulation responses to midlatitude SST forcing, highlighting the general sensitivity of the Arctic climate.

  6. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  7. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 371 1.65 Arctic Fjord 940866 3396 4.46 293 68 361 1.60 Northern Glacier 663457 661 3.12 205 48 253 1.12 Pacific Glacier 933627 3357 5.06 332 77 409 1.82 Highland Light 577044 3348 5.14 337 79 416 1.85...

  8. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 371 1.65 Arctic Fjord 940866 3396 4.46 293 68 361 1.60 Northern Glacier 663457 661 3.12 205 48 253 1.12 Pacific Glacier 933627 3357 5.06 332 77 409 1.82 Highland Light 577044 3348 5.14 337 79 416 1.85...

  9. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 371 1.65 Arctic Fjord 940866 3396 4.46 293 68 361 1.60 Northern Glacier 663457 661 3.12 205 48 253 1.12 Pacific Glacier 933627 3357 5.06 332 77 409 1.82 Highland Light 577044 3348 5.14 337 79 416 1.85...

  10. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    .../processor trawl fleets (whiting only). Since that time, the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and.... Clarify that the processor obligation may be to more than one MS permit, 10. Revise the mothership catcher... (MS) and Catcher/Processor (C/P) sectors of the Pacific Coast Groundfish fishery. This item was...

  11. Boundary layer and free-tropospheric dimethyl sulfide in the Arctic spring and summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Croft, Betty; Martin, Randall V.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Burkart, Julia; Rempillo, Ofelia; Bozem, Heiko; Kunkel, Daniel; Thomas, Jennie L.; Aliabadi, Amir A.; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Levasseur, Maurice; Staebler, Ralf M.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2017-07-01

    Vertical distributions of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS(g)) were sampled aboard the research aircraft Polar 6 near Lancaster Sound, Nunavut, Canada, in July 2014 and on pan-Arctic flights in April 2015 that started from Longyearbyen, Spitzbergen, and passed through Alert and Eureka, Nunavut, and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. Larger mean DMS(g) mixing ratios were present during April 2015 (campaign mean of 116 ± 8 pptv) compared to July 2014 (campaign mean of 20 ± 6 pptv). During July 2014, the largest mixing ratios were found near the surface over the ice edge and open water. DMS(g) mixing ratios decreased with altitude up to about 3 km. During April 2015, profiles of DMS(g) were more uniform with height and some profiles showed an increase with altitude. DMS reached as high as 100 pptv near 2500 m. Relative to the observation averages, GEOS-Chem (www.geos-chem.org) chemical transport model simulations were higher during July and lower during April. Based on the simulations, more than 90 % of the July DMS(g) below 2 km and more than 90 % of the April DMS(g) originated from Arctic seawater (north of 66° N). During April, 60 % of the DMS(g), between 500 and 3000 m originated from Arctic seawater. During July 2014, FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) simulations locate the sampled air mass over Baffin Bay and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago 4 days back from the observations. During April 2015, the locations of the air masses 4 days back from sampling were varied: Baffin Bay/Canadian Archipelago, the Arctic Ocean, Greenland and the Pacific Ocean. Our results highlight the role of open water below the flight as the source of DMS(g) during July 2014 and the influence of long-range transport (LRT) of DMS(g) from further afield in the Arctic above 2500 m during April 2015.

  12. Landsat time series analysis documents beaver migration into permafrost landscapes of arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Tape, K. D.; Nitze, I.; Arp, C. D.; Grosse, G.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    activity and permafrost dynamics may play an important role in the formation of habitats conducive to colonization by Pacific salmon. Beaver activity in arctic tundra regions may amplify the effects of climate change on permafrost landscapes and lead to landscape-scale responses not currently being considered in ecosystem models.

  13. The Age of the Arctic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Oran R.

    1986-01-01

    Examines trends related to exploration in the Arctic by considering: (1) technology and military strategies; (2) foreign policy and the Arctic; (3) Arctic industrialization; (4) the Arctic policy agenda; and (5) recent United States initiatives in this region. (JN)

  14. 76 FR 74670 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... GOA Pacific cod TACs among gear and operation type, based primarily on historical dependency and catch... 83 sector allocations are based on historical dependency, each sector's retained catch history of the...

  15. A Connection from Arctic Stratospheric Ozone to El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion is thought to influence the Southern Hemisphere tropospheric climate. Recently, Arctic stratospheric ozone (ASO) variations have been found to affect the middle-high latitude tropospheric climate in the Northern Hemisphere. This paper demonstrates that the impact of ASO can extend to the tropics, with the ASO variations leading El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events by about 20 months. Using observations, analysis, and simulations, the connection between ASO and ENSO is established by combining the high-latitude stratosphere to troposphere pathway with the extratropical to tropical climate teleconnection. This shows that the ASO radiative anomalies influence the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), and the anomalous NPO and induced Victoria Mode anomalies link to the North Pacific circulation that then influences ENSO. Our results imply that incorporating realistic and time-varying ASO into climate system models may help to improve ENSO predictions.

  16. Arctic science input wanted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Arctic Research and Policy Act (Eos, June 26, 1984, p. 412) was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan this past July. One of its objectives is to develop a 5-year research plan for the Arctic. A request for input to this plan is being issued this week to nearly 500 people in science, engineering, and industry.To promote Arctic research and to recommend research policy in the Arctic, the new law establishes a five-member Arctic Research Commission, to be appointed by the President, and establishes an Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, to be composed of representatives from nearly a dozen agencies having interests in the region. The commission will make policy recommendations, and the interagency committee will implement those recommendations. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has been designated as the lead agency of the interagency committee.

  17. Arctic Landscape Within Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows flat ground strewn with tiny pebbles and marked by small-scale polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude.

    This image was acquired at the Phoenix landing site by the Surface Stereo Imager on day 1 of the mission on the surface of Mars, or Sol 0, after the May 25, 2008, landing.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mørk, Torill; Prestrud, Pål

    2004-01-01

    Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology. PMID:15535081

  19. The 1994 Arctic Ocean Section. The First Major Scientific Crossing of the Arctic Ocean,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    contribute to the international effort to better understand the role of the Arctic Ocean in the global carbon cycle and climate change. Summar...Barium Distributions in the Arctic Ocean ? ........................ 32 Biology and the Carbon Cycle Cycling of Organic Carbon in the Central Arctic...of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Protists in the Arctic Ocean Carbon Cycle............. 40

  20. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change-A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary Arctic Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Eicken, H.; Fox, S. E.; Search Science Steering Committee

    2011-12-01

    SEARCH is an interdisciplinary and interagency program that works with academic and government agency scientists to plan, conduct, and synthesize studies of arctic change. The vision of SEARCH is to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. Towards this end, SEARCH: (1) Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. (2) Identifies emerging issues in arctic environmental change. (3) Provides information resources to arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them respond to arctic environmental change. (4) Coordinates with national arctic science programs integral to SEARCH goals. (5) Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales with stakeholder concerns incorporated from the start of the planning process. (6) Represents the U.S. arctic environmental change science community in international and global change research initiatives. Examples of specific SEARCH activities include: (1) Arctic Observing Network (AON) - a system of atmospheric, land- and ocean-based environmental monitoring capabilities that will significantly advance our observations of arctic environmental conditions. (2) Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. (3) Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. (4) Developing recommendations for an interagency "Understanding Arctic Change" program. In addition to the above activities, SEARCH is also currently undertaking a strategic planning process to define priority goals and objectives for the next 3-5 years. SEARCH is guided by a Science Steering Committee and

  1. Seasonal Clear-Sky Flux and Cloud Radiative Effect Anomalies in the Arctic Atmospheric Column Associated with the Arctic Oscillation and Arctic Dipole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegyi, Bradley M.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Arctic Dipole (AD) on the radiative flux into the Arctic mean atmospheric column is quantified. 3-month-averaged AO and AD indices are regressed with corresponding surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes from the CERES-SFC and CERES-TOA EBAF datasets over the period 2000-2014. An increase in clear-sky fluxes into the Arctic mean atmospheric column during fall is the largest net flux anomaly associated with AO, primarily driven by a positive net longwave flux anomaly (i.e. increase of net flux into the atmospheric column) at the surface. A decrease in the Arctic mean atmospheric column cloud radiative effect during winter and spring is the largest flux anomaly associated with AD, primarily driven by a change in the longwave cloud radiative effect at the surface. These prominent responses to AO and AD are widely distributed across the ice-covered Arctic, suggesting that the physical process or processes that bring about the flux change associated with AO and AD are distributed throughout the Arctic.

  2. The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, M.; Shupe, M.; Dethloff, K.

    2017-12-01

    MOSAiC is an international initiative under the umbrella of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) designed by an international consortium of leading polar research institutes. Rapid changes in the Arctic lead to an urgent need for reliable information about the state and evolution of the Arctic climate system. This requires more observations and improved modelling over various spatial and temporal scales, and across a wide variety of disciplines. Observations of many critical parameters were never made in the central Arctic for a full annual cycle. MOSAiC will be the first year-around expedition into the central Arctic exploring the coupled climate system. The research vessel Polarstern will drift with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the years 2019 to 2020. The drift starts in the Siberian sector of the Arctic in late summer. A distributed regional network of observational sites will be established on the sea ice in an area of up to 50 km distance from Polarstern, representing a grid cell of climate models. The ship and the surrounding network will drift with the natural sea ice drift across the polar cap towards the Atlantic. The focus of MOSAiC lies on in-situ observations of the climate processes that couple atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, biogeochemistry and ecosystem. These measurements will be supported by weather and sea ice predictions and remote sensing operations to make the expedition successful. The expedition includes aircraft operations and cruises by icebreakers from MOSAiC partners. All these observations will be used for the main scientific goals of MOSAiC, enhancing the understanding of the regional and global consequences of Arctic climate change and sea ice loss and improve weather and climate prediction. More precisely, the results are needed to advance the data assimilation for numerical weather prediction models, sea ice forecasts and climate models and ground truth for satellite remote sensing. Additionally, the

  3. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change—A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary Arctic Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Eicken, H.; Fox, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    SEARCH is an interdisciplinary and interagency program that works with academic and government agency scientists to plan, conduct, and synthesize studies of arctic change. The vision of SEARCH is to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. Towards this end, SEARCH: 1. Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. 2. Identifies emerging issues in arctic environmental change. 3. Provides information resources to arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them respond to arctic environmental change. 4. Coordinates with national arctic science programs integral to SEARCH goals. 5. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales with stakeholder concerns incorporated from the start of the planning process. 6. Represents the U.S. arctic environmental change science community in international and global change research initiatives. Specific current activities include: Arctic Observing Network (AON) - coordinating a system of atmospheric, land- and ocean-based environmental monitoring capabilities that will significantly advance our observations of arctic environmental conditions. Arctic Sea Ice Outlook ¬- an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. In April, the SEARCH Science Steering Committee (SSC) released a set of draft 5-year goals and objectives for review by the broader arctic science community. The goals and objectives will direct the SEARCH program in the next five years. The draft SEARCH goals focus on four areas: ice-diminished Arctic Ocean, warming

  4. Increasing cloudiness in Arctic damps the increase in phytoplankton primary production due to sea ice receding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, S.; Babin, M.; Tremblay, J.-É.

    2013-06-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas are among the marine regions most affected by climate change. Here we present the results of a diagnostic model used to assess the primary production (PP) trends over the 1998-2010 period at pan-Arctic, regional and local (i.e. 9.28 km resolution) scales. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) above and below the sea surface was estimated using precomputed look-up tables of spectral irradiance, taking as input satellite-derived cloud optical thickness and cloud fraction parameters from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and sea ice concentration from passive microwaves data. A spectrally resolved PP model, designed for optically complex waters, was then used to assess the PP trends at high spatial resolution. Results show that PP is rising at a rate of +2.8 TgC yr-1 (or +14% decade-1) in the circum-Arctic and +5.1 TgC yr-1 when sub-Arctic seas are considered. In contrast, incident PAR above the sea surface (PAR(0+)) has significantly decreased over the whole Arctic and sub-Arctic Seas, except over the perennially sea-ice covered waters of the Central Arctic Ocean. This fading of PAR(0+) (-8% decade-1) was caused by increasing cloudiness during summer. Meanwhile, PAR penetrating the ocean (PAR(0-)) increased only along the sea ice margin over the large Arctic continental shelf where sea ice concentration declined sharply since 1998. Overall, PAR(0-) slightly increased in the circum-Arctic (+3.4% decade-1), while it decreased when considering both Arctic and sub-Arctic Seas (-3% decade-1). We showed that rising phytoplankton biomass (i.e. chlorophyll a) normalized by the diffuse attenuation of photosynthetically usable radiation (PUR), accounted for a larger proportion of the rise in PP than did the increase in light availability due to sea-ice loss in several sectors, and particularly in perennially and seasonally open waters. Against a general backdrop of rising productivity over Arctic shelves

  5. 33 CFR 165.T13-221 - Safety Zone; Arctic Drilling and Support Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Support Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington. 165.T13-221 Section 165.T13-221 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.T13-221 Safety Zone; Arctic Drilling and Support Vessels, Puget Sound... Sector Puget Sound Captain Of The Port (COTP) Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-10. (b) Regulations. In...

  6. Adjustments of a global Finite-Element Sea Ice Ocean Model configuration to improve the general ocean circulation in the North Pacific and its marginal seas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Patrick; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    The sub-Arctic oceans like the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, the Labrador Sea or the Greenland- Irminger-Norwegian (GIN) Sea react particularly sensitive to global climate changes and have the potential to reversely regulate climate change by CO2 uptake in the other areas of the world. So far, the natural processes in the Arctic and Subarctic system, especially over the Pacific realm, remain poorly understood in terms of numerical modeling. As such, in this study we focus on the North Pacific and its adjacent marginal seas (e.g. the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan), which have nowadays a significant role in the climate system of the Northwest Pacific by influencing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as the hydrology of the Pacific water masses. The Sea of Okhotsk, in particular, is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice coverage, where, in autumn and winter, due to massive sea ice formation and brine rejection, the Sea of Okhotsk Intermediate Water (SOIW) is formed which contributes to the mid-depth (500-1000m) water layer of the North Pacific known as newly formed North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). By employing a Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM), in a global configuration, but with high resolution over the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean ( 7 km), we tested different meshes and forcing improvements to correct the general ocean circulation in the North Pacific realm towards a more realistic pattern. By using different forcing data (e.g. CORE2, ERA-40/interim, CCMP-correction), adapting the mesh resolutions in the tropical and subtropical North Pacific and changing the bathymetry over important inflow straits (e.g. Amukta Passage, Kruzenstern Strait), we show that the better results are obtained (when compared with observational data) via a combination of CCMP corrected COREv2 forcing with increased resolution in the pathway of the Kuroshio Extension Current and Northern Equatorial Current.

  7. Non-government organisation engagement in the sanitation sector: opportunities to maximise benefits.

    PubMed

    Carrard, N; Pedi, D; Willetts, J; Powell, B

    2009-01-01

    Non-government organisations (NGOs) have long played a role in delivering sanitation services to communities in Southeast Asia and Pacific countries, particularly in rural areas. In contrast with large scale infrastructure focused initiatives, NGO programs commonly focus on building linkages between technical and social realms. Drawing on the breadth and depth of NGO experiences, there are opportunities for NGOs to play a greater role in the sanitation sector and to work in partnership with other actors including utilities and government agencies to ensure both 'hardware' and 'software' components of sanitation are built in to project design and delivery to maximise community benefits and ensure longer term system sustainability. This paper discusses these issues and considers how the contribution of NGOs to the sanitation sector in developing countries might be enhanced. The paper is based on recent research for the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) intended to guide investment in the water and sanitation sectors of Asia and Pacific partner countries, exploring the potential for increased NGO engagement. The paper presents findings of the research concerning NGO roles and approaches, discusses existing NGO activities in the sanitation sector in Vietnam and Timor Leste and identifies strategies for NGOs and for other sector actors including utilities and government agencies to maximise the benefits of NGO engagement in the sanitation sector.

  8. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ivey, Mark D.; Robinson, David G.; Boslough, Mark B.

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in themore » Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.« less

  9. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  10. Large Eddy Simulation of Heat Entrainment Under Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Gelderloos, Renske; Yang, Di; Meneveau, Charles; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly in recent decades. The faster than projected retreat suggests that free-running large-scale climate models may not be accurately representing some key processes. The small-scale turbulent entrainment of heat from the mixed layer could be one such process. To better understand this mechanism, we model the Arctic Ocean's Canada Basin, which is characterized by a perennial anomalously warm Pacific Summer Water (PSW) layer residing at the base of the mixed layer and a summertime Near-Surface Temperature Maximum (NSTM) within the mixed layer trapping heat from solar radiation. We use large eddy simulation (LES) to investigate heat entrainment for different ice-drift velocities and different initial temperature profiles. The value of LES is that the resolved turbulent fluxes are greater than the subgrid-scale fluxes for most of our parameter space. The results show that the presence of the NSTM enhances heat entrainment from the mixed layer. Additionally there is no PSW heat entrained under the parameter space considered. We propose a scaling law for the ocean-to-ice heat flux which depends on the initial temperature anomaly in the NSTM layer and the ice-drift velocity. A case study of "The Great Arctic Cyclone of 2012" gives a turbulent heat flux from the mixed layer that is approximately 70% of the total ocean-to-ice heat flux estimated from the PIOMAS model often used for short-term predictions. Present results highlight the need for large-scale climate models to account for the NSTM layer.

  11. Change in abundance of pacific brant wintering in alaska: evidence of a climate warming effect?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David H.; Dau, Christian P.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Sedinger, James S.; Anderson, Betty A.; Hines, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Winter distribution of Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) has shifted northward from lowtemperate areas to sub-Arctic areas over the last 42 years. We assessed the winter abundance and distribution of brant in Alaska to evaluate whether climate warming may be contributing to positive trends in the most northern of the wintering populations. Mean surface air temperatures during winter at the end of the Alaska Peninsula increased about 1??C between 1963 and 2004, resulting in a 23% reduction in freezing degree days and a 34% decline in the number of days when ice cover prevents birds from accessing food resources. Trends in the wintering population fluctuated with states of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, increasing during positive (warm) phases and decreasing during negative (cold) phases, and this correlation provides support for the hypothesis that growth in the wintering population of brant in Alaska is linked to climate warming. The size of the wintering population was negatively correlated with the number of days of strong northwesterly winds in November, which suggests that the occurrence of tailwinds favorable for migration before the onset of winter was a key factor in whether brant migrated from Alaska or remained there during winter. Winter distribution of brant on the Alaska Peninsula was highly variable and influenced by ice cover, particularly at the heavily used Izembek Lagoon. Observations of previously marked brant indicated that the Alaska wintering population was composed primarily of birds originating from Arctic breeding colonies that appear to be growing. Numbers of brant in Alaska during winter will likely increase as temperatures rise and ice cover decreases at high latitudes in response to climate warming. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  12. Eocene climate and Arctic paleobathymetry: A tectonic sensitivity study using GISS ModelE-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C. D.; Legrande, A. N.; Tripati, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The early Paleogene (65-45 million years ago, Ma) was a ‘greenhouse’ interval with global temperatures warmer than any other time in the last 65 Ma. This period was characterized by high levels of CO2, warm high-latitudes, warm surface-and-deep oceans, and an intensified hydrological cycle. Sediments from the Arctic suggest that the Eocene surface Arctic Ocean was warm, brackish, and episodically enabled the freshwater fern Azolla to bloom. The precise mechanisms responsible for the development of these conditions remain uncertain. We present equilibrium climate conditions derived from a fully-coupled, water-isotope enabled, general circulation model (GISS ModelE-R) configured for the early Eocene. We also present model-data comparison plots for key climatic variables (SST and δ18O) and analyses of the leading modes of variability in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Our tectonic sensitivity study indicates that Northern Hemisphere climate would have been very sensitive to the degree of oceanic exchange through the seaways connecting the Arctic to the Atlantic and Tethys. By restricting these seaways, we simulate freshening of the surface Arctic Ocean to ~6 psu and warming of sea-surface temperatures by 2°C in the North Atlantic and 5-10°C in the Labrador Sea. Our results may help explain the occurrence of low-salinity tolerant taxa in the Arctic Ocean during the Eocene and provide a mechanism for enhanced warmth in the north western Atlantic. We also suggest that the formation of a volcanic land-bridge between Greenland and Europe could have caused increased ocean convection and warming of intermediate waters in the Atlantic. If true, this result is consistent with the theory that bathymetry changes may have caused thermal destabilisation of methane clathrates in the Atlantic.

  13. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change--A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary Arctic Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnoro, R. S.; Eicken, H.; Francis, J. A.; Scambos, T. A.; Schuur, E. A.; Straneo, F.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2013-12-01

    SEARCH is an interdisciplinary, interagency program that works with academic and government agency scientists and stakeholders to plan, conduct, and synthesize studies of Arctic change. Over the past three years, SEARCH has developed a new vision and mission, a set of prioritized cross-disciplinary 5-year goals, an integrated set of activities, and an organizational structure. The vision of SEARCH is to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. SEARCH's 5-year science goals include: 1. Improve understanding, advance prediction, and explore consequences of changing Arctic sea ice. 2. Document and understand how degradation of near-surface permafrost will affect Arctic and global systems. 3. Improve predictions of future land-ice loss and impacts on sea level. 4. Analyze societal and policy implications of Arctic environmental change. Action Teams organized around each of the 5-year goals will serve as standing groups responsible for implementing specific goal activities. Members will be drawn from academia, different agencies and stakeholders, with a range of disciplinary backgrounds and perspectives. 'Arctic Futures 2050' scenarios tasks will describe plausible future states of the arctic system based on recent trajectories and projected changes. These scenarios will combine a range of data including climate model output, paleo-data, results from data synthesis and systems modeling, as well as expert scientific and traditional knowledge. Current activities include: - Arctic Observing Network (AON) - coordinating a system of atmospheric, land- and ocean-based environmental monitoring capabilities that will significantly advance our observations of arctic environmental conditions. - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. A newly-launched Sea Ice Prediction Network

  14. Dynamical mechanisms of Arctic amplification.

    PubMed

    Dethloff, Klaus; Handorf, Dörthe; Jaiser, Ralf; Rinke, Annette; Klinghammer, Pia

    2018-05-12

    The Arctic has become a hot spot of climate change, but the nonlinear interactions between regional and global scales in the coupled climate system responsible for Arctic amplification are not well understood and insufficiently described in climate models. Here, we compare reanalysis data with model simulations for low and high Arctic sea ice conditions to identify model biases with respect to atmospheric Arctic-mid-latitude linkages. We show that an appropriate description of Arctic sea ice forcing is able to reproduce the observed winter cooling in mid-latitudes as result of improved tropospheric-stratospheric planetary wave propagation triggering a negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation in late winter. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Changes in summer sea ice, albedo, and portioning of surface solar radiation in the Pacific sector of Arctic Ocean during 1982-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ruibo; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Leppäranta, Matti; Wang, Jia; Kaleschke, Lars; Zhang, Zhanhai

    2016-08-01

    SSM/I sea ice concentration and CLARA black-sky composite albedo were used to estimate sea ice albedo in the region 70°N-82°N, 130°W-180°W. The long-term trends and seasonal evolutions of ice concentration, composite albedo, and ice albedo were then obtained. In July-August 1982-2009, the linear trend of the composite albedo and the ice albedo was -0.069 and -0.046 units per decade, respectively. During 1 June to 19 August, melting of sea ice resulted in an increase of solar heat input to the ice-ocean system by 282 MJ·m-2 from 1982 to 2009. However, because of the counter-balancing effects of the loss of sea ice area and the enhanced ice surface melting, the trend of solar heat input to the ice was insignificant. The summer evolution of ice albedo matched the ice surface melting and ponding well at basin scale. The ice albedo showed a large difference between the multiyear and first-year ice because the latter melted completely by the end of a melt season. At the SHEBA geolocations, a distinct change in the ice albedo has occurred since 2007, because most of the multiyear ice has been replaced by first-year ice. A positive polarity in the Arctic Dipole Anomaly could be partly responsible for the rapid loss of summer ice within the study region in the recent years by bringing warmer air masses from the south and advecting more ice toward the north. Both these effects would enhance ice-albedo feedback.

  16. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  17. Potential for an Arctic-breeding migratory bird to adjust spring migration phenology to Arctic amplification.

    PubMed

    Lameris, Thomas K; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, Silke; Cobben, Marleen M P; Ens, Bruno J; Nolet, Bart A

    2017-10-01

    Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset of local spring, consequently reducing individual fitness and potentially even population levels. We used a dynamic state variable model to study whether Arctic long-distance migrants can advance their migratory schedules under climate warming scenarios which include Arctic amplification, and whether such an advancement is constrained by fuel accumulation or the ability to anticipate climatic changes. Our model predicts that barnacle geese Branta leucopsis suffer from considerably reduced reproductive success with increasing Arctic amplification through mistimed arrival, when they cannot anticipate a more rapid progress of Arctic spring from their wintering grounds. When geese are able to anticipate a more rapid progress of Arctic spring, they are predicted to advance their spring arrival under Arctic amplification up to 44 days without any reproductive costs in terms of optimal condition or timing of breeding. Negative effects of mistimed arrival on reproduction are predicted to be somewhat mitigated by increasing summer length under warming in the Arctic, as late arriving geese can still breed successfully. We conclude that adaptation to Arctic amplification may rather be constrained by the (un)predictability of changes in the Arctic spring than by the time available for fuel accumulation. Social migrants like geese tend to have a high behavioural plasticity regarding stopover site choice and migration schedule, giving them the potential to adapt to future climate changes on their flyway. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Results of an Arctic Council survey on water and sanitation services in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Jonathan M; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2018-12-01

    As part of a project endorsed by the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG), a survey was conducted to describe the current status of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in the Arctic region. The English language internet-based survey was open from April to September, 2016 and drew 142 respondents from seven Arctic nations. Respondents provided information on access to WASH services, notification requirements for water-related infectious diseases, and examples of environmental- or climate-change related events that impact the provision of WASH services. Many remote Arctic and sub-Arctic residents lack WASH services, and these disparities are often not reflected in national summary data. Environmental changes impacting WASH services were reported by respondents in every Arctic nation. Participants at an international conference co-sponsored by SDWG reviewed these results and provided suggestions for next steps to improve health of Arctic residents through improved access to water and sanitation services. Suggestions included ongoing reporting on WASH service availability in underserved populations to measure progress towards UN Sustainable Development Goal #6; evaluations of the health and economic consequences of disparities in WASH services; and Arctic-specific forums to share innovations in WASH technology, improved management and operations, and adaptation strategies for environmental or climate change.

  19. Results of an Arctic Council survey on water and sanitation services in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Bressler, Jonathan M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT As part of a project endorsed by the Arctic Council’s Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG), a survey was conducted to describe the current status of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in the Arctic region. The English language internet-based survey was open from April to September, 2016 and drew 142 respondents from seven Arctic nations. Respondents provided information on access to WASH services, notification requirements for water-related infectious diseases, and examples of environmental- or climate-change related events that impact the provision of WASH services. Many remote Arctic and sub-Arctic residents lack WASH services, and these disparities are often not reflected in national summary data. Environmental changes impacting WASH services were reported by respondents in every Arctic nation. Participants at an international conference co-sponsored by SDWG reviewed these results and provided suggestions for next steps to improve health of Arctic residents through improved access to water and sanitation services. Suggestions included ongoing reporting on WASH service availability in underserved populations to measure progress towards UN Sustainable Development Goal #6; evaluations of the health and economic consequences of disparities in WASH services; and Arctic-specific forums to share innovations in WASH technology, improved management and operations, and adaptation strategies for environmental or climate change. PMID:29383987

  20. Simulation of Arctic Black Carbon using Hemispheric CMAQ: Role of Russia's BC Emissions, Transport, and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Fu, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon plays a unique role in the Arctic climate system due to its multiple effects. It causes Arctic warming by directly absorbing sunlight from space and by darkening the surface albedo of snow and ice, which indirectly leads to further warming and melting, thus inducing an Arctic amplification effect. BC depositions over the Arctic are more sensitive to regions in close proximity. In this study, we reconstruct BC emissions for Russian Federation, which is the country that occupies the largest area in the Arctic Circle. Local Russia information such as activity data, emission factors and other emission source data are used. In 2010, total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia is estimated to be around 254 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a dominant 43.9% of Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 22.0%, 17.8%, 11.5%, and 4.8%, respectively. BC simulations were conducted using the hemispheric version of CMAQ with polar projection. Emission inputs are from a global emissions database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulations using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 46 - 61% of the Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four air monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and Tiksi) in the Arctic Circle, surface BC simulations are improved the most during the Arctic haze periods (October - March). Emission perturbation studies show that Russia's BC emissions contribute over 50% of the surface BC concentrations over the Arctic during the cold seasons. This study demonstrates the good capability of H-CMAQ in

  1. Redefining U.S. Arctic Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    responsibility shifts 21 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. The Anti-Access Challenge you’re not thinking...International Affairs 85, no. 6 (2009). 38 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. THE ANTI-ACCESS CHALLENGE YOU’RE NOT THINKING ABOUT, 05 May 2015...and Rescue in the Arctic, 22 June 2011. Arctic Council Secretariat. About the Arctic Council, Arctic Council, 2011. Barno, David and Nora

  2. Exploring the combined effects of the Arctic Oscillation and ENSO on the wintertime climate over East Asia using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenyu; Chen, Ruyan; Yang, Zifan; Wang, Bin; Ma, Wenqian

    2017-09-01

    To examine the combined effects of the different spatial patterns of the Arctic Oscillation (AO)-related sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the wintertime surface temperature anomalies over East Asia, a nonlinear method based on self-organizing maps is employed. Investigation of identified regimes reveals that the AO can affect East Asian temperature anomalies when there are significant SLP anomalies over the Arctic Ocean and northern parts of Eurasian continent. Analogously, ENSO is found to affect East Asian temperature anomalies when significant SST anomalies are present over the tropical central Pacific. The regimes with the warmest and coldest temperature anomalies over East Asia are both associated with the negative phase of the AO. The ENSO-activated, Pacific-East Asian teleconnection pattern could affect the higher latitude continental regions when the impact of the AO is switched off. When the spatial patterns of the AO and ENSO have significant, but opposite, impacts on the coastal winds, no obvious temperature anomalies can be observed over south China. Further, the circulation state with nearly the same AO and Niño3 indices may drive rather different responses in surface temperature over East Asia. The well-known continuous weakening (recovery) of the East Asian winter monsoon that occurred around 1988 (2009) can be attributed to the transitions of the spatial patterns of the SLP anomalies over the Arctic Ocean and Eurasian continent, through their modulation on the occurrences of the Ural and central Siberian blocking events.

  3. USGS Arctic Science Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark; Smith, Durelle

    2015-07-17

    The United States is one of eight Arctic nations responsible for the stewardship of a polar region undergoing dramatic environmental, social, and economic changes. Although warming and cooling cycles have occurred over millennia in the Arctic region, the current warming trend is unlike anything recorded previously and is affecting the region faster than any other place on Earth, bringing dramatic reductions in sea ice extent, altered weather, and thawing permafrost. Implications of these changes include rapid coastal erosion threatening villages and critical infrastructure, potentially significant effects on subsistence activities and cultural resources, changes to wildlife habitat, increased greenhouse-gas emissions from thawing permafrost, threat of invasive species, and opening of the Arctic Ocean to oil and gas exploration and increased shipping. The Arctic science portfolio of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its response to climate-related changes focuses on landscapescale ecosystem and natural resource issues and provides scientific underpinning for understanding the physical processes that shape the Arctic. The science conducted by the USGS informs the Nation's resource management policies and improves the stewardship of the Arctic Region.

  4. Levoglucosan indicates high levels of biomass burning aerosols over oceans from the Arctic to Antarctic

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Wang, Xin-Ming; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Biomass burning is known to affect air quality, global carbon cycle, and climate. However, the extent to which biomass burning gases/aerosols are present on a global scale, especially in the marine atmosphere, is poorly understood. Here we report the molecular tracer levoglucosan concentrations in marine air from the Arctic Ocean through the North and South Pacific Ocean to Antarctica during burning season. Levoglucosan was found to be present in all regions at ng/m3 levels with the highest atmospheric loadings present in the mid-latitudes (30°–60° N and S), intermediate loadings in the Arctic, and lowest loadings in the Antarctic and equatorial latitudes. As a whole, levoglucosan concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere were comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere. Biomass burning has a significant impact on atmospheric Hg and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) from pole-to-pole, with more contribution to WSOC in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:24176935

  5. Levoglucosan indicates high levels of biomass burning aerosols over oceans from the Arctic to Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Wang, Xin-Ming; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Pengfei

    2013-11-01

    Biomass burning is known to affect air quality, global carbon cycle, and climate. However, the extent to which biomass burning gases/aerosols are present on a global scale, especially in the marine atmosphere, is poorly understood. Here we report the molecular tracer levoglucosan concentrations in marine air from the Arctic Ocean through the North and South Pacific Ocean to Antarctica during burning season. Levoglucosan was found to be present in all regions at ng/m(3) levels with the highest atmospheric loadings present in the mid-latitudes (30°-60° N and S), intermediate loadings in the Arctic, and lowest loadings in the Antarctic and equatorial latitudes. As a whole, levoglucosan concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere were comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere. Biomass burning has a significant impact on atmospheric Hg and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) from pole-to-pole, with more contribution to WSOC in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

  6. STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE IN MARINE MAMMALS OF NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC AND ARCTIC CANADA: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF 85 POSTMORTEM INVESTIGATIONS.

    PubMed

    Taurisano, Nicole D; Butler, Brian P; Stone, Diana; Hariharan, Harry; Fields, Paul J; Ferguson, Hugh W; Haulena, Martin; Cotrell, Paul; Nielsen, Ole; Raverty, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    :  Streptococcus phocae is a pathogen of marine mammals, although its pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recovery of this bacterium from asymptomatic carriers suggests that it is an opportunistic pathogen. We investigated the role of S. phocae in naturally occurring disease and its significance as a pathogen based on postmortem investigations. Between 2007 and 2012, 1,696 whole carcasses, tissue samples, or both were submitted from the northeastern Pacific and Arctic Canada for diagnostic testing. Streptococcus phocae was cultured from phocids ( n=66), otariids ( n=12), harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena; n=5), and sea otters ( Enhydra lutris; n=2). Pathologic manifestations of S. phocae-associated disease included localized, as well as systemic, inflammatory lesions with common findings of suppurative bronchopneumonia ( n=17) and bacteremia ( n=27). Lung lesions were frequently culture-positive for S. phocae, suggesting commensal colonization of the oropharynx with subsequent opportunistic infection of the respiratory tract during tissue injury, coinfection, immunosuppression, or other debilitating conditions. The presence of a positive spleen culture, and interpretations at necropsy and histopathology, were used to determine the presence of S. phocae bacteremia. Less frequent lesions that were culture positive for S. phocae included abscesses ( n=9), meningitis ( n=7), and cellulitis ( n=1). The majority of cases with S. phocae lesions featured pre-existing conditions that presumably contributed to some degree of debilitation or immunosuppression, including emaciation ( n=29), liver mercury accumulation ( n=29), trauma ( n=22), severe pulmonary or cardiovascular nematodiasis ( n=9), concurrent bacterial or viral infections ( n=8), or sarcocystosis ( n=6). These findings suggest that S. phocae could be characterized as an opportunistic pathogen, associated with debilitating conditions in stranded and rehabilitating marine mammals. Wildlife investigators

  7. Using an Environmental Intelligence Framework to Evaluate the Impacts of Ocean Acidification in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, J. T.; Baskin, M.; Cross, J.

    2016-12-01

    The highly productive coastal seas of the Arctic Ocean are located in areas that are projected to experience strong global change, including rapid transitions in temperature and ocean acidification-driven changes in pH and other chemical parameters. Many of the marine organisms that may be most intensely affected by ocean acidification (OA) and other environmental stressors contribute substantially to the commercial fisheries of the Bering Sea and traditional subsistence food supplies across the Arctic. This could represent a looming challenge in many communities as the average prevalence of household food insecurity and very low food security in Alaska are already 12 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively. Here, we evaluate the patterns of dependence on marine resources within Alaska's Arctic that could be negatively impacted by OA and current community characteristics to assess the potential risk to the fishery sector from OA. We used a risk assessment framework to analyze an earth-system global model of ocean chemistry, fisheries harvest data, and demographic information. The analysis showed that regions around Alaska vary in their vulnerability to OA, but that each one will have to deal with possible impacts. Therefore, OA merits consideration in policy planning, as it may represent another challenge to Alaskan communities, some of which are already under acute socio-economic strains. With this in mind, we will present a number of adaptation strategies for communities living throughout Alaska's Arctic that could be applicable to other Arctic regions.

  8. Linear and nonlinear winter atmospheric responses to extreme phases of low frequency Pacific sea surface temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dandan; Wu, Qigang; Hu, Aixue; Yao, Yonghong; Liu, Shizuo; Schroeder, Steven R.; Yang, Fucheng

    2018-02-01

    This study examines Northern Hemisphere winter (DJFM) atmospheric responses to opposite strong phases of interdecadal (low frequency, LF) Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing, which resembles El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on a longer time scale, in observations and GFDL and CAM4 model simulations. Over the Pacific-North America (PNA) sector, linear observed responses of 500-hPa height (Z500) anomalies resemble the PNA teleconnection pattern, but show a PNA-like nonlinear response because of a westward Z500 shift in the negative (LF-) relative to the positive LF (LF+) phase. Significant extratropical linear responses include a North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like Z500 anomaly, a dipole-like Z500 anomaly over northern Eurasia associated with warming over mid-high latitude Eurasia, and a Southern Annular anomaly pattern associated with warming in southern land areas. Significant nonlinear Z500 responses also include a NAO-like anomaly pattern. Models forced by LF+ and LF- SST anomalies reproduce many aspects of observed linear and nonlinear responses over the Pacific-North America sector, and linear responses over southern land, but not in the North Atlantic-European sector and Eurasia. Both models simulate PNA-like linear responses in the North Pacific-North America region similar to observed, but show larger PNA-like LF+ responses, resulting in a PNA nonlinear response. The nonlinear PNA responses result from both nonlinear western tropical Pacific rainfall changes and extratropical transient eddy feedbacks. With LF tropical Pacific forcing only (LFTP+ and LFTP-, climatological SST elsewhere), CAM4 simulates a significant NAO response to LFTP-, including a linear negative and nonlinear positive NAO response.

  9. The Regional Influence of the Arctic Oscillation and Arctic Dipole on the Wintertime Arctic Surface Radiation Budget and Sea Ice Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegyi, Bradley M.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of 2000-2015 monthly Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System-Energy Balanced and Filled (CERES-EBAF) and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA2) data reveals statistically significant fall and wintertime relationships between Arctic surface longwave (LW) radiative flux anomalies and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Arctic Dipole (AD). Signifying a substantial regional imprint, a negative AD index corresponds with positive downwelling clear-sky LW flux anomalies (greater than10W m(exp -2)) north of western Eurasia (0 deg E-120 deg E) and reduced sea ice growth in the Barents and Kara Seas in November-February. Conversely, a positive AO index coincides with negative clear-sky LW flux anomalies and minimal sea ice growth change in October-November across the Arctic. Increased (decreased) atmospheric temperature and water vapor coincide with the largest positive (negative) clear-sky flux anomalies. Positive surface LW cloud radiative effect anomalies also accompany the negative AD index in December-February. The results highlight a potential pathway by which Arctic atmospheric variability influences the regional surface radiation budget over areas of Arctic sea ice growth.

  10. Biological Environmental Arctic Project (BEAP) Preliminary Data (Arctic West Summer 1986 Cruise).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    predictive model of bioluminescence in near-surface arctic waters . Data were collected during Arctic West Summer 1986 from USCG POLAR STAR (WAGB 10). . %. J...2 20ODISTRIBUTION AVAILABILIT "Y OF ABSTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION C]UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED SAME AS RPT C] DTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED David...correlates for a predictive model of bioluminescence in near-surface arctic waters . - In previous years, these measurements were conducted from the USCG

  11. Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely

    Science.gov Websites

    frequent. Explore the Arctic's changing climate. Discover what these changes mean for the Arctic, its warming in the Arctic by exploring how changes have been observed and documented by scientists and polar

  12. Arctic Climate during Eocene Hyperthermals: Wet Summers on Ellesmere Island?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, D. R.; West, C. K.; Basinger, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work has shown that during the late Paleocene to middle Eocene, mesothermal conditions (i.e., MAT ~12-15° C) and high precipitation (MAP > 150cm/yr) characterized Arctic climates - an Arctic rain forest. Recent analyses of Arctic Eocene wood stable isotope chemistry are consistent with the annual and seasonal temperature estimates from leaf physiognomy and nearest living relative analogy from fossil plants, including the lack of freezing winters, but is interpreted as showing that there was a summer peak in precipitation - modern analogs are best sought on the summer-wet east coasts (e.g., China, Japan, South Korea) not the winter-wet west coasts of present-day northern temperate continents (e.g., Pacific northwest of North America). Highly seasonal 'monsoon-type' summer-wet precipitation regimes (i.e., summer precip./winter precip. > 3.0) seem to characterize Eocene hyperthermal conditions in several regions of the earth, including the Arctic and Antarctic, based on both climate model sensitivity experiments and the paleoclimate proxy evidence. The leaf physiognomy proxy previously applied to estimate Arctic Paleogene precipitation was leaf area analysis (LAA), a correlation between mean leaf size in woody dicot vegetation and annual precipitation. New data from modern monsoonal sites, however demonstrates that for deciduous-dicot dominated vegetation, summer precipitation determines mean leaf size, not annual totals, and therefore that under markedly seasonal precipitation and/or light regimes that summer precipitation is being estimated using LAA. Presented here is a new analysis of a leaf macrofloras from 3 separate florules of the Margaret Formation (Split Lake, Stenkul Fiord and Strathcona Fiord) from Ellesmere Island that are placed stratigraphically as early Eocene, and likely fall within Eocene thermal maximum 1 (ETM1; = the 'PETM') or ETM2. These floras are each characterized by a mix of large-leafed and small-leafed dicot taxa, with overall

  13. Seasonality of Arctic Mediterranean Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, Christoph; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Mediterranean communicates through a number of passages with the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Most of the volume exchange happens at the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge: warm and saline Atlantic Water flows in at the surface, cold, dense Overflow Water flows back at the bottom and fresh and cold Polar Water flows out along the East Greenland coast. All surface inflows show a seasonal signal whereas only the outflow through the Faroe Bank Channel exhibits significant seasonality. Here we present a quantification of the seasonal cycle of the exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland ridge based on volume estimates of the in- and outflows within the last 20 years (ADCP and altimetry). Our approach is comparatistic: we compare different properties of the seasonal cycle like the strength or the phase between the different in- and outflows. On the seasonal time scale the in- and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge are not balanced. The net flux thus has to be balanced by the other passages on the Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait as well as runoff from land.

  14. Aminostratigraphy and faunal correlations of late Quaternary marine terraces, Pacific Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, G.L.; Lajoie, K.R.; Wehmiller, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies using the extent of racemization of amino acids to date fossil mollusc shells in the Arctic1, the British Isles2 and on the Atlantic3,4 and Pacific5-13 coasts of North America have relied mainly on theoretical kinetic models of racemization. Ages generated in this fashion are highly model dependent and require estimates of integrated long-term diagenetic temperatures. We present here an alternative, empirical approach to aminostratigraphy in which we plot amino acid enantiomeric ratios versus latitude (for localities along the Pacific coast of the United States), and generate isochronal correlations by connecting data points of geographically proximal localities that have similar D:L ratios and zoogeographic aspect. Isochrons are calibrated at a few localities by independent radiometric dates. The diagenetic temperature effect on racemization is reflected in the slope of the isochrons, but the need to quantify temperature is eliminated. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Occupancy of yellow-billed and Pacific loons: evidence for interspecific competition and habitat mediated co-occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Wright, Kenneth G.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific competition is an important process structuring ecological communities, however, it is difficult to observe in nature. We used an occupancy modelling approach to evaluate evidence of competition between yellow-billed (Gavia adamsii) and Pacific (G. pacifica) loons for nesting lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. With multiple years of data and survey platforms, we estimated dynamic occupancy states (e.g. rates of colonization or extinction from individual lakes) and controlled for detection differences among aircraft platforms and ground survey crews. Results indicated that yellow-billed loons were strong competitors and negatively influenced the occupancy of Pacific loons by excluding them from potential breeding lakes. Pacific loon occupancy was conditional on the presence of yellow-billed loons, with Pacific loons having almost a tenfold decrease in occupancy probability when yellow-billed loons were present and a threefold decrease in colonization probability when yellow-billed loons were present in the current or previous year. Yellow-billed and Pacific loons co-occurred less than expected by chance except on very large lakes or lakes with convoluted shorelines; variables which may decrease the cost of maintaining a territory in the presence of the other species. These results imply the existence of interspecific competition between yellow-billed and Pacific loons for nesting lakes; however, habitat characteristics which facilitate visual and spatial separation of territories can reduce competitive interactions and promote species co-occurrence.

  16. 76 FR 37763 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska... the uncertainty regarding the distribution of Pacific cod catch, enhance stability among the sectors... available for public review and comment. The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Gulf...

  17. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; hide

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  18. The Potential for Soviet Penetration of the Pacific Islands: An Assessment,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    economies also implies diseconornies of 0 scale in both the public and private sectors. Investments in econmic and social infrastructures such as...source) was less to be feared by the Pacific Islands under current circunstances than econmic dcmination (again, whatever the source). Econacnic

  19. Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the Tropics to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field.

  20. Arctic Research NASA's Cryospheric Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waleed, Abdalati; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much of NASA's Arctic Research is run through its Cryospheric Sciences Program. Arctic research efforts to date have focused primarily on investigations of the mass balance of the largest Arctic land-ice masses and the mechanisms that control it, interactions among sea ice, polar oceans, and the polar atmosphere, atmospheric processes in the polar regions, energy exchanges in the Arctic. All of these efforts have been focused on characterizing, understanding, and predicting, changes in the Arctic. NASA's unique vantage from space provides an important perspective for the study of these large scale processes, while detailed process information is obtained through targeted in situ field and airborne campaigns and models. An overview of NASA investigations in the Arctic will be presented demonstrating how the synthesis of space-based technology, and these complementary components have advanced our understanding of physical processes in the Arctic.

  1. 50 CFR Table 2d to Part 679 - Species Codes-Non-FMP Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... description Code Arctic char, anadromous 521 Dolly varden, anadromous 531 Eels or eel-like fish 210 Eel, wolf... Arctic surf 812 Cockle 820 Eastern softshell 842 Pacific geoduck 815 Pacific littleneck 840 Pacific razor...

  2. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, K L; Racloz, V; McElhinney, L M; Marston, D A; Johnson, N; Rønsholt, L; Christensen, L S; Neuvonen, E; Botvinkin, A D; Rupprecht, C E; Fooks, A R

    2006-03-01

    We report a molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from domestic animals (dogs/cats) and from two human cases were investigated. The resulting 400 bp N-gene sequences were compared with isolates representing neighbouring Arctic or Baltic countries from North America, the former Soviet Union and Europe. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated similarities between sequences from the Arctic and Arctic-like viruses, which were distinct from rabies isolates originating in the Baltic region of Europe, the Steppes in Russia and from North America. The Arctic-like group consist of isolates from India, Pakistan, southeast Siberia and Japan. The Arctic group was differentiated into two lineages, Arctic 1 and Arctic 2, with good bootstrap support. Arctic 1 is mainly comprised of Canadian isolates with a single fox isolate from Maine in the USA. Arctic 2 was further divided into sub-lineages: 2a/2b. Arctic 2a comprises isolates from the Arctic regions of Yakutia in northeast Siberia and Alaska. Arctic 2b isolates represent a biotype, which is dispersed throughout the Arctic region. The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders.

  3. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  4. Changing Arctic ecosystems: ecology of loons in a changing Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uher-Koch, Brian; Schmutz, Joel; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a changing climate. From 2010 to 2014, a key study area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced rapid warming during the past 30 years, leading to the thawing of permafrost and changes to lake and river systems. These changes, and projections of continued change, have raised questions about effects on wildlife populations that rely on northern lake ecosystems, such as loons. Loons rely on freshwater lakes for nesting habitat and the fish and invertebrates inhabiting the lakes for food. Loons live within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) on Alaska’s northern coast, where oil and gas development is expected to increase. Research by the USGS examines how breeding loons use the Arctic lake ecosystem and the capacity of loons to adapt to future landscape change.

  5. Toward an Arctic Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Arctic Sea Ice Extent6 Reduced ice pack area translates to less reflected solar energy, which further accelerates the ongoing melting process . Light... process , creating a vicious cycle where melting ice causes the remaining ice to melt faster.7 Modelers previously agreed that the Arctic Ocean could be...freight ports stand to benefit by shipping through the Arctic region.10 For example, an ocean voyage from Yokohama, Japan, to Hamburg, Germany via the

  6. Effectively engaging the private sector through vouchers and contracting - A case for analysing health governance and context.

    PubMed

    Nachtnebel, Matthias; O'Mahony, Ashleigh; Pillai, Nandini; Hort, Kris

    2015-11-01

    Health systems of low and middle income countries in the Asia Pacific have been described as mixed, where public and private sector operate in parallel. Gaps in the provision of primary health care (PHC) services have been picked up by the private sector and led to its growth; as can an enabling regulatory environment. The question whether governments should purchase services from the private sector to address gaps in service provision has been fiercely debated. This purposive review draws evidence from systematic reviews, and additional published and grey literature, for input into a policy brief on purchasing PHC-services from the private sector for underserved areas in the Asia Pacific region. Additional published and grey literature on vouchers and contracting as mechanisms to engage the private sector was used to supplement the conclusions from systematic reviews. We analysed the literature through a policy lens, or alternatively, a 'bottom-up' approach which incorporates components of a realist review. Evidence indicates that both vouchers and contracting can improve health service outcomes in underserved areas. These outcomes however are strongly influenced by (1) contextual factors, such as roles and functions attributable to a shared set of key actors (2) the type of delivered services and community demand (3) design of the intervention, notably provider autonomy and trust (4) governance capacity and provision of stewardship. Examining the experience of vouchers and contracting to expand health services through engagement with private sector providers in the Asia Pacific found positive effects with regards to access and utilisation of health services, but more importantly, highlighted the significance of contextual factors, appropriate selection of mechanism for services provided, and governance arrangements and stewardship capacity. In fact, for governments seeking to engage the private sector, analysis of context and capacities are potentially a more

  7. Observations of Cirrus Clouds over the Pacific Region by the NASA Multiwavelength Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Browell, Edward V.; Fenn, Marta A.; Nowicki, Greg D.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West Campaign that took place during 16 Sep. - 21 Oct. 1991, lidar measurements were made from the ARC DC-8 aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km. This mission provided a unique opportunity to make cirrus cloud observations around the Pacific region covering the latitude range from 5 to 55 deg N and the longitude range from -114 to 120 deg E. Cirrus clouds were observed on most of these flights providing a unique data base. The latitudinal coverage of cirrus observations was further extended to -5 deg S from observations on 30 Jan. 1992 as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2. During this latter mission, aerosol depolarizations at 622 and 1064 nm were also measured. The optical characteristics and statistics related to these cirrus cloud observations are summarized.

  8. 77 FR 31677 - Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic Research Plan: FY2013-2017 May 22, 2012. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 (ARPA), Public Law 98-373, established the...

  9. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas

  10. Climate change in Asia and the Pacific: How can countries adapt?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asia Pacific (AP) region is more vulnerable to climate change risks than other regions, given its dependence on the natural resources and agricultural sector for economic development with densely populated coastal areas, weak institutions, and the poverty of a considerable proportion of its popu...

  11. The International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP): A Cornerstone of the Arctic Observing Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    SEP 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The International Arctic Buoy Programme ( IABP ): A...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The International Arctic Buoy Programme ( IABP ): A Cornerstone of the Arctic Observing Network Ignatius G. Rigor...changes in weather, climate and environment. It should be noted that many of these changes were first observed and studied using data from the IABP (http

  12. Is there a see-saw over an ice-free Arctic Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; Yang, Shuting; Langen, Peter; Rodehacke, Christian; Mottram, Ruth; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The "see-saw" in winter temperatures between western Greenland and the Canadian Arctic on one side and northern Europe on the other has been described by Loewe already in 1937, but actually this behaviour was at least known since the Danish colonization of Greenland in the early 18th century. The see-saw is associated with pressure anomalies not only near the region of interest, but as remote as the Mediterranean and the North Pacific. Recent research has pointed out the role of sea ice in maintaining the see-saw in either its warm or its cold phase over extended periods, which strongly affects European winter temperatures. What would happen to the seesaw if Arctic sea ice were to disappear suddenly? In the framework of the FP7-funded project ice2ice, we try to answer this and related questions. We have conducted a very long global simulation with a global climate model interactively coupled to a Greenland ice sheet component, covering the period 1850-3250 at a horizontal resolution of approximately 125 km. Up to 2005, the forcing is from observed greenhouse gas concentrations, and from 2006 onward it follows the extended RCP8.5 scenario, in which greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase and eventually level out around 2250. With such a strong forcing, all Arctic sea ice has completely disappeared by roughly the same time, and the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet becomes strongly negative. We investigate how the see-saw behaves in such an ice-free world and which implications circulation changes have in the Arctic and over Europe. To further elucidate the role of sea ice distribution on the atmospheric flow and the role of surface fluxes in maintaining the Greenland-European see-saw, we intend at a later time to expand our analysis to include a contrasting simulation with both western Greenland and northern Europe covered by ice during the Last Glacier Maximum.

  13. Distribution, abundance, and predation effects of epipelagic ctenophores and jellyfish in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Jennifer E.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing changes at an unprecedented rate because of global climate change. Especially poorly-studied in arctic waters are the gelatinous zooplankton, which are difficult to study using traditional oceanographic methods. A distinct zooplanktivore community was characterized in the surface 100 m by use of a Remotely Operated Vehicle, net collections, and SCUBA diving. The large scyphomedusa, Chrysaora melanaster, was associated with the warm Pacific water at ˜35-75 m depth. A diverse ctenophore community lived mainly above the C. melanaster layer, including Dryodora glandula, a specialized predator of larvaceans, Beroe cucumis, a predator of other ctenophores, and the extremely fragile Bolinopsis infundibulum, which was the most abundant species. Gut content analyses showed that Mertensia ovum selectively consumed the largest copepods ( Calanus spp.) and amphipods ( Parathemisto libellula); B. infundibulum consumed smaller copepods and pteropods ( Limacina helicina). Large copepods were digested by M. ovum in ˜12 h at -1.5 to 0 °C, but by B. infundibulum in only ˜4 h. We estimated that M. ovum consumed an average of ˜2% d -1 of the Calanus spp. copepods and that B. infundibulum consumed ˜4% d -1 of copepods <3 mm prosome length. These are significant consumption rates given that Calanus spp. have life-cycles of 2 or more years and are eaten by vertebrates including bowhead whales and arctic cod.

  14. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models: Global and Arctic Black Carbon Processes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mahmood, Rashed; von Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark

    2016-06-22

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region while Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with CanAM (NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonalmore » cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. The relative contribution of wet and dry deposition rates in removing BC varies seasonally and is one of the major factors causing seasonal variations in BC burdens in the Arctic. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform (layer) clouds whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.« less

  15. New Partnerships and Education Policy in Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassity, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Forming more effective partnerships with national governments in the Asia-Pacific region has been an important policy focus for the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) since 2006. AusAID is increasingly engaging in sector-wide approaches and working through partner government systems. This paper explores how new partnerships…

  16. NABOS-II Observational Program in the Arctic Ocean: New Perspectives and New Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V.; Polyakov, I.; Ashik, I. M.; Pnyushkov, A.; Alkire, M. B.; Repina, I.; Alexeev, V. A.; Waddington, I.; Kanzow, T.; Goszczko, I.; Rember, R.; Artamonov, A.

    2016-02-01

    NABOS-II observational program was launched in 2013 on the basis of new knowledge obtained during NABOS (=Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observations System) project back in 2000s. Up to now two large scale expeditions in the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean were carried out in framework of NABOS-II: in 2013 and in 2015. These field studies were conducted by International Arctic Research Center (IARC) University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA in partnership with Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) St.Petersburg Russia. The main goal of the NABOS-II project is to provide quantitative assessment of circulation and water mass transformation along the principal pathways transporting water from the Nordic Seas to the Arctic Basin under conditions of substantially reduced summer ice cover. Reduced sea ice causes changes in the water column and in the overlying atmosphere. Documenting of these changes was the main target of the NABOS-II cruises. The scope of this goal and the opportunities of extended scientific research in the Arctic, provided during NABOS expeditions, encouraged scientific institutions from the USA, Europe and Asia to raise funds, contribute to the cruise program and to send their personnel to expeditions, thus giving them a true multidisciplinary status. The ambitious mission of collecting a two year long time series of hydrographic data at 6 moorings along 126E meridian from the upper slope (250 m depth) to the deep basin (3900 m depth) in the Laptev Sea was successfully accomplished in 2015. The collected data are truly unique, since they shed new light on the structure and spatio-temporal variability of water properties and transports in the Lapev Sea, which is the key region for understanding of interaction between Atlantic water branches. This presentation describes preliminary results of performed analysis.

  17. NABOS-II Observational Program in the Arctic Ocean: New Perspectives and new Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Polyakov, Igor; Ashik, Igor; Pnyushkov, Andrey; Alkire, Matthew; Repina, Irina; Alexeev, Vladimir; Waddington, Ian; Kanzow, Torsten; Rember, Robert; Artamonov, Alexander; Goszczko, Ilona

    2016-04-01

    NABOS-II observational program was launched in 2013 on the basis of new knowledge obtained during NABOS (=Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observations System) project back in 2000s. Up to now two large scale expeditions in the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean were carried out in framework of NABOS-II: in 2013 and in 2015. These field studies were conducted by International Arctic Research Center (IARC) University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA in partnership with Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) St.Petersburg Russia. The main goal of the NABOS-II project is to provide quantitative assessment of circulation and water mass transformation along the principal pathways transporting water from the Nordic Seas to the Arctic Basin under conditions of substantially reduced summer ice cover. Reduced sea ice causes changes in the water column and in the overlying atmosphere. Documenting of these changes was the main target of the NABOS-II cruises. The scope of this goal and the opportunities of extended scientific research in the Arctic, provided during NABOS expeditions, encouraged scientific institutions from the USA, Europe and Asia to raise funds, contribute to the cruise program and to send their personnel to expeditions, thus giving them a true multidisciplinary status. The ambitious mission of collecting a two year long time series of hydrographic data at 6 moorings along 126E meridian from the upper slope (250 m depth) to the deep basin (3900 m depth) in the Laptev Sea was successfully accomplished in 2015. The collected data are truly unique, since they shed new light on the structure and spatio-temporal variability of water properties and transports in the Lapev Sea, which is the key region for understanding of interaction between Atlantic water branches. This presentation describes preliminary results of performed analysis.

  18. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  19. GCM simulations of intraseasonal variability in the Pacific/North American region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max; Park, Chung-Kyu; Moorthi, Shrinivas

    1993-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) simulations of low-frequency variability with time scales of 20 to 70 days are analyzed for the Pacific sector during boreal winter. The GCM's leading mode in the upper-tropospheric zonal wind is associated with fluctuations of the East Asian jet; this mode resembles, in both structure and amplitude, the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern found in the observations on these time scales. In both the model and observations, the PNA anomaly is characterized by: (1) a linear balance in the upper-tropospheric vorticity budget with no significant Rossby wave source in the tropics, (2) a barotropic conversion of kinetic energy from the time mean Pacific jet, and (3) a north/south displacement of the Pacific storm track. In the GCM, the latter is associated with synoptic eddy heat flux and latent heat anomalies that appear to contribute to a strong lower-tropospheric source of wave activity over the North Pacific. This is in contrast to the observations, which show only a weak source of wave activity in this region.

  20. The Increase of the Ice-free Season as Further Indication of the Rapid Decline of the Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, J.

    2008-12-01

    The unprecedented depletion of sea ice in large sectors of the Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2007 has been the subject of many publications which highlight the spectacular disappearance of the sea ice at the time of minimum ice cover or emphasise the losses at very high latitudes. However, minimum values can be strongly affected by specific circumstances occurring in a comparatively short time interval. The unusually clear skies and the presence of a particular wind pattern over the Arctic Ocean may partly explain the record minimum attained in September 2007. In this contribution, instead of limiting ourselves to the September minimum or the March maximum, we consider the ice conditions throughout the year, opting for a less used, and hopefully more convenient approach. We chose as variables to describe the evolution of the sea ice situation in the Arctic Ocean and peripheral seas in the 1979-2007 period the length of the ice- free season (LIFS) and the inverse sea ice index (ISII). The latter is a quantity that measures the degree of absence of sea ice in a year and varies between zero (when there is a perennial ice cover) and one (when there is open water all year round). We used sea ice concentration data obtained from passive microwave satellite imagery and processed with the Bootstrap algorithm for the SMMR and SSM/I periods, and with the Enhanced NASA Team algorithm for the AMSR-E period. From a linear fit of the observed data, we found that the average LIFS in the Arctic went from 118 days in the late 1970s to 148 days in 2006, which represents an average rate of increase of 1.1 days/year. In the period 2001-2007 the LIFS increased monotonically at an average rate of 5.5 days/year, in good agreement with the general consensus that the Arctic sea ice is currently in an accelerated decline. We also found that 2007 was the longest ice- free season on record (168 days). The ISII also reached a maximum in 2007 . We also investigated what happened at the regional

  1. Bering Sea Nd isotope records of North Pacific Intermediate Water circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbat, C.; Knudson, K. P.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) is the primary water mass associated with Pacific meridional overturning circulation. While the relationship between Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and climate has been extensively studied, a lack of suitable sediment cores has limited past investigations of North Pacific climate and NPIW variability. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1342 (818 m water depth) on Bower's Ridge in the Bering Sea is located at a sensitive depth for detecting changes in NPIW, and it is the only available sub-arctic North Pacific site that offers long, continuous core recovery, relatively high sedimentation rates, excellent foraminifera preservation, and a well-constrained age model over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Previous work at Site U1342 from Knudson and Ravelo (2015), using non-quantitative circulation proxies, provides evidence for enhanced NPIW formation during extreme glacials associated with the closure of the Bering Strait and suggest that NPIW was formed locally within the Bering Sea. Our work builds on the potential importance of these results and applies more robust and potentially quantitative circulation proxies to constrain NPIW variability. Here, we present new records of NPIW circulation from Site U1342 based on Nd isotope analyses on fish debris and Fe-Mn encrusted foraminifera, which serve as semi-quantitative "water mass tracers." Weak Bering Sea NPIW formation and ventilation are reflected by relatively lower eNd values indicative of open subarctic North Pacific waters, which are presently predominant, whereas enhanced Bering Sea NPIW formation and ventilation are be reflected by relatively higher eNd values due to the input of Nd from regional volcanic rocks.

  2. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change—A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary Arctic Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Eicken, H.; Fox, S. E.; Search Science Steering Committee

    2010-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a multi-agency effort to understand system-scale arctic change. Interrelated environmental changes in the Arctic are affecting ecosystems and living resources and are impacting local and global communities. The SEARCH program is guided by the Science Steering Committee (SSC), the Interagency Program Management Committee (IPMC), and focused panels. Over 150 projects and activities contribute to SEARCH implementation. The Observing Change component is underway through the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Arctic Observing Network (AON), NOAA-sponsored atmospheric and sea ice observations, and other relevant national and international efforts. The Understanding Change component of SEARCH consists of modeling and analysis efforts, with strong linkages to relevant programs such as NSF’s Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. The SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (http://www.arcus.org/search/seaiceoutlook/index.php) is an "Understanding Change" synthesis effort that aims to advance our understanding of the arctic sea ice system. The Responding to Change element currently includes initial planning efforts by the International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC) program as well as a newly-launched "Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook," which is a weekly report of sea ice conditions geared to Alaska Native walrus subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others interested in sea ice and walrus (http://www.arcus.org/search/siwo). SEARCH is sponsored by eight U.S. agencies, including: the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of the Interior (DOI), the Smithsonian Institution, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The U.S. Arctic Research Commission participates as an IPMC observer. For further information, please visit the website: http

  3. Emergent Behavior of Arctic Precipitation in Response to Enhanced Arctic Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Feldl, Nicole; Lintner, Benjamin R.

    2018-03-01

    Amplified warming of the high latitudes in response to human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases has already been observed in the historical record and is a robust feature evident across a hierarchy of model systems, including the models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The main aims of this analysis are to quantify intermodel differences in the Arctic amplification (AA) of the global warming signal in CMIP5 RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) simulations and to diagnose these differences in the context of the energy and water cycles of the region. This diagnosis reveals an emergent behavior between the energetic and hydrometeorological responses of the Arctic to warming: in particular, enhanced AA and its associated reduction in dry static energy convergence is balanced to first order by latent heating via enhanced precipitation. This balance necessitates increasing Arctic precipitation with increasing AA while at the same time constraining the magnitude of that precipitation increase. The sensitivity of the increase, 1.25 (W/m2)/K ( 240 (km3/yr)/K), is evident across a broad range of historical and projected AA values. Accounting for the energetic constraint on Arctic precipitation, as a function of AA, in turn informs understanding of both the sign and magnitude of hydrologic cycle changes that the Arctic may experience.

  4. Assessing the role of solar radiation in heating, photosynthesis, and photo-oxidation in upper Arctic Ocean waters via autonomous buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, V. J.; Steele, M.; Light, B.

    2016-02-01

    As part of the Arctic Observing Network, a new ice-tethered buoy has been developed for monitoring the role of sunlight in regulating ocean temperature, phytoplankton growth, and carbon cycling. A 20 or 50 m string (depending on local bathymetry) supports sensors both within and below the ice for the hourly measurement of downwelling irradiance, temperature, Chlorophyll a, light backscattering, and dissolved organic material (DOM). Two buoys were deployed in March 2014 and two in March 2015. Because the buoys are engineered to survive melting out of first year ice, they have successfully provided complete seasonal records of water column warming, phytoplankton abundance and photo-oxidation patterns in the Pacific Arctic Region. The data collected will be used to determine whether reduced ice extent and thinner ice are driving increases in under ice warming, accelerating bottom ice ablation, increasing available photosynthetic radiation to support large under ice blooms, and to quantify photo-oxidation of the DOM pool. Observations so far have revealed strong under ice daily warming as high as ±0.5 °C driven by local solar radiation. Water column absorption was dominated by colored dissolved organic material which served to trap solar radiation in the upper water column. Chlorophyll concentrations observed in June and July indicated high phytoplankton abundance beneath the ice. Light intensity at this time was not sufficient to support growth rates high enough to produce the 8 to 10 mg m-3 of chlorophyll observed. We hypothesize that phytoplankton were advected under the ice from the ice edge. However, once there phytoplankton were able to sustain low growth rates leading to nutrient limitation before open water status was reached. Strong daily cycles of photo-oxidation have also been observed in the late summer that indicate the fast cycling of highly labile DOM in the open waters of the Pacific Arctic Region.

  5. Storm-driven Mixing and Potential Impact on the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiayan; Comiso, Josefino; Walsh, David; Krishfield, Richard; Honjo, Susumu; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the ocean, atmosphere, and ice made by Ice-Ocean Environmental Buoys (IOEBs) indicate that mixing events reaching the depth of the halocline have occurred in various regions in the Arctic Ocean. Our analysis suggests that these mixing events were mechanically forced by intense storms moving across the buoy sites. In this study, we analyzed these mixing events in the context of storm developments that occurred in the Beaufort Sea and in the general area just north of Fram Strait, two areas with quite different hydrographic structures. The Beaufort Sea is strongly influenced by inflow of Pacific water through Bering Strait, while the area north of Fram Strait is directly affected by the inflow of warm and salty North Atlantic water. Our analyses of the basin-wide evolution of the surface pressure and geostrophic wind fields indicate that the characteristics of the storms could be very different. The buoy-observed mixing occurred only in the spring and winter seasons when the stratification was relatively weak. This indicates the importance of stratification, although the mixing itself was mechanically driven. We also analyze the distribution of storms, both the long-term climatology as well as the patterns for each year in the last two decades. The frequency of storms is also shown to be correlated- (but not strongly) to Arctic Oscillation indices. This study indicates that the formation of new ice that leads to brine rejection is unlikely the mechanism that results in the type of mixing that could overturn the halocline. On the other hand, synoptic-scale storms can force mixing deep enough to the halocline and thermocline layer. Despite a very stable stratification associated with the Arctic halocline, the warm subsurface thermocline water is not always insulated from the mixed layer.

  6. Arctic Security Considerations and the U.S. Navy’s Roadmap for the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    observed in the sea, in the air, and on land. Indigenous Arctic people are facing relocation and loss of communities as sea-ice melt causes increased...sea-ice melting associated with global climate change has caused leadersfrom the United States and the international community to reconsider the...of the Navy as a valued partner by the joint, interagency, and international communities . THE CHANGING ARCTIC ENVIRONMENT The Arctic has long been a

  7. Influence of SST anomalies in low latitudes on atmospheric heat transport to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Genrikh; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Glok, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the influence of SST anomalies in the low latitudes of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans to climatic change of the winter atmospheric meridional heat transport (MAHT) to the Arctic and to propose the mechanisms of this influence. Estimates of sensible and latent heat transport to the Arctic through the "Atlantic Gate" at 70 ° N in winter (December-February) 1980-2015 fulfilled on base ERA / Interim and monthly SST from HadISST were used. Multi-dimensional cross-correlation analysis was applied. The area and month in each ocean were found with maximal correlations between SST and winter MAHT. Mean SST in selected areas for each month of 1980-2015 were calculated and its correlations with MAHT were estimated. The correlation coefficients equal from 0.57 to 0.42, and after removing the noise increased up to 0.75 with MAHT lag from 27 to 30 months. The SST and MAHT series include together with positive trend the 5-7 years fluctuations. The mechanism of SST anomalies influence on winter MAHT to the Arctic includes the interaction of atmospheric (Hadley and Ferrel circulations, jet streams, NAO) and oceanic (Gulf Stream, the North Atlantic, the Norwegian currents) circulation patterns. To justify the proposed scheme the evaluation of the links between SST anomalies, the NAO index, the Atlantic water inflow to the Barents Sea, are investigated. The study is supported with RFBR project 15-05-03512.

  8. The Arctic-Subarctic Sea Ice System is Entering a Seasonal Regime: Implications for Future Arctic Amplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, T. W. N.; Martin, T.

    2017-12-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is a conspicuous example of climate change. Climate models project ice-free conditions during summer this century under realistic emission scenarios, reflecting the increase in seasonality in ice cover. To quantify the increased seasonality in the Arctic-Subarctic sea ice system, we define a non-dimensional seasonality number for sea ice extent, area, and volume from satellite data and realistic coupled climate models. We show that the Arctic-Subarctic, i.e. the northern hemisphere, sea ice now exhibits similar levels of seasonality to the Antarctic, which is in a seasonal regime without significant change since satellite observations began in 1979. Realistic climate models suggest that this transition to the seasonal regime is being accompanied by a maximum in Arctic amplification, which is the faster warming of Arctic latitudes compared to the global mean, in the 2010s. The strong link points to a peak in sea-ice-related feedbacks that occurs long before the Arctic becomes ice-free in summer.

  9. Arctic marine ecosystem contamination.

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Wagemann, R; Hargrave, B T; Thomas, D J; Peakall, D B; Norstrom, R J

    1992-07-15

    The current state of knowledge of levels, spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in the Arctic marine ecosystem varies greatly among pollutants and among environmental compartments. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and some heavy metals such as mercury and lead, in Arctic marine mammals and fish are relatively well documented because of the need for comparisons with biota in more polluted environments and interest in the contamination of native diets. Levels of heavy metals, alkanes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and OCs in the Arctic Ocean are comparable to uncontaminated ocean waters in the mid-latitudes. But concentrations of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) are higher in northern waters far removed from local sources, possibly because lower water temperature reduces transfer to the atmosphere. Bioaccumulation of OCs and heavy metals in Arctic marine food chains begins with epontic ice algae or phytoplankton in surface waters. Polychlorinated camphenes (PCC), PCBs, DDT- and chlordane-related compounds are the major OCs in marine fish, mammals and seabirds. Mean concentrations of most PCBs and OC pesticides in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations in the Canadian Arctic are quite similar indicating a uniform geographic distribution of contamination, although alpha-HCH showed a distinct latitudinal gradient in bears due to higher levels in zones influenced by continental runoff. Ringed seals from Spitzbergen have higher levels of PCBs, total DDT and polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDFs). In contrast to other OCs, PCDD/PCDFs in Canadian Arctic ringed seals and polar bears were higher in the east/central Arctic than at more southerly locations. Remarkably high cadmium levels are found in kidney and liver of narwhal (Monodons monoceros) from western Baffin Bay (mean of 63.5 micrograms g-1) and western Greenland waters (median of 39.5 micrograms g-1). Mercury

  10. The Arctic zone: possibilities and risks of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentsov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, Y.; Melnikovich, E.

    2016-09-01

    The authors analyze the Arctic region innovative possibilities from the perspective of political ideology and strategy. The Arctic region with its natural resources and high economic potential attracts many companies and it has become an important area of transnational development. At present, the Arctic region development is of great importance in terms of natural resource management and political system development. However, the most important development issue in the Arctic is a great risk of different countries’ competing interests in economic, political, and legal context. These are challenges for international partnership creating in the Arctic zone, Russian future model developing for the Arctic, and recognition of the Arctic as an important resource for the Russians. The Russian economic, military, and political expansion in the Arctic region has the potential to strengthen the national positions. The authors present interesting options for minimizing and eliminating political risks during the Arctic territories development and define an effective future planning model for the Russian Arctic.

  11. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Frederick, Jennifer M.; Thomas, Matthew Anthony; Bull, Diana L.

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible bymore » all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  12. Arctic Collaborative Environment: A New Multi-National Partnership for Arctic Science and Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, Charles A,; Kress, Martin P.; McCracken, Jeff E.; Spehn, Stephen L.; Tanner, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project is a new international partnership for information sharing to meet the challenges of addressing Arctic. The goal of ACE is to create an open source, web-based, multi-national monitoring, analysis, and visualization decision-support system for Arctic environmental assessment, management, and sustainability. This paper will describe the concept, system architecture, and data products that are being developed and disseminated among partners and independent users through remote access.

  13. The Intense Arctic Cyclone of Early August 2012: A Dynamically Driven Cyclogenesis Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosart, L. F.; Turchioe, A.; Adamchcik, E.

    2013-12-01

    warm sector of the developing cyclone over north-central Russia were indicative of the enhanced baroclinicity and instability in the cyclone warm sector and the ability of lower tropospheric warm-air advection to sustain deep ascent in the intensifying cyclone. The relative importance of dynamical versus thermodynamical forcing to the cyclogenesis process as well as the bulk upscale effects of the intense cyclone on the larger scale higher-latitude circulation and the distribution of sea ice will be discussed. A noteworthy aspect of the post-storm polar environment was the upscale growth of a midlevel cyclonic circulation to include most of the Arctic Ocean. The off-pole displacement of this midlevel cyclonic circulation toward northern Canada by mid-August may have contributed to the termination of the 2012 summer-long intensive heat wave over most of the continental United States.

  14. Arctic Sea Ice Classification and Mapping for Surface Albedo Parameterization in Sea Ice Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colón, P.; Perovich, D. K.; Polashenski, C.; Simpson, W. R.; Rigor, I. G.; Woods, J. E.; Nguyen, D. T.; Neumann, G.

    2016-12-01

    A regime shift of Arctic sea ice from predominantly perennial sea ice (multi-year ice or MYI) to seasonal sea ice (first-year ice or FYI) has occurred in recent decades. This shift has profoundly altered the proportional composition of different sea ice classes and the surface albedo distribution pertaining to each sea ice class. Such changes impacts physical, chemical, and biological processes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system. The drastic changes upset the traditional geophysical representation of surface albedo of the Arctic sea ice cover in current models. A critical science issue is that these profound changes must be rigorously and systematically observed and characterized to enable a transformative re-parameterization of key model inputs, such as ice surface albedo, to ice-ocean-atmosphere climate modeling in order to obtain re-analyses that accurately reproduce Arctic changes and also to improve sea ice and weather forecast models. Addressing this challenge is a strategy identified by the National Research Council study on "Seasonal to Decadal Predictions of Arctic Sea Ice - Challenges and Strategies" to replicate the new Arctic reality. We review results of albedo characteristics associated with different sea ice classes such as FYI and MYI. Then we demonstrate the capability for sea ice classification and mapping using algorithms developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and by the U.S. National Ice Center for use with multi-sourced satellite radar data at L, C, and Ku bands. Results obtained with independent algorithms for different radar frequencies consistently identify sea ice classes and thereby cross-verify the sea ice classification methods. Moreover, field observations obtained from buoy webcams and along an extensive trek across Elson Lagoon and a sector of the Beaufort Sea during the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) in March 2012 are used to validate satellite products of sea ice classes. This research enables the mapping

  15. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; ...

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  16. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-11-01

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is particularly needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This study develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30-65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow

  17. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  18. Shrub growth and expansion in the Arctic tundra: an assessment of controlling factors using an evidence-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Andrew C.; Jeffers, Elizabeth S.; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Myers-Smith, Isla; Macias-Fauria, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Woody shrubs have increased in biomass and expanded into new areas throughout the Pan-Arctic tundra biome in recent decades, which has been linked to a biome-wide observed increase in productivity. Experimental, observational, and socio-ecological research suggests that air temperature—and to a lesser degree precipitation—trends have been the predominant drivers of this change. However, a progressive decoupling of these drivers from Arctic vegetation productivity has been reported, and since 2010, vegetation productivity has also been declining. We created a protocol to (a) identify the suite of controls that may be operating on shrub growth and expansion, and (b) characterise the evidence base for controls on Arctic shrub growth and expansion. We found evidence for a suite of 23 proximal controls that operate directly on shrub growth and expansion; the evidence base focused predominantly on just four controls (air temperature, soil moisture, herbivory, and snow dynamics). 65% of evidence was generated in the warmest tundra climes, while 24% was from only one of 28 floristic sectors. Temporal limitations beyond 10 years existed for most controls, while the use of space-for-time approaches was high, with 14% of the evidence derived via experimental approaches. The findings suggest the current evidence base is not sufficiently robust or comprehensive at present to answer key questions of Pan-Arctic shrub change. We suggest future directions that could strengthen the evidence, and lead to an understanding of the key mechanisms driving changes in Arctic shrub environments.

  19. Tsunami in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, Evgueni; Medvedev, Igor; Ivaschenko, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    The severity of the climate and sparsely populated coastal regions are the reason why the Russian part of the Arctic Ocean belongs to the least studied areas of the World Ocean. In the same time intensive economic development of the Arctic region, specifically oil and gas industry, require studies of potential thread natural disasters that can cause environmental and technical damage of the coastal and maritime infrastructure of energy industry complex (FEC). Despite the fact that the seismic activity in the Arctic can be attributed to a moderate level, we cannot exclude the occurrence of destructive tsunami waves, directly threatening the FEC. According to the IAEA requirements, in the construction of nuclear power plants it is necessary to take into account the impact of all natural disasters with frequency more than 10-5 per year. Planned accommodation in the polar regions of the Russian floating nuclear power plants certainly requires an adequate risk assessment of the tsunami hazard in the areas of their location. Develop the concept of tsunami hazard assessment would be based on the numerical simulation of different scenarios in which reproduced the hypothetical seismic sources and generated tsunamis. The analysis of available geological, geophysical and seismological data for the period of instrumental observations (1918-2015) shows that the highest earthquake potential within the Arctic region is associated with the underwater Mid-Arctic zone of ocean bottom spreading (interplate boundary between Eurasia and North American plates) as well as with some areas of continental slope within the marginal seas. For the Arctic coast of Russia and the adjacent shelf area, the greatest tsunami danger of seismotectonic origin comes from the earthquakes occurring in the underwater Gakkel Ridge zone, the north-eastern part of the Mid-Arctic zone. In this area, one may expect earthquakes of magnitude Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0 at a rate of 10-2 per year and of magnitude Mw ˜ 7.5 at a

  20. 800,000 Years of Arctic Climate Variability: Insights from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, I. S.; Habicht, H.; Patterson, M. O.; Burns, S. J.; Deconto, R. M.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    2017-12-01

    The regional response of the high Arctic to past climate variability is little known prior to 100,000 years ago. In 2009, a 3.6 Ma sediment core was recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn (Russia), the largest and oldest unglaciated Arctic lake basin. These sediments offer a unique opportunity to examine Plio-Pleistocene high-latitude continental climate variability. Determining the magnitude of past Arctic temperature and precipitation variability is especially relevant to understanding the mechanisms and feedbacks contributing to arctic amplification. Here we present results of ongoing organic geochemical analyses of Lake El'gygytgyn sediments focusing on the past 800,000 years. We use the methylation and cyclization index of branched tetraethers (MBT'/CBT) to reconstruct past temperature (Weijers et al., 2007; Peterse et al., 2012; De Jonge et al., 2014) and ratios of plant leaf waxes to examine vegetation variability within the lake catchment. In addition, algal biomarkers and bulk carbon isotopes provide insights into past changes in primary productivity. Trends noted in the MBT'/CBT record are in close agreement with pollen-based temperature estimates throughout the entire core and reveal a strong response to interglacial-glacial variability as well as local summer insolation. Our temperature reconstructions indicate the terrestrial Arctic experienced both warm interglacials and mild glacial periods during the Mid-Pleistocene but transitioned to more extreme temperature fluctuations in the more recent part of the record. Plant leaf wax average chain lengths suggest that glacial intervals were marked by increased aridity, while interglacial periods were wetter at Lake El'gygytgyn. Time-series analysis of the organic geochemical temperature and vegetation reconstructions records revealed variability at precession and obliquity frequencies, respectively. We also find a signal of the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) recorded in numerous Lake El'gygytgyn proxy records. Pre- and

  1. Arctic in Rapid Transition: Priorities for the future of marine and coastal research in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Kirstin; Fritz, Michael; Morata, Nathalie; Keil, Kathrin; Pavlov, Alexey; Peeken, Ilka; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Findlay, Helen S.; Kędra, Monika; Majaneva, Sanna; Renner, Angelika; Hendricks, Stefan; Jacquot, Mathilde; Nicolaus, Marcel; O'Regan, Matt; Sampei, Makoto; Wegner, Carolyn

    2016-09-01

    Understanding and responding to the rapidly occurring environmental changes in the Arctic over the past few decades require new approaches in science. This includes improved collaborations within the scientific community but also enhanced dialogue between scientists and societal stakeholders, especially with Arctic communities. As a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARPIII), the Arctic in Rapid Transition (ART) network held an international workshop in France, in October 2014, in order to discuss high-priority requirements for future Arctic marine and coastal research from an early-career scientists (ECS) perspective. The discussion encompassed a variety of research fields, including topics of oceanographic conditions, sea-ice monitoring, marine biodiversity, land-ocean interactions, and geological reconstructions, as well as law and governance issues. Participants of the workshop strongly agreed on the need to enhance interdisciplinarity in order to collect comprehensive knowledge about the modern and past Arctic Ocean's geo-ecological dynamics. Such knowledge enables improved predictions of Arctic developments and provides the basis for elaborate decision-making on future actions under plausible environmental and climate scenarios in the high northern latitudes. Priority research sheets resulting from the workshop's discussions were distributed during the ICARPIII meetings in April 2015 in Japan, and are publicly available online.

  2. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change--A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary, Long-term Arctic Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Schlosser, P.; Loring, A. J.; Warnick, W. K.; Committee, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a multi-agency effort to observe, understand, and guide responses to changes in the arctic system. Interrelated environmental changes in the Arctic are affecting ecosystems and living resources and are impacting local and global communities and economic activities. Under the SEARCH program, guided by the Science Steering Committee (SSC), the Interagency Program Management Committee (IPMC), and the Observing, Understanding, and Responding to Change panels, scientists with a variety of expertise--atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, hydrology and cryosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, human dimensions, and paleoclimatology--work together to achieve goals of the program. Over 150 projects and activities contribute to SEARCH implementation. The Observing Change component is underway through National Science Foundation's (NSF) Arctic Observing Network (AON), NOAA-sponsored atmospheric and sea ice observations, and other relevant national and international efforts, including the EU- sponsored Developing Arctic Modelling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies (DAMOCLES) Program. The Understanding Change component of SEARCH consists of modeling and analysis efforts, with strong linkages to relevant programs such as NSF's Arctic System Synthesis (ARCSS) Program. The Responding to Change element is driven by stakeholder research and applications addressing social and economic concerns. As a national program under the International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC), SEARCH is also working to expand international connections in an effort to better understand the global arctic system. SEARCH is sponsored by eight (8) U.S. agencies, including: the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of the Interior (DOI), the Smithsonian

  3. Arctic tipping points in an Earth system perspective.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Paul; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    We provide an introduction to the volume The Arctic in the Earth System perspective: the role of tipping points. The terms tipping point and tipping element are described and their role in current science, general debates, and the Arctic are elucidated. From a wider perspective, the volume focuses upon the role of humans in the Arctic component of the Earth system and in particular the envelope for human existence, the Arctic ecosystems. The Arctic climate tipping elements, the tipping elements in Arctic ecosystems and societies, and the challenges of governance and anticipation are illuminated through short summaries of eight publications that derive from the Arctic Frontiers conference in 2011 and the EU FP7 project Arctic Tipping Points. Then some ideas based upon resilience thinking are developed to show how wise system management could ease pressures on Arctic systems in order to keep them away from tipping points.

  4. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  5. Collaboration for Actionable Climate Science in Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keener, V. W.; Grecni, Z. N.; Helweg, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) encompass more than 2000 islands spread across millions of square miles of ocean. Islands can be high volcanic or low atolls, and vary widely in terms of geography, climate, ecology, language, culture, economies, government, and vulnerability to climate change impacts. For these reasons, meaningful collaboration across research groups and climate organizations is not only helpful, it is mandatory. No single group can address all the needs of every island, stakeholder, or sector, which has led to close collaboration and leveraging of research in the region to fill different niches. The NOAA-funded Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences & Assessments (RISA) program, DOI Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC), and the DOI LCC the Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative (PICCC) all take a stakeholder oriented approach to climate research, and have successfully collaborated on both specific projects and larger initiatives. Examples of these collaborations include comprising the core team of the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA), the regional arm of the US National Climate Assessment, co-sponsoring a workshop on regional downscaling for scientists and managers, leveraging research projects across multiple sectors on a single island, collaborating on communication products such as handouts and websites to ensure a consistent message, and in the case of the Pacific RISA and the PICSC, jointly funding a PIRCA Sustained Assessment Specialist position. Barriers to collaboration have been around topics such as roles of research versus granting groups, perceived research overlap, and funding uncertainties. However, collaborations have been overwhelming positive in the Pacific Islands region due to communication, recognition of partners' strengths and expertise, and especially because of the "umbrella" organization and purpose provided by the PIRCA structure, which provides a shared platform for all

  6. Detecting and Understanding Changing Arctic Carbon Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Warming in the Arctic has proceeded faster than anyplace on Earth. Our current understanding of biogeochemistry suggests that we can expect feedbacks between climate and carbon in the Arctic. Changes in terrestrial fluxes of carbon can be expected as the Arctic warms, and the vast stores of organic carbon frozen in Arctic soils could be mobilized to the atmosphere, with possible significant impacts on global climate. Quantifying trends in Arctic carbon exchanges is important for policymaking because greater reductions in anthropogenic emissions may be required to meet climate goals. Observations of greenhouse gases in the Arctic and globally have been collected for several decades. Analysis of this data does not currently support significantly changed Arctic emissions of CH4, however it is difficult to detect changes in Arctic emissions because of transport from lower latitudes and large inter-annual variability. Unfortunately, current space-based remote sensing systems have limitations at Arctic latitudes. Modeling systems can help untangle the Arctic budget of greenhouse gases, but they are dependent on underlying prior fluxes, wetland distributions and global anthropogenic emissions. Also, atmospheric transport models may have significant biases and errors. For example, unrealistic near-surface stability can lead to underestimation of emissions in atmospheric inversions. We discuss our current understanding of the Arctic carbon budget from both top-down and bottom-up approaches. We show that current atmospheric inversions agree well on the CH4 budget. On the other hand, bottom-up models vary widely in their predictions of natural emissions, with some models predicting emissions too large to be accommodated by the budget implied by global observations. Large emissions from the shallow Arctic ocean are also inconsistent with atmospheric observations. We also discuss the sensitivity of the current atmospheric network to what is likely small, gradual increases in

  7. The Circumpolar Arctic vegetation map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Donald A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Einarsson, E.; Elvebakk, A.; Gould, W.A.; Katenin, A.E.; Kholod, S.S.; Markon, C.J.; Melnikov, E.S.; Moskalenko, N.G.; Talbot, S. S.; Yurtsev, B.A.; Bliss, L.C.; Edlund, S.A.; Zoltai, S.C.; Wilhelm, M.; Bay, C.; Gudjonsson, G.; Ananjeva, G.V.; Drozdov, D.S.; Konchenko, L.A.; Korostelev, Y.V.; Ponomareva, O.E.; Matveyeva, N.V.; Safranova, I.N.; Shelkunova, R.; Polezhaev, A.N.; Johansen, B.E.; Maier, H.A.; Murray, D.F.; Fleming, Michael D.; Trahan, N.G.; Charron, T.M.; Lauritzen, S.M.; Vairin, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Question: What are the major vegetation units in the Arctic, what is their composition, and how are they distributed among major bioclimate subzones and countries? Location: The Arctic tundra region, north of the tree line. Methods: A photo-interpretive approach was used to delineate the vegetation onto an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) base image. Mapping experts within nine Arctic regions prepared draft maps using geographic information technology (ArcInfo) of their portion of the Arctic, and these were later synthesized to make the final map. Area analysis of the map was done according to bioclimate subzones, and country. The integrated mapping procedures resulted in other maps of vegetation, topography, soils, landscapes, lake cover, substrate pH, and above-ground biomass. Results: The final map was published at 1:7 500 000 scale map. Within the Arctic (total area = 7.11 x 106 km 2), about 5.05 ?? 106 km2 is vegetated. The remainder is ice covered. The map legend generally portrays the zonal vegetation within each map polygon. About 26% of the vegetated area is erect shrublands, 18% peaty graminoid tundras, 13% mountain complexes, 12% barrens, 11% mineral graminoid tundras, 11% prostrate-shrub tundras, and 7% wetlands. Canada has by far the most terrain in the High Arctic mostly associated with abundant barren types and prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, whereas Russia has the largest area in the Low Arctic, predominantly low-shrub tundra. Conclusions: The CAVM is the first vegetation map of an entire global biome at a comparable resolution. The consistent treatment of the vegetation across the circumpolar Arctic, abundant ancillary material, and digital database should promote the application to numerous land-use, and climate-change applications and will make updating the map relatively easy. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  8. McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E. S.; Nolan, M.; McConnell, J.; Sigl, M.; Cherry, J.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored modern precipitation and ice core isotope ratios to better understand both modern and paleo climate in the Arctic. Paleoclimate reconstructions require an understanding of how modern synoptic climate influences proxies used in those reconstructions, such as water isotopes. Therefore we measured periodic precipitation samples at Toolik Lake Field Station (Toolik) in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan Arctic to determine δ18O and δ2H. We applied this multi-decadal local precipitation δ18O/temperature regression to ∼65 years of McCall Glacier (also in the Brooks Range) ice core isotope measurements and found an increase in reconstructed temperatures over the late-20th and early-21st centuries. We also show that the McCall Glacier δ18O isotope record is negatively correlated with the winter bidecadal North Pacific Index (NPI) climate oscillation. McCall Glacier deuterium excess (d-excess, δ2H - 8*δ18O) values display a bidecadal periodicity coherent with the NPI and suggest shifts from more southwestern Bering Sea moisture sources with less sea ice (lower d-excess values) to more northern Arctic Ocean moisture sources with more sea ice (higher d-excess values). Northern ice covered Arctic Ocean McCall Glacier moisture sources are associated with weak Aleutian Low (AL) circulation patterns and the southern moisture sources with strong AL patterns. Ice core d-excess values significantly decrease over the record, coincident with warmer temperatures and a significant reduction in Alaska sea ice concentration, which suggests that ice free northern ocean waters are increasingly serving as terrestrial precipitation moisture sources; a concept recently proposed by modeling studies and also present in Greenland ice core d-excess values during previous transitions to warm periods. This study also shows the efficacy and importance of using ice cores from Arctic valley glaciers in paleoclimate reconstructions.

  9. Identifying Priorities for International Arctic Research and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachold, V.; Hik, D.; Barr, S.

    2015-12-01

    The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) is a non-governmental, international scientific organization, founded in 1990 by representatives of national scientific organizations of the eight Arctic countries - Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia (at that time Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), Sweden and the United States of America. Over the past 25 years, IASC has evolved into the leading international science organization of the North and its membership today includes 23 countries involved in all aspects of Arctic research, including 15 non-Arctic countries (Austria, China, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). The Founding Articles committed IASC to pursue a mission of encouraging and facilitating cooperation in all aspects of Arctic research, in all countries engaged in Arctic research and in all areas of the Arctic region. IASC promotes and supports leading-edge multi-disciplinary research in order to foster a greater scientific understanding of the Arctic region and its role in the Earth system. IASC has organized three forward-looking conferences focused on international and interdisciplinary perspectives for advancing Arctic research cooperation and applications of Arctic knowledge. Indeed, the IASC Founding Articles call for IASC to host these conferences periodically in order to "review the status of Arctic science, provide scientific and technical advice, and promote cooperation and links with other national and international organizations." Through its members, including national science organizations and funding agencies from all countries engaged in Arctic research, IASC is uniquely placed to undertake this task. As an accredited observer on the Arctic Council, IASC is also in the position to introduce the outcome of its science planning efforts into the Arctićs main political body and to liaise with the Arctic Council Permanent

  10. Circumpolar Arctic vegetation mapping workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, D. A.; Markon, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The first Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Mapping Workshop was held in the historic village of Lakta on the outskirts of St. Petersburg, Russia, March 21-25, 1994. The primary goals of the workshop were to: (1) review the status of arctic vegetation mapping in the circumpolar countries and (2) develop a strategy for synthesizing and updating the existing information into a new series of maps that portray the current state of knowledge. Such products are important for a number of purposes, such as the international effort to understand the consequences of global change in Arctic regions, to predict the direction of future changes, and for informed planning of resource development in the Arctic.

  11. Role of Greenland meltwater in the changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Myers, Paul; Platov, Gennady; Bamber, Jonathan; Curry, Beth; Somavilla, Raquel

    2016-04-01

    Observational data show that the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system has been changing over the last two decades. Arctic change is manifest in the atypical behavior of the climate indices in the 21st century. Before the 2000s, these indices characterized the quasi-decadal variability of the Arctic climate related to different circulation regimes. Between 1948 and 1996, the Arctic atmospheric circulation alternated between anticyclonic circulation regimes and cyclonic circulation regimes with a period of 10-15 years. Since 1997, however, the Arctic has been dominated by an anticyclonic regime. Previous studies indicate that in the 20th century, freshwater and heat exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the sub-Arctic seas were self-regulated and their interactions were realized via quasi-decadal climate oscillations. What physical processes in the Arctic Ocean - sub-Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system are responsible for the observed changes in Arctic climate variability? The presented work is motivated by our hypothesis that in the 21st century, these quasi-decadal oscillations have been interrupted as a result of an additional freshwater source associated with Greenland Ice Sheet melt. Accelerating since the early 1990s, the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss exerts a significant impact on thermohaline processes in the sub-Arctic seas. Surplus Greenland freshwater, the amount of which is about a third of the freshwater volume fluxed into the region during the 1970s Great Salinity Anomaly event, can spread and accumulate in the sub-Arctic seas influencing convective processes there. It is not clear, however, whether Greenland freshwater can propagate into the interior convective regions in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas. In order to investigate the fate and pathways of Greenland freshwater in the sub-Arctic seas and to determine how and at what rate Greenland freshwater propagates into the convective regions, several numerical experiments using a passive tracer to

  12. Behavioral interactions of penned red and arctic foxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudzinski, D.R.; Graves, H.B.; Sargeant, A.B.; Storm, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Expansion of the geographical distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) into the far north tundra region may lead to competition between arctic (Alopex lagopus) and red foxes for space and resources. Behavioral interactions between red and arctic foxes were evaluated during 9 trials conducted in a 4.05-ha enclosure near Woodworth, North Dakota. Each trial consisted of introducing a male-female pair of arctic foxes into the enclosure and allowing them to acclimate for approximately a week before releasing a female red fox into the enclosure, followed by her mate a few days later. In 8 of 9 trials, red foxes were dominant over arctic foxes during encounters. Activity of the arctic foxes decreased upon addition of red foxes. Arctic foxes tried unsuccessfully to defend preferred den, resting, and feeding areas. Even though the outcome of competition between red and arctic foxes in the Arctic is uncertain, the more aggressive red fox can dominate arctic foxes in direct competition for den sites and other limited resources.

  13. Global warming and effects on the Arctic fox.

    PubMed

    Fuglei, Eva; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2008-01-01

    We predict the effect of global warming on the arctic fox, the only endemic terrestrial predatory mammals in the arctic region. We emphasize the difference between coastal and inland arctic fox populations. Inland foxes rely on peak abundance of lemming prey to sustain viable populations. In the short-term, warmer winters result in missed lemming peak years and reduced opportunities for successful arctic fox breeding. In the long-term, however, warmer climate will increase plant productivity and more herbivore prey for competitive dominant predators moving in from the south. The red fox has already intruded the arctic region and caused a retreat of the southern limit of arctic fox distribution range. Coastal arctic foxes, which rely on the richer and temporally stable marine subsidies, will be less prone to climate-induced resource limitations. Indeed, arctic islands, becoming protected from southern species invasions as the extent of sea ice is decreasing, may become the last refuges for coastal populations of Arctic foxes.

  14. Diversity of Arctic pelagic Bacteria with an emphasis on photoheterotrophs: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, D.; Humily, F.; Jeanthon, C.

    2014-06-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a unique marine environment with respect to seasonality of light, temperature, perennial ice cover, and strong stratification. Other important distinctive features are the influence of extensive continental shelves and its interactions with Atlantic and Pacific water masses and freshwater from sea ice melt and rivers. These characteristics have major influence on the biological and biogeochemical processes occurring in this complex natural system. Heterotrophic bacteria are crucial components of marine food webs and have key roles in controlling carbon fluxes in the oceans. Although it was previously thought that these organisms relied on the organic carbon in seawater for all of their energy needs, several recent discoveries now suggest that pelagic bacteria can depart from a strictly heterotrophic lifestyle by obtaining energy through unconventional mechanisms that are linked to the penetration of sunlight into surface waters. These photoheterotrophic mechanisms may play a significant role in the energy budget in the euphotic zone of marine environments. Modifications of light and carbon availability triggered by climate change may favor the photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Here we review advances in our knowledge of the diversity of marine photoheterotrophic bacteria and discuss their significance in the Arctic Ocean gained in the framework of the Malina cruise.

  15. Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory: A Virtual Organization for Transformative Research and Education on a Changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Hinzman, L.; Holland, M.; Murray, M. S.; Vörösmarty, C.; Loring, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    About the Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory The Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory concept, developed through a series of NSF-funded workshops and town hall meetings, is envisioned as a cyber-enabled, technical, organizational, and social-synthesis framework to foster: • Interactions among interdisciplinary experts and stakeholders • Integrated data analysis and modeling activities • Training and development of the arctic science community • Delivery of outreach, education, and policy-relevant resources Scientific Rationale The rapid rate of arctic change and our incomplete understanding of the arctic system present the arctic community with a grand scientific challenge and three related issues. First, a wealth of observations now exists as disconnected data holdings, which must be coordinated and synthesized to fully detect and assess arctic change. Second, despite great strides in the development of arctic system simulations, we still have incomplete capabilities for modeling and predicting the behavior of the system as a whole. Third, policy-makers, stakeholders, and the public are increasingly making demands of the science community for forecasts and guidance in mitigation and adaptation strategies. Collaboratory Components The Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory is organized around four integrated functions that will be established virtually as a distributed set of activities, but also with the advantage of existing facilities that could sponsor some of the identified activities. Community Network "Meeting Grounds:" The Collaboratory will link distributed individuals, organizations, and activities to enable collaboration and foster new research initiatives. Specific activities could include: an expert directory, social networking services, and virtual and face-to-face meetings. Data Integration, Synthesis, and Modeling Activities: The Collaboratory will utilize appropriate tools to enable the combination of data and models. Specific activities could include: a web

  16. Role of extratropical cyclones in the recently observed increase in poleward moisture transport into the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamil-Otero, Gian A.; Zhang, Jing; He, Juanxiong; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    Poleward atmospheric moisture transport (AMT) into the Arctic Ocean can change atmospheric moisture or water vapor content and cause cloud formation and redistribution, which may change downward longwave radiation and, in turn, surface energy budgets, air temperatures, and sea-ice production and melt. In this study, we found a consistently enhanced poleward AMT across 60°N since 1959 based on the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis. Regional analysis demonstrates that the poleward AMT predominantly occurs over the North Atlantic and North Pacific regions, contributing about 57% and 32%, respectively, to the total transport. To improve our understanding of the driving force for this enhanced poleward AMT, we explored the role that extratropical cyclone activity may play. Climatologically, about 207 extratropical cyclones move across 60°N into the Arctic Ocean each year, among which about 66 (32% of the total) and 47 (23%) originate from the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean, respectively. When analyzing the linear trends of the time series constructed by using a 20-year running window, we found a positive correlation of 0.70 between poleward yearly AMT and the integrated cyclone activity index (measurement of cyclone intensity, number, and duration). This shows the consistent multidecadal changes between these two parameters and may suggest cyclone activity plays a driving role in the enhanced poleward AMT. Furthermore, a composite analysis indicates that intensification and poleward extension of the Icelandic low and accompanying strengthened cyclone activity play an important role in enhancing poleward AMT over the North Atlantic region.

  17. Challenges of climate change: an Arctic perspective.

    PubMed

    Corell, Robert W

    2006-06-01

    Climate change is being experienced particularly intensely in the Arctic. Arctic average temperature has risen at almost twice the rate as that of the rest of the world in the past few decades. Widespread melting of glaciers and sea ice and rising permafrost temperatures present additional evidence of strong Arctic warming. These changes in the Arctic provide an early indication of the environmental and societal significance of global consequences. The Arctic also provides important natural resources to the rest of the world (such as oil, gas, and fish) that will be affected by climate change, and the melting of Arctic glaciers is one of the factors contributing to sea level rise around the globe. An acceleration of these climatic trends is projected to occur during this century, due to ongoing increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. These Arctic changes will, in turn, impact the planet as a whole.

  18. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Lyn N; Tulloch, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce. Decision-making factors and

  19. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lyn N; Tulloch, Jim

    2008-09-15

    This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies--such as incentives--for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce. Decision-making factors and

  20. The Role of the Indian Ocean Sector for Prediction of the Coupled Indo-Pacific System: Impact of Atmospheric Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackert, E. C.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Carton, J.; Murtugudde, R.; Arkin, P.; Evans, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Indian Ocean (IO) dynamics impact ENSO predictability by influencing wind and precipitation anomalies in the Pacific. To test if the upstream influence of the IO improves ENSO validation statistics, a combination of forced ocean, atmosphere, and coupled models are utilized. In one experiment, the full tropical Indo-Pacific region atmosphere is forced by observed interannual SST anomalies. In the other, the IO is forced by climatological SST. Differences between these two forced atmospheric model experiments spotlight a much richer wind response pattern in the Pacific than previous studies that used idealized forcing and simple linear atmospheric models. Weak westerlies are found near the equator similar to earlier literature. However, at initialization strong easterlies between 30 deg. S to 10 deg. S and 0 deg. N to 25 deg. N and equatorial convergence of the meridional winds across the entire Pacific are unique findings from this paper. The large-scale equatorial divergence west of the dateline and northeasterly-to-northwesterly cross-equatorial flow converging on the equator east of the dateline in the Pacific are generated from interannual IO SST coupling. In addition, off-equatorial downwelling curl impacts large-scale oceanic waves (i.e., Rossby waves reflect as western boundary Kelvin waves). After 3 months, these downwelling equatorial Kelvin waves propagate across the Pacific and strengthen the NINO3 SST. Eventually Bjerknes feedbacks take hold in the eastern Pacific which allows this warm anomaly to grow. Coupled forecasts for NINO3 SST anomalies for 1993-2014 demonstrate that including interannual IO forcing significantly improves predictions for 3-9 month lead times.

  1. The role of the Indian Ocean sector for prediction of the coupled Indo-Pacific system: Impact of atmospheric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackert, E. C.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Carton, J.; Murtugudde, R.; Arkin, P.; Evans, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indian Ocean (IO) dynamics impact ENSO predictability by influencing wind and precipitation anomalies in the Pacific. To test if the upstream influence of the IO improves ENSO validation statistics, a combination of forced ocean, atmosphere, and coupled models are utilized. In one experiment, the full tropical Indo-Pacific region atmosphere is forced by observed interannual SST anomalies. In the other, the IO is forced by climatological SST. Differences between these two forced atmospheric model experiments spotlight a much richer wind response pattern in the Pacific than previous studies that used idealized forcing and simple linear atmospheric models. Weak westerlies are found near the equator similar to earlier literature. However, at initialization strong easterlies between 30°S-10°S and 0°N-25°N and equatorial convergence of the meridional winds across the entire Pacific are unique findings from this paper. The large-scale equatorial divergence west of the dateline and northeasterly-to-northwesterly cross-equatorial flow converging on the equator east of the dateline in the Pacific are generated from interannual IO SST coupling. In addition, off-equatorial downwelling curl impacts large-scale oceanic waves (i.e., Rossby waves reflect as western boundary Kelvin waves). After 3 months, these downwelling equatorial Kelvin waves propagate across the Pacific and strengthen the NINO3 SST. Eventually Bjerknes feedbacks take hold in the eastern Pacific which allows this warm anomaly to grow. Coupled forecasts for NINO3 SST anomalies for 1993-2014 demonstrate that including interannual IO forcing significantly improves predictions for 3-9 month lead times.

  2. Arctic Logistics Information and Support: ALIAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.

    2004-12-01

    The ALIAS web site is a gateway to logistics information for arctic research, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, and created and maintained by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS). ALIAS supports the collaborative development and efficient use of all arctic logistics resources. It presents information from a searchable database, including both arctic terrestrial resources and arctic-capable research vessels, on a circumpolar scale. With this encompassing scope, ALIAS is uniquely valuable as a tool to promote and facilitate international collaboration between researchers, which is of increasing importance for vessel-based research due to the high cost and limited number of platforms. Users of the web site can identify vessels which are potential platforms for their research, examine and compare vessel specifications and facilities, learn about research cruises the vessel has performed in the past, and find contact information for scientists who have used the vessel, as well as for the owners and operators of the vessel. The purpose of this poster presentation is to inform the scientific community about the ALIAS website as a tool for planning arctic research generally, and particularly for identifying and contacting vessels which may be suitable for planned ship-based research projects in arctic seas.

  3. Arctic Messages: Arctic Research in the Vocabulary of Poets and Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsel, F.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic Messages is a series of prints created by a multidisciplinary team designed to build understanding and encourage dialogue about the changing Arctic ecosystems and the impacts on global weather patterns. Our team comprised of Arctic researchers, a poet, a visual artist, photographers and visualization experts set out to blend the vocabularies of our disciplines in order to provide entry into the content for diverse audiences. Arctic Messages is one facet of our broader efforts experimenting with mediums of communication able to provide entry to those of us outside scientific of fields. We believe that the scientific understanding of change presented through the languages art will speak to our humanity as well as our intellect. The prints combine poetry, painting, visualization, and photographs, drawn from the Arctic field studies of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments research team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The artistic team interviewed the scientists, read their papers and poured over their field blogs. The content and concepts are designed to portray the wonder of nature, the complexity of the science and the dedication of the researchers. Smith brings to life the intertwined connection between the research efforts, the ecosystems and the scientist's experience. Breathtaking photography of the research site is accompanied by Samsel's drawings and paintings of the ecosystem relationships and geological formations. Together they provide entry to the variety and wonder of life on the Arctic tundra and that resting quietly in the permafrost below. Our team has experimented with many means of presentation from complex interactive systems to quiet individual works. Here we are presenting a series of prints, each one based on a single thread of the research or the scientist's experience but containing intertwined relationships similar to the ecosystems they represent. Earlier interactive systems, while engaging, were not tuned to those seeking

  4. Collaborative Research: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gutowski, William J.

    This project developed and applied a regional Arctic System model for enhanced decadal predictions. It built on successful research by four of the current PIs with support from the DOE Climate Change Prediction Program, which has resulted in the development of a fully coupled Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) consisting of atmosphere, land-hydrology, ocean and sea ice components. An expanded RACM, a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), has been set up to include ice sheets, ice caps, mountain glaciers, and dynamic vegetation to allow investigation of coupled physical processes responsible for decadal-scale climate change and variability in the Arctic. RASMmore » can have high spatial resolution (~4-20 times higher than currently practical in global models) to advance modeling of critical processes and determine the need for their explicit representation in Global Earth System Models (GESMs). The pan-Arctic region is a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification. However, a system-level understanding of critical arctic processes and feedbacks needs further development. Rapid climate change has occurred in a number of Arctic System components during the past few decades, including retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, increased surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet, acceleration and thinning of outlet glaciers, reduced snow cover, thawing permafrost, and shifts in vegetation. Such changes could have significant ramifications for global sea level, the ocean thermohaline circulation and heat budget, ecosystems, native communities, natural resource exploration, and commercial transportation. The overarching goal of the RASM project has been to advance understanding of past and present states of arctic climate and to improve seasonal to decadal predictions. To do this the project has focused on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The three foci of this research are

  5. Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.

    2014-05-01

    The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to

  6. Advancing NOAA NWS Arctic Program Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva-Livezey, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M. C.; Meyers, J. C.; Churma, M.; Thoman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic require changes in the way the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) delivers hydrological and meteorological information to prepare the region's societies and indigenous population for emerging challenges. These challenges include changing weather patterns, changes in the timing and extent of sea ice, accelerated soil erosion due to permafrost decline, increasing coastal vulnerably, and changes in the traditional food supply. The decline in Arctic sea ice is opening new opportunities for exploitation of natural resources, commerce, tourism, and military interest. These societal challenges and economic opportunities call for a NOAA integrated approach for delivery of environmental information including climate, water, and weather data, forecasts, and warnings. Presently the NOAA Arctic Task Force provides leadership in programmatic coordination across NOAA line offices. National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide the foundational operational hydro-meteorological products and services in the Arctic. Starting in 2016, NOAA's NWS will work toward improving its role in programmatic coordination and development through assembling an NWS Arctic Task Team. The team will foster ties in the Arctic between the 11 NWS national service programs in climate, water, and weather information, as well as between Arctic programs in NWS and other NOAA line offices and external partners. One of the team outcomes is improving decision support tools for the Arctic. The Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) currently has more than 1100 registered users, including NOAA staff and technical partners. The tool has been available online since 2013 (http://nws.weather.gov/lcat/ ). The tool links trusted, recommended NOAA data and analytical capabilities to assess impacts of climate variability and climate change at local levels. A new capability currently being developed will

  7. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained <10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance.

  8. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change--A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary, Long-term Arctic Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Schlosser, P.; Fox, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a multi-agency effort to observe, understand, and guide responses to changes in the changing arctic system. Under the SEARCH program, guided by the Science Steering Committee (SSC), the Observing, Understanding, and Responding to Change panels, and the Interagency Program Management Committee (IPMC), scientists with a variety of expertise work together to achieve goals of the program. Over 150 projects and activities contribute to SEARCH implementation. The Observing Change component is underway through the NSF’s Arctic Observing Network (AON), NOAA-sponsored atmospheric and sea ice observations, and other relevant national and international efforts, including the EU-sponsored Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies (DAMOCLES) Program. The Understanding Change component of SEARCH consists of modeling and analysis efforts, including the Sea Ice Outlook project, an international effort to provide a community-wide summary of the expected September arctic sea ice minimum. The Understanding Change component also has strong linkages to programs such as the NSF Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. The Responding to Change element will be launched through stakeholder-focused research and applications addressing social and economic concerns. As a national program under the International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC), SEARCH is working to expand international connections. The State of the Arctic Conference (soa.arcus.org), to be held 16-19 March 2010 in Miami, will be a milestone activity of SEARCH and will provide an international forum for discussion of future research directions aimed toward a better understanding of the arctic system and its trajectory. SEARCH is sponsored by eight U.S. agencies that comprise the IPMC, including: the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space

  9. In Brief: Arctic Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    The 2009 annual update of the Arctic Report Card, issued on 22 October, indicates that “warming of the Arctic continues to be widespread, and in some cases dramatic. Linkages between air, land, sea, and biology are evident.” The report, a collaborative effort of 71 national and international scientists initiated in 2006 by the Climate Program Office of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), highlights several concerns, including a change in large-scale wind patterns affected by the loss of summer sea ice; the replacement of multiyear sea ice by first-year sea ice; warmer and fresher water in the upper ocean linked to new ice-free areas; and the effects of the loss of sea ice on Arctic plant, animal, and fish species. “Climate change is happening faster in the Arctic than any other place on Earth-and with wide-ranging consequences,” said NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco. “This year“s Arctic Report Card underscores the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas pollution and adapting to climate changes already under way.”

  10. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broad science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of current ARCUS science planning activities include: serving as the project office for the multi-agency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program and providing support to the related Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST), and serving as the Science Management Office for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. ARCUS' central educational activity is PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), an International Polar Year (IPY) program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. Additional science planning, educational, information, and outreach activities include the Witness the Arctic newsletter, the Arctic Visiting Speakers' Series, the ArcticInfo listserve, the Internet Media Archive (IMA), the annual Arctic Forum conference, and many others. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at www.arcus.org.

  11. A tale of two basins: An integrated physical and biological perspective of the deep Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhm, B. A.; Kosobokova, K. N.; Carmack, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    This review paper integrates the current knowledge, based on available literature, on the physical and biological conditions of the Amerasian and Eurasian basins (AB, EB) of the deep Arctic Ocean (AO) in a comparative fashion. The present day (Holocene) AO is a mediterranean sea that is roughly half continental shelf and half basin and ridge complex. Even more recently it is roughly two thirds seasonally and one third perennially ice-covered, thus now exposing a portion of basin waters to sunlight and wind. Basin boundaries and submarine ridges steer circulation pathways in overlying waters and limit free exchange in deeper waters. The AO is made integral to the global ocean by the Northern Hemisphere Thermohaline Circulation (NHTC) which drives Pacific-origin water (PW) through Bering Strait into the Canada Basin, and counter-flowing Atlantic-origin water (AW) through Fram Strait and across the Barents Sea into the Nansen Basin. As a framework for biogeography within the AO, four basic, large-scale circulation systems (with L > 1000 km) are noted; these are: (1) the large scale wind-driven circulation which forces the cyclonic Trans-Polar Drift from Siberia to the Fram Strait and the anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre in the southern Canada Basin; (2) the circulation of waters that comprise the halocline complex, composed largely of waters of Pacific and Atlantic origin that are modified during passage over the Bering/Chukchi and Barents/Siberian shelves, respectively; (3) the topographically-trapped Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) which carries AW cyclonically around the boundaries of the entire suite of basins, and (4) the very slow exchange of Arctic Ocean Deep Waters. Within the basin domain two basic water mass assemblies are observed, the difference between them being the absence or presence of PW sandwiched between Arctic Surface Waters (ASW) above and the AW complex below; the boundary between these domains is the Atlantic/Pacific halocline front. Both

  12. Chapter 3: Circum-Arctic mapping project: New magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaina, C.; Werner, S.C.; Saltus, R.; Maus, S.; Aaro, S.; Damaske, D.; Forsberg, R.; Glebovsky, V.; Johnson, Kevin; Jonberger, J.; Koren, T.; Korhonen, J.; Litvinova, T.; Oakey, G.; Olesen, O.; Petrov, O.; Pilkington, M.; Rasmussen, T.; Schreckenberger, B.; Smelror, M.

    2011-01-01

    New Circum-Arctic maps of magnetic and gravity anomalies have been produced by merging regional gridded data. Satellite magnetic and gravity data were used for quality control of the long wavelengths of the new compilations. The new Circum-Arctic digital compilations of magnetic, gravity and some of their derivatives have been analyzed together with other freely available regional and global data and models in order to provide a consistent view of the tectonically complex Arctic basins and surrounding continents. Sharp, linear contrasts between deeply buried basement blocks with different magnetic properties and densities that can be identified on these maps can be used, together with other geological and geophysical information, to refine the tectonic boundaries of the Arctic domain. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  13. Plate tectonic history of the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is outlined, and geological maps are provided for the Arctic during the mid-Cenozoic, later Cretaceous, late Jurassic, early Cretaceous, early Jurassic and late Devonian. It is concluded that Arctic basin history is moulded by the events of the following intervals: (1) continental collision and immediately subsequent rifting and ocean formation in the Devonian, and continental rifting ocean formation, rapid rotation of microcontinents, and another episode of collision in the latest Jurassic and Cretaceous. It is noted that Cenozoic Arctic basin formation is a smaller scale event superimposed on the late Mesozoic ocean basin.

  14. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2014-12-01

    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  15. Trends of Cyclone Characteristics in the Arctic and Their Patterns From Different Reanalysis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Matthias; Akperov, Mirseid; Rinke, Annette; Feser, Frauke; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2018-03-01

    Cyclones in the Arctic are detected and tracked in four different reanalysis data sets from 1981 to 2010. In great detail the spatial and seasonal patterns of changes are scrutinized with regards to their frequencies, depths, and sizes. We find common spatial patterns for their occurrences, with centers of main activity over the seas in winter, and more activity over land and over the North Pole in summer. The deep cyclones are more frequent in winter, and the number of weak cyclones peaks in summer. Overall, we find a good agreement of our tracking results across the different reanalyses. Regarding the frequency changes, we find strong decreases in the Barents Sea and along the Russian coast toward the North Pole and increases over most of the central Arctic Ocean and toward the Pacific in winter. Areas of increasing and decreasing frequencies are of similar size in winter. In summer there is a longish region of increase from the Laptev Sea toward Greenland, over the Canadian archipelago, and over some smaller regions west of Novaya Zemlya and over the Russia. The larger part of the Arctic experiences a frequency decrease. All the summer changes are found statistically unrelated to the winter patterns. In addition, the frequency changes are found unrelated to changes in cyclone depth and size. There is generally good agreement across the different reanalyses in the spatial patterns of the trend sign. However, the magnitudes of changes in a particular region may strongly differ across the data.

  16. Long-term Internal Variability of the Tropical Pacific Atmosphere-Ocean System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi Bordbar, Mohammad; Martin, Thomas; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2016-04-01

    The tropical Pacific has featured some remarkable trends during the recent decades such as an unprecedented strengthening of the Trade Winds, a strong cooling of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the eastern and central part, thereby slowing global warming and strengthening the zonal SST gradient, and highly asymmetric sea level trends with an accelerated rise relative to the global average in the western and a drop in the eastern part. These trends have been linked to an anomalously strong Pacific Walker Circulation, the major zonal atmospheric overturning cell in the tropical Pacific sector, but the origin of the strengthening is controversial. Here we address the question as to whether the recent decadal trends in the tropical Pacific atmosphere-ocean system are within the range of internal variability, as simulated in long unforced integrations of global climate models. We show that the recent trends are still within the range of long-term internal decadal variability. Further, such variability strengthens in response to enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations, which may further hinder detection of anthropogenic climate signals in that region.

  17. Warm Arctic-cold Siberia: comparing the recent and the early 20th-century Arctic warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Zolina, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The Warm Arctic-cold Siberia surface temperature pattern during recent boreal winter is suggested to be triggered by the ongoing decrease of Arctic autumn sea ice concentration and has been observed together with an increase in mid-latitude extreme events and a meridionalization of tropospheric circulation. However, the exact mechanism behind this dipole temperature pattern is still under debate, since model experiments with reduced sea ice show conflicting results. We use the early twentieth-century Arctic warming (ETCAW) as a case study to investigate the link between September sea ice in the Barents-Kara Sea (BKS) and the Siberian temperature evolution. Analyzing a variety of long-term climate reanalyses, we find that the overall winter temperature and heat flux trend occurs with the reduction of September BKS sea ice. Tropospheric conditions show a strengthened atmospheric blocking over the BKS, strengthening the advection of cold air from the Arctic to central Siberia on its eastern flank, together with a reduction of warm air advection by the westerlies. This setup is valid for both the ETCAW and the current Arctic warming period.

  18. Surveillance of infectious diseases in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bruce, M; Zulz, T; Koch, A

    2016-08-01

    This study reviews how social and environmental issues affect health in Arctic populations and describes infectious disease surveillance in Arctic Nations with a special focus on the activities of the International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) project. We reviewed the literature over the past 2 decades looking at Arctic living conditions and their effects on health and Arctic surveillance for infectious diseases. In regards to other regions worldwide, the Arctic climate and environment are extreme. Arctic and sub-Arctic populations live in markedly different social and physical environments compared to those of their more southern dwelling counterparts. A cold northern climate means people spending more time indoors, amplifying the effects of household crowding, smoking and inadequate ventilation on the person-to-person spread of infectious diseases. The spread of zoonotic infections north as the climate warms, emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens, the re-emergence of tuberculosis, the entrance of HIV into Arctic communities, the specter of pandemic influenza or the sudden emergence and introduction of new viral pathogens pose new challenges to residents, governments and public health authorities of all Arctic countries. ICS is a network of hospitals, public health agencies, and reference laboratories throughout the Arctic working together for the purposes of collecting, comparing and sharing of uniform laboratory and epidemiological data on infectious diseases of concern and assisting in the formulation of prevention and control strategies (Fig. 1). In addition, circumpolar infectious disease research workgroups and sentinel surveillance systems for bacterial and viral pathogens exist. The ICS system is a successful example of collaborative surveillance and research in an extreme environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Trend analysis of Arctic sea ice extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. E.; Barbosa, S. M.; Antunes, Luís; Rocha, Conceição

    2009-04-01

    The extent of Arctic sea ice is a fundamental parameter of Arctic climate variability. In the context of climate change, the area covered by ice in the Arctic is a particularly useful indicator of recent changes in the Arctic environment. Climate models are in near universal agreement that Arctic sea ice extent will decline through the 21st century as a consequence of global warming and many studies predict a ice free Arctic as soon as 2012. Time series of satellite passive microwave observations allow to assess the temporal changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. Much of the analysis of the ice extent time series, as in most climate studies from observational data, have been focussed on the computation of deterministic linear trends by ordinary least squares. However, many different processes, including deterministic, unit root and long-range dependent processes can engender trend like features in a time series. Several parametric tests have been developed, mainly in econometrics, to discriminate between stationarity (no trend), deterministic trend and stochastic trends. Here, these tests are applied in the trend analysis of the sea ice extent time series available at National Snow and Ice Data Center. The parametric stationary tests, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Phillips-Perron (PP) and the KPSS, do not support an overall deterministic trend in the time series of Arctic sea ice extent. Therefore, alternative parametrizations such as long-range dependence should be considered for characterising long-term Arctic sea ice variability.

  20. Beyond Thin Ice: Co-Communicating the Many Arctics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Francis, J. A.; Huntington, H.

    2015-12-01

    Science communication, typically defined as informing non-expert communities of societally relevant science, is persuaded by the magnitude and pace of scientific discoveries, as well as the urgency of societal issues wherein science may inform decisions. Perhaps nowhere is the connection between these facets stronger than in the marine and coastal Arctic where environmental change is driving advancements in our understanding of natural and socio-ecological systems while paving the way for a new assortment of arctic stakeholders, who generally lack adequate operational knowledge. As such, the Arctic provides opportunity to advance the role of science communication into a collaborative process of engagement and co-communication. To date, the communication of arctic change falls within four primary genres, each with particular audiences in mind. The New Arctic communicates an arctic of new stakeholders scampering to take advantage of unprecedented access. The Global Arctic conveys the Arctic's importance to the rest of the world, primarily as a regulator of lower-latitude climate and weather. The Intra-connected Arctic emphasizes the increasing awareness of the interplay between system components, such as between sea ice loss and marine food webs. The Transforming Arctic communicates the region's trajectory relative to the historical Arctic, acknowledging the impacts on indigenous peoples. The broad societal consensus on climate change in the Arctic as compared to other regions in the world underscores the opportunity for co-communication. Seizing this opportunity requires the science community's engagement with stakeholders and indigenous peoples to construct environmental change narratives that are meaningful to climate responses relative to non-ecological priorities (e.g., infrastructure, food availability, employment, or language). Co-communication fosters opportunities for new methods of and audiences for communication, the co-production of new interdisciplinary

  1. Exploring Arctic history through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ODP Leg 151 Shipboard Scientific Party

    During the brief Arctic summer of 1993, the Ocean Drilling Program's research vessel JOIDES Resolution recovered the first scientific drill cores from the eastern Arctic Ocean. Dodging rafts of pack ice shed from the Arctic ice cap, the science party sampled sediments north of 80°N latitude from the Yermak Plateau, as well as from sites in Fram Strait, the northeastern Greenland margin, and the Iceland Plateau (Figure 1).The sediments collected reveal the earliest history of the connection between the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans through the Nordic Seas. The region between Greenland and Norway first formed a series of isolated basins, sometimes with restricted deep circulation, that eventually joined and allowed deep and surface Arctic Ocean water to invade the region. A record was also retrieved that shows major glaciation in the region began about 2.5 m.y.a.

  2. Dynamical amplification of Arctic and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Genrikh; Ivanov, Nikolai; Kharlanenkova, Natalia; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Bobylev, Leonid; Gnatiuk, Natalia; Urazgildeeva, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is coupled with global climate system by the atmosphere and ocean circulation that provides a major contribution to the Arctic energy budget. Therefore increase of meridional heat transport under global warming can impact on its Arctic amplification. Contribution of heat transport to the recent warming in the Arctic, Northern Hemisphere and the globe are estimated on base of reanalysis data, global climate model data and proposed special index. It is shown that significant part of linear trend during last four decades in average surface air temperature in these areas can be attributed to dynamical amplification. This attribution keeps until 400 mb height with progressive decreasing. The Arctic warming is amplified also due to an increase of humidity and cloudiness in the Arctic atmosphere that follow meridional transport gain. From October to January the Arctic warming trends are amplified as a result of ice edge retreat from the Siberian and Alaska coast and the heating of expanded volume of sea water. This investigation is supported with RFBR project 15-05-03512.

  3. Size Variation and Recruitment of Macoma sp. in the Southern Chukchi Sea and Possible Implications of Seasonal Ocean Acidification in the Pacific Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goethel, C.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    Recent sea ice retreat and seawater warming in the Pacific Arctic are physical changes that can have direct impacts on benthic macrofaunal community composition and biomass. We used recent van Veen grab collections of the tellinid bivalves Macoma calcarea and M. moesta in July 2014 (n=84) and 2015 (n= 284), as well as historical length/weight data from the past twenty years, to follow changes in both size and recruitment of this genus at a highly productive station north of Bering Strait (UTN2; 67.05 N, 168.73 W). These bivalves are common benthic prey items for migrating walrus, bearded seals and diving seaducks, and this location is known to be a productive and biologically significant foraging hotspot. Since size and availability of prey items can affect the success of feeding bouts by benthivores, following the recruitment and size distributions of the benthic food base allows for a better understanding of potential feeding behaviors and shifts in response to biological changes. Clam lengths in 2014 ranged from 14 mm to 55 mm, with an average length of 25.8 mm, and clam lengths in 2015 ranged from 15 mm to 50 mm, with an average size of 21.3 mm. New recruitment is surmised based upon size trend changes within the 20-year data set. In addition, ongoing seasonal ocean acidification may be affecting shell growth and respiration rates, based upon results from on-going laboratory experiments using these Macoma sp.clams. This additional influence has the potential for altering size classes and faunal composition available to the foraging benthivores.

  4. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Fichot, Cédric G.; Kaiser, Karl; Hooker, Stanford B.; Amon, Rainer M. W.; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Walker, Sally A.; Benner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Continental runoff is a major source of freshwater, nutrients and terrigenous material to the Arctic Ocean. As such, it influences water column stratification, light attenuation, surface heating, gas exchange, biological productivity and carbon sequestration. Increasing river discharge and thawing permafrost suggest that the impacts of continental runoff on these processes are changing. Here, a new optical proxy was developed and implemented with remote sensing to determine the first pan-Arctic distribution of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and continental runoff in the surface Arctic Ocean. Retrospective analyses revealed connections between the routing of North American runoff and the recent freshening of the Canada Basin, and indicated a correspondence between climate-driven changes in river discharge and tDOM inventories in the Kara Sea. By facilitating the real-time, synoptic monitoring of tDOM and freshwater runoff in surface polar waters, this novel approach will help understand the manifestations of climate change in this remote region. PMID:23316278

  5. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Fichot, Cédric G; Kaiser, Karl; Hooker, Stanford B; Amon, Rainer M W; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Walker, Sally A; Benner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Continental runoff is a major source of freshwater, nutrients and terrigenous material to the Arctic Ocean. As such, it influences water column stratification, light attenuation, surface heating, gas exchange, biological productivity and carbon sequestration. Increasing river discharge and thawing permafrost suggest that the impacts of continental runoff on these processes are changing. Here, a new optical proxy was developed and implemented with remote sensing to determine the first pan-Arctic distribution of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and continental runoff in the surface Arctic Ocean. Retrospective analyses revealed connections between the routing of North American runoff and the recent freshening of the Canada Basin, and indicated a correspondence between climate-driven changes in river discharge and tDOM inventories in the Kara Sea. By facilitating the real-time, synoptic monitoring of tDOM and freshwater runoff in surface polar waters, this novel approach will help understand the manifestations of climate change in this remote region.

  6. The Effects of Spectral Nudging on Arctic Temperature and Precipitation Extremes as Produced by the Pan-Arctic WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisan, J. M.; Gutowski, W. J.; Higgins, M.; Cassano, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Pan-Arctic WRF (PAW) simulations produced using the 50-km wr50a domain developed for the fully-coupled Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) were found to produce deep atmospheric circulation biases over the northern Pacific Ocean, manifested in pressure, geopotential height, and temperature fields. Various remedies were unsuccessfully tested to correct these large biases, such as modifying the physical domain or using different initial/boundary conditions. Spectral (interior) nudging was introduced as a way of constraining the model to be more consistent with observed behavior. However, such control over numerical model behavior raises concerns over how much nudging may affect unforced variability and extremes. Strong nudging may reduce or filter out extreme events, since the nudging pushes the model toward a relatively smooth, large-scale state. The question then becomes - what is the minimum spectral nudging needed to correct the biases occurring on the RACM domain while not limiting PAW simulation of extreme events? To determine this, case studies were devised, using a six-member PAW ensemble on the RACM grid with varying spectral nudging strength. Two simulations were run, one in the cold season (January 2007) and one in a warm season (July 2007). Precipitation and 2-m temperature fields were extracted from the output and analyzed to determine how changing spectral nudging strength impacts both temporal and spatial temperature and precipitation extremes. The maximum and minimum temperatures at each point from among the ensemble members were examined, on the 95th confidence interval. The maximum and minimums over the simulation period will also be considered. Results suggest that there is a marked lack of sensitivity to the degrees of nudging. Moreover, it appears nudging strength can be considerably smaller than the standard strength and still produce reliably good simulations.

  7. Strategic Assessment for Arctic Observing, and the New Arctic Observing Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Lin, D. H.; Villarreal, S.; Quezada, A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various Arctic Observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess that progress. What data collection efforts are established or under way? Where? By whom? To help meet the strategic needs of SEARCH-AON, SAON, and related initiatives, a new resource has been released: the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org). This web mapping application covers the 'who', 'what', 'where', and 'when' of data collection sites - wherever marine or terrestrial data are collected. Hundreds of sites are displayed, providing an overview as well as details. Users can visualize, navigate, select, search, draw, print, and more. This application currently showcases a subset of observational activities and will become more comprehensive with time. The AOV is founded on principles of interoperability, with an emerging metadata standard and compatible web service formats, such that participating agencies and organizations can use the AOV tools and services for their own purposes. In this way, the AOV will complement other cyber-resources, and will help science planners, funding agencies, PI's, and others to: assess status, identify overlap, fill gaps, assure sampling design, refine network performance, clarify directions, access data, coordinate logistics, collaborate, and more to meet Arctic Observing goals.

  8. Activity of disaccharidases in arctic populations: evolutionary aspects disaccharidases in arctic populations.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrew; Vershubsky, Galina; Borinskaya, Svetlana; Sokolova, Maria; Nuvano, Vladislav

    2005-07-01

    Disorders of dietary sugar assimilation occur more often among native people of the Arctic then in temperate climate inhabitants. It is hypothesized that the limited variety of natural exogenous sugars in the Arctic, and their low content in the traditional diets of native northerners in accordance with a "protein-lipid" type of metabolism weakened selection, favoring diversity of disaccharidase enzymes.

  9. An Intensified Arctic Water Cycle? Trend Analysis of the Arctic System Freshwater Cycle: Observations and Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, M. A.; Adam, J. C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Serreze, M. C.; Hinzman, L. D.; Holland, M.; Shiklomanov, A.

    2007-12-01

    It is expected that a warming climate will be attended by an intensification of the global hydrological cycle. While there are signs of positive trends in several hydrological quantities emerging at the global scale, the scope, character, and quantitative significance of these changes are not well established. In particular, long-term increases in river discharge across Arctic Eurasia are assumed to represent such an intensification and have received considerable attention. Yet, no change in long-term annual precipitation across the region can be related with the discharge trend. Given linkages and feedbacks between the arctic and global climate systems, a more complete understanding of observed changes across northern high latitudes is needed. We present a working definition of an accelerated or intensified hydrological cycle and a synthesis of long-term (nominally 50 years) trends in observed freshwater stocks and fluxes across the arctic land-atmosphere-ocean system. Trend and significance measures from observed data are described alongside expectations of intensification based on GCM simulations of contemporary and future climate. Our domain of interest includes the terrestrial arctic drainage (including all of Alaska and drainage to Hudson Bay), the Arctic Ocean, and the atmosphere over the land and ocean domains. For the terrestrial Arctic, time series of spatial averages which are derived from station data and atmospheric reanalysis are available. Reconstructed data sets are used for quantities such as Arctic Ocean ice and liquid freshwater transports. Study goals include a comprehensive survey of past changes in freshwater across the pan-arctic and a set of benchmarks for expected changes based on an ensemble of GCM simulations, and identification of potential mechanistic linkages which may be examined with contemporary remote sensing data sets.

  10. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  11. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.; Creek, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. Founded in 1988 to serve as a forum for advancing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic, ARCUS synthesizes and disseminates scientific information on arctic research and educates scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS works closely with national and international stakeholders in advancing science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program for K-12 educators and researchers to work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Project Office for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  12. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, K. R.; Fox, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. Founded in 1988 to serve as a forum for advancing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic, ARCUS synthesizes and disseminates scientific information on arctic research and educates scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS works closely with national and international stakeholders in advancing science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program for K-12 educators and researchers to work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Project Office for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  13. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic science community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Coordination for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic.

  14. Physical and Optical/Radiative Properties of Arctic Aerosols: Potential Effects on Arctic Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Kinne, S. A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the abundance of light-scattering sulfuric acid (H2SO4/H2O) and light-absorbing black carbon aerosol (BCA) in Spring 1992 in the Arctic atmosphere by airborne in situ sampling with impactors, and measured particle sizes and morphologies by scanning electron microscopy. The mass of BCA in the Arctic troposphere is one percent of the total aerosol, reduced to one part in 104 in the stratosphere. A Mie algorithm permits the calculation of the optical properties of the various aerosol components, and an algorithm developed by Ackerman and Toon and modified to serve our needs lets us calculate the optical effects of the black carbon aerosol that is mixed internally with the sulfuric acid aerosol. It follows that the effect of internally-mixed BCA on the aerosol scattering and absorption properties depends on its location within the droplet. BCA concentrated near the droplet surface has a greater effect on absorption of solar radiation than does the same amount of BCA located near its center. Single scatter albedos of the combined system are omega(sub 0)=1.0 in the post-Pinatubo Arctic stratosphere, and as low as 0.94 in the troposphere. The aerosol has the potential to regionally warm the Arctic earth-atmosphere system, because of the high surface albedo of the snow-covered Arctic.

  15. NATO’s Future Role in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    iv Global Climate Change and Arctic Geopolitics............................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Russian Claims to the Arctic...13 1 Global Climate Change and Arctic Geopolitics Global climate change has a profound...explaining the effect of climate change in the Arctic and the consequences on regional security. Issues regarding territorial sovereignty will be

  16. Possible connections of the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice cover.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Winkler, Julie A; Zhou, Mingyu; Lenschow, Donald H; Li, Bingrui; Wang, Xianqiao; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-04-05

    Sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and a key indicator of climate change. A decreasing trend in Arctic sea-ice concentration is evident in recent years, whereas Antarctic sea-ice concentration exhibits a generally increasing trend. Various studies have investigated the underlying causes of the observed trends for each region, but possible linkages between the regional trends have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice concentration may be linked, at least partially, through interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Although evaluation of this hypothesis is constrained by the limitations of the sea-ice cover record, preliminary statistical analyses of one short-term and two long-term time series of observed and reanalysis sea-ice concentrations data suggest the possibility of the hypothesized linkages. For all three data sets, the leading mode of variability of global sea-ice concentration is positively correlated with the AMO and negatively correlated with the PDO. Two wave trains related to the PDO and the AMO appear to produce anomalous surface-air temperature and low-level wind fields in the two polar regions that contribute to the opposite changes in sea-ice concentration.

  17. Possible connections of the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice cover

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Winkler, Julie A.; Zhou, Mingyu; Lenschow, Donald H.; Li, Bingrui; Wang, Xianqiao; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and a key indicator of climate change. A decreasing trend in Arctic sea-ice concentration is evident in recent years, whereas Antarctic sea-ice concentration exhibits a generally increasing trend. Various studies have investigated the underlying causes of the observed trends for each region, but possible linkages between the regional trends have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice concentration may be linked, at least partially, through interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Although evaluation of this hypothesis is constrained by the limitations of the sea-ice cover record, preliminary statistical analyses of one short-term and two long-term time series of observed and reanalysis sea-ice concentrations data suggest the possibility of the hypothesized linkages. For all three data sets, the leading mode of variability of global sea-ice concentration is positively correlated with the AMO and negatively correlated with the PDO. Two wave trains related to the PDO and the AMO appear to produce anomalous surface-air temperature and low-level wind fields in the two polar regions that contribute to the opposite changes in sea-ice concentration. PMID:28378830

  18. ArcticDEM Validation and Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, S. G.; Howat, I.; Noh, M. J.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    ArcticDEM comprises a growing inventory Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) covering all land above 60°N. As of August, 2017, ArcticDEM had openly released 2-m resolution, individual DEM covering over 51 million km2, which includes areas of repeat coverage for change detection, as well as over 15 million km2 of 5-m resolution seamless mosaics. By the end of the project, over 80 million km2 of 2-m DEMs will be produced, averaging four repeats of the 20 million km2 Arctic landmass. ArcticDEM is produced from sub-meter resolution, stereoscopic imagery using open source software (SETSM) on the NCSA Blue Waters supercomputer. These DEMs have known biases of several meters due to errors in the sensor models generated from satellite positioning. These systematic errors are removed through three-dimensional registration to high-precision Lidar or other control datasets. ArcticDEM is registered to seasonally-subsetted ICESat elevations due its global coverage and high report accuracy ( 10 cm). The vertical accuracy of ArcticDEM is then obtained from the statistics of the fit to the ICESat point cloud, which averages -0.01 m ± 0.07 m. ICESat, however, has a relatively coarse measurement footprint ( 70 m) which may impact the precision of the registration. Further, the ICESat data predates the ArcticDEM imagery by a decade, so that temporal changes in the surface may also impact the registration. Finally, biases may exist between different the different sensors in the ArcticDEM constellation. Here we assess the accuracy of ArcticDEM and the ICESat registration through comparison to multiple high-resolution airborne lidar datasets that were acquired within one year of the imagery used in ArcticDEM. We find the ICESat dataset is performing as anticipated, introducing no systematic bias during the coregistration process, and reducing vertical errors to within the uncertainty of the airborne Lidars. Preliminary sensor comparisons show no significant difference post coregistration

  19. The role of policy in improving diets: experiences from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities food policy project.

    PubMed

    Thow, A M; Snowdon, W; Schultz, J T; Leeder, S; Vivili, P; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    There is global interest in using multisectoral policy approaches to improve diets, and reduce obesity and non-communicable disease. However, there has been ad hoc implementation, which in some sectors such as the economic sector has been very limited, because of the lack of quality evidence on potential costs and impacts, and the inherent challenges associated with cross-sectoral policy development and implementation. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities food policy project aimed to inform relevant policy development and implementation in Pacific Island countries. The project developed an innovative participatory approach to identifying and assessing potential policy options in terms of their effectiveness and feasibility. It also used policy analysis methodology to assess three policy initiatives to reduce fatty meat availability and four soft drink taxes in the region, in order to identify strategies for supporting effective policy implementation. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times.

    PubMed

    Young, Oran R

    2012-02-01

    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future.

  1. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation.

    PubMed

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (<0.6% to 5% of samples classified as late-generation hybrids). Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2-3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char.

  2. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation

    PubMed Central

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (<0.6% to 5% of samples classified as late-generation hybrids). Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2–3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char. PMID:26356310

  3. Sensitivity of Arctic carbon in a changing climate

    Treesearch

    A. David McGuire; Henry P. Huntington; Simon Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic has been warming rapidly in the past few decades. A key question is how that warming will affect the cycling of carbon (C) in the Arctic system. At present, the Arctic is a global sink for C. If that changes and the Arctic becomes a carbon source, global climate warming may speed up.

  4. High Arctic sea ice conditions influence marine birds wintering in Low Arctic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane Tranquilla, Laura; Hedd, April; Burke, Chantelle; Montevecchi, William A.; Regular, Paul M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Stapleton, Leslie Ann; Wilhelm, Sabina I.; Fifield, David A.; Buren, Alejandro D.

    2010-09-01

    Ocean climate change is having profound biological effects in polar regions. Such change can also have far-reaching downstream effects in sub-polar regions. This study documents an environmental relationship between High Arctic sea ice changes and mortality events of marine birds in Low Arctic coastal regions. During April 2007 and March 2009, hundreds of beached seabird carcasses and moribund seabirds were found along the east and northeast coasts of Newfoundland, Canada. These seabird "wrecks" (i.e. dead birds on beaches) coincided with a period of strong, persistent onshore winds and heavily-accumulated sea ice that blocked bays and trapped seabirds near beaches. Ninety-two percent of wreck seabirds were Thick-billed Murres ( Uria lomvia). Body condition and demographic patterns of wreck murres were compared to Thick-billed Murres shot in the Newfoundland murre hunt. Average body and pectoral masses of wreck carcasses were 34% and 40% lighter (respectively) than shot murres, indicating that wreck birds had starved. The acute nature of each wreck suggested that starvation and associated hypothermia occurred within 2-3 days. In 2007, first-winter murres (77%) dominated the wreck. In 2009, there were more adults (78%), mostly females (66%). These results suggest that spatial and temporal segregation in ages and sexes can play a role in differential survival when stochastic weather conditions affect discrete areas where these groups aggregate. In wreck years, southward movement of Arctic sea ice to Low Arctic latitudes was later and blocked bays longer than in most other years. These inshore conditions corresponded with recent climate-driven changes in High Arctic ice break-up and ice extent; coupled with local weather conditions, these ice conditions appeared to be the key environmental features that precipitated the ice-associated seabird wrecks in the Low Arctic region.

  5. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  6. Development of pan-Arctic database for river chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClelland, J.W.; Holmes, R.M.; Peterson, B.J.; Amon, R.; Brabets, T.; Cooper, L.; Gibson, J.; Gordeev, V.V.; Guay, C.; Milburn, D.; Staples, R.; Raymond, P.A.; Shiklomanov, I.; Striegl, Robert G.; Zhulidov, A.; Gurtovaya, T.; Zimov, S.

    2008-01-01

    More than 10% of all continental runoff flows into the Arctic Ocean. This runoff is a dominant feature of the Arctic Ocean with respect to water column structure and circulation. Yet understanding of the chemical characteristics of runoff from the pan-Arctic watershed is surprisingly limited. The Pan- Arctic River Transport of Nutrients, Organic Matter, and Suspended Sediments ( PARTNERS) project was initiated in 2002 to help remedy this deficit, and an extraordinary data set has emerged over the past few years as a result of the effort. This data set is publicly available through the Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (CADIS) of the Arctic Observing Network (AON). Details about data access are provided below.

  7. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, P F; Braune, B M; O'Hara, T M; Elkin, B; Solomon, K R; Muir, D C G

    2003-01-01

    Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (delta 13C) and nitrogen (delta 15N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by delta 15N) is positively correlated with increasing delta 13C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominantly marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (Sigma PCB) > chlordane-related compounds (Sigma CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (Sigma HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) > or = chlorobenzenes (Sigma ClBz) > DDT-related isomers (Sigma DDT). In liver, Sigma CHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by Sigma PCB > TOX > Sigma HCH > Sigma ClBz > Sigma DDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of delta 15N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While Sigma PCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs.

  8. Multidecadal trends in aerosol radiative forcing over the Arctic: Contribution of changes in anthropogenic aerosol to Arctic warming since 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breider, Thomas J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Payer Sulprizio, Melissa; Croft, Betty; Ridley, David A.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Husain, Liaquat; Dutkiewicz, Vincent A.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Skov, Henrik; Hopke, Phillip K.

    2017-03-01

    Arctic observations show large decreases in the concentrations of sulfate and black carbon (BC) aerosols since the early 1980s. These near-term climate-forcing pollutants perturb the radiative balance of the atmosphere and may have played an important role in recent Arctic warming. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to construct a 3-D representation of Arctic aerosols that is generally consistent with observations and their trends from 1980 to 2010. Observations at Arctic surface sites show significant decreases in sulfate and BC mass concentrations of 2-3% per year. We find that anthropogenic aerosols yield a negative forcing over the Arctic, with an average 2005-2010 Arctic shortwave radiative forcing (RF) of -0.19 ± 0.05 W m-2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA). Anthropogenic sulfate in our study yields more strongly negative forcings over the Arctic troposphere in spring (-1.17 ± 0.10 W m-2) than previously reported. From 1980 to 2010, TOA negative RF by Arctic aerosol declined, from -0.67 ± 0.06 W m-2 to -0.19 ± 0.05 W m-2, yielding a net TOA RF of +0.48 ± 0.06 W m-2. The net positive RF is due almost entirely to decreases in anthropogenic sulfate loading over the Arctic. We estimate that 1980-2010 trends in aerosol-radiation interactions over the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes have contributed a net warming at the Arctic surface of +0.27 ± 0.04 K, roughly one quarter of the observed warming. Our study does not consider BC emissions from gas flaring nor the regional climate response to aerosol-cloud interactions or BC deposition on snow.

  9. Large Scale Variability of Phytoplankton Blooms in the Arctic and Peripheral Seas: Relationships with Sea Ice, Temperature, Clouds, and Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Cota, Glenn F.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially detailed satellite data of mean color, sea ice concentration, surface temperature, clouds, and wind have been analyzed to quantify and study the large scale regional and temporal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic and peripheral seas from 1998 to 2002. In the Arctic basin, phytoplankton chlorophyll displays a large symmetry with the Eastern Arctic having about fivefold higher concentrations than those of the Western Arctic. Large monthly and yearly variability is also observed in the peripheral seas with the largest blooms occurring in the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Barents Sea during spring. There is large interannual and seasonal variability in biomass with average chlorophyll concentrations in 2002 and 2001 being higher than earlier years in spring and summer. The seasonality in the latitudinal distribution of blooms is also very different such that the North Atlantic is usually most expansive in spring while the North Pacific is more extensive in autumn. Environmental factors that influence phytoplankton growth were examined, and results show relatively high negative correlation with sea ice retreat and strong positive correlation with temperature in early spring. Plankton growth, as indicated by biomass accumulation, in the Arctic and subarctic increases up to a threshold surface temperature of about 276-277 degree K (3-4 degree C) beyond which the concentrations start to decrease suggesting an optimal temperature or nutrient depletion. The correlation with clouds is significant in some areas but negligible in other areas, while the correlations with wind speed and its components are generally weak. The effects of clouds and winds are less predictable with weekly climatologies because of unknown effects of averaging variable and intermittent physical forcing (e.g. over storm event scales with mixing and upwelling of nutrients) and the time scales of acclimation by the phytoplankton.

  10. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bintanja, R; van der Linden, E C

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities.

  11. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Bintanja, R.; van der Linden, E. C.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities. PMID:23532038

  12. JPSS Support to the Arctic Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layns, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) program facilitates initiatives to increase or improve the use and value of JPSS data products in user products, services, and application or service areas. Building on the success of the Fire and Smoke, River Ice and Flooding, and Sounding initiatives, the JPSS Arctic Initiative is the latest endeavor of the JPSS PGRR program to increase of the use of JPSS atmospheric and cryosphere products to improve NOAA's products and services in the Arctic. The major participants in the Arctic Initiative to date are the JPSS program office, National Ice Center (NIC), National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Sea Ice Program (ASIP), and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR). This paper will outline the initiative, the potential benefits of the JPSS data products in the Arctic, and the plans for a product demonstration in 2018 within the NOAA Arctic Testbed.

  13. Marine Corps Equities in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-18

    reduces the shipping time from Yokohama, Japan, to Hamburg , Germany, by 11 days as compared to the Suez Canal. Ships average approximately a 20...areas within the Arctic Circle. 10 Warming ocean water is causing fisheries to shift north as well. Fish populations usually found in the...people live in the Arctic region. Commercial fishing fleets are following these populations. 29 Russia holds the majority of the Arctic population

  14. Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming.

    PubMed

    Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla

    2008-01-03

    Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification.

  15. Sources and Removal of Springtime Arctic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Bozem, H.; Kunkel, D.; Schulz, H.; Hanna, S.; Aliabadi, A. A.; Bertram, A. K.; Hoor, P. M.; Herber, A. B.; Leaitch, R.; Abbatt, J.

    2017-12-01

    The sources and removal mechanisms of pollution transported to Arctic regions are key factors in controlling the impact of short-lived climate forcing agents on Arctic climate. We lack a predictive understanding of pollution transport to Arctic regions largely due to poor understanding of removal mechanisms and aerosol chemical and physical processing both within the Arctic and during transport. We present vertically resolved observations of aerosol physical and chemical properties in High Arctic springtime. While much previous work has focused on characterizing episodic events of high pollutant concentrations transported to Arctic regions, here we focus on measurements made under conditions consistent with chronic Arctic Haze, which is more representative of the pollution seasonal maximum observed at long term monitoring stations. On six flights based at Alert and Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we observe evidence for vertical variations in both aerosol sources and removal mechanisms. With support from model calculations, we show evidence for sources of partially neutralized aerosol with higher organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon content in the middle troposphere, compared to lower tropospheric aerosol with higher amounts of acidic sulfate. Further, we show evidence for aerosol depletion relative to carbon monoxide, both in the mid-to-upper troposphere and within the Arctic Boundary Layer (ABL). Dry deposition, with relatively low removal efficiency, was responsible for aerosol removal in the ABL while ice or liquid-phase scavenging was responsible for aerosol removal at higher altitudes during transport. Overall, we find that vertical variations in both regional and remote aerosol sources, and removal mechanisms, combine with long aerosol residence times to drive the properties of springtime Arctic aerosol.

  16. Arctic air pollution: A Norwegian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottar, B.

    The paper gives a survey of the results obtained during a research programme in the Norwegian Arctic, financed by British Petroleum Ltd. during the period 1981-1986 under an agreement between the Norwegian Government and the oil companies. The programme included extensive measurement programmes by aircraft and at ground stations, as well as modelling of the transport of air pollutants to the Arctic. The results show that the Arctic plays an important role as an intermediate station in the general dispersion of air pollutants within the Northern Hemisphere. Continued measurements in the Arctic may therefore provide essential information concerning such questions as the change of climate and the global dispersion of polychlorinated hydrocarbons and other halogenated organics.

  17. An assessment of national surveillance systems for malaria elimination in the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Chris Erwin G; Ekapirat, Nattwut; Dondorp, Arjen M; Maude, Richard J

    2017-03-21

    Heads of Government from Asia and the Pacific have committed to a malaria-free region by 2030. In 2015, the total number of confirmed cases reported to the World Health Organization by 22 Asia Pacific countries was 2,461,025. However, this was likely a gross underestimate due in part to incidence data not being available from the wide variety of known sources. There is a recognized need for an accurate picture of malaria over time and space to support the goal of elimination. A survey was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the collection of malaria incidence data for surveillance by National Malaria Control Programmes in 22 countries identified by the Asia Pacific Leaders Malaria Alliance. In 2015-2016, a short questionnaire on malaria surveillance was distributed to 22 country National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCP) in the Asia Pacific. It collected country-specific information about the extent of inclusion of the range of possible sources of malaria incidence data and the role of the private sector in malaria treatment. The findings were used to produce recommendations for the regional heads of government on improving malaria surveillance to inform regional efforts towards malaria elimination. A survey response was received from all 22 target countries. Most of the malaria incidence data collected by NMCPs originated from government health facilities, while many did not collect comprehensive data from mobile and migrant populations, the private sector or the military. All data from village health workers were included by 10/20 countries and some by 5/20. Other sources of data included by some countries were plantations, police and other security forces, sentinel surveillance sites, research or academic institutions, private laboratories and other government ministries. Malaria was treated in private health facilities in 19/21 countries, while anti-malarials were available in private pharmacies in 16/21 and private shops in 6/21. Most countries use

  18. Reconstruction of the Eocene Arctic Ocean Using Ichthyolith Isotope Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. D.; Thomas, D. J.; Moore, T. C.; Waddell, L. M.; Blum, J. D.; Haley, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    Nd, Sr, O and C isotopic compositions of Eocene fish debris (teeth, bones, scales), and their reduced organic coatings, have been used to reconstruct water mass composition, water column structure, surface productivity and salinities of the Arctic Ocean Basin at Lomonosov Ridge between 55 and 44 Ma. Cleaned ichthyolith samples from IODP Expedition 302 (ACEX) record epsilon Nd values that range from -5.7 to -7.8, distinct from modern Arctic Intermediate Water (-10.5) and North Atlantic Deep Water. These Nd values may record some exchange with Pacific/Tethyan water masses, but inputs from local continental sources are more likely. Sr isotopic values are consistent with a brackish-to-fresh water surface layer (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7079-0.7087) that was poorly mixed with Eocene global seawater (0.7077-0.7078). Leaching experiments show reduced organic coatings to be more radiogenic (>0.7090) than cleaned ichthyolith phosphate. Ichthyolith Sr isotopic variations likely reflect changes in localized river input as a function of shifts in the Arctic hydrologic cycle, and 87Sr/86Sr values might be used as a proxy for surface water salinity. Model mixing calculations indicate salinities of 5 to 20 per mil, lower than estimates based on O isotopes from fish bone carbonate (16 to 26 per mil). Significant salinity drops (i.e., 55 Ma PETM and 48.5 Ma Azolla event) registered in oxygen isotopes do not show large excursions in the 87Sr/86Sr data. Carbon isotopes in fish debris record a spike in organic activity at 48.5 Ma (Azolla event), and otherwise high-productivity waters between 55 and 44 Ma. The combined Sr-Nd-O-C isotopic record is consistent with highly restricted basin-wide circulation in the Eocene, indicative of a highly stratified water column with anoxic bottom waters, a "fresh" water upper layer, and enhanced continental runoff during warm intervals until the first appearance of ice rafted debris at 45 Ma.

  19. The late Wisconsinan and Holocene record of Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) from North America: A review with new data from Arctic and Atlantic Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, A.S.; Hooper, J.; Harington, C.R.; Savelle, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Late Wisconsinan and Holocene record of the Atlantic walrus is known from numerous collections of bones and tusks from Arctic Canada and south to North Carolina, as well as from many archaeological sites in the Arctic and Subarctic. In contrast, the Pacific walrus has no dated Late Wisconsinan or early Holocene record in North America, and it may have been displaced into the northwest Pacific at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The Atlantic walrus rapidly exploited newly deglaciated territory, moving northward from its LGM refugium and reaching the Bay of Fundy by 12800 B.P., the Grand Banks by 12500 B.P., southern Labrador by 11500 B.P., and the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) by 9700 B.P. Its southern range limit may have retracted to the Bay of Fundy by ca. 7500 B.P. Within the CAA, walrus remains cluster in two main age groups: 9700 to 8500 B.P. and 5000 to 4/3000 B.P. This pattern strongly resembles the distribution of bowhead whale radiocarbon ages from the same area, which suggests a common control by sea-ice conditions. Walrus remains occur in Indian culture archaeological sites as old as 7500 B.P. and, in some cases (Namu, British Columbia, and Mackinac Island, Michigan), they evidently represent long-distance human transport. They are much more common in Paleoeskimo and Neoeskimo culture sites. However, they occur in very low abundances, and generally as debitage, in sites older than Dorset (2500 B.P.). The walrus, therefore, may not have been hunted by early Paleoeskimos. Beginning with Early Dorset, walrus remains occur in definite diet-related contexts. Middle Dorset (2300 to 1500 B.P.) and late Thule (<400 B.P.) sites are missing from the High Arctic, and there may be a similar gap in the middle Pre-Dorset (3400 to 2600 B.P.). Sea-ice conditions at these times may have adversely affected availability of walrus and other marine mammal resources. Walrus is a prominent faunal element in Middle Dorset sites on the Labrador coast; this is

  20. The Detection of Change in the Arctic Using Satellite and Buoy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Yang, J.; Honjo, S.; Krishfield, R.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s is the warmest decade of the last century while the year 1998 is the warmest year ever observed by modern techniques with 9 out of 12 months of the year being the warmest month. Since the Arctic is expected to provide early signals of a possible warming scenario, detailed examination of changes in the Arctic environment is important. In this study, we examined available satellite ice cover and surface temperature data, wind and pressure data, and ocean hydrographic data to gain insights into the warming phenomenon. The areas of open water in both western and eastern regions of the Arctic were found to follow a cyclical pattern with approximately decadal period but with a lag of about three years between the two regions. The pattern was interrupted by unusually large anomalies in open water area in the western region in 1993 and 1998 and in the eastern region in 1995. The big 1998 open water anomaly occurred at the same time when a large surface temperature anomaly was also occurring in the area and adjacent regions. The infrared temperature data show for the first time the complete spatial scope of the warming anomalies and it is apparent that despite the magnitude of the 1998 anomaly, it is basically confined to North America and the Western Arctic. The large increases in open water areas in the Western Sector form 1996 to 1998 were observed to be coherent with changing wind directions which was predominantly cyclonic in 1996 and anti-cyclonic in 1997 and 1998. Detailed hydrography measurements up to 500 m depth over the same general area in April 1996 and April 1997 also indicate significant freshening and warming in the upper part of the mixed layer suggesting increases in ice melt. Continuous ocean temperature and salinity data from ocean buoys confirm this result and show significant seasonal changes from 1996 to 1998, at depths of 8 m, 45 m, and 75 m. Long data records of temperature and hydrography were also examined and the potential

  1. Hanna Shoal: An integrative study of a High Arctic marine ecosystem in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, Kenneth H.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Trefry, John H.

    2017-10-01

    This second special issue on the ecosystem under the COMIDA (Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in the Drilling Area) Project focuses on the productive region around Hanna Shoal, the northernmost shoal on the Chukchi shelf. Our first issue (Dunton et al., 2014) emphasized the chemical and biological characteristics of the northeastern Chukchi Sea benthos. This effort expands our studies on the unique physical oceanography of Hanna Shoal, which lies at the interface between northward flowing Pacific Water and the Arctic Ocean, to include its influence on zooplankton dynamics and higher trophic level biota. Between both studies, conducted over a 5-year period (2009-2013) and four summer cruises, COMIDA scientists from seven institutions occupied some 85 stations (Fig. 1).

  2. A qualitative examination of the health workforce needs during climate change disaster response in Pacific Island Countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence that the impacts of climate change are affecting population health negatively. The Pacific region is particularly vulnerable to climate change; a strong health-care system is required to respond during times of disaster. This paper examines the capacity of the health sector in Pacific Island Countries to adapt to changing disaster response needs, in terms of: (i) health workforce governance, management, policy and involvement; (ii) health-care capacity and skills; and (iii) human resources for health training and workforce development. Methods Key stakeholder interviews informed the assessment of the capacity of the health sector and disaster response organizations in Pacific Island Countries to adapt to disaster response needs under a changing climate. The research specifically drew upon and examined the adaptive capacity of individual organizations and the broader system of disaster response in four case study countries (Fiji, Cook Islands, Vanuatu and Samoa). Results ‘Capacity’ including health-care capacity was one of the objective determinants identified as most significant in influencing the adaptive capacity of disaster response systems in the Pacific. The research identified several elements that could support the adaptive capacity of the health sector such as: inclusive involvement in disaster coordination; policies in place for health workforce coordination; belief in their abilities; and strong donor support. Factors constraining adaptive capacity included: weak coordination of international health personnel; lack of policies to address health worker welfare; limited human resources and material resources; shortages of personnel to deal with psychosocial needs; inadequate skills in field triage and counselling; and limited capacity for training. Conclusion Findings from this study can be used to inform the development of human resources for health policies and strategic plans, and to support the

  3. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  4. Fresh Water Content Variability in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Proshutinsky, Andrey

    2003-01-01

    Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability. This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice. The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase. Our focus is to investigate the competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the Arctic basin-wide fresh water balance. We find that changes in the Atlantic water inflow can explain almost all of the simulated fresh water anomalies in the main Arctic basin. The Atlantic water inflow anomalies are an essential part of AOO, which is the wind driven barotropic response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The baroclinic response to AO, such as Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre, and ice meldfreeze anomalies in response to AO are less significant considering the whole Arctic fresh water balance.

  5. The Arctic Circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  6. Vole abundance and reindeer carcasses determine breeding activity of Arctic foxes in low Arctic Yamal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Dorothee; Cerezo, Maite; Rodnikova, Anna Y; Sokolova, Natalya A; Fuglei, Eva; Shtro, Victor G; Sokolov, Aleksandr A

    2017-09-16

    High latitude ecosystems are at present changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, and specialized Arctic species at the southern margin of the Arctic may be particularly affected. The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), a small mammalian predator endemic to northern tundra areas, is able to exploit different resources in the context of varying tundra ecosystems. Although generally widespread, it is critically endangered in subarctic Fennoscandia, where a fading out of the characteristic lemming cycles and competition with abundant red foxes have been identified as main threats. We studied an Arctic fox population at the Erkuta Tundra Monitoring site in low Arctic Yamal (Russia) during 10 years in order to determine which resources support the breeding activity in this population. In the study area, lemmings have been rare during the last 15 years and red foxes are nearly absent, creating an interesting contrast to the situation in Fennoscandia. Arctic fox was breeding in nine of the 10 years of the study. The number of active dens was on average 2.6 (range 0-6) per 100 km 2 and increased with small rodent abundance. It was also higher after winters with many reindeer carcasses, which occurred when mortality was unusually high due to icy pastures following rain-on-snow events. Average litter size was 5.2 (SD = 2.1). Scat dissection suggested that small rodents (mostly Microtus spp.) were the most important prey category. Prey remains observed at dens show that birds, notably waterfowl, were also an important resource in summer. The Arctic fox in southern Yamal, which is part of a species-rich low Arctic food web, seems at present able to cope with a state shift of the small rodent community from high amplitude cyclicity with lemming dominated peaks, to a vole community with low amplitude fluctuations. The estimated breeding parameters characterized the population as intermediate between the lemming fox and the coastal fox ecotype. Only continued

  7. Tracing the source of deep water in the Arctic Ocean with 17Oexcess of dissolved O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Luz, B.; Barkan, E.; Broecker, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    The 17Oexcess of dissolved O2 (17Δ) in the ocean is a unique property which is useful for telling apart O2 produced by marine photosynthesis (bio-O2) from atmospheric O2. Unlike O2 concentration, 17Δ is not affected by respiration and thus behaves conservatively in the deep sea. In general, 17Δ in the oceanic mixed layer is low due to the dominance of air-sea gas exchange. In contrast, in the Arctic mixed-layer 17Δ is higher because sufficient light penetrates through the sea-ice cover and drives photosynthesis, but air-sea gas exchange is retarded by sea ice cover. We have preliminary 17Δ data from depth profiles in the Eurasian and Makarov basins. In both, the fraction of bio-O2 is about 20 % in the surface mixed layer. However, the vertical distribution beneath the mixed layer at the two stations is substantially different. In the Makarov Basin there is a layer of Pacific Water centered at about 100 m, which enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and is modified as it flows across the wide Chukchi and Siberian shelves. It has a strong maximum in 17Δ, equivalent to ~30% bio-O2. 17Δ then decreases through the underlying halocline to a minimum between 500 and 700 m, which lies within the Barents Sea Branch of Atlantic Water (BSBW) indicating ~15% bio-O2. At the Eurasian Basin station, 17Δ decreases from the mixed layer through the halocline reaching a minimum at the temperature maximum of Atlantic Water. This temperature maximum marks the core of the Fram Strait Branch of Atlantic Water (FSBW). 17Δ then increases to a maximum indicating ~20% bio-O2 between 500 and 700 m. The BSBW is produced as Atlantic Water flows through the shallow Barents Sea becoming denser than FSBW and enters the Eurasian Basin through the Santa Anna Trough beneath the FSBW. Our 17Δ measurements suggest that waters of Pacific and Atlantic origin that transit across the wide Arctic continental shelves acquire a high 17Δ signal indicative of photosynthesis in ice covered

  8. Forest Management Policy and Community Well-Being in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Ellen M. Donoghue; Cassandra Moseley

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a multiscale, multimethods approach to examine the effects of declining timber harvests on the well-being of forest communities in the Pacific Northwest as a result of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). We found that the effects of declining timber harvests were variable and depended on the importance of the timber sector in a community in the late...

  9. Forest management policy and community well-being in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Ellen M. Donoghue; Cassandra Moseley

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a multiscale, multimethods approach to examine the effects of declining timber harvests on the well-being of forest communities in the Pacific Northwest as a result of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). We found that the effects of declining timber harvests were variable and depended on the importance of the timber sector in a community in the late...

  10. Influence of ENSO on Gulf Stream cyclogenesis and the North Atlantic storm track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Schemm, S.; Ciasto, L.; Kvamsto, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    There is emerging evidence that climate in the North Atlantic-European sector is sensitive to vacillations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, in particular, the central Pacific flavour of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and concomitant trends in atmospheric heating. The frequency of central Pacific ENSOs appears to have increased over the last decades and some studies suggest it may continue increasing in the future, but the precise mechanisms by which these events affect the North Atlantic synoptic scale circulation are poorly understood. Here, we show that central Pacific ENSOs influence where midlatitude cyclogenesis occurs over the Gulf Stream, producing more cyclogenesis in the jet exit region rather than in the climatologically preferred jet entrance region. The cyclones forming over the Gulf Stream in central Pacific ENSO seasons tend to veer north, penetrating deeper into the Arctic rather than into continental Europe. The shift in cyclogenesis is linked to changes in the large scale circulation, namely, the upper-level trough formed in the lee of the Rocky Mountains.

  11. Arctic Security in a Warming World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    2009). 3 Map based on: “Northwest Passage - Map of Arctic Sea Ice: Global Warming is Opening Canada’s Arctic” http://geology.com/articles/northwest...War College, February 17, 2009) 3. 5 Scott G. Borgerson, “Arctic Meltdown: the Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming ”, Foreign Affairs...april/kirkpatrick.pdf (accessed February 10, 2010). 45 Thomas R. McCarthy, Jr., Global Warming Threatens National Interests in the Arctic, Strategy

  12. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of current ARCUS science planning activities include: serving as the project office for the multi- agency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, providing support to the related Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST), and serving as the Science Management Office for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. ARCUS" central educational activity is PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), an International Polar Year (IPY) program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. Additional science planning, educational, information, and outreach activities include, among many others, the Witness the Arctic newsletter, the Arctic Visiting Speakers" Series, the ArcticInfo listserve, the Internet Media Archive (IMA), and the annual Arctic Forum conference. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  13. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, K. R.; Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of current ARCUS science planning activities include: serving as the project office for the multi-agency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, providing support to the related Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST), and serving as the Science Management Office for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Arctic System Science (ARCSS) Program. ARCUS’ central educational activity is PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating), an International Polar Year (IPY) program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. Additional science planning, educational, information, and outreach activities include, among many others, the Witness the Arctic newsletter, the Arctic Visiting Speakers’ Series, the ArcticInfo listserve, the Internet Media Archive (IMA), and the annual Arctic Forum conference. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at: http://www.arcus.org.

  14. Measurements of aerosol and CCN properties in the Mackenzie River delta (Canadian Arctic) during spring-summer transition in May 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herenz, Paul; Wex, Heike; Henning, Silvia; Bjerring Kristensen, Thomas; Rubach, Florian; Roth, Anja; Borrmann, Stephan; Bozem, Heiko; Schulz, Hannes; Stratmann, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Within the framework of the RACEPAC (Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle) project, the Arctic aerosol, arriving at a ground-based station in Tuktoyaktuk (Mackenzie River delta area, Canada), was characterized during a period of 3 weeks in May 2014. Basic meteorological parameters and particle number size distributions (PNSDs) were observed and two distinct types of air masses were found. One type were typical Arctic haze air masses, termed accumulation-type air masses, characterized by a monomodal PNSD with a pronounced accumulation mode at sizes above 100 nm. These air masses were observed during a period when back trajectories indicate an air mass origin in the north-east of Canada. The other air mass type is characterized by a bimodal PNSD with a clear minimum around 90 nm and with an Aitken mode consisting of freshly formed aerosol particles. Back trajectories indicate that these air masses, termed Aitken-type air masses, originated from the North Pacific. In addition, the application of the PSCF receptor model shows that air masses with their origin in active fire areas in central Canada and Siberia, in areas of industrial anthropogenic pollution (Norilsk and Prudhoe Bay Oil Field) and the north-west Pacific have enhanced total particle number concentrations (NCN). Generally, NCN ranged from 20 to 500 cm-3, while cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations were found to cover a range from less than 10 up to 250 cm-3 for a supersaturation (SS) between 0.1 and 0.7 %. The hygroscopicity parameter κ of the CCN was determined to be 0.23 on average and variations in κ were largely attributed to measurement uncertainties. Furthermore, simultaneous PNSD measurements at the ground station and on the Polar 6 research aircraft were performed. We found a good agreement of ground-based PNSDs with those measured between 200 and 1200 m. During two of the four overflights, particle number concentrations at 3000 m were found to be up to 20 times

  15. Does the Arctic Amplification peak this decade?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Torge; Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2017-04-01

    Temperatures rise faster in the Arctic than on global average, a phenomenon known as Arctic Amplification. While this is well established from observations and model simulations, projections of future climate (here: RCP8.5) with models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) also indicate that the Arctic Amplification has a maximum. We show this by means of an Arctic Amplification factor (AAF), which we define as the ratio of Arctic mean to global mean surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies. The SAT anomalies are referenced to the period 1960-1980 and smoothed by a 30-year running mean. For October, the multi-model ensemble-mean AAF reaches a maximum in 2017. The maximum moves however to later years as Arctic winter progresses: for the autumn mean SAT (September to November) the maximum AAF is found in 2028 and for winter (December to February) in 2060. Arctic Amplification is driven, amongst others, by the ice-albedo feedback (IAF) as part of the more general surface albedo feedback (involving clouds, snow cover, vegetation changes) and temperature effects (Planck and lapse-rate feedbacks). We note that sea ice retreat and the associated warming of the summer Arctic Ocean are not only an integral part of the IAF but are also involved in the other drivers. In the CMIP5 simulations, the timing of the AAF maximum coincides with the period of fastest ice retreat for the respective month. Presence of at least some sea ice is crucial for the IAF to be effective because of the contrast in surface albedo between ice and open water and the need to turn ocean warming into ice melt. Once large areas of the Arctic Ocean are ice-free, the IAF should be less effective. We thus hypothesize that the ice retreat significantly affects AAF variability and forces a decline of its magnitude after at least half of the Arctic Ocean is ice-free and the ice cover becomes basically seasonal.

  16. Enhancing seasonal climate prediction capacity for the Pacific countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Y.; Jones, D.; Hendon, H.; Charles, A.; Cottrill, A.; Lim, E.-P.; Langford, S.; de Wit, R.; Shelton, K.

    2012-04-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability is a major factor in determining the vulnerability of many Pacific Island Countries to climate change and there is need to improve weekly to seasonal range climate prediction capabilities beyond what is currently available from statistical models. In the seasonal climate prediction project under the Australian Government's Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program (PASAP), we describe a comprehensive project to strengthen the climate prediction capacities in National Meteorological Services in 14 Pacific Island Countries and East Timor. The intent is particularly to reduce the vulnerability of current services to a changing climate, and improve the overall level of information available assist with managing climate variability. Statistical models cannot account for aspects of climate variability and change that are not represented in the historical record. In contrast, dynamical physics-based models implicitly include the effects of a changing climate whatever its character or cause and can predict outcomes not seen previously. The transition from a statistical to a dynamical prediction system provides more valuable and applicable climate information to a wide range of climate sensitive sectors throughout the countries of the Pacific region. In this project, we have developed seasonal climate outlooks which are based upon the current dynamical model POAMA (Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia) seasonal forecast system. At present, meteorological services of the Pacific Island Countries largely employ statistical models for seasonal outlooks. Outcomes of the PASAP project enhanced capabilities of the Pacific Island Countries in seasonal prediction providing National Meteorological Services with an additional tool to analyse meteorological variables such as sea surface temperatures, air temperature, pressure and rainfall using POAMA outputs and prepare more accurate seasonal climate outlooks.

  17. 78 FR 12033 - Programs and Research Projects Affecting the Arctic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION Programs and Research Projects Affecting the Arctic Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Arctic Research Commission will hold its 100th meeting in Anchorage and Bethel... presentations concerning Arctic research activities The focus of the meeting will be Arctic research activities...

  18. Tipping elements in the Arctic marine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carlos M; Agustí, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Arrieta, Jesús M; Alcaraz, Miquel; Coello, Alexandra; Marbà, Núria; Hendriks, Iris E; Holding, Johnna; García-Zarandona, Iñigo; Kritzberg, Emma; Vaqué, Dolors

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic marine ecosystem contains multiple elements that present alternative states. The most obvious of which is an Arctic Ocean largely covered by an ice sheet in summer versus one largely devoid of such cover. Ecosystems under pressure typically shift between such alternative states in an abrupt, rather than smooth manner, with the level of forcing required for shifting this status termed threshold or tipping point. Loss of Arctic ice due to anthropogenic climate change is accelerating, with the extent of Arctic sea ice displaying increased variance at present, a leading indicator of the proximity of a possible tipping point. Reduced ice extent is expected, in turn, to trigger a number of additional tipping elements, physical, chemical, and biological, in motion, with potentially large impacts on the Arctic marine ecosystem.

  19. Changing Arctic ecosystems--research to understand and project changes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiselman, Joy; DeGange, Anthony R.; Oakley, Karen; Derksen, Dirk; Whalen, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems and their wildlife communities are not static; they change and evolve over time due to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A period of rapid change is occurring in the Arctic for which our current understanding of potential ecosystem and wildlife responses is limited. Changes to the physical environment include warming temperatures, diminishing sea ice, increasing coastal erosion, deteriorating permafrost, and changing water regimes. These changes influence biological communities and the ways in which human communities interact with them. Through the new initiative Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to (1) understand the potential suite of wildlife population responses to these physical changes to inform key resource management decisions such as those related to the Endangered Species Act, and (2) provide unique insights into how Arctic ecosystems are responding under new stressors. Our studies examine how and why changes in the ice-dominated ecosystems of the Arctic are affecting wildlife and will provide a better foundation for understanding the degree and manner in which wildlife species respond and adapt to rapid environmental change. Changes to Arctic ecosystems will be felt broadly because the Arctic is a production zone for hundreds of species that migrate south for the winter. The CAE initiative includes three major research themes that span Arctic ice-dominated ecosystems and that are structured to identify and understand the linkages between physical processes, ecosystems, and wildlife populations. The USGS is applying knowledge-based modeling structures such as Bayesian Networks to integrate the work.

  20. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Trouble in polar paradise (Science, 08/30/02), significant changes in the Arctic environment are scientifically documented (R.E. Moritz et al. ibid.). More trouble, lots more, "abrupt climate change," (R. B. Alley, et al. Science 03/28/03). R. Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment team (ACIA), "If you want to see what will happen in the rest of the world 25 years from now just look what's happening in the Arctic," (Arctic Council meeting, Iceland, 08/03). What to do? Make abrupt Arctic climate change a grand challenge for the IPY-4 and beyond! Scientifically:Describe the "state" of the Arctic climate system as succinctly as possible and accept it as the point of departure.Develop a hypothesis and criteria what constitutes "abrupt climate change," in the Arctic that can be tested with observations. Observations: Bring to bear existing observations and coordinate new investments in observations through an IPY-4 scientific management committee. Make the new Barrow, Alaska, Global Climate Change Research Facility a major U.S. contribution and focal point for the IPY-4 in the U.S Arctic. Arctic populations, Native peoples: The people of the North are living already, daily, with wrenching change, encroaching on their habitats and cultures. For them "the earth is faster now," (I. Krupnik and D. Jolly, ARCUS, 2002). From a political, economic, social and entirely realistic perspective, an Arctic grand challenge without the total integration of the Native peoples in this effort cannot succeed. Therefore: Communications must be established, and the respective Native entities must be approached with the determination to create well founded, well functioning, enduring partnerships. In the U.S. Arctic, Barrow with its long history of involvement and active support of science and with the new global climate change research facility should be the focal point of choice Private industry: Resource extraction in the Arctic followed by oil and gas consumption, return the combustion

  1. 2011 Arctic ozone depletion as seen by ESA-ENVISAT Atmospheric-Chemistry sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzi, G.; Niro, F.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Dehn, A.; Scarpino, G.; Fehr, T.; von Kuhlmann, R.

    2011-12-01

    Three Atmospheric-Chemistry sensors on-board the ENVISAT satellite (GOMOS, MIPAS, and SCIAMACHY) sound the Earth's atmosphere since about nine years and provide to the science community three separated, but complementary data sets of the most interesting atmospheric trace gases. These extended and coherent data sets, generated with ESA operational processors, give a historical overview over seasonal and long-term trends of geophysical parameters and allow investigating major atmospheric phenomena and natural events. During March 2011, ESA's satellite ENVISAT detected the severe ozone depletion above the Euro-Atlantic sector of the Northern Hemisphere. This record-breaking loss for the ozone layer over the North Pole was mainly caused by unusual polar vortex conditions characterized by very low temperatures in the Arctic stratosphere. This paper presents the chemical ozone depletion over the Arctic regions as detected by SCIAMACHY, MIPAS and GOMOS during spring of 2011. Global maps of total ozone column and vertical ozone profiles along the mission's lifetime clearly show the unprecedented Arctic ozone loss for 2011 with the subsequent migration of ozone depleted air masses towards lower latitudes. ENVISAT's atmospheric measurements reveal changes in the composition of the ozone-related chemical species and permit to point out the chemical correlations of the ozone distribution with nitrogen and chlorine compounds and with the evolution of stratospheric temperatures. The synergistic use of ESA operational data sets from the three instruments allows to closely monitor the occurrence and extension of seasonal ozone depletion events, and to draw a comprehensive picture of all chemistry processes involved in the full atmospheric range.

  2. Cyclone Activity in the Arctic From an Ensemble of Regional Climate Models (Arctic CORDEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akperov, Mirseid; Rinke, Annette; Mokhov, Igor I.; Matthes, Heidrun; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Adakudlu, Muralidhar; Cassano, John; Christensen, Jens H.; Dembitskaya, Mariya A.; Dethloff, Klaus; Fettweis, Xavier; Glisan, Justin; Gutjahr, Oliver; Heinemann, Günther; Koenigk, Torben; Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Laprise, René; Mottram, Ruth; Nikiéma, Oumarou; Scinocca, John F.; Sein, Dmitry; Sobolowski, Stefan; Winger, Katja; Zhang, Wenxin

    2018-03-01

    The ability of state-of-the-art regional climate models to simulate cyclone activity in the Arctic is assessed based on an ensemble of 13 simulations from 11 models from the Arctic-CORDEX initiative. Some models employ large-scale spectral nudging techniques. Cyclone characteristics simulated by the ensemble are compared with the results forced by four reanalyses (ERA-Interim, National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2, and Japan Meteorological Agency-Japanese 55-year reanalysis) in winter and summer for 1981-2010 period. In addition, we compare cyclone statistics between ERA-Interim and the Arctic System Reanalysis reanalyses for 2000-2010. Biases in cyclone frequency, intensity, and size over the Arctic are also quantified. Variations in cyclone frequency across the models are partly attributed to the differences in cyclone frequency over land. The variations across the models are largest for small and shallow cyclones for both seasons. A connection between biases in the zonal wind at 200 hPa and cyclone characteristics is found for both seasons. Most models underestimate zonal wind speed in both seasons, which likely leads to underestimation of cyclone mean depth and deep cyclone frequency in the Arctic. In general, the regional climate models are able to represent the spatial distribution of cyclone characteristics in the Arctic but models that employ large-scale spectral nudging show a better agreement with ERA-Interim reanalysis than the rest of the models. Trends also exhibit the benefits of nudging. Models with spectral nudging are able to reproduce the cyclone trends, whereas most of the nonnudged models fail to do so. However, the cyclone characteristics and trends are sensitive to the choice of nudged variables.

  3. Opportunities for Partnership in the Pacific Rim: Reflections on a Visit to Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Abel B., Jr.

    Community colleges are poised to play a vital role in Vietnam and other Pacific Rim nations currently seeking to develop their business sectors and economies. Projects and partnerships with U.S. community colleges are currently in progress in India, Malaysia, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. In addition, the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and…

  4. The Contribution to Arctic Climate Change from Countries in the Arctic Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, T.; MacCracken, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The conventional accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions used today, established under the Kyoto Protocol 25 years ago, exclude short lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), and do not include regional effects on the climate. However, advances in climate science now suggest that mitigation of SLCPs can reduce up to 50% of global warming by 2050. It has also become apparent that regions such as the Arctic have experienced a much greater degree of anthropogenic warming than the globe as a whole, and that efforts to slow this warming could benefit the larger effort to slow climate change around the globe. A draft standard for life cycle assessment (LCA), LEO-SCS-002, being developed under the American National Standards Institute process, has integrated the most recent climate science into a unified framework to account for emissions of all radiatively significant GHGs and SLCPs. This framework recognizes four distinct impacts to the oceans and climate caused by GHGs and SLCPs: Global Climate Change; Arctic Climate Change; Ocean Acidification; and Ocean Warming. The accounting for Arctic Climate Change, the subject of this poster, is based upon the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential, which considers the incremental change to the Arctic surface temperature resulting from an emission of a GHG or SLCP. Results are evaluated using units of mass of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), which can be used by a broad array of stakeholders, including scientists, consumers, policy makers, and NGOs. This poster considers the contribution to Arctic Climate Change from emissions of GHGs and SLCPs from the eight member countries of the Arctic Council; the United States, Canada, Russia, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Of this group of countries, the United States was the largest contributor to Arctic Climate Change in 2011, emitting 9600 MMT CO2e. This includes a gross warming of 11200 MMT CO2e (caused by GHGs, black and brown carbon, and warming effects

  5. The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE): Examining the complex Arctic biological-climatologic-hydrologic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Fundamental aspects of the complex Arctic biological-climatologic-hydrologic system remain poorly quantified. As a result, significant uncertainties exist in the carbon budget of the Arctic ecosystem. NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a currently-operational Earth Venture 1 (EV-1) mission that is examining correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems. CARVE is conducted through a series of intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission timeframe. CARVE employs a C-23 Sherpa aircraft to fly an innovative airborne remote sensing payload. This payload includes an L-band radiometer/radar system and a nadir-viewing spectrometer to deliver simultaneous measurements of land surface state variables that control gas emissions (i.e., soil moisture and inundation, freeze/thaw state, surface temperature) and total atmospheric columns of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. The aircraft payload also includes a gas analyzer that links greenhouse gas measurements directly to World Meteorological Organization standards and provide vertical profile information. CARVE measurement campaigns are scheduled regularly throughout the growing season each year to capture the seasonal variability in Arctic system carbon fluxes associated with the spring thaw, the summer drawdown, and the fall refreeze. Continuous ground-based measurements provide temporal and regional context as well as calibration for CARVE airborne measurements. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. Ultimately, CARVE will provide an integrated set of data that will provide unprecedented experimental insights into Arctic carbon cycling. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet

  6. Arctic research vessel design would expand science prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Robert; Kristensen, Dirk

    The U.S. polar marine science community has long declared the need for an arctic research vessel dedicated to advancing the study of northern ice-dominated seas. Planning for such a vessel began 2 decades ago, but competition for funding has prevented construction. A new design program is underway, and it shows promise of opening up exciting possibilities for new research initiatives in arctic marine science.With its latest design, the Arctic Research Vessel (ARV) has grown to a size and capability that will make it the first U.S. academic research vessel able to provide access to the Arctic Ocean. This ship would open a vast arena for new studies in the least known of the world's seas. These studies promise to rank high in national priority because of the importance of the Arctic Ocean as a source of data relating to global climate change. Other issues that demand attention in the Arctic include its contributions to the world's heat budget, the climate history buried in its sediments, pollution monitoring, and the influence of arctic conditions on marine renewable resources.

  7. Multi-model seasonal forecast of Arctic sea-ice: forecast uncertainty at pan-Arctic and regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E.; Barthélemy, A.; Chevallier, M.; Cullather, R.; Fučkar, N.; Massonnet, F.; Posey, P.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Ardilouze, C.; Bitz, C. M.; Vernieres, G.; Wallcraft, A.; Wang, M.

    2017-08-01

    Dynamical model forecasts in the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) of September Arctic sea-ice extent over the last decade have shown lower skill than that found in both idealized model experiments and hindcasts of previous decades. Additionally, it is unclear how different model physics, initial conditions or forecast post-processing (bias correction) techniques contribute to SIO forecast uncertainty. In this work, we have produced a seasonal forecast of 2015 Arctic summer sea ice using SIO dynamical models initialized with identical sea-ice thickness in the central Arctic. Our goals are to calculate the relative contribution of model uncertainty and irreducible error growth to forecast uncertainty and assess the importance of post-processing, and to contrast pan-Arctic forecast uncertainty with regional forecast uncertainty. We find that prior to forecast post-processing, model uncertainty is the main contributor to forecast uncertainty, whereas after forecast post-processing forecast uncertainty is reduced overall, model uncertainty is reduced by an order of magnitude, and irreducible error growth becomes the main contributor to forecast uncertainty. While all models generally agree in their post-processed forecasts of September sea-ice volume and extent, this is not the case for sea-ice concentration. Additionally, forecast uncertainty of sea-ice thickness grows at a much higher rate along Arctic coastlines relative to the central Arctic ocean. Potential ways of offering spatial forecast information based on the timescale over which the forecast signal beats the noise are also explored.

  8. Changing seasonality of Arctic hydrology disrupts key biotic linkages in Arctic aquatic ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deegan, L.; MacKenzie, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Fishscape Project

    2011-12-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is an important circumpolar species that provide a model system for understanding the impacts of changing seasonality on arctic ecosystem function. Grayling serve as food for other biota, including lake trout, birds and humans, and act as top-down controls in stream ecosystems. In Arctic tundra streams, grayling spend their summers in streams but are obligated to move back into deep overwintering lakes in the fall. Climatic change that affects the seasonality of river hydrology could have a significant impact on grayling populations: grayling may leave overwintering lakes sooner in the spring and return later in the fall due to a longer open water season, but the migration could be disrupted by drought due to increased variability in discharge. In turn, a shorter overwintering season may impact lake trout dynamics in the lakes, which may rely on the seasonal inputs of stream nutrients in the form of migrating grayling into these oligotrophic lakes. To assess how shifting seasonality of Arctic river hydrology may disrupt key trophic linkages within and between lake and stream components of watersheds on the North Slope of the Brooks Mountain Range, Alaska, we have undertaken new work on grayling and lake trout population and food web dynamics. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags coupled with stream-width antenna units to monitor grayling movement across Arctic tundra watersheds during the summer, and into overwintering habitat in the fall. Results indicate that day length may prime grayling migration readiness, but that flooding events are likely the cue grayling use to initiate migration in to overwintering lakes. Many fish used high discharge events in the stream as an opportunity to move into lakes. Stream and lake derived stable isotopes also indicate that lake trout rely on these seasonally transported inputs of stream nutrients for growth. Thus, changes in the seasonality of river hydrology may have broader