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Sample records for pacific northwest natural

  1. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  2. Pacific Northwest AGU Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, David C.; Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The 30th AGU Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting was held September 29 to October 1, 1983, on the campus of Western Washington University, Bellingham, Wash. Approximately 125 attended the meeting, and 36 papers were presented. The meeting included two fields trips, five special symposia, and a banquet where keynote speaker Don Swanson presented “Dome building on Mt. St. Helens.”The meeting highlights included a symposium on Tertiary sedimentary basins of Washington and Oregon which revealed the importance of sedimentological studies for deciphering the timing and nature of accretionary processes in tectonically active areas. Geological and geophysical studies on the recent tectonics of the Juan de Fuca plate and nearby continent were presented by workers from the United States and Canada as well as ongoing studies for the evolution and character of the crystalline North Cascades of Washington and British Columbia.

  3. Pacific Northwest election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamar, Anthony

    Six AGU members have been elected members of the Regional Committee of the AGU Pacific Northwest Region. Their terms are July 1, 1986, to June 30, 1988. The Regional Committee, which directs the activities of the branch, is composed of a representative of each of the AGU sections taking part in branch activities.Those elected are Robert M. Ellis, Tectonophysics Section; Stephen L. Gillett, Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section; Tark S. Hamilton, Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section; Renner B. Hofmann, Seismology Section; Charles W. Slaughter, Hydrology Section; and Richard E. Thomson, Ocean Sciences Section.

  4. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory CALIOPE overview

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, R.S.; Kelly, J.F.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1995-03-01

    This overview covers progress in the following areas in which Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributes to the CALIOPE Program: (1) Fabrication of electro-optic modulators to generate FM-coding on IR lasers in the 8-12 and 3-5 {mu}m regions. (2) IR spectroscopy of signature species, abnormal isotopic distributions, hydrolysis and kinetics of effluents interacting with the atmosphere, and reflectance measurements of natural surfaces. (3) Systems analysis of FM-DIAL concepts, including lateral phase coherence and MTF measurements, and laboratory tests of detector technology and demodulation methods. (4) Field tests of FM-DIAL, covering field validation of portable diode laser concepts, FM-CO{sub 2} interrogation of Hanford sites, and signal returns from natural specular surfaces. (5) Ancillary matters: ground-truthing at Hanford (and RSTR?), countermeasures, and new laser design concepts.

  6. Genetic variability of natural populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 in Pacific Northwest vineyards.

    PubMed

    Jarugula, Sridhar; Alabi, Olufemi J; Martin, Robert R; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2010-07-01

    Genetic variability of field populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) in Pacific Northwest (PNW) vineyards was characterized by sequencing the entire coat protein (CP) and a portion of the heat-shock protein-70 homolog (HSP70h) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of CP and HSP70h nucleotide sequences obtained in this study and corresponding sequences from GenBank revealed segregation of GLRaV-2 isolates into six lineages with virus isolates from PNW distributed in 'PN', 'H4', and 'RG' lineages. An estimation of the ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site indicated that different selection pressures may be acting on the two genomic regions encoding proteins with distinct functions. Multiple alignments of CP amino acid sequences showed lineage-specific differences. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results indicated that GLRaV-2-specific antibodies from a commercial source are unable to reliably detect GLRaV-2 isolates in the RG lineage, thereby limiting antibody-based diagnosis of all GLRaV-2 isolates currently found in PNW vineyards. A protocol based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was developed for differentiating GLRaV-2 isolates belonging to the three lineages present in the region. The taxonomic status of GLRaV-2 is discussed in light of the current knowledge of global genetic diversity of the virus.

  7. Optical characteristics of natural waters protect amphibians from UV-B in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palen, Wendy J.; Schindler, David E.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bury, R. Bruce; Diamond, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been proposed as a major environmental stressor leading to global amphibian declines. Prior experimental evidence from the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) indicating the acute embryonic sensitivity of at least four amphibian species to UV-B has been central to the literature about amphibian decline. However, these results have not been expanded to address population-scale effects and natural landscape variation in UV-B transparency of water at amphibian breeding sites: both necessary links to assess the importance of UV-B for amphibian declines. We quantified the UV-B transparency of 136 potential amphibian breeding sites to establish the pattern of UV-B exposure across two montane regions in the PNW. Our data suggest that 85% of sites are naturally protected by dissolved organic matter in pond water, and that only a fraction of breeding sites are expected to experience UV-B intensities exceeding levels associated with elevated egg mortality. Thus, the spectral characteristics of natural waters likely mediate the physiological effects of UV-B on amphibian eggs in all but the clearest waters. These data imply that UV-B is unlikely to cause broad amphibian declines across the landscape of the American Northwest.

  8. OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL WATERS PROTECT AMPHIBIANS FROM UV-B IN THE U.S. PACIFIC NORTHWEST: A REPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been proposed that UV-B is a cause of malfomations seen in amphibians. This document comments on the paper which discusses the concept that the optical characteristics of water may protect amphibians in the U.S. Pacific Northwest from the harmful effects of UV-B.

  9. Wetland Plants of the Pacific Northwest.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Ownbey and J.V.. Thompson, 1969. Vascular Plants Of The Pacific Northwest. Five Volumes. Universi, / of Washington Press. A comprehensive flora of the Pacific...Northwest. Nomenclature used in this guide is from this treatise. Hitchcock, C. Leo and Arthur Cronquist, 1973. Flora Of The Pacific Northwest...States. Volumes I and /I. Dover Publications Inc. An exhaustive flora of the grasses. Horowitz, Elinor Lander, 1978. Our Nations Wetlands. An

  10. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  11. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  12. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Brooks, Erin S; Elliot, William J; Boll, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 7.42·δ(18)O + 0.88 (n = 316; r(2) = 0.97). Isotope compositions exhibited a strong temperature-dependent seasonality. Despite this seasonal variation, the stream δ(18)O variation was small. A significant regression (τ = 0.11D(-1.09); r(2) = 0.83) between baseflow MTTs and the damping ratio was found. Baseflow MTTs ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 years (human-altered), 0.7 to 1.7 years (mining-altered), and 0.7 to 3.2 years (forested). Greater MTTs were represented by more homogenous aqueous chemistry whereas smaller MTTs resulted in more dynamic compositions. The isotope and geochemical data presented provide a baseline for future hydrological modelling in the inland PNW.

  13. Resident perceptions of natural resources between cities and across scales in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the global population becomes increasingly urban, research is needed to explore how local culture, land use, andpolicy will influence urban natural resource management. We used a broad-scale comparative approach and survey of residents within the Portland (Oregon)-Vancouver (W...

  14. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  15. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  16. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  17. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  18. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest study will be the third regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the first two—the Midwest in 2013 and the Southeast in 2014 (Van Metre and others, 2012, 2014).

  19. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  20. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  1. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  2. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  3. Verticillium wilt in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is a serious disease of many economically important agricultural and horticultural crops in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). The disease affects herbaceous annuals and perennials as well as woody trees and shrubs. Plants affected by Verticillium wilt exhibit chlorosis, wilting, defolia...

  4. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  5. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  7. Anthropogenic Elevation Change in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prush, V. B.; Lohman, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a valuable tool for studying crustal deformation signals. Its applications to studies of tectonic and non-tectonic sources are varied, including earthquakes and fault-related processes, volcanic deformation, vegetation structure, and anthropogenic signals. In addition to studies of crustal deformation, the sensitivity of interferometric phase to topography makes InSAR a superb tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). While much of the focus of InSAR research in recent years has been on deformation, changes in the elevation of the ground surface can be of great scientific or societal interest as well. Examples include elevation and volume change due to anthropogenic processes such as landfill and open-pit mining operations, and natural processes such as glacier thinning or terrain alteration resulting from effusive volcanic eruptions. Our study describes two elevation change signals observed in the Pacific Northwest that are of anthropogenic origin. Using the baseline-dependent nature of the topographic component of interferometric phase, we have determined a proxy for canopy height using coherent interferometric phase differences between adjacent logged and forested regions, as well as a means for determining estimates of the amount and time history of material displaced during mining operations at the Centralia Coal Mine in Centralia, Washington. Quantifying the amount of surface change due to anthropogenic activities is not only critical for tracking the altering landscape of the Pacific Northwest and reducing the observed error in interferograms attributable to elevation change. Deforestation is one of the most significant contributors to global carbon emissions, and quantifying changes in vegetation structure can assist in efforts to monitor and mitigate the effects of deforestation on climate change. Similarly, mining operations can have a lasting

  8. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 4

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-18

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 237,030 customers remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 8 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington.

  9. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  10. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 4. Pacific Northwest cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the Pacific Northwest to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled. Information on the 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  11. The quality and character of Pacific Northwest waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert A.

    1954-01-01

    This paper is a general discussion of the quality and chemical character of surface and ground waters in the Pacific Northwest as shown by the available data. Previous quality of water studies reported in the literature are reviewed. The composition of natural waters is considered as to the source and significance of the different mineral constituents. Analytical data are presented showing mineral constituents and physical properties of selected surface and ground waters in the region.

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  13. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  14. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 6

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-20

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 134,868 customers remain without power. The number of outages is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent less than 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy and Seattle City Light.

  15. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  16. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 2

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-16

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006 resulting in major power outagesin the region. The storm is now moving off into southern Canada. A new weather disturbance nearing the Northwest coast may generate a few rain and snow showers across the Seattle and Portland areas today, but widespread active weather is not expected. There are roughly 950,000 customers in the region (including Canada) without power as a result of the Pacific Northweststorms, down from a peak of 1.8 million customers. This represents about 26 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. As of 12:30 PM EST, the Renton Control Center for the Olympic Pipeline (petroleum products) had power restored. The pipeline, serviced by Puget Sound Energy, was shut down after it lost power during the storm. According to a pipeline official, the pipeline is expected to restart in approximately 2-3 hours with some reduced throughput later today. SeaTac International Airport receives jet fuel from the pipeline; however, it’s been reported that the airport has approximately eight days of jet fuel inventories on hand. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel production. There are some temporary and minor distribution at retail gas stations due to lack of power. Fuel delivery is also slowed in some areas due to delays on some roads. ESF #12 has not been deployed

  17. Pacific Northwest geothermal - Review and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, W.

    1980-11-01

    Activities associated with geothermal exploration and development in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington are reviewed. A geothermal electric plant on the Raft River is almost operational. Tests for space heating projects at Rexburg and in the City of Boise continue. The State of Oregon conducts its regional temperature gradient drilling program, and a number of shallow wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980. Deep well drilling (projected to 5,000 to 7,000 ft.) is pursued at Mount Hood. The eruption of Mount St. Helens has increased interest in the geothermal resources in Washington. A study of the warm and hot water potential on the northwest flank of Mount Ranier is negotiated. Possible space heating sources in 22 cities, towns, and hamlets in the Columbia Basin have been identified. Deleterious environmental impact on the forest regions of the Pacific Northwest is one reason for the Federal leasing problems. The electric power situation will be critical in the Northwest in 1983, as no additional power will probably be available to utilities from the Bonneville Power Administration. Indigenous U.S. energy sources can be developed and exploration activity can be increased if federal lease processing is greatly expedited.

  18. Vertical land motion of Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Montillet, J. P.; Szeliga, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    We use GPS measurements from 400 stations located throughout the Pacific Northwest to estimate steady-state vertical land motion for the purpose of constraining relative sea level rise projections. Vertical motions are typically only a few percent of horizontal rates and the same order of magnitude as current sea level rise rates, so may either ameliorate or exacerbate future climate impacts. We use data from receivers operating from 1994 through 2015, each with at least three years of continuous daily measurements. Furthermore, daily position time series resulting from the processing of two GPS centers, namely the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA), are considered throughout this study. The goal is two fold: the dissemination into the scientific community of the difference in processing between these two centers, and the level of agreement between the estimated crustal for future sea-level studies in the Pacific Northwest. We model both target and reference frame receiver trajectories as a superposition of discrete processes comprising steady-state tectonic motion, annual and bi-annual sinusoids exhibiting stationary phase and amplitude that reflect both local hydrology as well as artifacts introduced through satellite clock and orbit corrections, and discrete offsets due to known earthquakes (with Mw > 6) and hardware changes. Qualitatively, Vancouver Island shows long-term uplift of ~2 mm/year, consistent with both interseismic strain accumulation from the Juan de Fuca subduction along the coast and post-glacial rebound inland, and consistent with earlier reports based on few stations and shorter time series. Further south, coastal uplift rates transition to near-zero south of Pacific Beach, and remain low southward to Cape Blanco. Vertical motion is more heterogeneous throughout Puget Sound, but most regions show subsidence of ~0.5 - 1 mm/yr. The predominant subsidence throughout Puget Sound, where the

  19. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  20. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  1. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

  2. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs

  3. Descriptors of natural thermal regimes in streams and their responsiveness to change in the Pacific Northwest of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy

    2013-01-01

    characteristics or descriptors of thermal regimes in streams. The descriptors we provide herein can be applied across hydro-ecological regions to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in thermal regimes. Evaluation of coherence and synchrony of different components of thermal regimes can facilitate identification of impacts of regional climate variability or local human or natural influences.

  4. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to

  5. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions

  6. Climate change impacts and adaptation in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    The University of Washington Climate Impacts Group (CIG) is an interdisciplinary research group that studies the impacts of natural climate variability and change on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Through research and interaction with regional stakeholders, the CIG works to increase the resilience of the Pacific Northwest to fluctuations and long-term changes in climate. The CIG's research focuses on four key sectors of the PNW environment: water resources, aquatic ecosystems, forests, and coasts. This talk focuses specifically on the water resources sector of CIG, and its work addressing potential climate change impacts on the region's hydrology being undertaken under an ongoing statewide climate impacts assessment (known as HB 1303). In the Pacific Northwest, as in most of the western U.S., warming temperatures are expected to result in lower winter snowpack, thus shifting seasonal runoff peaks earlier in the year, and increasing the duration of the summer and fall low flow period. The ongoing HB1303 work is based on IPCC 2007 climate scenarios. Hydrologic scenarios have been generated by downscaling GCM scenarios to 1/16 degree latitude-longitude spatial resolution, and using these downscaled scenarios to force the macroscale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. We describe the range of hydrologic projections recently performed for 16 downscaled GCMs and 2 global emissions scenarios for the next 100 years, with particular attention on reservoir systems serving water supply needs in the Puget Sound basin and irrigation water in the Yakima River basin. We also evaluate implications of the changing climate for the Columbia River reservoir system, both in terms of the tradeoff between reservoir releases made for salmonid protection and restoration and hydropower generation, and for flood control.

  7. Streamflow Duration Assessment Method for the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Streamflow Duration Assessment Method for the Pacific Northwest is a scientific tool developed by EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a rapid assessment framework to distinguish between ephemeral, intermittent and perennial streams.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for CY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ceffalo, G.M.; Oxley, C.L.; Wright, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    This report provides summary results of the CY 1990 ALARA Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Information has been included regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, and the nonradiological ALARA program.

  9. Landsat: 25 Years in the Pacific Northwest Forest

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows a sequence of Landsat-based data in the Pacific Northwest. There is one data set for each year representing an aggregate of the approximate peak of the growing season (arou...

  10. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: FORECASTING THEIR STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  11. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population) have declined and some have been e...

  12. FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  13. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  14. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  15. Seahawk: telemedicine project in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongmin; Cabral, James E., Jr.; Parsons, David M.; Lipski, Gregory L.; Kirchdoerfer, Richard G.; Sado, Anthony; Bender, Gregory N.; Goeringer, Fred

    1995-05-01

    Telemedicine is becoming increasingly possible due to the confluence of ongoing technical advances in such areas as telecommunications, imaging, multimedia, computers, and information systems. Project Seahawk is a regional telemedicine program in the Pacific Northwest with Madigan Army Medical Center (MAMC) as the hub connecting various military and other federal hospitals and clinics utilizing the state-of-the-art technologies. The first phase of Project Seahawk successfully connected MAMC in Tacoma, Wash. to the University of Washington in Seattle, Wash. through the Western Washington Local Access Transport Area (LATA) Integrated Optical Network (LION) Sonet Ring using asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and two MediaStation 5000s as a feasibility demonstration. Several telemedicine scenarios were demonstrated including synchronized image manipulation, real- time transmission of ultrasound and medical images, and video and audio teleconferencing, and remote consultation. The second phase implementation will consist of increasing the number of hospitals and clinics with telemedicine capability, e.g., Bremerton Naval Hospital, Oak Harbor Naval Hospital, Seattle VA, and American Lake VA.

  16. Seasonal hydrologic responses to climate change in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, Julie A.; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2015-04-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in precipitation will result in fundamental changes in the seasonal distribution of streamflow in the Pacific Northwest and will have serious implications for water resources management. To better understand local impacts of regional climate change, we conducted model experiments to determine hydrologic sensitivities of annual, seasonal, and monthly runoff to imposed annual and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land-surface hydrology model applied at 1/16° latitude-longitude spatial resolution over the Pacific Northwest (PNW), a scale sufficient to support analyses at the hydrologic unit code eight (HUC-8) basin level. These experiments resolve the spatial character of the sensitivity of future water supply to precipitation and temperature changes by identifying the seasons and locations where climate change will have the biggest impact on runoff. The PNW exhibited a diversity of responses, where transitional (intermediate elevation) watersheds experience the greatest seasonal shifts in runoff in response to cool season warming. We also developed a methodology that uses these hydrologic sensitivities as basin-specific transfer functions to estimate future changes in long-term mean monthly hydrographs directly from climate model output of precipitation and temperature. When principles of linearity and superposition apply, these transfer functions can provide feasible first-order estimates of the likely nature of future seasonal streamflow change without performing downscaling and detailed model simulations.

  17. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC...

  19. 1. Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest facade, view to southeast (90mm lens). The original building is at right, addition at left. The cold joint between the original and addition is approximately at the line of color differentiation near center of the roof. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  20. ANIMAL-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch (EPA, Newport, OR) is to determine the effects of habitat alteration by stressors on ecological resources in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries. Research being conducted in support of this mission includes identifying critical hab...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC...

  2. Resolving mantle structure beneath the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darold, A. P.; Humphreys, E.; Schmandt, B.; Gao, H.

    2011-12-01

    Cenozoic tectonics of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and the associated mantle structures are remarkable, the latter revealed only recently by EarthScope seismic data. Over the last ~66 Ma this region experienced a wide range of tectonic and magmatic conditions: Laramide compression, ~75-53 Ma, involving Farallon flat-slab subduction, regional uplift, and magmatic quiescence. With the ~53 Ma accretion of Siletzia ocean lithosphere within the Columbia Embayment, westward migration of subduction beginning Cascadia, along with initiation of the Cascade volcanic arc. Within the continental interior the Laramide orogeny was quickly followed by a period of extension involving metamorphic core complexes and the associated initial ignimbrite flare-up (both in northern Washington, Idaho, and western Montana); interior magmo-tectonic activity is attributed to flat-slab removal and (to the south) slab rollback. Rotation of Siletzia created new crust on SE Oregon and, at ~16 Ma, the Columbia River Flood Basalt (CRB) eruptions renewed vigorous magmatism. We have united several EarthScope studies in the Pacific Northwest and have focused on better resolving the major mantle structures that have been discovered. We have tomographically modeled the body waves with teleseismic, finite-frequency code under the constraints of ambient noise tomography and teleseismic receiver function models of Gao et al. (2011), and teleseismic anisotropy models of Long et al. (2009) in order to resolve structures continuously from the surface to the base of the upper mantle. We now have clear imaging of two episodes of subduction: Juan De Fuca slab deeper than ~250 km is absent across much of the PNW, and it has an E-W tear located beneath northern Oregon; Farallon slab (the "Siletzia curtain") is still present, hanging vertically just inboard of the core complexes, and with a basal tear causing the structure to extend deeper (~600 km) beneath north-central Idaho than beneath south-central Idaho and

  3. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  4. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  5. Stakeholder perspectives on appropriate forest management in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, A.R.; Bradley, G. . Coll. of Forest Resources); Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S. )

    1999-02-01

    One potential source of the controversy over forest management in the Pacific Northwest is differences in stakeholders' conceptualizations, or perspectives, on appropriate forest management. This study explores the nature of stakeholders' perspectives and identifies some of the differences and commonalities among them. Study participants included 23 individuals from 3 forest stakeholder groups: the USDA Forest Service, timber industry, and environmentalists. Participants' perspectives on appropriate forest management were assessed using a conceptual content cognitive map (3CM) task. Results indicate the existence of a wide range of concerns including issues related to the focus, setting, and process of management. The pattern of differences and similarities among stakeholder groups with respect to these concerns was found to be complex and to deviate substantially from common stereotypes. In addition, participants' perceptions of the other stakeholder groups were found to be highly stereotypical and were not supported by the data.

  6. The Pacific Northwest; linkage between earthquake and volcano hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosson, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (Oregon, Washington, and northern California) is experiencing rapid industrial and population growth. The same conditions that make the region attractive- close proximity to both mountains and oceans, volcanoes and spectacular inland waters- also present significant geologic hazards that are easily overlooked in the normal timetable of human activities. The catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens 10 years ago serves as a dramatic reminder of the forces of nature that can be unleashed through volcanism. other volcanoes such as  mount Rainier, a majestic symbol of Washington, or Mount hood in Oregon, lie closer to population centers and could present far greater hazards should they become active. Earthquakes may affect even larger regions, prodcuging more cumulative damage. 

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  8. Interagency Operating Plan for Pacific Northwest Volcanic Ash Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, J. M.; Birch, S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), United States Geological Survey (USGS)and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have partnered on the development of an operating plan for volcanic ash events in the Pacific Northwest. This plan provides an overview of integrated, multi-agency operations in response to the threat of volcanic ash in the Pacific Northwest, and describes communication links and operational actions necessary to support the NWS/USGS/FAA Volcano Hazards Program. This regional plan follows guidelines in support of the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM) National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW).

  9. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest..., Colorado River Storage Project Manager, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social.... Thomas Hackett, Rates Team Lead, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social...

  10. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  11. REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS: THE FUTURE OF SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  12. IMPLEMENTING REGIONAL SCALE MONITORING IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION OF THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vast forest greeted the early non-native explorers and settlers as they traversed the Pacific Northwest, currently the states of Washington, Oregon and Northern California, west of the Cascade Mountains. This natural resource supported an ever-expanding logging industry, with su...

  13. Spring wheat tolerance and resistance to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae reduces wheat yields in the Pacific Northwest. Previous evaluations of cultivar resistance had been in controlled environments. Cultivar tolerance had not been evaluated. Seven spring wheat trials were conducted in naturally infested fields in three states ...

  14. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  15. Soil and Water Challenges for Pacific Northwest Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450 ...

  16. HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: TWEAKING THE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) has recently been documented in Pacific Northwest forests, but the controls governing this process and its importance to shallow-rooted species are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to manipulate the soil-root system to tease apart ...

  17. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: IN SEARCH OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds...

  18. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: THE MOST LIKELY FUTURE AND SOME ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of...

  19. Winter safflower, a potential alternative crop for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dryland cropping system in the Pacific Northwest is dominated by a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system that occupies more than 90% of the dryland hectares. Success in finding a viable alternative crop has been limited because the annual precipitation in this region varies from less than 1...

  20. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  1. Green Mansions: The Evergreen Forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philipek, Frances; Smith, Shelley; Brook, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ecosystem in Pacific Northwest Coastal America and investigates land management issues. Discusses the impact of canopy trees on temperature and the forest itself. Explains fungi's relationship with trees and presents activities on stream flow, wood, volcanoes, and plants for the classroom. (YDS)

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides summary results of the CY 1992 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).(a) This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, and the nonradiological ALARA program.

  3. Glutenin alleles in U.S. Pacific Northwest wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), comprised of the states of Washington, Idaho and Oregon, produces about 8 million metric tonnes of wheat annually. This region is somewhat unique in that it grows winter and spring wheats, hard and soft wheats, white and red-grained wheats, and club and lax-head (‘c...

  4. Secondary Climate Change Education in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, P. Troy; Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is an important issue students should understand to be productive members of society. The objectives were to evaluate the instruction and teacher perceptions relating to CC in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) secondary (7-12) classes across disciplines. The teacher perceptions, instructional frequency, perceived barriers to…

  5. 77 FR 34381 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-157

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Area Power Administration Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project--Rate Order No. WAPA-157... Project (Intertie) transmission service rates. The current rates, under Rate Schedules INT-FT4 and INT... cover all annual costs, including interest expense, and to repay capital investment obligations...

  6. 77 FR 54575 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...-54576] [FR Doc No: 2012-21806] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project--Rate Order No. WAPA-159 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE... the Secretary of Energy the power marketing functions of the Secretary of the Department of...

  7. 2013 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (2013 White Book) is BPA's latest projection of the Pacific Northwest regional retail loads, contract obligations, contract purchases, and resource capabilities. The 2013 White Book is a snapshot of conditions as of October 1, 2013, documenting the loads and resources for the Federal system and region for the 10-year study period OY 2014 through 2023. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). Starting with the 2012 White Book, BPA changed the annual production schedule for future White Books. BPA is scheduled to publish a complete White Book, which includes a Federal System Needs Assessment analysis, every other year (even years). In the odd-numbered years, BPA will publish a biennial summary update (Supplement) that only contains major changes to the Federal System and Regional System analyses that have occurred since the last White Book. http://www.bpa.gov/power/pgp/whitebook/2013/index.shtml.

  8. Will climate change affect biodiversity in pacific northwest forests

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, S.; Rosenbaum, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. The forests of the Pacific Northwest have a high biological diversity, not only in terms of tree species, but also in terms of herbs, bryophytes and hepatophytes, algae, fungi, protist, bacteria, and many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Global circulation and vegetation model projections of global climate change effects on PNW forests include reductions in species diversity in low elevation forests as well as elevational and latitudinal shifts in species ranges. As species are most likely to be stressed at the edges of their ranges, plant and animal species with low mobility, or those that are prevented from migrating by lack of habitat corridors, may become regionally extinct. Endangered species with limited distribution may be especially vulnerable to shifts in habitat conditions.

  9. Is Snowpack Drought an Increasing Threat in the Pacific Northwest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, M. G.; Liu, M.; Stockle, C.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Adam, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    In spite of near normal precipitation during the winter of water year 2015, the Pacific Northwest (PNW) has experienced drought because of insufficient snow accumulation in the mountains, which was exacerbated by an unusually warm and dry summer. Low mountain snowpack resulted from an anomalously warm winter and subsequently affected water supply for irrigation, fish habitat, ecosystem, and recreation, necessitating a statewide drought emergency declaration in the Washington State. While the 2015 drought is likely a result of natural variability superposed with climate warming, we ask how the frequency of droughts of this character are likely to change as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Downscaled climate data from multiple Global Climate Models from the Fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project were used with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to calculate both the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Snow Melt and Rain Index (SMRI) indices for quantifying meteorological and snowpack droughts, respectively, in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) under historic and future climate change scenarios. Our results show that snowpack droughts increase in severity and frequency in the future in response to the sensitivity of the snowpack to warming, whereas there is a less systematic trend in meteorological drought. Water resources in the CRB largely depend on the mountain snowpack and spring snowmelt. More frequent occurrence of snowpack drought will have serious implications in this system, which need to be addressed in future studies.

  10. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  13. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  14. The pacific northwest remote sensing project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The history of a 3-year effort in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to establish operational capabilities to analyze LANDSAT digital data and apply the results to natural resources management programs is related. Currently a number of agencies are conduct operational applications projects utilizing the data analysis facilities available and LANDSAT-derived data are being used by these agencies in their day-to-day operations. The image analysis systems and software used in each state are described and the participating state and local agencies are listed.

  15. Drought in the Pacific Northwest, 1920-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, M.; Nijssen, B.; Mao, Y.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Drought, which is usually defined as an extended period of water supply deficit, is one of the costliest natural hazards. Agricultural, fisheries, hydropower generation and water resource management are all directly affected by droughts. Droughts are usually classified as meteorological, agricultural, or hydrological. The first type is defined based on precipitation and the latter two are connected with hydrological variables (soil moisture and runoff). Because observations of soil moisture and (spatially distributed) runoff are sparse, agricultural and hydrological drought is more difficult to quantify, and hydrological models are often used in their analysis. Nonetheless, the temporal and spatial characteristics of these types of drought are not well understood. Based on hydrological model simulation results for a period of nearly a century, we evaluate the historical characteristics of drought over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, defined as the Columbia River basin and coastal drainages. Major droughts in the 1930s, 1977 and early 2000s caused substantial economic losses to the region. We used the VIC macroscale hydrology model to simulate 94 years (1920-2013) of runoff and soil moisture over the region. In order to minimize the effects of model error, we interpret results as percentiles that are calculated according to simulation outputs distribution. We explore in particular the characteristics of drought in the PNW. The main results are: 1, the dry time period are more likely to be included in a drought event while the onset are usually earlier; 2, little snow-melting can lead to hydrological drought (below-normal streamflow) in that year; 3, the spatial pattern of agricultural drought frequency is highly related with precipitation and soil moisture persistence.

  16. Thresholds for protecting Pacific Northwest ecosystems from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: state of knowledge report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, Tonnie; Blett, Tamara; Porter, Ellen; Geiser, Linda; Graw, Rick; McMurray, Jill; Perakis, Steven S.; Rochefort, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service manage areas in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington – collectively referred to in this report as the Pacific Northwest - that contain significant natural resources and provide many recreational opportunities. The agencies are mandated to protect the air quality and air pollution-sensitive resources on these federal lands. Human activity has greatly increased the amount of nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere, resulting in elevated amounts of nitrogen being deposited in park and forest ecosystems. There is limited information in the Pacific Northwest about the levels of nitrogen that negatively affect natural systems, i.e., the critical loads. The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service, with scientific input from the U.S. Geological Survey, have developed an approach for accumulating additional nitrogen critical loads information in the Pacific Northwest and using the data in planning and regulatory arenas. As a first step in that process, this report summarizes the current state of knowledge about nitrogen deposition, effects, and critical loads in the region. It also describes ongoing research efforts and identifies and prioritizes additional data needs.

  17. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  18. An index of biological integrity (IBI) for Pacific Northwest rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Maret, T.R.; Hughes, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a commonly used measure of relative aquatic ecosystem condition; however, its application to coldwater rivers over large geographic areas has been limited. A seven-step process was used to construct and test an IBI applicable to fish assemblages in coldwater rivers throughout the U.S. portion of the Pacific Northwest. First, fish data from the region were compiled from previous studies and candidate metrics were selected. Second, reference conditions were estimated from historical reports and minimally disturbed reference sites in the region. Third, data from the upper Snake River basin were used to test metrics and develop the initial index. Fourth, candidate metrics were evaluated for their redundancy, variability, precision, and ability to reflect a wide range of conditions while distinguishing reference sites from disturbed sites. Fifth, the selected metrics were standardized by being scored continuously from 0 to 1 and then weighted as necessary to produce an IBI ranging from 0 to 100. The resulting index included 10 metrics: number of native coldwater species, number of age-classes of sculpins Cottus spp., percentage of sensitive native individuals, percentage of coldwater individuals, percentage of tolerant individuals, number of alien species, percentage of common carp Cyprinus carpio individuals, number of selected salmonid age-classes, catch per unit effort of coldwater individuals, and percentage of individuals with selected anomalies. Sixth, the IBI responses were tested with additional data sets from throughout the Pacific Northwest. Last, scores from two minimally disturbed reference rivers were evaluated for longitudinal gradients along the river continuum. The IBI responded to environmental disturbances and was spatially and temporally stable at over 150 sites in the Pacific Northwest. The results support its use across a large geographic area to describe the relative biological condition of coolwater and

  19. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  2. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging.

  3. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging.

  4. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  5. 1998 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: 1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and 2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. The load forecast is derived by using economic planning models to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract

  6. Perceptions of earthquake and tsunami issues in U.S. Pacific Northwest port and harbor communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Good, James W.

    2005-01-01

    Although there is considerable energy focused on assessing natural hazards associated with earthquakes and tsunamis in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, little has been done to understand societal vulnerability to these hazards. Part of understanding societal vulnerability includes assessing the perceptions and priorities of public sector individuals with traditional emergency management responsibilities and of private citizens who could play key roles in community recovery. In response to this knowledge gap, we examine earthquake and tsunami perceptions of stakeholders and decision makers from coastal communities in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, focusing on perceptions of (1) regional hazards and societal vulnerability, (2) the current state of readiness, and (3) priorities for future hazard adjustment efforts. Results of a mailed survey suggest that survey participants believe that earthquakes and tsunamis are credible community threats. Most communities are focusing on regional mitigation and response planning, with less effort devoted to recovery plans or to making individual organizations more resilient. Significant differences in expressed perceptions and priorities were observed between Oregon and Washington respondents, mainly on tsunami issues. Significant perception differences were also observed between private and public sector respondents. Our results suggest the need for further research and for outreach and planning initiatives in the Pacific Northwest to address significant gaps in earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and readiness.

  7. Geospatial Habitat Analysis in Pacific Northwest Coastal Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B. ); Thom, Ronald M. ); Rumrill, Steven; Miller, L M.

    2003-08-01

    We assessed historical changes in the location and amount of estuarine habitat in three of the four largest coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest (Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Coos Bay) as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS). To accomplish this, navigation charts, hydrographic survey data, maps, and published descriptions were used to gain information on the location of the shoreline, bathymetry, and vegetated habitats, which was then digitized and subjected to geospatial analysis using a geographic information system. In addition, we used present-day elevational boundaries for marshes, flats, and eelgrass meadows to help define habitat areas where they were not indicated on historical maps. The analysis showed that tidal flats have decreased in all study areas; potential eelgrass habitat has increased in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay and decreased slightly in Coos Bay; tidal wetland area has declined in all three coastal estuaries, with increases in localized areas due to filling and sedimentation; and dramatic changes have occurred at the mouths of Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay. As has been shown before, these data illustrate that direct physical alteration (filling and diking) has resulted in large changes to habitats. However, indirect impacts from forest practices in the watershed, as well as variation in climatic factors and oceanographic processes, may also have contributed to changes. The information provides more evidence for managing estuarine habitats in the region and a employing a historical template to plan habitat restoration in the future.

  8. Characterizing Inland Pacific Northwest American Viticultural Areas with Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Ian-Huei; Davenport, Joan R.; Rupp, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    American Viticultural Areas are officially recognized appellations for wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). They represent not only geographic identification for growers, but also economic significance through price premiums for grapes from desirable appellations and wines sourcing grapes from such appellations. Petitions for establishment and official descriptions of American Viticultural Areas in the inland Pacific Northwest have traditionally relied on general descriptions of physical attributes and data from point measurements, namely weather stations. Examination of spatial datasets in a geographic information system provides a more holistic means of assessing viticultural areas and a spatially continuous representation of an area. Comparison of spatial datasets to official appellation descriptions largely corroborate petitioners' claims, often with greater detail, but also highlight some shortcomings of official appellation descriptions. By focusing on spatial data representing environmental factors most important to wine grape production, viticultural areas can be described more thoroughly and accurately and appellations may be more appropriately delineated. We examined inland Pacific Northwest American Viticultural Areas with a geographic information system approach, illustrating the utility of spatial datasets in characterization and delineation of American Viticultural Areas. PMID:23614001

  9. Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

  10. Validation Efforts of the Pacific Northwest River Restoration Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, J. M.; Katz, S. L.; Morehead, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    The improvement of science in river restoration relies heavily on the evaluation of previously established projects in order to assess the ecosystem response and project outcome (Bernhard et al, 2005). To facilitate this, there needs to be competent project tracking and documentation of outcomes. In the Pacific Northwest, the National Marine Fisheries Service's Northwest Fisheries Science Center has compiled a database containing over 26,000 restoration actions at 36,000 locations in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana (Katz, et al. in review). Recent efforts have been undertaken to validate this database through selection of random samples for telephone interviews and field site visits. 47 project managers were interviewed via telephone regarding their restoration activities within four project category intents. In addition, six Columbia River sub-basins were selected for site validation sampling of 170 projects. The basins included for site validations are the Lemhi and Pahsimeroi Rivers in Idaho, the Methow and Entiat Rivers in Washington, and the Upper and Lower John Day Rivers in Oregon. Survey results are presented with statistical estimators to validate the database. Regional trends in river restoration were found to exist and differences were found between reporting agencies and on the smaller, local scale. The implementation of restoration activities is examined to see if projects are being instigated as intended and case studies are examined to reveal lessons learned from practitioners. In general, the effectiveness of various river restoration activities in the Pacific Northwest would be better charted through standardization in project tracking and documentation. References Bernhardt, E. S., Palmer, M. A., Allan, J. D., Alexander, G., Barnas, K., Brooks, S., Carr, J., Clayton, S., Dahm, C., Follstad-Shah, J., Galat, D., Gloss, S., Goodwin, P., Hart, D., Hassett, B., Jenkinson, J., Katz, S., Kondolf, G. M., Lake, P. S., Lave, R., Meyer, J. L., O

  11. Supplemental Pacific Northwest History Materials: Overcoming Racism and Sexism. Multicultural Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Stephen Lawrence

    Twenty-four units which focus on the contribution of women and minority group members to the development of the Pacific Northwest provide supplementary material for high school social studies classes. The lives of 12 women are treated in separate units. Other topics include the Pacific Northwest 100 years ago, the temperance movement, oral history…

  12. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. These stresses include increased temperatures, sea level rise, and high nutrient inputs, all of which may directly affect the productivi...

  13. 1999 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands—firm loads—are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and “contracted for” resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of

  14. Azole resistance in Cryptococcus gattii from the Pacific Northwest: Investigation of the role of ERG11.

    PubMed

    Gast, Charles E; Basso, Luiz R; Bruzual, Igor; Wong, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is responsible for an expanding epidemic of serious infections in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States (Pacific Northwest). Some patients with these infections respond poorly to azole antifungals, and high azole MICs have been reported in Pacific Northwest C. gattii. In this study, multiple azoles (but not amphotericin B) had higher MICs for 25 Pacific Northwest C. gattii than for 34 non-Pacific Northwest C. gattii or 20 Cryptococcus neoformans strains. We therefore examined the roles in azole resistance of overexpression of or mutations in the gene (ERG11) encoding the azole target enzyme. ERG11/ACT1 mRNA ratios were higher in C. gattii than in C. neoformans, but these ratios did not differ in Pacific Northwest and non-Pacific Northwest C. gattii strains, nor did they correlate with fluconazole MICs within any group. Three Pacific Northwest C. gattii strains with low azole MICs and 2 with high azole MICs had deduced Erg11p sequences that differed at one or more positions from that of the fully sequenced Pacific Northwest C. gattii strain R265. However, the azole MICs for conditional Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg11 mutants expressing the 5 variant ERG11s were within 2-fold of the azole MICs for S. cerevisiae expressing the ERG11 gene from C. gattii R265, non-Pacific Northwest C. gattii strain WM276, or C. neoformans strains H99 or JEC21. We conclude that neither ERG11 overexpression nor variations in ERG11 coding sequences was responsible for the high azole MICs observed for the Pacific Northwest C. gattii strains we studied.

  15. New Forestry Principles from Ecosystem Analysis of Pacific Northwest Forests.

    PubMed

    Swanson, F J; Franklin, J F

    1992-08-01

    Forest management practices on Federal lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have been the center of intense controversy. Conflicting value systems, new information, and new perspectives have fueled the debate over the balance between timber production and preservation of natural ecosystems. In this paper we consider examples from three aspects of forest management: (1) management of forest stands, (2) management of the patchwork of forest stands at the landscape scale, and (3) management of streams and riparian networks. In each of these cases we examine: management practices and perspectives of the recent past, findings from ecosystem research that are leading to change in those practices, resulting changes in management practices, and future research directions. We also suggest a path for future change, including systems for managing in the face of uncertainty. Results of research in natural and managed forest and stream ecosystems have been pivotal in reassessment and redesign of management practices to provide a broader range of management options for society to consider. Results of studies of natural disturbance processes and their effects are used as reference points for management systems intending to sustain biological diversity and ecosystem productivity. Stand management practices, for example, are being modified to retain some live trees and greater amounts of dead woody debris, both standing and down, in areas that would instead be clear-cut under intensive plantation forestry practices. The motivations for these modified practices are to sustain biological diversity, including key wildlife species, and to maintain soil productivity. Models of alternative forest-cutting patterns at a landscape scale are being used to examine their effects on ecosystem structure and function. One result of this analysis has been to shift from the previous system of dispersing cutting units to a system involving greater aggregation of units using designs to

  16. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  17. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  18. Experimental Warming and Precipitation Effects on Plant Community Composition, Productivity, Nutrient Availability, and Soil Respiration in Pacific Northwest Prairies along a Natural Climate Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgham, S. D.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Tomaszewski, T.; Reynolds, L.; Goklany, M.; Wilson, H.; Johnson, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change effects on soil respiration and carbon stores in grasslands globally may have significant implications for future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Climate change may also may negatively impact native plant species and favor exotic species. We are experimentally increasing temperature by 3 degrees C and increasing precipitation by 25% above ambient in three upland prairie sites along a natural climate gradient from southwestern Oregon to central-western Washington to determine how future climate change will affect (i) plant community composition and the relative success of native versus introduced plant species and (ii) above- and belowground carbon and nutrient dynamics. Sixty plots (20 at each site) were restored by mowing, raking, and herbicide application followed by the sowing of the same 34 native grass and forb species in each plot. Differences in total cover, net primary productivity, and community composition were much greater among sites than among treatments within sites in both 2010--the establishment year, and 2011-the first full year of treatment. Strong successional dynamics occurred over the two years as competition intensified, but these were dependent on a site-treatment interaction, with lower native plant survival in heated plots because of competitive exclusion by exotic, invasive plants. A strong treatment - season interaction in canopy cover (as determined by canopy reflectance) also occurred, with heating causing greater cover during the wet season and lower cover during the dry season. This effect was strongest in the southernmost site which experiences earlier and more intense drought conditions. There were also strong site, treatment, and season interactions on nutrient availability as determined by cation-anion exchange resins. Heating increased nutrient availability in all but the northernmost site during the growing season, and that site also had much lower nutrient availability, but overall availability and

  19. A dynamic model for intertemporal allocation of old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Carver, Andrew D; Lee, John G; LeMaster, Dennis C

    2002-12-01

    Across the globe, continued policy debates regarding the management of old-growth forests center around the difficult task of balancing economic and ecological considerations. Though the forests of the Pacific Northwest United States are among the most studied old-growth ecosystems, ecological and economic analyses have yielded public land management directives that remain controversial. Specifically, the recently adopted Northwest Forest Plan lacks explicit goals for maintaining intergenerational equity for the use of forest resources and the diversity of old-growth ecosystems. Unlike previous studies which rely on monetary quantification of costs and benefits, this study develops and applies a conceptual framework for evaluating socially optimal Pacific Northwest old-growth forest utilization strategies. Conditions for the optimal management of old-growth forests are derived using dynamic programming. The objective function synthesizes relevant biological and economic attributes of the old-growth allocation problem. Results in the form of extraction paths are compared given social pressure for consumptive and non-consumptive benefits, as well as different planning horizons, rates of social time preference, and environmental variance. Lengthening the planning horizon results in a vast divergence of optimal policies in the absence of discounting. Extraction rates appear to approach zero as the planning horizon approaches infinity. While higher rates of social time preference increase the rate of extraction, forest stocks remaining at the terminal time period equal levels remaining with a lower discount rate. Increasing environmental variance results in a higher level of stock remaining at the terminal time period. This analysis, while specific to the old-growth controversy of the Pacific Northwest, does provide general guidelines for addressing similar problems of multiple uses of natural areas, particularly where such uses are mutually incompatible, or where one

  20. High dose calibrations at the pacific northwest laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. C.; Fox, R. A.

    1989-04-01

    he need is increasing for both high radiation exposures and calibration measurements that provide traceability of such exposures to national standards. The applications of high exposures include: electronic component damage studies, sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Accurate high exposure measurements are difficult to obtain and cannot, in general, be carried out with a single dose measurement system or technique because of the wide range of doses and the variety of materials involved. This paper describes the dosimetric measurement and calibration techniques used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that make use of radiochromic dye films, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), ionization chambers and calorimetric dosimeters. The methods used to demonstrate the consistency of PNL calibrations with national standards will also be discussed.

  1. A peak load simulation model for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, R.D.; Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G. ); Vinnard, A.E. )

    1990-04-01

    A PC-based Peak Load Management (PLM) model was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) to evaluate the effect of demand-side management programs on peak winter loads. The PLM model is based on a similar, but much larger, demand-side analysis model previously developed by PNL for Bonneville. Revisions include (1) a direct comparison between program savings on average winter days and peak winter days; (2) a reduction in size, allowing the model to run much faster and fit on a PC without expanded memory; and (3) greater flexibility for quick modification. Output from the model consists of electricity consumption by hour on each of the two daytypes, with and without a demand-side program in place. A test case evaluating electric thermal storage is presented to describe PLM model operation. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Characterization of radiation environments at selected Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, C.L.

    1992-10-01

    This report is based on a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from December 15, 1990 to December 15, 1991, to characterize the radiation environments at selected locations within PNL facilities. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed at 72 locations to measure non-productive radiation exposure to identify areas in which continuous occupation by a staff member would expose the staff member to radiation exceeding the 100 mrem/yr limit. The areas measured were found to be below the 0.05 mR/hr limit with the exception of three locations. At these three locations above the limit, radiation exposure was reduced by changing office locations and by additional shielding around radiation sources. Evaluations are recommended to determine the causes of elevated exposure rate readings.

  3. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  4. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  5. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  6. Validation of Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes at the Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Comeleo, R. L.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between the physical properties of a catchment (form) and climatic forcing of precipitation and energy control how water is partitioned, stored, and conveyed through a catchment (function). Hydrologic Landscapes (HLs) were previously developed across Oregon and describe climatic and physical properties for over 5000 assessment units. This approach was then extended to the three Pacific Northwest states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho (PNW HL). The HLs were developed using the National Hydrography Dataset's WBD HU12 scale and are comprised of classification components describing climate, climate seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability. To compare the PNW HL classification to catchment hydrologic behavior, HLs were aggregated to catchment scale to compare against the input/output of water in the catchment. HL aggregation must preserve information on the location of the HL within the catchment outlet (upstream vs. downstream) and properties of that HL (i.e. water source vs. sink). Catchment function was investigated by use of hydrologic signatures, which are attributes of long-term time series of water into and out of the catchment. Signatures include Runoff Ratio, Baseflow Index, Snow Ratio, and Recession Coefficients. This study has three primary objectives: 1) derivation of hydrologic signatures to capture the hydrologic behavior for catchments in the Pacific Northwest: 2) development of methodology to aggregate HLs to the catchment scale; and 3) statistical analysis of signature values and trends with respect to aggregated HL classification. We hypothesize that we will find: 1) strong relationships between aggregated HLs and hydrologic signatures; 2) signatures related to water balance are explained by climatic conditions; and 3) signatures describing flow paths are predicted by terrain, soil, and aquifer permeability. This study examined 230 catchments to achieve objectives and test hypotheses stated.

  7. On subduction zone earthquakes and the Pacific Northwest seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Dae H.

    1991-12-01

    A short review of subduction zone earthquakes and the seismicity of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States is provided for the purpose of a basis for assessing issues related to earthquake hazard evaluations for the region. This review of seismotectonics regarding historical subduction zone earthquakes and more recent seismological studies pertaining to rupture processes of subduction zone earthquakes, with specific references to the Pacific Northwest, is made in this brief study. Subduction zone earthquakes tend to rupture updip and laterally from the hypocenter. Thus, the rupture surface tends to become more elongated as one considers larger earthquakes (there is limited updip distance that is strongly coupled, whereas rupture length can be quite large). The great Aleutian-Alaska earthquakes of 1957, 1964, and 1965 had rupture lengths of greater than 650 km. The largest earthquake observed instrumentally, the M{sub W} 9.5, 1960 Chile Earthquake, had a rupture length over 1000 km. However, earthquakes of this magnitude are very unlikely on Cascadia. The degree of surface shaking has a very strong dependency on the depth and style of rupture. The rupture surface during a great earthquake shows heterogeneous stress drop, displacement, energy release, etc. The high strength zones are traditionally termed asperities and these asperities control when and how large an earthquake is generated. Mapping of these asperities in specific subduction zones is very difficult before an earthquake. They show up more easily in inversions of dynamic source studies of earthquake ruptures, after an earthquake. Because seismic moment is based on the total radiated-energy from an earthquake, the moment-based magnitude M{sub W} is superior to all other magnitude estimates, such as M{sub L}, m{sub b}, M{sub bLg}, M{sub S}, etc Probably, just to have a common language, non-moment magnitudes should be converted to M{sub W} in any discussions of subduction zone earthquakes.

  8. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  9. Identifying block structure in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Wells, Ray E.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified block structure in the Pacific Northwest (west of 116°W between 38°N and 49°N) by clustering GPS stations so that the same Euler vector approximates the velocity of each station in a cluster. Given the total number k of clusters desired, the clustering procedure finds the best assignment of stations to clusters. Clustering is calculated for k= 2 to 14. In geographic space, cluster boundaries that remain relatively stable as k is increased are tentatively identified as block boundaries. That identification is reinforced if the cluster boundary coincides with a geologic feature. Boundaries identified in northern California and Nevada are the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, the west side of the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Bartlett Springs Fault. Three blocks cover all of Oregon and Washington. The principal block boundary there extends west-northwest along the Brothers Fault Zone, then north and northwest along the eastern boundary of Siletzia, the accreted oceanic basement of the forearc. East of this boundary is the Intermountain block, its eastern boundary undefined. A cluster boundary at Cape Blanco subdivides the forearc along the faulted southern margin of Siletzia. South of Cape Blanco the Klamath Mountains-Basin and Range block extends east to the Central Nevada Seismic Belt and south to the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. The Siletzia block north of Cape Blanco coincides almost exactly with the accreted Siletz terrane. The cluster boundary in the eastern Olympic Peninsula may mark permanent shortening of Siletzia against the Intermountain block.

  10. Hydrologic response of Pacific Northwest river to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, F.; Cuo, L.; Wu, H.; Mantua, N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    The climate of the Pacific Northwest (PNW - which we define as the Columbia River basin and watersheds draining to the Oregon and Washington coasts) is expected to warm by approximately 0.3°C per decade in the next 100 years based on the IPCC the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) results. PNW hydrology is particularly sensitive to a warming climate because of the dominant role of snowmelt in seasonal streamflow. Timing shifts in seasonality of flows, peak discharge, and base flows will impact water resource management, regional electrical energy production, and freshwater ecosystems. In this work we update previous studies of implications of climate change on PNW hydrology using a macroscale hydrology model driven by simulations of temperature and precipitation downscaled from runs of 20 General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two emissions scenarios (lower B1 and mid-high A1B) in the 21st century. The hydrology model is implemented at 1/16th degree spatial resolution over the entire PNW. A (statistical) bias-correction and spatial disaggregation downscaling approach is used for translating the transient monthly climate model output into continuous daily forcings for the hydrologic analysis. We evaluate projected changes in snow water equivalent, seasonal streamflow, and frequency of peak low flows over a set of case study watersheds in the region. We also compare these hydrologic projections with previous analysis based on delta downscaling method over the PNW. This research is part of a project investigating climate change impacts on the future of wild Pacific salmon, and is a pilot effort to investigate the hydrologic sensitivity of salmon bearing watersheds around the entire North Pacific Rim.

  11. Simulations of the ENSO Hydroclimate Signals in the Pacific Northwest Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai R.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Kumar, Arun

    1999-11-01

    Natural fluctuations in the atmosphere–ocean system related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induce climate variability over many parts of the world that is potentially predictable with lead times from seasons to decades. This study examines the potential of using a model nesting approach to provide seasonal climate and streamflow forecasts suitable for water resources management. Two ensembles of perpetual January simulations were performed with a regional climate model driven by a general circulation model (GCM), using observed climatological sea surface temperature (SST) and the mean SST of the warm ENSO years between 1950 and 1994. The climate simulations were then used to drive a macroscale hydrology model to simulate streamflow. The differences between the two ensembles of simulations are defined as the warm ENSO signals. The simulated hydroclimate signals were compared with observations. The analyses focus on the Columbia River basin in the Pacific Northwest. Results show that the global and regional models simulated a warming over the Pacific Northwest that is quite close to the observations. The models also correctly captured the strong wet signal over California and the weak dry signal over the Pacific Northwest during warm ENSO years. The regional climate model consistently performed better than the GCM in simulating the spatial distribution of regional climate and climate signals. When the climate simulations were used to drive a macroscale hydrology model at the Columbia River basin, the simulated streamflow signal resembles that derived from hydrological simulations driven by observed climate. The streamflow simulations were considerably improved when a simple bias correction scheme was applied to the climate simulations. The coupled regional climate and macroscale hydrologic simulations demonstrate the prospect for generating and utilizing seasonal climate forecasts for managing reservoirs.

  12. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  13. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Manipulations on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climate change will have a large impact on the three predominate drivers of estuarine seagrass productivity, temperature, light and nutrients. I experimentally evaluate the response of Pacific Northwest Z. marina to interactive effects of temperature and nutrient conditio...

  14. Simultaneous Semi-Distributed Model Calibration Guided by Hydrologic Landscapes in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modelling approaches to transfer hydrologically-relevant information from locations with streamflow measurements to locations without such measurements continues to be an active field of research for hydrologists. The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) provide a sol...

  15. Distribution of intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) with bathymetry in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and non-vegetated substrates in three coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) were determined using color infrared (CIR) aerial orthophotography during daylight low tides. Comparison of the digital classif...

  16. A GUIDE TO MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS AND NONVEGETATED HABITATS IN ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides technical guidance for planning and implementing the production of aerial photomaps of intertidal vegetative habitats in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest USA (PNW). The focus is on methods of documenting the intertidal distribution of the seagras...

  17. 75 FR 20812 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northwest Region Pacific Whiting Shoreside...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northwest Region Pacific Whiting Shoreside Fishery Monitoring and Catch Accounting Program AGENCY: National...

  18. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  19. Applicability of Hydrologic Landscapes for Model Calibration at the Watershed Scale in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) at the assessment unit scale has provided a solid conceptual classification framework to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A collection of tec...

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tilden, Harold T.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Lowry, Kami L.; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Mendez, Keith M.; Raney, Elizabeth A.; Chamness, Michele A.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  1. Historic and Industrial Lead within the Northwest Pacific Ocean Evidenced by Lead Isotopes in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Zurbrick, Cheryl M; Gallon, Céline; Flegal, A Russell

    2017-02-07

    We report the continued lead (Pb) contamination of the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2002 and present the first comprehensive Pb isotope data set for that region. In the upper ocean, a Pb concentration maxima (64-113 pmol kg(-1)) extended throughout the entire North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). We determined most of the Pb in this feature was from industrial emissions by many nations in the 1980s and 1990s, with the largest contributions from leaded gasoline emissions. In contrast, the deep water (>1000 m) Pb concentrations were lower (6-37 pmol kg(-1)), and constituted a mix of background (natural) Pb and anthropogenic Pb inputs from preceding decades. Deep water below the Western Subarctic Gyre (WSAG) contained more industrial Pb than below the NPSG, which was attributed to a calculated 60-fold greater flux of particulate Pb to abyssal waters near the Asian continent. Assuming Pb isotope compositions in the North Pacific Ocean were homogeneous prior to large-scale 20th century anthropogenic inputs, this evidence suggests a relatively faster change in Pb isotope ratios of North Pacific deep water below the WSAG versus the NPSG.

  2. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  3. Pacific northwest vowels: A Seattle neighborhood dialect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Jennifer K.; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia

    2005-04-01

    According to current literature a large region encompassing nearly the entire west half of the U.S. belongs to one dialect region referred to as Western, which furthermore, according to Labov et al., ``... has developed a characteristic but not unique phonology.'' [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono-atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html] This paper will describe the vowel space of a set of Pacific Northwest American English speakers native to the Ballard neighborhood of Seattle, Wash. based on the acoustical analysis of high-quality Marantz CDR 300 recordings. Characteristics, such as low back merger and [u] fronting will be compared to findings by other studies. It is hoped that these recordings will contribute to a growing number of corpora of North American English dialects. All participants were born in Seattle and began their residence in Ballard between ages 0-8. They were recorded in two styles of speech: individually reading repetitions of a word list containing one token each of 10 vowels within carrier phrases, and in casual conversation for 40 min with a partner matched in age, gender, and social mobility. The goal was to create a compatible data set for comparison with current acoustic studies. F1 and F2 and vowel duration from LPC spectral analysis will be presented.

  4. International Safeguards and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Smith, Leon E.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schanfein, Mark J.; Sayre, Amanda M.; Jones, Rebecca L.

    2016-07-21

    Established in 1965, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) strong technical ties and shared heritage with the nearby U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site were central to the early development of expertise in nuclear fuel cycle signatures, separations chemistry, plutonium chemistry, environmental monitoring, modeling and analysis of reactor systems, and nuclear material safeguards and security. From these Hanford origins, PNNL has grown into a multi-program science and engineering enterprise that utilizes this diversity to strengthen the international safeguards regime. Today, PNNL supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its mission to provide assurances to the international community that nations do not use nuclear materials and equipment outside of peaceful uses. PNNL also serves in the IAEA’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) by providing analysis of environmental samples gathered around the world. PNNL is involved in safeguards research and development activities in support of many U.S. Government programs such as the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Office of Research and Development, NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control, and the U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards. In addition to these programs, PNNL invests internal resources including safeguards-specific training opportunities for staff, and laboratory-directed research and development funding to further ideas that may grow into new capabilities. This paper and accompanying presentation highlight some of PNNL’s contributions in technology development, implementation concepts and approaches, policy, capacity building, and human capital development, in the field of international safeguards.

  5. Mapping "At Risk" Snow in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolin, A. W.; Daly, C.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most visible and widely felt impacts of climate change is the change (mostly loss) of low elevation snow cover in the mid-latitudes. Snow cover that accumulates at temperatures close to the ice-water phase transition is at greater risk to climate warming than cold climate snow packs because it affects both precipitation phase and ablation rates. Changes in such climatologically sensitive snow packs can impact hydropower generation, reservoir storage, rain-on-snow floods, and winter recreation. Using a climatologically based global snow cover classification (Sturm et al., 1995) "at risk" snow is defined as lower elevation maritime and alpine snow classes. This original classification was produced globally at 0.5-degree resolution and used monthly means of temperature and precipitation as well as vegetation cover to map snow climates. In this work, the classification is updated for the Pacific Northwest region using fields of temperature and precipitation from PRISM as well as MODIS-derived global maps of vegetation cover. This new classification has significantly improved grid resolution (4 km x 4 km) and is able to clearly identify regions of ephemeral and lower elevation maritime and alpine snow that are thought to be at risk in a climate warming scenario. Results indicate that the economic impacts of this shift from snow- to rain-dominated winter precipitation that lower elevation ski areas in the region would experience significant negative impacts.

  6. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies were conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function; (2) experiments on cancer development in animals; and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats were shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies were conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels were shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements were performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  7. Water and energy conservation modeling in Pacific Northwest irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture and electrical energy supply in the Pacific Northwest are intricately bound by mutual dependence on Columbia River Basin water. Diversion and instream demands on the water have intensified through recent development in the region. Water conservation opportunities exist in present irrigation that could supplement regional firm hydroelectricity. A two-level mathematical programming model is developed to evaluate irrigator production and regional price responses to water and electricity conservation policies. Stage one emphasizes decision criteria at producer level - irrigable land, water, electricity and labor demand, and water response yields on major crops. Irrigators choose cropping and irrigation mixes and rates at expected commodity prices under resource constraints consistent with regional policy. Stage two employs production and resource use solutions from stage one in a regional allocation and price equilibrium-seeking program. Alfalfa, apple, and potato prices are determined endogenously, and a decomposition-type linkage reiterates production area response to regional equilibrium prices. Baseline irrigated acreage, water electricity, production, and crop prices are estimated for 1982. Water pricing policies reflecting the opportunity value of Columbia River water for hydrogeneration indicate increasing net social benefits, net farm returns, and hydropower potential accruing from conservation in irrigation.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Catalysis Highlights for FY2007

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Bruce C.

    2007-11-15

    To reduce the nation’s dependence on imported oil, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal and private agencies are investing in understanding catalysis. This report focuses on catalysis research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its collaborators. Using sophisticated instruments in DOE’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility, research was conducted to answer key questions related to the nation’s use of automotive fuels. Research teams investigated how hydrogen can be safely stored and efficiently released, critical questions to use this alternative fuel. Further, they are answering key questions to design molecular catalysts to control the transfer of hydrogen atoms, hydrides, and protons important to hydrogen production. In dealing with today’s fuels, researchers examined adsorption of noxious nitrous oxides in automotive exhaust. Beyond automotive fuel, researchers worked on catalysts to harness solar power. These catalysts include the rutile and anatase forms of titanium dioxide. Basic research was conducted on designing catalysts for these and other applications. Our scientists examined how to build catalysts with the desired properties atom by atom and molecule by molecule. In addition, this report contains brief descriptions of the outstanding accomplishments of catalysis experts at PNNL.

  9. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  10. Time of Emergence of Climate Extremes in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, C.; Salathe, E. P., Jr.; Snover, A. K.; Yu, R.

    2014-12-01

    The time at which a climate variable emerges from the noise of climate variability, or "time of emergence" (ToE), is explored from a stakeholder-driven perspective. Using both global and statistically downscaled climate model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and hydrologic model results, management-relevant measures of the climate and environment are analyzed for the Pacific Northwest (PNW), within the broader context of the continental United States. The specific climate variables were selected through meetings with key regional resource managers at federal, state, and local agencies, and generally relate to exceptional events in temperature, precipitation, and streamflow. Uncertainty in ToE calculations is also examined due to three sources: 1) statistical estimation of emergence 2) future emission scenarios (rcp4.5 and rcp8.5) and 3) multi-model ensemble spread. In the PNW, results show that for temperature related climate variables, ToE is likely within the next 50 years, with a strong positive trend, regardless of emission scenario. Precipitation related variables show a much later ToE, with a weak positive signal despite some model disagreement in direction of change. As this data is intended for socio-economic stakeholders in the PNW, a web tool has been designed to allow for visualizing and analyzing ToE for multiple climate variables and the associated probability statistics across the PNW domain. This information will help guide resource managers in the prioritization and timing of climate change adaption activities.

  11. Cenozoic Plume-Slab Interaction Beneath the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrebski, M. J.; Allen, R. M.; Hung, S.; Pollitz, F. F.

    2009-12-01

    Here we present new images of the structure beneath the Pacific Northwest obtained by inverting both compressional and shear teleseismic body waves and using finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. The models use all available seismic data from the Earthscope Transportable Array, regional seismic networks and two Flexible Array experiments (Mendocino and FACES experiments) deployed on the west coast. By picking P, S and SKS arrivals manually and estimating station-to-station relative arrival times through cross correlation of the waveforms, we select only the highest quality data. East from the Juan de Fuca slab and north from the Mendocino Triple Junction, the mantle structure is dominated by high velocity blocks that are likely to be fragments of the Farallon slab. In the middle of the slab fragments, both our compressional (DNA09-P) and shear (DNA09-S) velocity models show a continuous low velocity anomaly that extends from the Yellowstone Caldera down into the lower mantle. We interpret this feature as a deep-seated mantle plume. The striking contrast between the slab-dominated mantle north from the MTJ and the continuous deep-seated Yellowstone mantle plume suggests the plume disrupted the Farallon slab during its ascent to the surface.

  12. Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years: Initial results of the Sino-German Pacific Ocean Experiment (SiGePax)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerrit; Lembke-Jene, Lester; Scholz, Patrick; Gong, Xun; Max, Lars; Tiedemann, Ralf; Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Liu, Yanguang; Wu, Yonghua; Ge, Shulan

    2016-04-01

    Arctic and Subarctic Regions are most sensitive to climate change, and reversely provide dramatic feedbacks to the global climate. Paleoclimate studies in these regions are of vital importance for a better understanding of the natural processes in the climate system prior to the influences of human activities. With a focus on discovering paleoceanographic evolutions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years, we show first results of the German-Sino cooperation programme SiGePax. We present a collection of sediment cores covering climatical key regions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Our climate simulations provide the first step towards 'Data-Model Syntheses', which are crucial for exploring the underlying mechanisms of observed changes in proxy records. Analyses of Holocene sea surface temperature records on a basin-wide scale show a spatially heterogenous, but no simple warming or cooling pattern, indicating that extratropical atmospheric dynamics is involved. The temperature data are compared to model scenarios. We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration, with a regional focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean to provide the underlying dynamics. We find that the Okhotsk Sea is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice cover, where due to brine release, the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water is formed, contributing to North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  13. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pacific herring

    SciTech Connect

    Lassuy, D.R. . Oregon Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit)

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, ecological role, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist coastal managers, engineers, and biologists in the gathering of information pertinent to coastal development activities. The Pacific herring has a long history of exploitation for human consumption, animal feed, and trade. It also provides food for a wide variety of pelagic, intertidal, and avian predators. The herring roe fishery has dominated catches since Japan opened its market to imports in the early 1970's. Pacific herring spawn in quiescent, nearshore areas, primarily on marine vegetation. Spawning peaks in the Pacific Northwest region during February and March. Larvae remain inshore, transform into juveniles after 2--3 months, then move offshore in the fall. Adults move inshore on their spawning migration in late fall and early winter. Optimum physiological performance during the early life history is achieved at about 12--17 ppT salinity at temperatures near 6.5--8.3{degree}C. It is important to avoid siltation at or near the spawning grounds in order to prevent disruption of spawning behavior or smothering of eggs. 65 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pacific oyster

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, G.B.; Van Der Raay, B.; Troutt, D.

    1988-09-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessments. The Pacific oyster is found in the estuarine waters of California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. It is sought both commercially and recreationally. Washington leads all other areas combined with a commercial production of 5.5 million pounds valued at $3.8 million. This is 26% of Washington State's total shellfish production value. These are very prolific animals, releasing up to 70 million eggs per year. Larvae are sensitive to a variety of environmental conditions, primarily temperature and salinity, and to pollutants including sulphite waste liquor. Growth is rapid and most noticeable in the third and fourth years. Along with other shellfish, Pacific oysters may accumulate toxin from /ital Gonyaulax cantenella/ (responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning), but they lose the toxin more rapidly than other shellfish. Optimum water temperature for adults is 20/degree/C and optimum salinities are above 20 ppt for adults. Ambient temperature is the single most critical item to breeding success in the Pacific Northwest.

  15. Measuring the Impact of the Private College in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchman, James H.

    The impact of the following private colleges in the Pacific Northwest is examined: Willamette University (Salem, Oregon), Pacific University (Forest Grove, Oregon), Linfield College (McMinnville, Oregon), Lewis and Clark College (Portland, Oregon), Whitman College (Walla Walla, Washington), University of Puget Sound (Tacoma, Washington), Whitworth…

  16. Classification of Regional Patterns of Environmental Drivers and Benthic Habitats in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    While increased anthropogenic nutrient loading of coastal ecosystems is a growing ecological and economic problem both in the U.S. and globally, the extent of such excess nutrient loading in Pacific Northwest estuaries is poorly known. To help determine the vulnerability of Pacif...

  17. Mesoscale variability of deep currents in the Northwest Pacific Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Oka, E.; Yanagimoto, D.; Fujio, S.; Kurogi, M.; Hasumi, H.

    2014-12-01

    mooring observations conducted near 30°N, 146°40'E in the late 1970's. In the Northwest Pacific Basin, simulated EKE was highest at the Kuroshio Extension, and a high-EKE area extended about 500 km north and south of it.

  18. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  19. Marine Photochemistry of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Shiller, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    A systematical study of hydrogen peroxide in seawater, rainwater, and marine air in the Northwest Pacific Ocean was conducted during a transect from Osaka, Japan, to Hawaii, USA, in May and June of 2002. During the transect, surface seawater samples were analyzed continuously for peroxide which showed the effects of photochemical production, wet deposition, and terrestrial impact. In the surface waters, hydrogen peroxide decreased with latitude from a little over 25 nM in the north (50°N) to more than 150 nM in the south (22°N). This latitudinal variation of hydrogen peroxide followed a trend similar to shipboard measurement of ultraviolet radiation. Diel variations of surface hydrogen peroxide were observed at several locations, with surface water concentrations increasing during the day and decreasing at night. The concentration of surface water peroxide increased to over 200 nM following rain events. Higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>150 nM) were also observed near Asia. The profiles of hydrogen peroxide were obtained at 10 stations that exhibited surface maxima of 24 to 120 nM. The rate constant of dark decay varied from 0.08 d-1 to 0.22 d-1. Rate of photo-production decreased from 10 nM hr-1 at noon to 0 at night. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide varied from 16 μM to 526 μM in rainwater. The data set permits a systematical analysis and modeling of factors regulating the dynamics of hydrogen peroxide in marine environment.

  20. Customer Satisfaction Assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N.; Sours, Mardell L.

    2000-03-20

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. We present the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of 2 major sections, Strategic Value and Project Performance. The Strategic Value section of the questionnaire consists of 5 questions that can be answered with a 5 point Likert scale response. These questions are designed to determine if a project is directly contributing to critical future national needs. The Project Performance section of the questionnaire consists of 9 questions that can be answered with a 5 point Likert scale response. These questions determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. Many approaches could be used to analyze customer survey data. We present a statistical model that can accurately capture the random behavior of customer survey data. The properties of this statistical model can be used to establish a "gold standard'' or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then assess progress. The gold standard is defined from input from laboratory management --- answers to 4 simple questions, in terms of the information obtained from the CSAP customer survey, define the standard: *What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? *What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? *What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? *What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? We discuss how to analyze CSAP customer survey data with this model. Our discussion will include "lessons learned" and issues that can invalidate this type of assessment.

  1. The Last Frontier: Catch Records of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Heather M.; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Fordham, Sonja V.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Hussey, Nigel E.

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126–602 cm total length (TL) and 16–2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  2. Deep circulation in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, W. Brechner; Warren, Bruce A.

    2001-04-01

    , and probably into the Japan Trench as well, flows northward through the Kuril Trench, and, at least at some levels, around the northern end of the Emperor Seamount Chain to fill the long Aleutian Trench. This plus eastward flows through the Main Gap in the Emperor Seamount Chain and the passage between the Hess Rise and the Hawaiian Ridge seem to be the principal deep outflows from the Northwest Pacific Basin into the Northeast Pacific Basin. The Meiji Sediment Drift, lying along the eastern flank of the far northern Emperor Seamount Chain, is composed of material from the Bering Sea. To account for its deposition, we conjecture that the deep Kamchatka Current, presently carrying this material southward, splits at the latitude of the northernmost Emperors, one branch flowing eastward as a zonal jet, and continuing southward along the eastern flank of the Seamount Chain as a deep western-boundary current. Descriptive ambiguities and dynamical puzzles are considered.

  3. Dynamics of the Pacific Northwest Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic imaging resolves a complex structure beneath the Pacific Northwest (PNW) that is interpreted as: an high-velocity piece of accreted (~50 Ma) Farallon lithosphere that deepens from being exposed (at coast, where it is called Siletzia) to lower crust in SE Washington and then descending vertically to ~600 km as a 'curtain' beneath central Idaho; a stubby Juan de Fuca slab (to <250 km in most places, and with a gap beneath much of Oregon); and very slow 'fingers' above the slab with an especially anomalous volume beneath central Oregon. The evacuation of asthenosphere with the descending Juan de Fuca slab presents an interesting problem. Typical corner-flow supply is prevented because the mantle wind blows eastward. A stagnation line between mantle drawn west into the mantle wedge and that flowing east in the far field may exist near the Farallon curtain. Other sources of supply to the Cascadia mantle wedge include: mantle flowing north beneath California, entrained with the Pacific Plate; flow from below the Juan de Fuca slab, perhaps especially through the Oregon gap; toroidal flow around the southern edge of the slab; and possible up-flow beneath the backarc. Anisotropy studies suggest the importance of toroidal flow. PNW lithosphere stress is dominated by N-S compression, a result of the Sierra Nevada driving the PNW into British Columbia; this push, and oblique subduction, are responsible for PNW clockwise rotation. Modeled (in 2D, map view) north-directed tractions on the Cascadia mega-thrust average ~4 TN per meter of along-strike fault length, or probably a shear stress of ~40 MPa over much of the locked mega-thrust (i.e., much more shear stress than the typical earthquake stress drop of 1-10 MPa). Normal to the coast, southern Cascadia is relatively tensional (where margin-normal compression is less than typical ridge push by ~4 TN/m of along-strike fault length) whereas northern Cascadia is compressional. This indicates that the southern Cascadia

  4. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  6. Investigating alongshore wind trends in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylhouwer, B.; Ianson, D. C.; Kohfeld, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal upwelling regions are important for both global fisheries populations and the carbon cycle. Alongshore winds draw up cold, relatively acidic and nutrient-rich water from intermediate depths and enhance primary productivity that supports over 20% of global fish stocks and can create large air-sea carbon fluxes. Coastal winds can also be seasonal, alternating between upwelling-favourable and either a relaxed or downwelling-favourable state throughout the year. Climate change is expected to enhance coastal winds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as sea-land pressure gradients intensify, and the associated change in upwelling could deliver more acidic water onto continental shelves during vulnerable life stages for many marine organisms. The goal of our study is to quantify the magnitude and temporal changes in coastal marine winds since 1979 along the PNW from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Oregon. Daily wind speed and direction data were collected from 12 meteorological buoy and lighthouse stations from 1983 to the present, covering a study area from 45.16°N to 50.91°N and within 100 km of the coastline. Due to significant gaps in data from all but 3 stations, North American Regional Re-analysis (NARR) data from 12 locations spanning the study area was also collected to supplement our analysis. Through our analysis, we have determined objective criteria for selecting the regional upwelling and downwelling seasons based on the annual accumulating total of upwelling-favourable alongshore wind stress. Our seasonal transitions follow previously published qualitative estimates made off the coast of Vancouver Island. Our analyses show no change in the timing or duration of seasons since 1979, although they do indicate significant inter-annual variability. Intra-season analyses show greater upwelling in the summer season and greater downwelling in the winter season, with no significant changes in the spring or fall transitional periods. Our results indicate

  7. Teleseismic receiver function imaging of the Pacific Northwest, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eager, Kevin Charles

    The origins of widespread Cenozoic tectonomagmatism in the Pacific Northwest, United States likely involve complex dynamics including subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate and mantle upwelling processes, all of which are reflected in the crust and upper mantle. To provide an improved understanding of these processes, I analyze P-to- S converted phases using the receiver function method to image topographic variations on regional seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle, which provides constraints on mantle thermal structure, and the crust-mantle interface, which provides constraints on crustal thickness and composition. My results confirm complexity in the Juan de Fuca slab structure as found by regional tomographic studies, including limited evidence of the slab penetrating the transition zone between the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. Evidence is inconclusive for a simple mantle plume beneath the central Oregon High Lava Plains, but indicates a regional increase in mantle temperatures stretching to the east. This result implies the inflow of warm material, either from around the southern edge of the Juan de Fuca plate as it descends into the mantle, or from a regional upwelling to the east related to the Yellowstone hotspot. Results for regional crustal structure reveal thin (˜31 km) crust beneath the High Lava Plains relative to surrounding regions that exhibit thicker (35+ km) crust. The thick (≥ 40 km) crust of the Owyhee Plateau has a sharp western boundary and normal Poisson's ratio, a measure of crustal composition. I find a slightly thickened crust and low Poisson's ratio between Steens Mountain and the Owyhee Plateau, consistent with residuum from source magma of the Steens flood basalts. Central and southern Oregon exhibit very high Poisson's ratios and low velocity zones within the crust, suggesting a degree of intracrustal partial melt not seen along the center of the age-progressive High Lava Plains magmatic track, perhaps due to crustal melt

  8. Energy Efficient and Sustainable HPC at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tuma, Phil; Marquez, Andres; Sego, Landon H.; Schmidt, Roger; Cader, Tahir

    2009-09-01

    Power consumption in US data centers has been escalating at an alarming rate. In response to Public Law 109-431, EPA reported that electricity usage by US data centers accounted for 1.5% of the total electricity used in the US in 2006. They projected that if current data center operating practices continue, electricity usage will almost double to 2.9% of the total electricity used in the US in 2011 (EPA, 2007). Consequently EPA issued a call to action to both government and industry to collaborate and set aggressive goals to reduce power consumption in data centers. In the spirit of responding to the findings and recommendations of the EPA report, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has teamed with several key organizations including: The Green Grid (TGG), ASHRAE TC9.9, IBM, 3M, and SprayCool. As part of this effort, a highly instrumented liquid-cooled cluster has been installed at PNNL. The cluster is housed in an 800 ft2 data center which resides in a mixed-use data center with a significant amount of instrumentation as well. The eventual objective of the effort is to be able to report the real-time power consumption, energy efficiency, and productivity of the liquid-cooled data center. Preliminary results from the effort at PNNL are reported in this paper. Thermal results are reported for the hottest server components, including the microprocessors and memory DIMMs. Under all conditions tested, the components have not exceeded manufacturers’ specifications. More importantly, the data show that the liquid-cooled servers can be maintained within specifications while rejecting to non-chilled facility water at 78°F (25.6°C). Furthermore, a reasonable extrapolation suggests that the specifications can still be maintained at 86°F (30°C). In an effort to address global warming, work has started on the qualification of a new 3M Fluoroketone fluid that has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1. This GWP is the lowest published value of all commercially

  9. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  10. Views, Beliefs, & Opinions of Business Education by State Employment Service Managers in the Pacific Northwest, Secondary Principals in the Pacific Northwest, Chief State School Officers throughout the United States, State Directors of Employment & Training throughout the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Martha C.

    State employment service managers in the Pacific Northwest, secondary principals in the Pacific Northwest, chief state school officers throughout the United States, and state directors of employment and training throughout the United States were asked to rate students on a list of 15 attributes seen as key to performance on the job. Their…

  11. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  12. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  13. Collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, L.K.; Eakin, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify potential methods for the collection, transportation and storage of agricultural and forest residues in the Pacific Northwest. Information was gathered from available literature and through contacts with researchers, equipment manufacturers, and other individuals involved in forest and agricultural activities. This information was evaluated, combined, and adapted for situations existing in the Pacific Northwest. A number of methods for collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues using currently available technology are described. Many of these methods can be applied to residue fuel materials along with their current uses in the forest and agricultural industries.

  14. Multidecadal wind-driven shifts in northwest Pacific temperature, salinity, O2, and PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Eun Young; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Young-Gyu; Park, Young-Hyang; Dunne, John; Chang, Kyung-Il

    2016-11-01

    The North Pacific gyre boundaries are characterized by stark contrasts in physical and biogeochemical properties. Meridional movement of gyre boundaries, influenced by climate change, can therefore exert a large influence not only on marine ecosystems but also on climate. We examine the evidence for wind-driven southward shifts in subsurface temperature, salinity, PO4, and O2 within the northwest Pacific from the 1950s to the 2000s. Gyre boundary shifts can explain 30-60% of temperature and salinity trends zonally averaged in the northwest Pacific and observed PO4 and O2 trends along the 137°E and 144°E meridians. The close tie between the wind-driven shifts in gyre boundaries and the tracer distributions is further supported by results from an eddy-resolving (0.1° × 0.1°) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory climate model, suggesting that the physical and biogeochemical properties averaged within the northwest Pacific gyre boundaries closely follow the latitude changes of the zero Sverdrup stream function with lags of 0 to 3 years. The gyre shift effect on tracer distribution is poorly represented in a coarse resolution (1° × 1°) model due partly to poor representations of fronts and eddies. This study suggests that future changes in northwest Pacific PO4 and O2 content may depend not only on ocean temperature and stratification but also on the ocean gyre response to winds.

  15. 33 CFR 165.T13-240 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest... Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.T13-240 Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain... passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules; and (ii) Permit commercial vessels anchored in...

  16. Interactions between fuel choice and energy-efficiency in new homes in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    In recent years the Bonneville Power Administration has instituted programs to prompt the implementation of the residential Model Conservation Standards (MCS) issued by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1983. These standards provide alternative methods for designing and constructing homes to cost effectively reduce residential energy consumption. Authority exists to apply them only to new, electrically heated homes. Because they apply to electrically heated homes, concerns have arisen about how the standards might affect buyers' decisions to purchase a new home, in particular, their choice of a heating fuel. Early data suggested that electricity started losing market share in Tacoma about when the MCS went into effect in 1984, and recent data have shown that about half of electricity's share of the new home market has shifted to natural gas. This decline in electric heating was consistent with concerns about the possible detrimental effect of the cost of MCS on sales of electrically heated homes. A desire to understand the causes of the perceived decline in electricity's market share was part of the impetus for this study. Multiple techniques and data sources are used in this study to examine the relationship between residential energy-efficiency and fuel choice in the major metropolitan areas in Washington: Spokane, Clark, Pierce, and King Counties. Recent regional surveys have shown that electricity is the predominant space heating fuel in the Pacific Northwest, but it appears to be losing its dominance in some markets such as Tacoma.

  17. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  18. Effects of Climate Change on Flood Frequency in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergel, D. R.; Stumbaugh, M. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    A key concern about climate change as related to water resources is the potential for changes in hydrologic extremes, including flooding. We explore changes in flood frequency in the Pacific Northwest using downscaled output from ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for historical forcings (1950-2005) and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 (2006-2100). We use archived output from the Integrated Scenarios Project (ISP) (http://maca.northwestknowledge.net/), which uses the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method for statistical downscaling. The MACA-downscaled GCM output was then used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model with a 1/16th degree spatial resolution and a daily time step. For each of the 238 HUC-08 areas within the Pacific Northwest (USGS Hydrologic Region 15), we computed, from the ISP archive, the series of maximum daily runoff values (surrogate for the annual maximum flood), and then the mean annual flood. Finally, we computed the ratios of the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 mean annual floods to their corresponding values for the historical period. We evaluate spatial patterns in the results. For snow-dominated watersheds, the changes are dominated by reductions in flood frequency in basins that currently have spring-dominant floods, and increases in snow affected basins with fall-dominant floods. In low elevation basins west of the Cascades, changes in flooding are more directly related to changes in precipitation extremes. We further explore the nature of these effects by evaluating the mean Julian day of the annual maximum flood for each HUC-08 and how this changes between the historical and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios.

  19. Barberry as alternate host is important for Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, but not for Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common barberry (Berberis vulgaris) has been known to serve as an alternate host for the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), under natural conditions in the U. S. Pacific Northwest for a long time. The plant has been recently shown to be infected by basidiospores of th...

  20. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients - November 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of temperature and nutrient quantity on Z. marina growth and physiology. Ma...

  1. The Specific Features of Pollution Transport in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diansky, Nikolay; Fomin, Vladimir; Gusev, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    Two calculations of pollutant dispersal in the Northwest Pacific Ocean are presented: (1) during possible shipwrecks in the process of spent nuclear fuel transportation from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and (2) pollutant spread from the Japanese coast after the Fukushima 1 nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011. The circulation was simulated using a σ - coordinate ocean model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) developed at the INM RAS. The INMOM is based on the primitive equations using the spherical σ - coordinate system with a free ocean surface. The INMOM was realized for the Pacific Ocean basin from the equator to the Bering Strait with a high 1/8° spatial resolution for reproducing the mesoscale ocean variability. The pollutant dispersal in the case of possible shipwrecks was estimated for currents for a statistically average year with atmospheric forcing from Common Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE) for normal year data. The pollution spread from the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant (NPP) was estimated for currents calculated with the real atmospheric forcing in accordance with the NCEP GFS (0.5 degree grid). The simulation period of pollutant dispersal from Fukushima 1 was 17 days: from March 11 to 28, 2011. The results of numerical simulation show that pollutant dispersal from the Fukushima 1 spread eastward according to the Kuroshio. Moreover, exceeding of natural background radiation level was simulated in the narrow region of the Japanese coast with width of less than 50 km.

  2. Imperial science: a naturalist in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Schefke, Brian

    2008-09-01

    British imperial expansion opened up new worlds for naturalists to collect and catalogue many species of plants and animals unknown in Europe. David Douglas' travels to the northwest region of North America in the 1820s exemplified, in many ways, the science of empire. Under the aegis of the Hudson's Bay Company, the main representative of British influence in the Northwest, Douglas was able to journey throughout the region and collect a significant number of plants that found their way into British gardens. Yet Douglas was not only a collector aided by imperial institutions, but also, through his expertise, an agent of imperialism.

  3. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  5. Introducing winter canola to the winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in the low-rainfall, winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest are in need of an alternative crop to diversify their markets, manage pests, and increase wheat yields. Winter canola may be a viable crop option for growers in the region. However, agronomic research for winter canol...

  6. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  7. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  8. YAQUINA ESTUARY NUTRIENT CRITERIA CASE STUDY: GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRITERIA IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an introduction to the Yaquina Estuary Nutrient Case Study which includes considerations for development of estuarine nutrient criteria in the Pacific Northwest. As part of this effort, a database of historic and recent data has been assembled consistin...

  9. Soil and water conservation in the Pacific Northwest through no-tillage and intensified crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) summer fallow rotation typically practiced in the intermediate precipitation zone [300-450 mm (12-18 in)] of the inland Pacific Northwest has proven to be economically stable for producers in this region. However multiple tillage operations are used to control...

  10. Application of a Eutrophic Condition Index to Benthic Macroalgal Accumulation in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of benthic macroalgal accumulation in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest, USA, were conducted over a 12-year period, including aerial mapping and ground surveys. The results were applied to an assessment framework for eutrophication developed by the European Unio...

  11. Inferred origin of several Native American potatoes from the Pacific Northwest using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest and Alaska of the USA have grown potatoes in their gardens for many generations. However, the origin of these potatoes was unclear. In this study, the origin of several potatoes collected from Native gardens, including two potatoes, “Ozette” (fro...

  12. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  13. Non-wadeable river bioassessment: spatial variation of benthic diatom assemblages in Pacific Northwest rivers, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current bioassessment efforts are focused on small wadeable streams, at least partly because assessing ecological conditions in non-wadeable large rivers poses many additional challenges. In this study, we sampled 20 sites in each of seven large rivers in the Pacific Northwest, U...

  14. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  15. Potential climate change impacts on tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tidal wetlands along the coast of the Pacific Northwest provide wildlife habitat and support important ecosystem functions such as primary productivity. The future structure and function of these ecosystems may be altered by sea-level rise (SLR) or other climate change effects. W...

  16. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel - CERF 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  17. Crop Response to Hybrid Poplar Alternative Soilless Substrate Component for Pacific Northwest Ornamental Container Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir bark (DFB) is the primary component used in soilless substrate to grow woody ornamental plants in the Pacific Northwest. Bark is a by-product of the timber industry and is used for landscape mulch, a soilless substrate component, or bio-energy. The decline in the housing market and rise ...

  18. Bed Stability and sedimentation associated with human disturbances in Pacific Northwest streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate anthropogenic sedimentation in United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest coastal streams, we applied an index of relative bed stability (LRBS*) to summer low flow survey data collected using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessme...

  19. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  20. DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRIETERIA FOR ESTUARIES WITH VARIABLE OCEAN INPUTS: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest have major intraannual and within estuary variation in sources and magnitudes of nutrient inputs. To develop an approach for setting nutrient criteria for these systems, we conducted a case study for Yaquina Bay, OR based on a synthesis of resea...

  1. Developing Blueberry Plants with Shock Virus Tolerance for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest, Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) causes short term blighting of flowers and young leaves in young and established blueberry fields, resulting in yield loss for one or two years. After the initial shock phase, plants recover and do not exhibit symptoms again. The virus is pol...

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  3. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEAGRASSES, BENTHIC MACROALGAE AND NUTRIENTS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest estuaries are characterized by large tidal ranges (2-3 m) that routinely expose submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as seagrass and benthic macroalgae. The dominant native seagrass in PNW estuaries is the eelgrass Zostera marina. However, in recent decades...

  4. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  5. Men, Not Money: E. W. Scripps and the Penny Newspapers of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Mike

    E.W. Scripps's penny newspapers brought a new style of public service journalism to the Pacific Northwest's four largest cities--Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, and Portland--in the turbulent years of the Progressive movement from 1899 to 1912. Minimal investment, tight cost controls, and the idea that a small, condensed newspaper could be more popular…

  6. Impact of rolling and phosphorous acid on root rot of dry peas in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rolling soil after planting is standard in dry pea production areas in the Pacific Northwest but can increase compaction resulting in increase of root rot by oomycetes and other pathogens. Phosphorous acid has been used to manage oomycete pathogens, therefore, the impact of not rolling soil after s...

  7. An Evaluation of Oregon's Participation in the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Joanne

    The purpose of this study was to survey and evaluate past and current participation in the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Center (PNBC) by Oregon libraries. Summarized, the findings were: (1) the PNBC has become a major source of assistance in the flow of interlibrary loans and bibliographic data; (2) it is part of a variety of formal and…

  8. Improving the Outcomes of Science Education for the Pacific Northwest. Science and Mathematics Initiatives. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This report represents an effort to stimulate regional discussion and delineate issues of relevance for educators concerned with science education in the Pacific Northwest. It suggests topics of inquiry germane to the context of national initiatives and regional, state, and local challenges. Information is needed to understand "where we…

  9. Working in John Wayne Country: Racist and Sexist Termination at a Pacific Northwest University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Robert Free

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experiences in working as a tribal liaison consultant to an AIDS education and training center at a Pacific Northwest university's health education research center. The author's experience shows the concerted efforts by the university lawyers to bury issues of discriminatory racism and sexism in hiring…

  10. US EPA Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research: A Pacific Northwest Demonstration Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 2-page fact sheet is a communication product aimed at EPA clients, cooperators and stakeholders. It describes ecosystem services research being conducted in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) by the EPA Western Ecology Division, in association with EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Com...

  11. Comparisons of annual no-till spring cereal cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WWF) has been the prevalent rotation in the low rainfall zone of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for more than 130 years; however this rotation is characterized by poor soil health, poor environmental sustainability, and high pest incidence. A 6-year ...

  12. RELATING FINE ROOT BIOMASS TO SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The additive contribution of fine root biomass for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) to the stand average fine root biomass were estimated for eight conifer stands in the Pacific Northwest. Base...

  13. An approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest Estuaries: A case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of an approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, based on a case study of Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. The approach is based on a synthesis of research from field studies, analyses of historical trends in wat...

  14. Predicting change in eelgrass distribution due to sea level rise in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted...

  15. Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger investigation into potential impacts of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries. These were the Coquille River estuary, the South Slough of Coos Bay, and the Yaquina Bay...

  16. Geographies of Indigenous Leaders: Landscapes and Mindscapes in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This essay features three stories of "place-based" leadership in two Indigenous communities in the Pacific Northwest. Author Michael Marker weaves together stories from Nisga'a Elders in the Nass Valley of British Columbia, Coast Salish Elders in Washington State, and his own experiences as a researcher, teacher educator, and community…

  17. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has ...

  18. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service - August 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has r...

  19. Preconstruction schedules, costs, and permit requirements for electric power generating resources in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Smith, S.A.; Thurman, A.G.; Watts, R.L.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-07-01

    This report was prepared for the Generation Programs Branch, Office of Energy Resources, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The principal objective of the report is to assemble in one document preconstruction cost, schedule, and permit information for twelve specific generating resources. The report is one of many documents that provide background information for BPA's Resource Program, which is designed to identify the type and amount of new resources that BPA may have to add over the next twenty years to maintain an adequate and reliable electric power supply in the Pacific Northwest. A predecessor to this report is a 1982 report prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Northwest Power Planning Council (the Council''). The 1982 report had a similar, but not identical, content and format. 306 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).

  1. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  2. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  3. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  4. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  5. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  6. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  7. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciTech Connect

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1984-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional energy resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy resources. The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of generic studies including Contaminant Characterizations and Transformation; Boundary Layer Meteorology; and Dispersion, Deposition and Resupension of Atmospheric Contaminants.

  10. Effect of different surface forcings on the circulation and stratification in a global model with focus on the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Patrick; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    The subarctic oceans like the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, the Labrador Sea or the Greenland-Irminger-Norwegian (GIN) Sea react particularly sensitive to global climate changes and have the potential to reversely regulate climate change by CO2 uptake in the other areas of the world. So far, the natural processes in the Arctic and Subarctic system, especially of the Pacific realm, remains barely studied in terms of sedimentary records, but especially in terms of numerical modeling. In this study we focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific (e.g. the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan), which have nowadays a significant role in the climate system of the Northwest Pacific by influencing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as the hydrology of the Pacific water masses. Especially the Sea of Okhotsk is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice coverage, where in autumn and winter due to massive sea ice formation and brine rejection, the Sea of Okhotsk Intermediate Water (SOIW) is formed contributing to the mid-depth (500-1000m) water layer of the North Pacific known as newly formed North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration with a regional focus on the marginal sea of the Northwest Pacific Ocean with a resolution of up to 8 km. As a preliminary study we compare the influence of the Comprehensive Ocean Ice Reference Experiment version 2 (COREv2) and ECMWF Era 40/interim forcing data set on the general circulation and stratification of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. We evaluate the reliability of both forcing data sets based on a comparison with observational derived data from the World Ocean Atlas 2013.

  11. RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

  12. Low thermal tolerances of stream amphibians in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for riparian and forest management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature has a profound effect on survival and ecology of amphibians. In the Pacific Northwest, timber harvest is known to increase peak stream temperatures to 24??C or higher, which has potential to negatively impact cold-water stream amphibians. I determined the Critical Thermal Maxima (CT max) for two salamanders that are endemic to the Pacific Northwest. Rhyacotriton variegatus larvae acclimated at 10??C had mean CTmax of 26.7 ?? 0.7 SD??C and adults acclimated at 11??C had mean CT max of 27.9 ?? 1.1??C. These were among the lowest known values for any amphibian. Values were significantly higher for larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus acclimated at 14??C (x = 29.1 ?? 0.2??C). Although the smallest R. variegatus had some of the lowest values, size of larvae and adults did not influence CTmax in this species. Current forest practices retain riparian buffers along larger fish-bearing streams; however, such buffers along smaller headwaters and non-fish bearing streams may provide favorable habitat conditions for coldwater-associated species in the Pacific Northwest. The current study lends further evidence to the need for protection of Northwest stream amphibians from environmental perturbations. Forest guidelines that include riparian buffer zones and configurations of upland stands should be developed, while monitoring amphibian responses to determine their success. ?? 2008 Brill Academic Publishers.

  13. Surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wise, D.R.; Johnson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of Pu in the Northwest Pacific Ocean using modern coral archives.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Patric; Andersen, Morten B; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul; Hyeong, Kiseong; Choi, Min-Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-04-01

    Historical (239)Pu activity concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were determined in skeletons of dated modern corals collected from three locations (Chuuk Lagoon, Ishigaki Island and Iki Island) to identify spatial and temporal variations in Pu inputs to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The main Pu source in the Northwest Pacific is fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing which consists of global fallout and close-in fallout from the former US Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands. PPG close-in fallout dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as was observed with higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) at the Ishigaki site. Specific fallout Pu contamination from the Nagasaki atomic bomb and the Ivy Mike thermonuclear detonation at the PPG were identified at Ishigaki Island from the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios of 0.07 and 0.46, respectively. During the 1960s and 1970s, global fallout was the major Pu source to the Northwest Pacific with over 60% contribution to the total Pu. After the cessation of the atmospheric nuclear tests, the PPG again dominated the Pu input due to the continuous transport of remobilised Pu from the Marshall Islands along the North Equatorial Current and the subsequent Kuroshio Current. The Pu contributions from the PPG in recent coral bands (1984 onwards) varied over time with average estimated PPG contributions between 54% and 72% depending on location.

  15. The University of Washington Department of Surgery: training surgeons in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peter C; Pellegrini, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    The General Surgery Residency Program at the University of Washington Affiliated Hospitals serves as the sole university training program in the Pacific Northwest, which encompasses a region representing nearly one-fourth of the United States land mass. We value our role to train excellent surgeons for the communities of the Northwest as well as mentor future leaders in academic surgery. The Department strives to stay on the leading edge of surgical education and continually seeks to improve the quality of the training program. We indeed feel fortunate to have the opportunity to train the best and brightest in one of the most exciting and rewarding professions in medicine.

  16. Detection of a ULVZ at the base of the mantle beneath the northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Koper, Keith D.

    2009-09-01

    We used the Yellowknife seismic array (YKA) to measure the slowness of 1,371 P and P diff waves from earthquakes occurring in the circum-Pacific region. The corresponding anomalies in P-velocity show a sharp reduction of up to 6% across a patch of the lowermost mantle beneath the Northwest Pacific with lateral dimensions of several hundred kilometers. The location of this ultra low velocity zone (ULVZ) correlates with a long-wavelength compositional boundary revealed by probabilistic mantle tomography. We interpret the ULVZ as partial melt created by paleo-slab material that is being swept laterally from northwestern Pacific subduction zones towards the large, chemically distinct province beneath the south-central Pacific.

  17. Coxiella burnetii infection of marine mammals in the Pacific Northwest, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Raverty, Stephen A; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Self, Joshua S; Akmajian, Adrianne M; Jeffries, Steven J; Huggins, Jessica; Drew, Clifton P; Zaki, Sherif R; Massung, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans are commonly exposed via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria derived from the waste products of domesticated sheep and goats, and particularly from products generated during parturition. However, many other species can be infected with C. burnetii, and the host range and full zoonotic potential of C. burnetii is unknown. Two cases of C. burnetii infection in marine mammal placenta have been reported, but it is not known if this infection is common in marine mammals. To address this issue, placenta samples were collected from Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Coxiella burnetii was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the placentas of Pacific harbor seals (17/27), harbor porpoises (2/6), and Steller sea lions (1/2) collected in the Pacific Northwest. A serosurvey of 215 Pacific harbor seals sampled in inland and outer coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest showed that 34.0% (73/215) had antibodies against either Phase 1 or Phase 2 C. burnetii. These results suggest that C. burnetii infection is common among marine mammals in this region.

  18. Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids in a Pacific Northwest estuary.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bryan E; Riemer, Susan D; Brown, Robin F; Ougzin, Aicha M; Bucklin, Katherine A

    2007-03-01

    The populations of many native species have increased or expanded in distribution in recent decades, sometimes with negative consequences to sympatric native species that are rarer or less adaptable to anthropogenic changes to the environment. An example of this phenomenon from the Pacific Northwest is predation by locally abundant pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) on threatened, endangered, or otherwise depleted salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. We used survey sampling methodology, acoustic telemetry, and molecular genetics to quantify the amount of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) predation on a depressed run of coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to determine whether some seals consumed a disproportionately higher number of salmonids than others. Based on a probability sample totaling 759.5 h of observation, we estimated that seals consumed 1161 adult salmonids (95% CI = 503-1818 salmonids) during daylight hours over an 18.9-km estuarine study area in Oregon during an 84-d period in fall 2002. Simultaneous tracking of 56 seals via an acoustic telemetry array indicated that a small proportion of marked seals (12.5%) exhibited behavior that was consistent with specialization on salmonids. These seals spent the majority of their time in the riverine portion of the study area and did so disproportionately more at night than day. Genetic analysis of 116 salmonid structures recovered from 11 seal fecal samples suggested that coho salmon accounted for approximately one-half of total salmonid consumption. Though subject to considerable uncertainty, the combined results lead us to infer that seals consumed 21% (range = 3-63%) of the estimated prespawning population of coho salmon. We speculate that the majority of the predation occurred upriver, at night, and was done by a relatively small proportion of the local seal population. Understanding the extent and nature of pinniped predation can provide important inputs into risk assessments and other modeling efforts designed to

  19. Development of approaches to predict the distribution of Zostera marina and Z. japonica in Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dominant species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries is the intertidal and shallow subtidal seagrass, Zostera marina. Beds of Z. marina constitute a critical habitat, including providing habitat for juvenile salmon. Additionally, the n...

  20. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  1. Nonlinear growth responses of Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest to summer temperatures in the past decade

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered seasonal climate patterns resulting from global climate change could affect the productivity of coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. This study examined seasonal patterns of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and plant available...

  2. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Scott; Schrlau, Jill; Butler, Jack; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Harding, Anna; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010-2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant's contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations.

  3. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010–2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant’s contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337

  4. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kausik; Bartlett, Karen H.; Baer, Rebecca; Byrnes, Edmond; Galanis, Eleni; Heitman, Joseph; Hoang, Linda; Leslie, Mira J.; MacDougall, Laura; Magill, Shelley S.; Morshed, Muhammad G.

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii has emerged as a human and animal pathogen in the Pacific Northwest. First recognized on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, it now involves mainland British Columbia, and Washington and Oregon in the United States. In Canada, the incidence of disease has been one of the highest worldwide. In the United States, lack of cryptococcal species identification and case surveillance limit our knowledge of C. gattii epidemiology. Infections in the Pacific Northwest are caused by multiple genotypes, but the major strain is genetically novel and may have emerged recently in association with unique mating or environmental changes. C. gattii disease affects immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, causing substantial illness and death. Successful management requires an aggressive medical and surgical approach and consideration of potentially variable antifungal drug susceptibilities. We summarize the study results of a group of investigators and review current knowledge with the goal of increasing awareness and highlighting areas where further knowledge is required. PMID:19757550

  5. Modeling the effect of land use on carbon storage in the forests of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Wallin, David O.; Harmon, Mark E.; Sollins, Philip; Daly, Christopher; Ferrell, William K.

    1992-01-01

    There is concern as to how the balance of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem will change in response to a variety of land use practices. A study is described in which a methodology is being developed to help narrow this uncertainty for the temperate forets of the Pacific Northwest region of the US. A carbon storage model is being developed to respond to forest harvesting, the dominant use of land in the region. By linking the carbon model to satellite imagery and a climate simulation model, the current amount of carbon stored in the forests of the Pacific northwest is estimated. The archive of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images permits a 20-year historical perspective of land use changes in the region. With these data, the recent impact of regional land use in forest carbon stores is assessed.

  6. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, with Index (Public Law 96-501).

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act was enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America. It was enacted to assist the electrical consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal columbia River Power System to achieve cost-effective energy conservation, to encourage the development of renewable energy resources, to establish a representative regional power planning process, to assure the region of an efficient and adequate power supply, and for other purposes. Contents of the Act are: short title and table of contents; purposes; definitions; regional planning and participation; sale of power; conservation and resource acquisition; rates; amendments to existing law; administrative provisions; savings provisions; effective date; and severability.

  7. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  9. Getting into trouble: perspectives on stress and suicide prevention among Pacific Northwest Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Strickland, C June; Cooper, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Suicide rates among Indian youth in the United States are two to three times the national average. Although researchers have identified related risk and protective factors, they have limited understanding of the perspectives of youth at risk. In this descriptive, ethnographic study in a Pacific Northwest tribe, the goal was to gain an understanding of the life experiences of the youth. Focus groups and observations were conducted with 30 Indian youth aged between 14 and 19 years in a Pacific Northwest tribe. Youth were asked to talk about their stressors, sense of family/community support, and hopes for the future. Youth reported major stress and noted that friends and family were both a support and also a source of stress. They hoped for strengthening of cultural values, economic development, and opportunities to give their talents to the tribe. These findings provide further insight about suicide risk among Indian youth and advance the understanding of suicide prevention in a transcultural setting.

  10. Long term mean annual water temperature for stream reaches in Pacific Northwest United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Long-term mean annual water temperature (degrees Celsius) was estimated for the E2RF1 stream network (Brakebill and Terziotti, 2011) located within the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (HUC2 = 17; the Columbia River basin, the Puget Sound watershed, the coastal drainages of Washington and Oregon, and the closed basins in southern Oregon). Multiple linear regressions were used to select reach-scale watershed attributes (explanatory variables) for predicting the long-term mean annual water temperature (dependent variable) at a set of USGS water-quality monitoring stations. The results from the multiple linear regressions were used to predict the long-term mean water temperature for the Pacific Northwest reaches in the E2RF1 network.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling.

  12. Wildfire exposure analysis on the national forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alan A; Buonopane, Michelle; Reger, Allison; Finney, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed wildfire exposure for key social and ecological features on the national forests in Oregon and Washington. The forests contain numerous urban interfaces, old growth forests, recreational sites, and habitat for rare and endangered species. Many of these resources are threatened by wildfire, especially in the east Cascade Mountains fire-prone forests. The study illustrates the application of wildfire simulation for risk assessment where the major threat is from large and rare naturally ignited fires, versus many previous studies that have focused on risk driven by frequent and small fires from anthropogenic ignitions. Wildfire simulation modeling was used to characterize potential wildfire behavior in terms of annual burn probability and flame length. Spatial data on selected social and ecological features were obtained from Forest Service GIS databases and elsewhere. The potential wildfire behavior was then summarized for each spatial location of each resource. The analysis suggested strong spatial variation in both burn probability and conditional flame length for many of the features examined, including biodiversity, urban interfaces, and infrastructure. We propose that the spatial patterns in modeled wildfire behavior could be used to improve existing prioritization of fuel management and wildfire preparedness activities within the Pacific Northwest region.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  15. Restoring Resiliency: Case Studies from Pacific Northwest Estuarine Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Vavrinec, John; Borde, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of many ecological restoration projects is to establish an ecosystem with fully developed structure and function that exhibits resistance to and resilience from disturbances. Coastal restoration projects in the Pacific Northwest provide opportunities to understand what is required to restore the resilience of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations. Factors influencing resilience observed in three case studies of eelgrass restoration include minimum viable population, adaptations of transplant populations, and natural and anthropogenic disturbances at restoration sites. The evaluation of resiliency depends on selecting appropriate monitoring metrics and the frequency and duration of monitoring. Eelgrass area, cover and shoot density provide useful and reliable metrics for quantifying resilience of restored meadows. Further, five years of monitoring of these metrics provides data that can reasonably predict the long-term viability of a planted plot. Eelgrass appears to be a resilient ecosystem in general, though one that data suggest may exhibit tipping points brought about by compounded environmental conditions outside of its tolerance ranges. Explicit inclusion of resilience in the planning and practice of habitat restoration may reduce uncertainties and improve the performance of restored systems by increasing buffering capacity, nurturing sources of renewal (e.g., seeds and rhizomes), and managing for habitat forming and maintaining processes (e.g., sediment dynamics) at multiple scales.

  16. Microsatellite primers for the Pacific Northwest conifer Callitropsis nootkatensis (Cupressaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Tara N.; Knaus, Brian J.; Alderman, Katherine; Hennon, Paul E.; D’Amore, David V.; Cronn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis) to provide quantitative measures for gene conservation that can assist in guiding management decisions for a species experiencing climate-induced decline. • Methods and Results: Using multiplexed massively parallel sequencing, we identified 136,785 microsatellite-containing sequences from 489,625 Illumina paired-end 80-bp reads. After stringent filtering, we selected 144 primer pairs and screened variation at these loci in five populations of C. nootkatensis. Loci show between three and 36 dinucleotide repeats per locus, with an average of 13. Screening of these markers in the Pacific Northwest relative Chamaecyparis lawsoniana demonstrated no marker transferability. This finding highlights the narrow taxonomic utility of microsatellite markers in Callitropsis. • Conclusions: These microsatellites show high polymorphism and can be used for routine screening of natural variation in Callitropsis nootkatensis, and will be particularly helpful in identifying clones and inbred relatives at the stand-level. PMID:25202587

  17. Ventilation Measurements in Energy-Efficient Multifamily Dwelling Units in the Pacific Northwest Region.

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham Bradley

    1990-03-01

    A ventilation field measurement study was conducted during the 1986/1987 and 1987/1988 heating seasons in 39 energy-efficient multifamily dwelling units. Four buildings, two in eastern Washington and two in western Washington, were involved in the study. The purpose of the study was to determine the total and baseline (natural) air exchange rates in units representing energy-efficient construction in the multifamily sector of the Pacific Northwest. This information will be used to aid in the development of future construction codes and standards. The air exchange rate was measured a multiple perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technique. Most measurements were taken over a 2- to 4-week period, with a few measurements taken over a period of one to three consecutive months. The PFT technique allows one to determine the fresh air flow into any unit within a building as well as the air flow between adjacent units. In addition, the volumetric air flow and usage of the mechanical ventilation system installed in the units were measured. Temperature, weather, structure, and occupancy data were also collected. 12 refs., 19 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  19. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  20. The Formation, Alteration and Preservation of Flood Deposits on the Pacific Northwest Continental Margin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    rivers . APPROACH Box cores are the primary sampling device used in this research. Cores are taken in two different modes: (1) replicate time-series...sampling of four stations along the 70-m isobath, and (2) broad, large- scale coverage of the Eel and other river -system margins. Subsequent sources of...composition, abundance and biomass. In addition, box cores were collected offshore of several other major rivers in the Pacific Northwest (e.g

  1. PUREX environmental radiological surveillance - preoperational and operational support program conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Price, K.R.

    1983-10-01

    This report describes the radiological environmental sampling program that is being conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in support of resumed operation of the PUREX fuel processing plant. The report also summarizes preoperational radiological environmental data collected to date. The activities described herein are part of the ongoing Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program, operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE.

  2. Anthropogenic Factors Affecting the Status of Salmon Stocks in Pacific Northwest Watersheds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    census.gov/cgi-bin/gazetter. (June 1997). US Department of Agriculture - Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Region. 1988. National forests of the...land and lack of forest area correctly classified 71% of fall Chinook stocks. Indian tribal land, human population and number of dams correctly...by categorizing watersheds as to their relative amount of urban population and subdivision development, agricultural and forest type land

  3. Hardwood supply in the Pacific northwest: A policy perspective. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Raettig, T.L.; Connaughton, K.P.; Ahrens, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but in the long term, the supply is uncertain and cause for concern. Hardwoods need to be recognized in forest management in the Pacific Northwest.

  4. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Effects of loqqinq on the habitat behavioral ecology of juvenile coho of coho salmon and cutthroat trout salmon in stream channels. J. Fish. in coastal...SEnvironmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and UT! CW Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) EET SCOHO SALMON E CE 2Y -N o SCoastal Ecology Group SFish and...organisms, principally fish, of sport, commercial, or ecological importance. The profiles are designed to provide coastal managers, engineers, and

  5. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Lingcod

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Res. Board Can. Kabata, F. 1973. The species of 20(2):257-264. Lepeophiheirus ( Copepoda : Caligidae) from fishes in British Columbia. J. Fish. Res...AD-A224 839 Biological Report 82(11.119) TR EL-82-4 December 1989 OTC FiLE COPY Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of...1989 Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) LINGCOD by William N

  6. Potential conservation opportunities from the use of improved irrigation scheduling in the Pacific Northwest region

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B J; Lezberg, A J

    1985-03-01

    This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and the costs per kWh saved from using systematic rather than traditional irrigation scheduling to reduce water usage in the irrigated agricultural sector of the Pacific Northwest. This research is part of an overall project aimed at developing a computer model and data base that will allow for estimation of the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of a number of conservation technologies that are available for use in irrigated agriculture.

  7. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.

    1980-05-19

    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  8. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Riparian communities associated with Pacific Northwest headwater streams: assemblages, processes, and uniqueness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, J.S.; Naiman, R.J.; Swanson, F.J.; Hibbs, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Riparian areas of large streams provide important habitat to many species and control many instream processes a?? but is the same true for the margins of small streams? This review considers riparian areas alongside small streams in forested, mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest and asks if there are fundamental ecological differences from larger streams and from other regions and if there are consequences for management from any differences. In the moist forests along many small streams of the Pacific Northwest, the contrast between the streamside and upslope forest is not as strong as that found in drier regions. Small streams typically lack floodplains, and the riparian area is often constrained by the hillslope. Nevertheless, riparian-associated organisms, some unique to headwater areas, are found along small streams. Disturbance of hillslopes and stream channels and microclimatic effects of streams on the riparian area provide great heterogeneity in processes and diversity of habitats. The tight coupling of the terrestrial riparian area with the aquatic system results from the closed canopy and high edge-to-area ratio for small streams. Riparian areas of the temperate, conifer dominated forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique environment. Forest management guidelines for small streams vary widely, and there has been little evaluation of the local or downstream consequences of forest practices along small streams.

  10. Drought variability in the Pacific Northwest from a 6,000-yr lake sediment record.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel B; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron; Polissar, Pratigya J; Stansell, Nathan D; Ortiz, Joseph D; Rosenmeier, Michael F; Finney, Bruce P; Riedel, Jon

    2011-03-08

    We present a 6,000-yr record of changing water balance in the Pacific Northwest inferred from measurements of carbonate δ(18)O and grayscale on a sediment core collected from Castor Lake, Washington. This subdecadally resolved drought record tracks the 1,500-yr tree-ring-based Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstructions of Cook et al. [Cook ER, Woodhouse CA, Eakin CM, Meko DM, Stahle DW (2004) Science 306:1015-1018] in the Pacific Northwest and extends our knowledge back to 6,000 yr B.P. The results demonstrate that low-frequency drought/pluvial cycles, with occasional long-duration, multidecadal events, are a persistent feature of regional climate. Furthermore, the average duration of multidecadal wet/dry cycles has increased since the middle Holocene, which has acted to increase the amplitude and impact of these events. This is especially apparent during the last 1,000 yr. We suggest these transitions were driven by changes in the tropical and extratropical Pacific and are related to apparent intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation over this interval and its related effects on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The Castor Lake record also corroborates the notion that the 20th century, prior to recent aridity, was a relatively wet period compared to the last 6,000 yr. Our findings suggest that the hydroclimate response in the Pacific Northwest to future warming will be intimately tied to the impact of warming on the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  11. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Herring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    these times are salmon, seals, abnormalities developed in the lower jaws of sea lions, killer whales, dogfish , and birds larvae from eggs incubated at 4.0...offshore, important predators include Optimal temperatures for juvenile and adult hake, sablefish, dogfish , Pacific cod, and salmon. Pacific herring

  12. Northwest Climate Science Center: Integrating Regional Research, Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, P.; Bisbal, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010, among the first three of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium (Oregon State University, University of Idaho, and the University of Washington), which has the capacity to generate and coordinate decision-relevant science related to climate, thus serving stakeholders across the Pacific Northwest region. The NW CSC has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. Collaboration between the NW CSC and these three LCCs addresses the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Early in 2012, the NW CSC released its first Strategic Plan for the period 2012-2015. The plan offers a practical blueprint for operation and describes five core services that the NW CSC provides to the Northwest community. These core services emphasize (a) bringing together the regional resource management and science communities to calibrate priorities and ensure efficient integration of climate science resources and tools when addressing practical issues of regional significance; (b) developing and implementing a stakeholder-driven science agenda which highlights the NW CSC's regional leadership in generating scenarios of the future environment of the NW; (c) supporting and training graduate students at the three consortium universities, including through an annual 'Climate science boot camp'; (d) providing a platform for effective climate-change-related communication among scientists, resource managers, and the general public; and (e) national leadership in data management and climate scenario development.

  13. Scaling Forest Management Practices in Earth System Models: Case Study of Southeast and Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Becknell, J. M.; Hall, J.; Desai, A. R.; Boring, L. R.; Duffy, P.; Staudhammer, C. L.; Starr, G.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    A wide array of human-induced disturbances can alter the structure and function of forests, including climate change, disturbance and management. While there have been numerous studies on climate change impacts on forests, interactions of management with changing climate and natural disturbance are poorly studied. Forecasts of the range of plausible responses of forests to climate change and management are need for informed decision making on new management approaches under changing climate, as well as adaptation strategies for coming decades. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate and assess simultaneous responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climatic perturbations and management across multiple spatio-temporal scales, but currently do not represent a wide array of management activities known to impact carbon, water, surface energy fluxes, and biodiversity. The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) incorporates non-linear impacts of fine-scale (~10-1 km) heterogeneity in ecosystem structure both horizontally and vertically at a plant level. Therefore it is an ideal candidate to incorporate different forest management practices and test various hypotheses under changing climate and across various spatial scales. The management practices that we implemented were: clear-cut, conversion, planting, partial harvest, low intensity fire, restoration, salvage, and herbicide. The results were validated against observed data across 8 different sites in the U.S. Southeast (Duke Forest, Joseph Jones Ecological Research Center, North Carolina Loblolly Pine, and Ordway-Swisher Biological Station) and Pacific Northwest (Metolius Research Natural Area, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Wind River Field Station, and Mount Rainier National Park). These sites differ in regards to climate, vegetation, soil, and historical land disturbance as well as management approaches. Results showed that different management practices could successfully

  14. Glacial vicariance in the Pacific Northwest: evidence from a lodgepole pine mitochondrial DNA minisatellite for multiple genetically distinct and widely separated refugia.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Julie; Fazekas, Aron; Newton, Craig H; Yeh, Francis C; Bousquet, Jean

    2008-05-01

    The Canadian side of the Pacific Northwest was almost entirely covered by ice during the last glacial maximum, which has induced vicariance and genetic population structure for several plant and animal taxa. Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud.) has a wide latitudinal and longitudinal distribution in the Pacific Northwest. Our main objective was to identify relictual signatures of glacial vicariance in the population structure of the species and search for evidence of distinct glacial refugia in the Pacific Northwest. A maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA minisatellite-like marker was used to decipher haplotype diversity in 91 populations of lodgepole pine located across the natural range. Overall population differentiation was sizeable (G(ST) = 0.365 and R(ST) = 0.568). Four relatively homogeneous groups of populations, possibly representative of as many genetically distinct glacial populations, were identified for the two main subspecies, ssp. latifolia and ssp. contorta. For ssp. contorta, one glacial lineage is suggested to have been located at high latitudes and possibly off the coast of mainland British Columbia (BC), while the other is considered to have been located south of the ice sheet along the Pacific coast. For ssp. latifolia, two genetically distinct glacial populations probably occurred south of the ice sheet: in the area bounded by the Cascades and Rocky Mountains ranges, and on the eastern side of the Rockies. A possible fifth refugium located in the Yukon may have also been present for ssp. latifolia. Zones of contact between these ancestral lineages were also apparent in interior and northern BC. These results indicate the role of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Alexander Archipelago as a refugial zone for some Pacific Northwest species and the vicariant role played by the Cascades and the American Rocky Mountains during glaciation.

  15. A Modeling Study of Hydrodynamic Circulation in a Fjord of the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2012-10-01

    Increased eutrophication and degraded water quality in estuarine and coastal waters have been a worldwide environmental concern. While it is commonly accepted that anthropogenic impact plays a major role in many emerging water quality issues, natural conditions such as restricted water circulations controlled by geometry may also substantially contribute to unfavorable water quality in certain ecosystems. To elucidate the contributions from different factors, a hydrodynamic-water quality model that integrates both physical transport and pollutant loadings is particularly warranted. A preliminary modeling study using the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is conducted to investigate hydrodynamic circulation and low dissolved oxygen (DO) in Hood Canal, a representative fjord in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Because the water quality modeling work is still ongoing, this paper focuses on the progress in hydrodynamic modeling component. The hydrodynamic model has been set up using the publicly available forcing data and was calibrated against field observations or NOAA predictions for tidal elevation, current, salinity and temperature. The calibrated model was also used to estimate physical transport timescales such as residence time in the estuary. The preliminary model results demonstrate that the EFDC Hood Canal model is capable of capturing the general circulation patterns in Hood Canal, including weak tidal current and strong vertical stratification. The long residence time (i.e., on the order of 100 days for the entire estuary) also indicates that restricted water circulation could contribute to low DO in the estuary and also makes the system especially susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance, such as excess nutrient input.

  16. Moss harvest truncates the successional development of epiphytic bryophytes in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Peck, Jerilynn E; Frelich, Lee E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of commercial moss harvest on the development of an understory epiphyte community in the Pacific Northwest by characterizing natural development stages using data from both a long-term regrowth study and demographic sampling. First, experimentally stripped 1 m long cylindrats on 46 shrub stems in the Oregon Coast Range were monitored for species composition and abundance annually during the first five years of recovery and again in year 10. Second, a pathway of community development was inferred by examining the relative species composition and abundance of epiphytic species present in moss mats in a four-stage chronosequence. We (1) characterized the change in richness and composition from year 1 through 10 of regrowth following experimental disturbance, (2) quantified the proportion of approximately 1-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year-old moss mats of commercially harvestable species that were monodominant, diverse, and late successional, and (3) contrasted these proportions with estimates from a compositional transition matrix derived from long-term monitoring. Roughly half of the observed moss mats demonstrated neutral dynamics and were composed of a mixture of readily dispersed acrocarps and pleurocarps. The remaining half exhibited positive dynamics and were dominated by aggressively growing pleurocarpous species such as Isothecium myosuroides. Following structural developmental pathways well established for vascular plants, moss mats shift with time from high diversity and evenness in the initial colonization and extended establishment phases to increasing Isothecium dominance during a presumed competitive-exclusion phase. Old mats exist in alternate states of either Isothecium dominance or mixed composition, either of which may have late-successional species. Patchy historic commercial moss harvest likely facilitated high diversity by increasing the simultaneous occurrence of all moss mat age classes, while modern strip harvesting methods are

  17. Estimation of Typhoon Rainfall in Northwest Pacific Using TRMM/TMI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, N.-C.; Wang, J.-L.; Chen, W.-J.; Hu, J.-C.; Tsai, M.-D.; Liu, G.-R.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, there were a lot of natural disasters in Taiwan, especially caused by torrential rainfall from typhoons. The major reason for these disasters was the huge amounts of rain falling in short periods. People need real time rain information to prepare for disasters and to reduce the damage and loss of lives and properties. It is the aim of this study to provide accurate rainfall estimations for severe weather systems. The Bayesian approach was used in this study. At first a prior probability distribution was created by using about a total of 4 million rain rate retrievals from Precipitation Radar (PR) data during 2002-2010 period over Northwest Pacific. A conditional probability distribution was then derived by simulating the 9 channel brightness temperatures of TMI using a microwave radiative transfer model (RTM), in which vertical hydrometeors were obtained from the Weather Research and forecasting Model (WRF) outputs. Finally, a posterior probability distribution of rain rate was calculated by multiplying a prior probability distribution by conditional probability distribution. In addition, 9 channel-brightness-temperature thresholds for non-raining cases was obtained by using more than one hundred thousand data pairs of TMI brightness temperatures and PR rain rates. An attenuation index, defined as the ratio of the polarization difference between the vertical and the horizontal brightness temperatures at rainy case to that at clear sky case, was used to estimate rain rates over ocean. This index has great advantage in rain rate retrievals, because its value decreases with increasing rain rate but not being easily saturated. The retrieved rain rates were validated with the standard PR rainfall products. Keyword: Bayesian approach, posterior distribution, radiative transfer model, WRF

  18. Evolving patterns of coupled glacio-hydrology across the Pacific Northwest Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frans, C. D.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Fountain, A. G.; Bachmann, M.; Clarke, G. K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recession of mountain glaciers in partially glacierized headwater catchments has the potential to impact watershed dynamics in a range of ways, including reduced low flows, erosion of exposed steep soils, increased sediment transport, and ecosystem succession. The response of glaciers and glacierized watershed processes to progressive climatic warming will vary greatly with local environmental attributes (aspect, hypsometry, slope, debris cover) and climatic forcing (topography driven climatic gradients, prevailing wind direction, precipitation variability and perturbation). To identify the relative influence of these controlling factors and to identify locations where these changes will have significant influence on stream discharge in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), we gather a rich data set of glacio-hydrological variables and use a recently developed glacio-hydrology model in conjunction with data to evaluate the hydrologic response of partially glacierized river basins at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The distributed hydrologic modeling framework, which incorporates a physical representation of changes in glacier area through glacier dynamics, allows the analysis of hydrologic and glaciological change at extended temporal and fine spatial scales. Among the river basins we examine are the Hoh River on the Olympic Peninsula of Western Washington, the Hood River in Northern Oregon, the Nisqually River in the Puget Sound drainage basin, and multiple watersheds in the North Cascades Region. For each of these basins, tipping points of hydrologic response to glacier recession are identified and projected. We 1) describe varied patterns of coupled glacio-hydrologic response 2) identify influential environmental controls and 3) identify vulnerable areas in space and time. We close with a discussion of the implications of ongoing and projected glacio-hydrologic changes for the management of water and natural resources in the PNW.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1983. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 5 of the 1983 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety and the Office of Operational Safety. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during FY 1983. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  20. Global climate change and effects on Pacific Northwest salmonids: An exploratory case study

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Recently, a number of papers have addressed global warming and freshwater fisheries. The recent report to Congress by the US Environmental Protection Agency included an analysis of potential effects of global warming on fisheries of the Great Lakes, California, and the Southeast. In California, the report stated that salinity increases in the San Francisco Bay could enhance the abundance of marine fish species, while anadromous species could be adversely affected. This paper discusses global climate changes and the effects on Pacific Northwest Salmonids. The impacts of climate change or Spring Chinook production in the Yakima Sub-basin was simulated using a computer modeling system developed for the Northwest Power planning council. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Assessing rarity of species with low detectability: Lichens in Pacific Northwest forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.C.; Cutler, D.R.; Geiser, L.; Alegria, J.; McKenzie, D.

    2004-01-01

    We show how simple statistical analyses of systematically collected inventory data can be used to provide reliable information about the distribution and habitat associations of rare species. Using an existing design-based sampling grid on which epiphytic macrolichens had been inventoried in the Northwest Forest Plan area of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, we (1) estimate frequencies and standard errors for each of 25 lichen species having special management designation (i.e., Survey and Manage), (2) assess the probability that individual species were associated with specific land allocation and forest stand age classifications, and (3) provide estimates of sample sizes necessary to ensure sufficient detections for these analyses. We conclude with a discussion of management and conservation information needs that extant data can satisfy and identify advantages and limitations of random vs. nonrandom sampling strategies. Combining design-assisted and model-assisted approaches can overcome some of the limitations of either single strategy.

  2. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Climate Impact Assessment for Pacific Northwest Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MU, J.; Antle, J. M.; Zhang, H.; Capalbo, S. M.; Eigenbrode, S.; Kruger, C.; Stockle, C.; Wolfhorst, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) are projections of plausible future biophysical and socio-economic conditions used to carry out climate impact assessments for agriculture. The development of RAPs iss motivated by the fact that the various global and regional models used for agricultural climate change impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation or public availability. These practices have hampered attempts at model inter-comparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. This paper aims to (1) present RAPs developed for the principal wheat-producing region of the Pacific Northwest, and to (2) combine these RAPs with downscaled climate data, crop model simulations and economic model simulations to assess climate change impacts on winter wheat production and farm income. This research was carried out as part of a project funded by the USDA known as the Regional Approaches to Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest (REACCH). The REACCH study region encompasses the major winter wheat production area in Pacific Northwest and preliminary research shows that farmers producing winter wheat could benefit from future climate change. However, the future world is uncertain in many dimensions, including commodity and input prices, production technology, and policies, as well as increased probability of disturbances (pests and diseases) associated with a changing climate. Many of these factors cannot be modeled, so they are represented in the regional RAPS. The regional RAPS are linked to global agricultural and shared social-economic pathways, and used along with climate change projections to simulate future outcomes for the wheat-based farms in the REACCH region.

  3. Relationship between lightning activity and tropical cyclone intensity over the northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yijun; Zheng, Dong; Wang, Fei; Xu, Liangtao

    2015-05-01

    Lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network along with tropical cyclone (TC) track and intensity data from the China Meteorological Administration are used to study lightning activity in TCs over the northwest Pacific from 2005 to 2009 and to investigate the relationship between inner core lightning and TC intensity changes. Lightning in TCs over the northwest Pacific is more likely to occur in weak storms at tropical depression (10.8-17.1 m s-1) and tropical storm (17.2-24.4 m s-1) intensity levels, in agreement with past studies of Atlantic hurricanes. The greatest lightning density (LD) in the inner core appears in storms undergoing an intensity change of 15-25 m s-1 during the next 24 h. Lightning is observed in all storm intensity change categories: rapid intensification (RI), average intensity change (AIC), and rapid weakening (RW). The differences in LD between RI and RW are largest in the inner core, and the LD for RI cases is larger than for RW cases in the inner core (0-100 km). Lightning activity there, rather than in the outer rainbands, may be a better indicator for RI prediction in northwest Pacific storms. There was a marked increase in the lightning density of inner core during the RI stage for Super Typhoon Rammasun (2008). Satellite data for this storm show that the RI stage had the highest cloud top height and coldest cloud top temperatures, with all the minimum black body temperature values being below 200 K in the inner core.

  4. A Decade of Surface Solar Radiation Deposition Across the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, T. P.; Hinkelman, L. M.; Schaeffer, N.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory maintains monitoring sites throughout the Pacific Northwest, from which we obtained continuous, 5-minute frequency time series data for the 10 year period between 2004 and 2013. We chose to analyze five sites within the Pacific Northwest (three in Oregon and one each in Idaho and Montana). The sites range in climate from wet lowland coastal to semi-arid high plains to intermountain valley, and elevations from 150 to 1500 m. Analysis of the time series yielded descriptive statistics of solar energy deposition on daily, seasonal and annual timescales for each site. Estimates of the contributions of clear and cloudy skies to the solar deposition have been obtained using the Long-Ackerman (JGR, 2000) technique. We are currently creating comparisons on varying timescales between measured surface solar energy deposition at these five sites and estimates from satellite data. In this presentation, we will describe the results of our analysis, focusing both on the variability at each site and comparisons among the five sites. To our knowledge, this level of detail has not previously been reported across the highly variable terrain of the Pacific Northwest region. While a 10-year period is inadequate for trend analysis, it does provide considerable insight into interannual variability on daily to seasonal timescales. In addition, we will present comparisons between satellite estimates and surface solar deposition measurements. Given the on-going need to use satellite estimates as a proxy for actual ground-based measurements, these assessments are critically important to understand the reliability of the satellite estimates on a variety of timescales and differing regional surface types.

  5. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix R: Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA).

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region`s non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region`s power producers to maximize the power system`s reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest`s hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement.

  6. Energy and Water Conservation Assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Stephanie R.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-05-31

    This report summarizes the results of an energy and water conservation assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The assessment was performed in October 2013 by engineers from the PNNL Building Performance Team with the support of the dedicated RPL staff and several Facilities and Operations (F&O) department engineers. The assessment was completed for the Facilities and Operations (F&O) department at PNNL in support of the requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  8. Testing and performance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Girvin, D.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Nelson, C.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes and discusses the design, construction, calibration and operations of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) 6-kg retort. Use of this retort will help determine the distribution and speciation of Hg, As, Se, and Cd compounds as a function of retorting parameters in shale oil, retort water, and offgas. The first test consisted of heating the oil shale to 500/sup 0/C with a 100% nitrogen (N/sub 2/) sweep gas. Results of this test demonstrated that the system operates as designed; only two minor modifications were necessary to achieve satisfactory operation of the retort. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  9. Design Calculation Procedure for Passive Solar Houses at Navy Installations in the Pacific Northwest. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST -- VOLUME IV October 1981 DTICS ELECTE. DEC 1 0 1981 ) An Investigation Conducted by B New Mexico State University Las Cruces...New Mexico C. CN62583-79-MR-585 U Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 81, 12 10 019 11.. - -- -A* Unclassified St RU Vy C.ASSIFICATIOD... Mexico State University 64710 N Z0350 Las Cruces, NM 88003 64710N, Z0350Z0350-01, Z0350-01-55i1 11 CDNTROL.ING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12 REPORT DATE Naval

  10. Research priorities for entering the 21st century. Pacific Northwest Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Forest Service Research and the PNW Research Station developed linked strategic plans early in 1990s that provided broad research program direction in this changing social environment. There is now a national effort within Forest Service Research to anchor this broad direction to specific themes for the next several years, based on the emergence of such issues as ecological sustain-ability and joint resource use, integration, and broadscale and multiscale dimensions. The Pacific Northwest Research Station refers to these themes as intermediate-term priorities. This paper provides a foundation for defining PNW Research Station priorities in the intermediate term (3 to 5 years) and defines 11 intermediate-term priorities.

  11. Pacific northwest region vegetation and inventory monitoring system. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Max, T.A.; Schreuder, H.T.; Hazard, J.W.; Oswald, D.D.; Teply, J.

    1996-12-01

    A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific Northwest Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. The design is flexible and can be used with many types of maps. The theory of point and change estimation is described, as well as estimates of variation that assess the statistical precision of estimates.

  12. Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest and its Impact on Energy Planning : Preliminary Report on Findings.

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, John E.

    1987-09-01

    This report is a summary of the FY 87 research on energy related climatic variation. The report will discuss the findings, their implications and suggest profitable areas of research. Examination of climate variation is particularly timely consideration given the recent drought in the Pacific Northwest. This report describes a number of interesting trends, cyclic variations and inter-relationships that could be useful in energy planning. Topics include wind drought, recent snowpack variations, precipitation trends, temperature trends and future climate research. 37 refs., 51 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  14. Economics of Tsunami Mitigation in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettel, K. A.; Rizzo, A.; Sigrist, D.; Bernard, E. N.

    2011-12-01

    from tsunamis, earthquakes and tornadoes are comparable. High hazard areas for tornadoes and earthquakes cover ~40% and ~15% of the contiguous US, ~1,250,000 and ~500,000 square miles, respectively. In marked contrast, tsunami life safety risk is concentrated in communities with significant populations in areas where evacuation to high ground is impossible: probably <4,000 square miles or <0.1% of the US. The geographic distribution of life safety risk profoundly affects the economics of tsunami life safety mitigation projects. Consider a tsunami life safety project which saves an average of one life per year (500 lives per 500 years). Using FEMA's value of human life (5.8 million), 7% discount rate and a 50-year project useful lifetime, the net present value of avoided deaths is 80 million. Thus, the benefit-cost ratio would be about 16 or about 80 for tsunami mitigation projects which cost 5 million or 1 million, respectively. These rough calculations indicate that tsunami mitigation projects in high risk locations are economically justified. More importantly, these results indicate that national and local priorities for natural hazard mitigation should be reconsidered, with tsunami mitigation given a very high priority.

  15. A Southern Ocean trigger for Northwest Pacific ventilation during the Holocene?

    PubMed

    Rella, S F; Uchida, M

    2014-02-17

    Holocene ocean circulation is poorly understood due to sparsity of dateable marine archives with submillennial-scale resolution. Here we present a record of mid-depth water radiocarbon contents in the Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean over the last 12.000 years, which shows remarkable millennial-scale variations relative to changes in atmospheric radiocarbon inventory. Apparent decoupling of these variations from regional ventilation and mixing processes leads us to the suggestion that the mid-depth NW Pacific may have responded to changes in Southern Ocean overturning forced by latitudinal displacements of the southern westerly winds. By inference, a tendency of in-phase related North Atlantic and Southern Ocean overturning would argue against the development of a steady bipolar seesaw regime during the Holocene.

  16. A Southern Ocean trigger for Northwest Pacific ventilation during the Holocene?

    PubMed Central

    Rella, S. F.; Uchida, M.

    2014-01-01

    Holocene ocean circulation is poorly understood due to sparsity of dateable marine archives with submillennial-scale resolution. Here we present a record of mid-depth water radiocarbon contents in the Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean over the last 12.000 years, which shows remarkable millennial-scale variations relative to changes in atmospheric radiocarbon inventory. Apparent decoupling of these variations from regional ventilation and mixing processes leads us to the suggestion that the mid-depth NW Pacific may have responded to changes in Southern Ocean overturning forced by latitudinal displacements of the southern westerly winds. By inference, a tendency of in-phase related North Atlantic and Southern Ocean overturning would argue against the development of a steady bipolar seesaw regime during the Holocene. PMID:24509792

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1985, this research has examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain, summarized the field studies and analyses of dry deposition and resuspension conducted in past years, and begun participation in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain; Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants; and Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation (PRECP).

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1987-06-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects.

  19. Review of Pacific Northwest Laboratory research on aquatic effects of hydroelectric generation and assessment of research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an overview of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) research on how hydroelectric generation affects aquatic biota and environments. The major accomplishments of this research are described, and additional work needed to permit optimal use of available data is identified. The research goals are to: (1) identify impacts of hydroelectric generation, (2) provide guidance in allocating scarce water resources, and (3) develop techniques to avoid or reduce the impacts on aquatic communities or to compensate for unavoidable impacts. Through laboratory and field experiments, an understanding is being developed of the generic impacts of hydrogeneration. Because PNL is located near the Columbia River, which is extensively developed for hydroelectric generation, it is used as a natural laboratory for studying a large-scale operating system. Although the impacts studied result from a particular system of dams and operating procedures and occur within a specific ecosystem, the results of these studies have application at hydroelectric generating facilities throughout the United States.

  20. Uppermost mantle anisotropy beneath south and northwest Pacific by ambient noise interferometry analysis of OBS records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, A.; Forsyth, D. W.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Nishida, K.; Isse, T.; Kawakatsu, H.; Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Suetsugu, D.; Ito, A.; Kanazawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    For obtaining shear-wave anisotropy at depths shallower than 50 km in the oceanic area, we apply ambient noise interferometry to two array datasets of ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) and differential pressure gauges (DPGs). The first array includes 9 OBSs deployed in south Pacific (French Polynesia region) by TIARES project. The second array includes 9 OBSs and 12 DPGs deployed in northwest Pacific by PLATE project. For each dataset, we first calculate cross correlation functions (CCFs) between every pair of stations. The calculated CCFs show the propagations of the fundamental mode of Love wave, the fundamental, first higher and second higher modes of Rayleigh waves at periods of about 2-40 s. For each array and each mode, we then measure average phase velocities by waveform fitting based on Aki (1957) (c.f. Takeo, 2011 master's thesis; 2012 in preparation). In the final step, we measure phase velocity anomalies for each CCFs. The obtained anomalies show azimuthal dependence for the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave at periods of about 15-30 s. For the south Pacific, the peak-to-peak intensity of 2theta azimuthal variation is 2-3% and the fastest direction is N48-62E, which is consistent with the recent plate motion, N70W. Those for the northwest Pacific are 4-6% and N36-44W, which is consistent with the seafloor spreading direction, N35W. These results roughly reflect shear-wave anisotropy at depths shallower than 50 km. For more detailed discussion, we will estimate the shear-wave anisotropy using these phase-velocity anomalies.

  1. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    We have been conducting long-term seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observations at two sites in the northwest Pacific since 2001. The older site was established at the deep seafloor (~5600m) on the northwest Pacific basin (Site NWP), while the new one was installed on the west Philippine basin (Site WPB) in 2006 at the slightly deeper (~5700m) seafloor. The ages of the oceanic basins at those sites are approximately 129 Ma for Site NWP (Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191, 2000) and 49 Ma for Site WPB (Salisbury et al., 2006), respectively. The EM instruments deployed at those sites are seafloor EM stations (SFEMS; Toh et al., 2004 and 2006) and capable of measuring vector EM fields at the seafloor for as long as one year or more with other physical quantities such as the instruments' attitude, orientation and temperature. One of the objectives of the seafloor long-term EM observations by SFEMSs is to make a comparative study of the oceanic mantle with and without influence of the so-called 'stagnant slabs' in terms of their electrical conductivity. It is anticipated that the mantle transition zone under the influence of the stagnant slab has a higher electrical conductivity because the transition zone there could be wetter than that in the absence of the stagnant slab. In this context, the mantle transition zone beneath Site WPB can be said to have influence by the stagnant slab, while that beneath Site NWP does not. It, therefore, is basically possible to estimate how much water is present in each transition zone by comparison of the electrical conductivity profiles of the two. The one-dimensional electrical profile beneath Site NWP has been derived so far using the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) methods with significant jumps in the electrical property at 410 and 660km discontinuities. The jumps are approximately factors of 10 and 2, respectively (Ichiki et al., 2009). Here we show a profile beneath Site WPB using both MT and GDS

  2. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  4. Ophiuroids from the Caiwei(Pako) guyot in the northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Lu, Bo; Wang, Xiaogu; Lin, Shiquan; Wang, Chunsheng

    2015-04-01

    The Caiwei(Pako) guyot is a table mount located in the middle of the Magellan seamount trail in the northwest Pacific. Ophiuroids samples were collected from different sides and depths (1660~2785 m) of the guyot by manned submersible vehicle "Jiaolong" with RV Xiangyanghong 9 during cruises DY31 and DY35. The Ophiuroid fauna is poor in number of species and diversity. Five deep sea species from 19 specimens including Ophioplinthaca plicata (Lyman, 1878), Ophioplinthaca defensor Koehler, 1930, Ophioleila elegans A.H. Clark, 1949 and Asteroschema edmondsoni A.H. Clark, 1949 were identified. Three of them (Ophioplinthaca defensor, Ophioleila elegans and Asteroschema edmondsoni) were first recorded in the northwest Pacific, especially, the Ophioleila elegans, which was first discovered in the Hawaiian islands, was the second records all of the world. One specimen might belong to a new species of Astrodia and another specimen might be a new species of Ophiacanthidae. Most of these Ophiuroids showed a symbiotic relationship with sponges or corals. Ophiuroids fauna showed a higher diversity from shallow sites (<2000m) than deep sites (>2000m). This study provides more information about deep sea ophiuroid which may help us in understanding their diversity and biogeographic patterns.

  5. Fish assemblages of rocky banks of the pacific northwest. Final report. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The general objectives was to obtain information on the fish resources of outer continental shelf rocky banks of the Pacific northwest. The specific goal was to produce a database of fish densities and fish-habitat associations among years and banks for assessing the impacts of future offshore drilling and other mining activities. The limits of that value would depend upon the temporal and spatial scales over which the database was relevant and representative. From 1988 to 1990, the fish assemblages and fish-habitat associations at each of three major banks off Oregon were analyzed. In addition to characterizing the fish assemblages and fish-habitat associations at Stonewall Bank, the first day-night comparisons of fish distributions on a Pacific northwest rocky bank were completed. In September-October 1991 the manned submersible Delta ran visual belt transects at six fixed predetermined stations at Stonewall Bank. The 1991 final report should be referenced for details concerning background, sampling design, methods, and analytical design.

  6. Cryptococcus gattii infections in multiple states outside the US Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julie R; Lockhart, Shawn R; Sondermeyer, Gail; Vugia, Duc J; Crist, Matthew B; D'Angelo, Melissa Tobin; Sellers, Brenda; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Makvandi, Monear; Smelser, Chad; Greene, John; Stanek, Danielle; Signs, Kimberly; Nett, Randall J; Chiller, Tom; Park, Benjamin J

    2013-10-01

    Clonal VGII subtypes (outbreak strains) of Cryptococcus gattii have caused an outbreak in the US Pacific Northwest since 2004. Outbreak-associated infections occur equally in male and female patients (median age 56 years) and usually cause pulmonary disease in persons with underlying medical conditions. Since 2009, a total of 25 C. gattii infections, 23 (92%) caused by non-outbreak strain C. gattii, have been reported from 8 non-Pacific Northwest states. Sixteen (64%) patients were previously healthy, and 21 (84%) were male; median age was 43 years (range 15-83 years). Ten patients who provided information reported no past-year travel to areas where C. gattii is known to be endemic. Nineteen (76%) patients had central nervous system infections; 6 (24%) died. C. gattii infection in persons without exposure to known disease-endemic areas suggests possible endemicity in the United States outside the outbreak-affected region; these infections appear to differ in clinical and demographic characteristics from outbreak-associated C. gattii. Clinicians outside the outbreak-affected areas should be aware of locally acquired C. gattii infection and its varied signs and symptoms.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Program -- FY 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, Regan S.

    2011-04-20

    During fiscal year (FY) 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Protection and Regulatory Programs Division (before March 1, 2011 known as the Environmental Management Services Department) staff performed a number of activities as part of PNNL’s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance program. These activities helped to verify U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) and Richland Operations Office (RL) compliance with NEPA requirements and streamline the NEPA process for federal activities conducted at PNNL. Self-assessments were performed to address NEPA compliance and cultural and biological resource protection. The NEPA self-assessments focused on implementation within the PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate and routine maintenance activities conducted during the previous calendar year. The cultural and biological resource self-assessments were conducted in accordance with the PNSO Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan, which specifies annual monitoring of important resources to assess and document the status of the resources and the associated protective mechanisms in place to protect sensitive resources.

  8. Wind speed variability and adaptation strategies in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Bradford

    Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present conflicting results for wind speed trends (both increasing and decreasing) in relation to climate drivers. This study fills a gap in the understanding of PNW wind behaviour by: determining if relationships exist between wind speed distributions, ocean/atmospheric climate indices, and monitoring station-specific attributes; assessing the robustness of relationships for forecasting wind speeds within the study area; and presenting adaptation strategies to wind damage. Analyzing the quantiles of the strongly skewed (non-normal) wind speed distributions reveals different behaviours for average and extreme wind speeds and significantly stronger winds at coastal locations compared with sites further inland. Coast locations appear to follow a nine-year cyclic pattern, while mainland sites have a downward wind speed trend. This finding has important implications for wind research and infrastructure or ecosystem planning in areas such as wind energy feasibility studies and timing management activities. Keywords: Wind speed; Pacific Northwest; Quantiles; Linear mixed-effects model; Variability; Adaptation; Climate change.

  9. Intestinal helminths of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoberg, Eric P.; Henny, Charles J.; Hedstrom, O.R.; Grove, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of river otters, Lutra canadensis, from the Pacific Northwest was characterized by low species richness and intensity of infection. River otters from the lower Columbia River (n = 23) were infected with 9 species of helminths (83% prevalence); those from a relatively undisturbed reference area near the headwaters of the Trask and Wilson rivers on the Oregon coast (n = 6) were infected by 5 species of helminths (100% prevalence). Single species of Eucestoda (Schistocephalus solidus), Digenea (Euparyphium inerme), Acanthocephala (Corynosoma strumosum), and 8 species of Nematoda (Strongyloides lutrae; larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp.; 3 of Cystidicolidae, and Hedruris sp.) were collected. Most species are typical of piscine definitive hosts and were present as incidental parasites of river otters. Notably, specimens of Euparyphium inerme are reported for the first time in river otters from North America; occurrence of other helminths constitutes new host or geographic records for parasites in river otters in Oregon and Washington. Parasites with marine life cycles were acquired by river otters in freshwater habitats at a great distance from the ocean. The helminth fauna of river otters in the Pacific Northwest was influenced primarily by ecological factors and was indicative of eclectic food habits and the relatively extensive home ranges occupied by these mustelids.

  10. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an Alternative Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, R.C.; Mott, L.; Beers, J.R.; Lash, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    An Alternative Scenario for the electric energy future of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The Scenario includes an analysis of each major end use of electricity in the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. This approach affords the most direct means of projecting the likely long-term growth in consumption and the opportunities for increasing the efficiency with which electricity is used in each instance. The total demand for electricity by these end uses then provides a basis for determining whether additional central station generation is required to 1995. A projection of total demand for electricity depends on the combination of many independent variables and assumptions. Thus, the approach is a resilient one; no single assumption or set of linked assumptions dominates the analysis. End-use analysis allows policymakers to visualize the benefits of alternative programs, and to make comparison with the findings of other studies. It differs from the traditional load forecasts for the Pacific Northwest, which until recently were based largely on straightforward extrapolations of historical trends in the growth of electrical demand. The Scenario addresses the supply potential of alternative energy sources. Data are compiled for 1975, 1985, and 1995 in each end-use sector.

  11. Nematodes in Dryland Field Crops in the Semiarid Pacific Northwest United States

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Richard W.; Merrifield, Kathy; Patterson, Lisa-Marie; Whittaker, Ruth G.; Gourlie, Jennifer A.; Easley, Sandra A.

    2004-01-01

    Soils and roots of field crops in low-rainfall regions of the Pacific Northwest were surveyed for populations of plantparasitic and non-plant-parasitic nematodes. Lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) were recovered from 123 of 130 non-irrigated and 18 of 18 irrigated fields. Pratylenchus neglectus was more prevalent than P. thornei, but mixed populations were common. Population densities in soil were affected by crop frequency and rotation but not by tillage or soil type (P < 0.05). Many fields (25%) cropped more frequently than 2 of 4 years had potentially damaging populations of lesion nematodes. Pratylenchus neglectus density in winter wheat roots was inversely correlated with grain yield (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.002), providing the first field-derived evidence that Pratylenchus is economically important in Pacific Northwest dryland field crops. Stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus clarus and Geocenamus brevidens) were detected in 35% of fields and were occasionally present in high numbers. Few fields were infested with pin (Paratylenchus species) and root-knot (Meloidogyne naasi and M. chitwoodi) nematodes. Nematodes detected previously but not during this survey included cereal cyst (Heterodera avenae), dagger (Xiphinema species), and root-gall (Subanguina radicicola) nematodes. PMID:19262788

  12. NATIVE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: A STRENGTH-BASED MODEL OF PROTECTION AGAINST SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Rasmus, Stacy; Allen, James; Connor, William; Freeman, William; Skewes, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the Native Transformations Project, an exploratory community-based participatory research study that aims to identify sources of strength and protection against substance use disorder in three tribal communities in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Preliminary results from the study describe the specific settings, acts, and behaviors that build strengths and provide protection at the family, community, individual, and spiritual levels within coastal Pacific Northwest local tribal cultures. Findings from this study give voice to stated community preferences for grassroots Native intervention programs based in local cultural knowledge, worldviews, values, and theories of change, that operate at the local level on their own terms. PMID:27383091

  13. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pacific razor clam

    SciTech Connect

    Lassuy, D.R.; Simons, D.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, ecological role, fishery (when appropriate), and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist coastal managers, engineers, and biologists in the gathering of information pertinent to coastal development activities. The Pacific razor clam has a long history of human consumption on the West Coast. Turn-of-the-century commercial canning operations have given way to today's extensive recreational fishery. Razor clams spawn in late spring and early summer in the Pacific Northwest and recruit to flat, sandy beaches in late summer. Greatest densities of large clams occur in the lower intertidal zone. Razor clams grow and mature faster but attain a lower maximum size and age in the southern part of their range. They are noted for their unusual ability to dig very rapidly through the subsurface sand. Silt-generating activities should be avoided in the vicinity of razor clam beaches, as juveniles are susceptible to suffocation. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Effects of introduced fishes on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow pacific northwest lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.D.; Divens, M.; Meyer, W.

    2005-01-01

    Declines in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been blamed on hydropower, overfishing, ocean conditions, and land use practices; however, less is known about the impacts of introduced fish. Most of the hundreds of lakes and ponds in the Pacific Northwest contain introduced fishes, and many of these water bodies are also important for salmon production, especially of coho salmon O. kisutch. Over 2 years, we examined the predation impacts of 10 common introduced fishes (brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, black crappie Pomoxis nigro-maculatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, green sunfish L. cyanellus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, rainbow trout O. mykiss, warmouth L. gulosus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens) and two native fishes (cutthroat trout O. clarkii and prickly sculpin Cottus asper) on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow Pacific Northwest lakes, all located in different watersheds. Of these species, largemouth bass were responsible for an average of 98% of the predation on coho salmon in all lakes, but the total impact to each run varied among lakes and years. Very few coho salmon were eaten by black crappies, brown bullheads, cutthroat trout, prickly sculpin, or yellow perch, whereas other species were not observed to eat coho salmon. Juvenile coho salmon growth in all lakes was higher than in nearby streams. Therefore, food competition between coho salmon and introduced fishes in lakes was probably not limiting coho salmon populations. Largemouth bass are widespread and are present in 85% of lowland warmwater public-access lakes in Washington (n = 421), 84% of those in Oregon (n = 179), and 74% of those in the eight northwesternmost counties in California (n = 19). Future research would help to identify the impact of largemouth bass predation across the region and prioritize lakes where impacts are most severe. Nevertheless, attempts to transplant or increase largemouth bass

  15. Intercomparisons of Prognostic, Diagnostic, and Inversion Modeling Approaches for Estimation of Net Ecosystem Exchange over the Pacific Northwest Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. P.; Jacobson, A. R.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    The recent development of large spatially-explicit datasets for multiple variables relevant to monitoring terrestrial carbon flux offers the opportunity to estimate the terrestrial land flux using several alternative, potentially complimentary, approaches. Here we developed and compared regional estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. using three approaches. In the prognostic modeling approach, the process-based Biome-BGC model was driven by distributed meteorological station data and was informed by Landsat-based coverages of forest stand age and disturbance regime. In the diagnostic modeling approach, the quasi-mechanistic CFLUX model estimated net ecosystem production (NEP) by upscaling eddy covariance flux tower observations. The model was driven by distributed climate data and MODIS FPAR (the fraction of incident PAR that is absorbed by the vegetation canopy). It was informed by coarse resolution (1 km) data about forest stand age. In both the prognostic and diagnostic modeling approaches, emissions estimates for biomass burning, harvested products, and river/stream evasion were added to model-based NEP to get NEE. The inversion model (CarbonTracker) relied on observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration to optimize prior surface carbon flux estimates. The Pacific Northwest is heterogeneous with respect to land cover and forest management, and repeated surveys of forest inventory plots support the presence of a strong regional carbon sink. The diagnostic model suggested a stronger carbon sink than the prognostic model, and a much larger sink that the inversion model. The introduction of Landsat data on disturbance history served to reduce uncertainty with respect to regional NEE in the diagnostic and prognostic modeling approaches. The FPAR data was particularly helpful in capturing the seasonality of the carbon flux using the diagnostic modeling approach. The inversion approach took advantage of a global

  16. The Role of Variable-Charge Minerals in Deep Soil Carbon Storage in a Pacific Northwest Andisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzen, C.; Root, A.; James, J. N.; Holub, S. M.; Harrison, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Soil is the most important long-term sink for carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems, containing more C than plant biomass and the atmosphere combined. However, soil has historically been under-represented in C cycling literature, especially in regards to information about subsurface (>1.0 m) layers and processes. Previous research has indicated that Andisols with large quantities of noncrystalline, variable-charge minerals, including allophane, imogolite, and ferrihydrite, contain more C both in total and at depth than other soil types in the Pacific Northwest. The electrostatic charge of variable-charge soils depends on pH and is sometimes net positive, particularly in acid conditions, such as those commonly developed under the coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. However, even soils with a net negative charge may contain a mixture of negative and positive exchange sites and can hold some nutrient anions through the anion exchange capacity. The most abundant organic functional groups, including carboxylic and phenolic groups, are anionic in nature, and soil positive charge may play an important role in binding and stabilizing soil organic matter and sequestering C. To increase our understanding of the role of variable-charge minerals in soil organic matter stabilization in deep soils, samples were taken to a depth of 3 m at the Fall River Long-Term Soil Productivity Site in western Washington. This site has a deep, well-drained soil with few rocks, which developed from weathered basalt and is classified as an Andisol of the Boistfort Series. Analysis of soil charge characteristics over a pH range allowed for the determination of anion exchange capacity and point of zero net charge at 8 depth intervals. These results, along with total carbon analysis and C-14 dating at each depth interval, are used to evaluate the importance of the anion exchange capacity as a mechanism for storing carbon at depth in variable-charge soils.

  17. Accumulation of trace elements and organochlorines by surf scoters wintering in the Pacific northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Grove, R.A.; Thompson, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Selenium, cadmium, mercury, copper, manganese, zinc, aluminum, lead, PCBs and DDE were accumulated by segments of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) population that winters in the Pacific Northwest, but whether the uptake occurred on breeding and/or wintering grounds was uncertain for some contaminants. Surf scoters collected in Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay (in another study) during the same period (January 1985) contained similar concentrations of cadmium, but Alsea Bay scoters contained more. Cadmium was inversely related to both liver and body weights of Northwest scoters in January; similar weight losses were reported in experimental laboratory studies. Northwest and north San Francisco Bay scoters contained similar mercury concentrations, but those in south San Francisco Bay contained higher concentrations. San Francisco Bay scoters contained higher arsenic and selenium concentrations than those in the Northwest; however, the 43.4 ppm (geometric mean, dry wt) selenium in livers at Commencement Bay in January was above levels associated with the reproductive problems in aquatic birds at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge. Even higher concentrations of some elements may be found in surf scoters in March, because a later collection (March) at San Francisco Bay yielded higher concentrations than found there in January. Trace element concentrations in birds at a given wintering location are variable among species and may be influenced by diet, breeding grounds, and physiology (e.g., at Commencement Bay surf scoters with a sediment-associated diet contained 50X more cadmium in their kidneys than did fish-eating western grebes [Aechmophorus occidentalis]). The numerous wildlife species that live on estuaries require further attention.

  18. Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Tohver, I.; Lee, S.; Salathe, E.; Lutz, E.

    2010-12-01

    We report on three case studies at the University of Washington assessing the changing nature of hydrologic extremes in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in response to projected climate change. The first is associated with the Columbia Basin Climate Change Scenarios Project (CBCCSP) which provides estimates of the hundred-year flood (Q100) and the ten-year 7-day low flow (7Q10) for 297 streamflow locations in the PNW. A key finding of the study is that changing flood risks in response to climate change in the PNW are a complex function of both temperature sensitivities related to snow processes (which vary with historical mid-winter temperature regimes) and the spatial distribution of precipitation change. Previous analyses using a less sophisticated statistical downscaling approach, for example, showed declining flood risk in many of the coldest locations in the PNW. Because of increases in precipitation in the northern most portions of the domain, the current results show increasing flood risks in these same areas. Changes in low flow risks, by comparison, are broadly similar for most sites. The ensemble analysis at each streamflow site facilitates assessment of uncertainty. A second case study assesses changing flood risks at relatively small spatial scales with the intent to improve estimates of Q100 that are currently used in professional practice to design infrastructure such as culverts for forest roads. Current methods used in practice would suggest no change in flood risk in response to projected climate change in the PNW. Use of a physically based hydrologic model yields a complex spatial pattern of changing flood risk with topography that also varies with basin size. A third study (currently in progress) uses an ensemble of downscaled scenarios from a regional-scale climate model at 12km resolution to estimate changing flood risks for the same 297 streamflow locations examined in the CBCCSP study. A primary goal of this study is to assess the potential

  19. Surficial Seismology: Landslides, Glaciers, and Volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest through a Seismic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, Kate

    The following work is focused on the use of both traditional and novel seismological tools, combined with concepts from other disciplines, to investigate shallow seismic sources and hazards. The study area is the dynamic landscape of the Pacific Northwest and its wide-ranging earthquake, landslide, glacier, and volcano-related hazards. The first chapter focuses on landsliding triggered by earthquakes, with a shallow crustal earthquake in Seattle as a case study. The study demonstrates that utilizing broadband synthetic seismograms and rigorously incorporating 3D basin amplification, 1D site effects, and fault directivity, allows for a more complete assessment of regional seismically induced landslide hazard. The study shows that the hazard is severe for Seattle, and provides a framework for future probabilistic maps and near real-time hazard assessment. The second chapter focuses on landslides that generate seismic waves and how these signals can be harnessed to better understand landslide dynamics. This is demonstrated using two contrasting Pacific Northwest landslides. The 2010 Mount Meager, BC, landslide generated strong long period waves. New full waveform inversion methods reveal the time history of forces the landslide exerted on the earth that is used to quantify event dynamics. Despite having a similar volume (˜107 m3), The 2009 Nile Valley, WA, landslide did not generate observable long period motions because of its smaller accelerations, but pulses of higher frequency waves were valuable in piecing together the complex sequence of events. The final chapter details the difficulties of monitoring glacier-clad volcanoes. The focus is on small, repeating, low-frequency earthquakes at Mount Rainier that resemble volcanic earthquakes. However, based on this investigation, they are actually glacial in origin: most likely stick-slip sliding of glaciers triggered by snow loading. Identification of the source offers a view of basal glacier processes, discriminates

  20. The Best of CLEARING: Environmental Education in the Pacific Northwest. Volumes I-IV: Issues 1-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    "Clearing" magazine is a bi-monthly environmental education resource and activity guide for K-12 teachers in the Pacific Northwest. Each of these four volumes is a compilation of outstanding articles and activities from past issues of "Clearing." Volume I (Issues 1-20) presents 47 articles organized into four sections:…

  1. The Outdoor Leadership Handbook. A Manual for Leaders of Land-based Outdoor Pursuits in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    The handbook is intended for three leadership groups: leaders of land-based trips in the Pacific Northwest with youth or adults for an agency such as a city recreation department, experienced leaders, and leaders conducting high-adventure programs for juvenile delinquents. The handbook contains current information regarding: (1) trip planning and…

  2. Trends and sensitivities of low streamflow extremes to discharge timing and magnitude in pacific northwest mountain streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historical streamflow data from the Pacific Northwest indicate that the precipitation amount has been the dominant control on the magnitude of low streamflow extremes compared to the air temperature-affected timing of snowmelt runoff. The relative sensitivities of low streamflow to precipitation and...

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2 supplement, ecological sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1981-06-01

    This supplement replaces the list of Publications and Presentations in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1980 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, PNL-3700 PT2, Ecological Sciences. The listings in the report as previously distributed were incomplete owing to changeovers in the bibliographic-tracking system.

  5. White rot of garlic and onion (Causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is evidence from literature, state department of agriculture documents, and recent diagnoses that Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot of garlic and onion, is spreading and/or becoming more established in the Pacific Northwest. Previously documented distributions are summarized, an...

  6. Anthropogenic sedimentation in Pacific Northwest streams inferred from Aquatic Habitat Survey datausing a relative bed stability index

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated anthropogenic sedimentation in U.S. Pacific Northwest coastal streams using an index of relative bed stability (LRBS*) based on low flow survey data collected using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) fiel...

  7. Identifying blueberry germplasm that is slow to get Blueberry shock virus in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) is a serious problem in blueberry production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. Infection occurs during bloom and the virus moves into other parts of the plant in an uneven but steady manner and may take several years to become fully systemic in mat...

  8. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  9. ECOLOGICAL AND WATER QUALITY CONSEQUENCES OF NUTRIENT ADDITION FOR SALMON RESTORATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon runs have declined over the past two centuries in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Reduced inputs of salmon-derived organic matter and nutrients (SDN) may limit freshwater production and thus establish a negative feedback loop affecting future generations of...

  10. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Common littleneck clam. [Protothaca staminea

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, K.K.; Ma, A.P.

    1987-08-01

    The common littleneck clam (Protothaca staminea) is important both in recreational and commercial fisheries in the Pacific Northwest region. This review describes the life history (spawning, egg and larval stages, postlarvae and juveniles, maturity, and life span), growth characteristics, commercial and sport fisheries, aquaculture, ecological role, and environmental requirements of the species. An updated literature cited section is also included.

  11. Climate change predicted to negatively influence surface soil health of dryland cropping systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key indicator of agricultural productivity and overall soil health. Currently, dryland cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW) span a large gradient in mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP). These climatic drivers are major determinants ...

  12. NITROGEN MOVEMENT AND WATER QUALITY AT A POORLY-DRAINED AGRICULTURAL AND RIPARIAN SITE IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grass seed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest account for about half of the cool-season forage and turf grass seed production in the world. Grass seed cropping systems are intensely managed with inorganic fertilizers to sustain production. Much of the land where grass seed...

  13. Use of spectral reflectance for indirect selection of yield potential and stability in Pacific Northwest winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indirect selection approaches have been recommended to augment genetic gain from yield based selection in highly variable environments. We evaluated the potential use of spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) to select for grain yield in Pacific Northwest Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in wide ran...

  14. Incorporating the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) Into a Regional Air Quality Modeling System for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest, wind storms intermittently cause massive dust events that reduce visibility along roadways and jeopardize health as a result of extremely high concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter less than or equal to 10µm in diameter). An early warning dust forecast system is needed...

  15. Virulence and molecular analyses support asexual reproduction of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), occurs every year and has caused frequent epidemics in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Races of Pst change rapidly and barberry plants, which could be alternate hosts of the fungus, are found in the region. However, whether ...

  16. Urbanization Impacts on Tree Canopies: The Unexplored Link Between Canopy Epiphytes and Pacific Northwest Forest Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, H.; Rosenstiel, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy-dwelling cryptogamic plants (i.e. lichens and mosses) serve important roles in biogeochemical cycles worldwide and are of particular importance to biogeochemical cycling in Pacific Northwest forests. Epiphytic lichens and mosses respond sensitively to both direct and indirect effects of global change, as evidenced by distinct changes in epiphyte community structure. Yet, few studies have explored how shifting epiphytic communities, resulting from changing climate and increasing air pollutant exposure, may greatly impact biogeochemical cycles of the forests they inhabit. We present the first study investigating how urbanization, as a proxy for global change, impacts epiphytic community structure and functional biodiversity and address the impending effects on Pacific Northwest forest biogeochemical cycles. We discuss the results of paired ground and arboreal epiphyte surveys across an urban to rural gradient in Portland, Oregon. Three research sites with varying distance (0km, 74km, and 109km) from urban center were surveyed and epiphytic biodiversity was described. Pronounced shifts in epiphyte community structure were observed downwind of the Portland metro region. These results suggest that the impacts of urbanization may have significant and surprisingly far-reaching impacts on forested ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. The impacts of an altered ground and arboreal epiphytic community on Pacific Northwest forest biogeochemical processes will be discussed.

  17. Evaluation of agronomic traits and spectral reflectance in Pacific Northwest winter wheat under rain-fed and irrigated conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a major winter wheat mega-environment characterized by a high latitude and a Mediterranean-like climate. Wheat production is predominantly rain-fed and often subject to low soil moisture. As result, discovery and introgression of drought-adaptive traits in modern cu...

  18. Potential sea-level rise impacts on tidal wetlands in the Pacific Northwest: Declines in productivity and diversity?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climate change could alter sea-level and salinity dynamics in Pacific Northwest estuaries. We combined survey and experimental approaches to better understand potential climate change effects on the future of tidal wetland primary producers in the region. Surveys conducte...

  19. INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON LANDSCAPE AND HABITAT FACTORS CONTROLLING PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAM FISH ASSEMBLAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages in the Oregon-Washington coast range consist primarily of coldwater taxa of salmonids, cottids, dace, and Pacific giant salamander. This region has a dynamic natural disturbance regime, where mass failures, debris torrents, fire, and tree-fall are driven by clim...

  20. Impacts of the July 2012 Siberian fire plume on air quality in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teakles, Andrew D.; So, Rita; Ainslie, Bruce; Nissen, Robert; Schiller, Corinne; Vingarzan, Roxanne; McKendry, Ian; Macdonald, Anne Marie; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Strawbridge, Kevin B.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Hanna, Sarah; Toom, Desiree; Baik, Jonathan; Huang, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning emissions emit a significant amount of trace gases and aerosols and can affect atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing for hundreds or thousands of kilometres downwind. They can also contribute to exceedances of air quality standards and have negative impacts on human health. We present a case study of an intense wildfire plume from Siberia that affected the air quality across the Pacific Northwest on 6-10 July 2012. Using satellite measurements (MODIS True Colour RGB imagery and MODIS AOD), we track the wildfire smoke plume from its origin in Siberia to the Pacific Northwest where subsidence ahead of a subtropical Pacific High made the plume settle over the region. The normalized enhancement ratios of O3 and PM1 relative to CO of 0.26 and 0.08 are consistent with a plume aged 6-10 days. The aerosol mass in the plume was mainly submicron in diameter (PM1 / PM2.5 = 0.96) and the part of the plume sampled at the Whistler High Elevation Monitoring Site (2182 m a.s.l.) was 88 % organic material. Stable atmospheric conditions along the coast limited the initial entrainment of the plume and caused local anthropogenic emissions to build up. A synthesis of air quality from the regional surface monitoring networks describes changes in ambient O3 and PM2.5 during the event and contrasts them to baseline air quality estimates from the AURAMS chemical transport model without wildfire emissions. Overall, the smoke plume contributed significantly to the exceedances in O3 and PM2.5 air quality standards and objectives that occurred at several communities in the region during the event. Peak enhancements in 8 h O3 of 34-44 ppbv and 24 h PM2.5 of 10-32 µg m-3 were attributed to the effects of the smoke plume across the Interior of British Columbia and at the Whistler Peak High Elevation Site. Lesser enhancements of 10-12 ppbv for 8 h O3 and of 4-9 µg m-3 for 24 h PM2.5 occurred across coastal British Columbia and Washington State. The findings suggest that the

  1. Glacial-to-Holocene evolution of sea surface temperature and surface circulation in the subarctic northwest Pacific and the Western Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Vera D.; Max, Lars; Hefter, Jens; Tiedemann, Ralf; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    It has been proposed that North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) evolution was intimately linked to North Atlantic climate oscillations during the last glacial-interglacial transition. However, during the early deglaciation and the Last Glacial Maximum, the SST development in the subarctic northwest Pacific and the Bering Sea is poorly constrained as most existing deglacial SST records are based on alkenone paleothermometry, which is limited prior to 15 ka B.P. in the subarctic North Pacific realm. By applying the TEXL86 temperature proxy we obtain glacial-Holocene-SST records for the marginal northwest Pacific and the Western Bering Sea. Our TEXL86-based records and existing alkenone data suggest that during the past 15.5 ka, SSTs in the northwest Pacific and the Western Bering Sea closely followed millennial-scale climate fluctuations known from Greenland ice cores, indicating rapid atmospheric teleconnections with abrupt climate changes in the North Atlantic. Our SST reconstructions indicate that in the Western Bering Sea SSTs drop significantly during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), similar to the known North Atlantic climate history. In contrast, progressively rising SST in the northwest Pacific is different to the North Atlantic climate development during HS1. Similarities between the northwest Pacific SST and climate records from the Gulf of Alaska point to a stronger influence of Alaskan Stream waters connecting the eastern and western basin of the North Pacific during this time. During the Holocene, dissimilar climate trends point to reduced influence of the Alaskan Stream in the northwest Pacific.

  2. ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Won; An, Soon-Il; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Park, Hey-Jin; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Using observational datasets and numerical model experiments, the mechanism on the slowly varying change in the relationship between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is investigated. The decadal-window (11-, 15-, and 21-year) moving correlations show a significant change in the boreal wintertime ENSO-EAWM relationship between two sub-periods of 1976‒1992 and 1997‒2013. Such recent change in ENSO-EAWM relationship is mainly attributed to the changes in the intensity and zonal location of the anomalous lower-tropospheric northwest Pacific anticyclone (NWP-AC). NWP-AC commonly develops near the region of the Philippine Sea during the ENSO's peak phase and plays an important role of bridging the tropical convection and mid-latitude teleconnection. On one hand, the intensity of the NWP-AC is influenced by the interdecadal variation in a linkage between ENSO and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referring that a strong connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans results in the strengthening of NWP-AC response to ENSO. On the other hand, the zonal displacement of the NWP-AC is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). That is, the tropical Pacific mean state (i.e., zonal SST gradient between climatologically warm western Pacific and cold eastern Pacific)—strengthened by either the negative PDO phase or the positive AMO phase—drives the anomalous ENSO-induced convection to be shifted to the west. With this westward shift, the zonal center of the NWP-AC also migrates westward over the Philippine Islands and exerts stronger connection between ENSO and EAWM. In contrast, the relaxed zonal SST contrast associated with either the positive PDO phase or the negative AMO phase tends to exhibit weaker ENSO-EAWM relationship via both of eastward shifted zonal centers of the anomalous ENSO-induced convection and the NWP-AC. Finally, a

  3. Collapse risk of buildings in the Pacific Northwest region due to subduction earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raghunandan, Meera; Liel, Abbie B; Luco, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Subduction earthquakes similar to the 2011 Japan and 2010 Chile events will occur in the future in the Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out on 24 buildings designed according to outdated and modern building codes for the cities of Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. The results indicate that the median collapse capacity of the ductile (post-1970) buildings is approximately 40% less when subjected to ground motions from subduction, as compared to crustal earthquakes. Buildings are more susceptible to earthquake-induced collapse when shaken by subduction records (as compared to crustal records of the same intensity) because the subduction motions tend to be longer in duration due to their larger magnitude and the greater source-to-site distance. As a result, subduction earthquakes are shown to contribute to the majority of the collapse risk of the buildings analyzed.

  4. FY 1996 performance evaluation and incentive fee agreement for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-08

    The document describes the critical outcomes, objectives, performance indicators, expected levels of performance, specific detail on incentive fee, and agreements concerning the evaluation of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s FY 1996 Self-Assessment. This information will be the basis for the evaluation of the Laboratory`s performance as required by Articles H-24 and H-25 of the Contract. For the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996, the Parties have agreed to measure and evaluate the individual areas of Laboratory activities identified herein. This reflects the fact that the Contractor will be evaluated on two dimensions, namely (1) accomplishment of critical outcomes and (2) the effectiveness of the Contractor`s self-assessment program. Each area will receive its own evaluation rating and they will be combined to determined an overall rating with the first area weighted at 75% and the second area weighted at 25%.

  5. 2014 Update of the Pacific Northwest portion of the U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Chen, Rui; Petersen, Mark; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Sherrod, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of the earthquake characterization were changed for the Pacific Northwest portion of the 2014 update of the national seismic hazard maps, reflecting recent scientific findings. New logic trees were developed for the recurrence parameters of M8-9 earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and for the eastern edge of their rupture zones. These logic trees reflect recent findings of additional M8 CSZ earthquakes using offshore deposits of turbidity flows and onshore tsunami deposits and subsidence. These M8 earthquakes each rupture a portion of the CSZ and occur in the time periods between M9 earthquakes that have an average recurrence interval of about 500 years. The maximum magnitude was increased for deep intraslab earthquakes. An areal source zone to account for the possibility of deep earthquakes under western Oregon was expanded. The western portion of the Tacoma fault was added to the hazard maps.

  6. Potential effects of global climate change on ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Woodward, A.; Ettl, G.J. )

    1993-06-01

    The global climate change research program at the University of Washington Cooperative Park Studies Unit is examining the response of ecosystems in parks of the Pacific Northwest. Research is based on the concept that ecotones may be most sensitive to climate. We have focused particularly on ecotones defining alpine and subalpine vegetation, and montane and lowland forests. Results obtained from the subalpine ecotone where changes in plant distribution are easily identified, indicate that tree growth and establishment will increase in response to predicted climate change. Other ecotones and hydrologic/vegetation relationships of Crater Lake are the subject of ongoing palynological and dendrochronological studies of forest distribution, response of tree growth to climate, and physiological studies of plant tolerance. This information will be the basis for modelling efforts to predict the effect of climate change on these systems.

  7. Experiences and Management of Pregnant Radiation Workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2001-03-06

    Radiation workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are divided into two classes based on whether or not they can encounter radioactive contamination in the normal course of their work. Level I workers primarily handle sealed radioactive materials such as those used to calibrate detectors. Level II workers perform benchtop chemistry. The U.S. Department of Energy has strict guidelines on the management of pregnant radiation workers. Staff members may voluntarily notify their line managers of a pregnancy and be subjected to stringent radiation exposure limits for the developing fetus. The staff member and manager develop a plan to limit and monitor radiation dose for the remainder of the pregnancy. Several examples of dose management plans and case examples of the impact of pregnancy on staff member?s technical work and projects will be presented.

  8. FY2000 Annual Self-Evaluation Report for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    RR Labarge

    2000-11-15

    This self-evaluation report offers a summary of results from FY2000 actions to achieve Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's strategy and provides an analysis of the state of their self-assessment process. The result of their integrated planning and assessment process identifies Laboratory strengths and opportunities for improvement. Critical elements of that process are included in this report; namely, a high-level summary of external oversight activities, progress against Operations Improvement Initiatives, and a summary of Laboratory strengths and areas for improvement developed by management from across the laboratory. Some key areas targeted for improvement in FY2001 are: systems approach to resource management; information protection; integrated safety management flow-down to the benchtop; cost management; integrated assessment; Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Program; and travel risk mitigation.

  9. Economic analysis of selected water policy options for the Pacific northwest. Agriculture economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaible, G.D.; Gollehon, N.R.; Kramer, M.S.; Aillery, M.P.; Moore, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Agriculture in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) could use significantly less water with minimal impact on agricultural economic returns. Less water use by agriculture makes more water available for municipal, industrial, and recreational uses; for improved water quality and wildlife habitat; and for Native American water rights claims. Net water savings up to 18.5 percent of current levels of field-crop use can be realized by such actions as reducing Bureau of Reclamation (BoR) surface-water diversion, improving water-use efficiency, and raising the cost of water. Effects on agricultural economic returns for PNW field crops range from a decline of $22 million (1.7 percent) to an increase of $171 million (13.1 percent). Combining different approaches spreads the conservation burden among farmers, water suppliers, and production regions.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Climate Resiliency Planning Process and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Judd, Kathleen S.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2016-02-22

    In 2015, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed its first Climate Resilience Plan for its Richland Campus. PNNL has performed Climate Resilience Planning for the Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy (DOE) over the past 5 years. The assessment team included climate scientists, social scientists, engineers, and operations managers. A multi-disciplinary team was needed to understand the potential exposures to future changes at the site, the state of the science on future impacts, and the best process for “mainstreaming” new actions into existing activities. The team uncovered that the site’s greatest vulnerabilities, and therefore priorities for climate resilience planning, are high temperature due to degraded infrastructure, increased wildfire frequency, and intense precipitation impacts on stormwater conveyance systems.

  11. Enhanced POC export in the oligotrophic northwest Pacific Ocean after extreme weather events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chou, Wen-Chen; Chung, Chih-Ching; Shih, Yung-Yen; Wang, Chau-Chang

    2013-11-01

    study effects of extreme weather events (EWEs, e.g., dust storm and typhoon) on the export of particulate organic carbon (POC) measured by a floating sediment trap in the oligotrophic ocean, eight sea-going expeditions were conducted in the oligotrophic northwest Pacific (NWP) in 2007 and 2008, covering all four seasons and the passage of several EWEs. Results of year-round field observations demonstrate that the POC export fluxes in the oligotrophic NWP did not exhibit apparent seasonal variations yielding an average flux of 36.9 ± 5.8 mg-C m-2 d-1 without EWE effects. With EWE effects, however, the POC export flux (51.7 ± 13.2 mg-C m-2 d-1) showed an approximately 40% increase compared to the average flux measured without EWE effects. These results suggest that EWEs can trigger elevated POC export from the euphotic zone in the oligotrophic ocean.

  12. An annotated bibliography of selected guides for stream habitat improvement in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keim, R.F.; Price, A.B.; Hardin, T. S.; Skaugset, Arne E.; Bateman, D.S.; Gresswell, R.E.; Tesch, S. D.

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography is a response to widespread interest in stream habitat improvement in the Pacific Northwest by land managers, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and the lay public. Several guides to stream habitat improvement have been written in the past, but may not be easily accessible to people from diverse backgrounds. This annotated bibliography reviews 11 guides to stream habitat improvement so that readers can find literature appropriate to their needs. All reviews begin with summaries of the contents, stated audiences, and goals of each guide. Reviews also include subjective comments on the strengths and weaknesses of each guide. Finally, this bibliography includes recommendations of guides and combinations of guides judged most useful for a range of purposes. 

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 Annual Self-Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research and development efforts are concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Fiscal year 1996 saw the Laboratory focus its efforts on the results necessary for us to meet DOE`s most important needs and expectations. Six Critical Outcomes were established in partnership with DOE. The Laboratory met or exceeded performance expectations in most areas, including these outcomes and the implementation of the Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program. We believe our overall performance for this evaluation period has been outstanding. A summary of results and key issues is provided.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  15. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  16. Science To Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards

    SciTech Connect

    Bredt, Paul R. ); Brockman, Fred J. ); Camaioni, Donald M. ); Felmy, Andrew R. ); Grate, Jay W. ); Hay, Benjamin P.; Hess, Nancy J. ); Meyer, Philip D. ); Murray, Christopher J. ); Pfund, David M. ); Su, Yali ); Thornton, Edward C. ); Weber, William J. ); Zachara, John M. )

    2001-06-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, nine in fiscal year 1998, seven in fiscal year 1999, and five in fiscal year 2000. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have published final reports. The 1997 and 1998 award projects have been completed or are nearing completion. Final reports for these awards will be published, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the 1999 and 2000 grants address significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. The 1999 and 2000 EMSP awards at PNNL are focused primarily in two areas: Tank Waste Remediation, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup.

  17. Climate Effects on Plant Range Distributions and Community Structure of Pacific Northwest Prairies

    SciTech Connect

    Bridgham, Scott D.; Johnson, Bart

    2013-09-26

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) prairies are an imperiled ecosystem that contain a large number of plant species with high fidelity to this habitat. The few remaining high-quality PNW prairies harbor a number of sensitive, rare, and endangered plant species that may be further at-risk with climate change. Thus, PNW prairies are an excellent model system to examine how climate change will affect the distribution of native plant species in grassland sites. Our experimental objectives were to determine: (i) how climate change will affect the range distribution of native plant species; (ii) what life history stages are most sensitive to climate change in a group of key indicator native species; (iii) the robustness of current restoration techniques and suites of species to changing climate, and in particular, the relative competitiveness of native species versus exotic invasive species; and (iv) the effects of climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling and soil-microbial-plant feedbacks. We addressed these objectives by experimentally increasing temperature 2.5 to 3.0 ºC above ambient with overhead infrared lamps and increasing wet-season precipitation by 20% above ambient in three upland prairie sites in central-western Washington, central-western Oregon, and southwestern Oregon from fall 2010 through 2012. Additional precipitation was applied within 2 weeks of when it fell so precipitation intensity was increased, particularly during the winter rainy season but with minimal additions during the summer dry season. These three sites also represent a 520-km natural climate gradient of increasing degree of severity of Mediterranean climate from north to south. After removing the extant vegetation, we planted a diverse suite of 12 native species that have their northern range limit someplace within the PNW in each experimental plot. An additional 20 more wide-spread native species were also planted into each plot. We found that recruitment of plant species within their ranges

  18. Evidence-based chronic ulcer care and lower limb outcomes among Pacific Northwest veterans.

    PubMed

    Karavan, Mahsa; Olerud, John; Bouldin, Erin; Taylor, Leslie; Reiber, Gayle E

    2015-09-01

    Evidence-based ulcer care guidelines detail optimal components of care for treatment of ulcers of different etiologies. We investigated the impact of providing specific evidence-based ulcer treatment components on healing outcomes for lower limb ulcers (LLU) among veterans in the Pacific Northwest. Components of evidence-based ulcer care for venous, arterial, diabetic foot ulcers/neuropathic ulcers were abstracted from medical records. The outcome was ulcer healing. Our analysis assessed the relationship between evidence-based ulcer care by etiology, components of care provided, and healing, while accounting for veteran characteristics. A minority of veterans in all three ulcer-etiology groups received the recommended components of evidence-based care in at least 80% of visits. The likelihood of healing improved when assessment for edema and infection were performed on at least 80% of visits (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.20, p = 0.009 and HR = 3.54, p = 0.006, respectively) in patients with venous ulcers. There was no significant association between frequency of care components provided and healing among patients with arterial ulcers. Among patients with diabetic/neuropathic ulcers, the chance of healing increased 2.5-fold when debridement was performed at 80% of visits (p = 0.03), and doubled when ischemia was assessed at the first visit (p = 0.045). Veterans in the Pacific Northwest did not uniformly receive evidence-based ulcer care. Not all evidence-based ulcer care components were significantly associated with healing. At a minimum, clinicians need to address components of ulcer care associated with improved ulcer healing.

  19. Estimation of strong ground motions from hypothetical earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, T.H.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Strong ground motions are estimated for the Pacific Northwest assuming that large shallow earthquakes, similar to those experienced in southern Chile, southwestern Japan, and Colombia, may also occur on the Cascadia subduction zone. Fifty-six strong motion recordings for twenty-five subduction earthquakes of Ms???7.0 are used to estimate the response spectra that may result from earthquakes Mw<81/4. Large variations in observed ground motion levels are noted for a given site distance and earthquake magnitude. When compared with motions that have been observed in the western United States, large subduction zone earthquakes produce relatively large ground motions at surprisingly large distances. An earthquake similar to the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) is the largest event that is considered to be plausible for the Cascadia subduction zone. This event has a moment which is two orders of magnitude larger than the largest earthquake for which we have strong motion records. The empirical Green's function technique is used to synthesize strong ground motions for such giant earthquakes. Observed teleseismic P-waveforms from giant earthquakes are also modeled using the empirical Green's function technique in order to constrain model parameters. The teleseismic modeling in the period range of 1.0 to 50 sec strongly suggests that fewer Green's functions should be randomly summed than is required to match the long-period moments of giant earthquakes. It appears that a large portion of the moment associated with giant earthquakes occurs at very long periods that are outside the frequency band of interest for strong ground motions. Nevertheless, the occurrence of a giant earthquake in the Pacific Northwest may produce quite strong shaking over a very large region. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  20. Stressor-Response Models Relating Nutrient Enrichment to Algal Communities in Pacific Northwest Streams and Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Hubler, S.; Paul, M. J.; Labiosa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Excessive algal growth in streams and rivers from nutrient enrichment can cause costly human health and environmental problems. As part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Nutrient Scientific Technical Exchange Partnership and Support (N-STEPS) program, we have been developing stressor-response (S-R) models relating nutrients to attached algal (periphyton) communities to help prioritize monitoring for water quality impairments in Oregon (Pacific Northwest, USA) streams and rivers. Existing data from the state and neighboring states were compiled and standardized from the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Geological Survey. To develop S-R models, algal community and biomass metrics were compared with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration data, including total, dissolved, and inorganic forms of these nutrients. In total, 928 paired algal-nutrient samples were compiled from the 8 Level-III Ecoregions occurring in Oregon. Relationships between algal biomass metrics and nutrient concentrations were weak, with only ash-free dry mass and standing stock of chlorophyll a showing slight positive relationships across gradients of total N and soluble reactive P concentrations, respectively. In contrast, metrics describing algal community composition, including percent diatoms and abundance of nutrient-sensitive species, showed very strong nonlinear relationships with total N or P concentrations. This suggests that data describing algal community composition can help identify specific nutrient stressors across environmentally-diverse streams and rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Future analyses will examine if nutrient-algal S-R models vary across different hydrological, physiographical, and ecological settings in the region.

  1. River sediment flux and shelf sediment accumulation rates on the Pacific Northwest margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatcroft, R. A.; Sommerfield, C. K.

    2005-02-01

    To test the generality of insight obtained from recent STRATAFORM studies of northern California's Eel margin, river sediment sources and continental shelf sinks were examined on the Pacific Northwest margin from 38° to 44.5°N. River discharge and sediment concentration data acquired by the US Geological Survey were used to update long-term annual suspended-sediment loads for 17 rivers that range in basin area from 635 to ˜22,000 km 2. Resulting annual load estimates vary over 3 orders of magnitude (0.065-18×10 9 kg/yr), with major suspended-sediment fluxes supplied by, in decreasing order, the Eel, Klamath/Trinity, Mad, Rogue, Umpqua and Russian rivers. Down-core profiles of excess 210Pb and 137Cs were used to estimate sediment accumulation rates (SARs) at prescribed depths (70 and 110 m) and distances (0-40-km north and south along-shelf) from each of the major rivers. SARs were found to vary much less than the river flux estimates, and are mostly in the range of 1.5 to 6 mm/yr. Most significantly, shelf SARs on the other Pacific Northwest margins are only slightly less than those observed on the Eel shelf, implying that much higher proportions of riverine sediment are retained on those shelves. Likely reasons that the Eel dispersal system exhibits greater off-shelf transport are (1) the narrower and steeper shelf geometry, and (2) the existence of a newly documented cross-isobath sediment transport mechanism that involves wave-modulated fluid mud flows. Testing whether the fluid mud flows are a consequence of the Eel River basin's high sediment yield, and are thus unique to the Eel, or are caused by intense wave energy during discharge events, and hence are operative on many other margins, awaits future bottom-boundary layer measurements.

  2. Wildlife species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in Pacific Northwest conifer forests: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Non-coniferous vegetation, including herbs, shrubs, and broad-leaved trees, makes a vital contribution to ecosystem function and diversity in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. However, forest management has largely been indifferent or detrimental to shrubs and trees that have low commercial value, in spite of a paradigm shift towards more holistic management in recent decades. Forest management practices that are detrimental to broad-leaved trees and shrubs are likely to decrease habitat diversity for wildlife, but the number of species that may be affected has not previously been enumerated. I reviewed life history accounts for forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species and derived a list of 78 species in Oregon and Washington that are associated with non-coniferous vegetation. The diversity of direct and indirect food resources provided was the primary functional basis for associations of most species with non-coniferous vegetation. Thus, a diversity of herbs and broad-leaved trees and shrubs provides the foundation for food webs that contribute to diversity at multiple trophic levels in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. Given the number of species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in conifer-dominated forests, maintaining habitats that support diverse plant communities, particularly broad-leaved trees and shrubs, will be an important component of management strategies intended to foster biodiversity. Silvicultural practices such as modified planting densities, and pre-commercial and commercial thinning, can be used to control stand density in order to favor the development of understory herbs, shrubs, and a diversity of tree species within managed stands. Allowing shrubs and hardwood trees to develop and persist in early seral stands by curtailing vegetation control also would benefit many species associated with non-coniferous vegetation.

  3. Relationship between the present-day stress field and plate boundary forces in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between plate boundary forces and the observed stress field in the Pacific Northwest is established using numerical models of continental deformation. Because the orientation of the greatest horizontal principal stress throughout the Pacific Northwest differs considerably from the direction of convergence between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates, the relationship between the stress field and forces acting along the subduction zone has been unclear. To address this relationship, a two-dimensional finite element model developed by Bird [1989] is used that incorporates critical aspects of continental deformation such as a stratified rheology and interaction between thermal and mechanical components of deformation. Boundary conditions are specified in terms of either velocity or shear traction, depending on whether the computed shear stress at the plate boundary is less than or exceeds, respectively, a prescribed limit. Shear-stress limits on the subduction and transform plate boundaries are independently varied to determine the relative effect of forces along these boundaries on intraplate deformation. Results from this study indicate that the shear stress limit of both subduction and transform boundaries is low, and that the intraplate stress field is attributed, in part, to the normal component of relative plate motion along the transform boundaries. However, the models also indicate that although the subduction zone fault is weak, a minimum shear strength ( ??? 10 MPa) for the fault is necessary to explain the observed stress field. The balance among forces along the tectonic boundaries of North America results in a surprising degree of variation in the present-day stress field.

  4. Primary productivity of snow algae communities on stratovolcanoes of the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T L; Havig, J

    2017-03-01

    The majority of geomicrobiological research conducted on glacial systems to date has focused on glaciers that override primarily carbonate or granitic bedrock types, with little known of the processes that support microbial life in glacial systems overriding volcanic terrains (e.g., basalt or andesite). To better constrain the role of the supraglacial ecosystems in the carbon and nitrogen cycles, to gain insight into microbiome composition and function in alpine glacial systems overriding volcanic terrains, and to constrain potential elemental sequestration or release through weathering processes associated with snow algae communities, we examined the microbial community structure and primary productivity of snow algae communities on stratovolcanoes in the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest. Here, we present the first published values for carbon fixation rates of snow algae communities on glaciers in the Pacific Northwest. We observed varying levels of light-dependent carbon fixation on supraglacial and periglacial snowfields at Mt. Hood, Mt. Adams, and North Sister. Recovery of abundant 18S rRNA transcripts affiliated with photoautotrophs and 16S rRNA transcripts affiliated with heterotrophic bacteria is consistent with previous studies indicating the majority of primary productivity on snow and ice can be attributed to photoautotrophs. In contrast to previous observations of glacial ecosystems, our geochemical, isotopic, and microcosm data suggest these assemblages are not limited by phosphorus or fixed nitrogen availability. Furthermore, our data indicate these snow algae communities actively sequester Fe, Mn, and P leached from minerals sourced from the local rocks. Our observations of light-dependent primary productivity on snow are consistent with similar studies in polar ecosystems; however, our data may suggest that DIC may be a limiting nutrient in contrast to phosphorus or fixed nitrogen as has been observed in other glacial ecosystems. Our data

  5. Modeling climate change effects on the hydrology of Pacific Northwest wetland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.; LEE, S.; Ryan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is arguably the greatest conservation challenge ever encountered by the ecological management community. Local governments and land management agencies are being asked to systematically assess vulnerability of diverse wetlands habitats to climate change impacts, and to develop sustainable adaptation strategies to mitigate projected impacts. These activities are generally hindered by lack of appropriate information and data resources for decision-making. We developed hydrologic projections of climate change impacts on wetlands in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) to help develop targeted climate adaptation strategies for a broad range of species reliant on wetland habitats. Using 1/16th degree soil moisture simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) for three soil layers and correlation analysis, we identified which soil layers are the best predictors of wetland response for a range of different wetland sites and types. We then fit regression equations between the best predictors of wetland response and observed wetland volume or water depth. These simple empirical models reproduce historical wetland response at a number of different sites Mt. Rainier, WA and Trinity Alps Wilderness, CA for the summer drawdown season quite well overall. Finally, we use these same regression models to characterize wetland response to climate change. Simulations of future wetland response for wetland sites on Mt. Rainier, for example, show that warmer and drier summers are likely to cause earlier drawdown, a more rapid recession rate, and reduced water levels in summer. The results from the different case studies are also analyzed to identify robust predictors of the calendar date of drying of ephemeral wetlands, which can then be used to assess impacts over large geographic areas. These encouraging initial results will be extended in future work to assess the performance of these kinds of tools over different eco-regions in the Pacific Northwest using data

  6. Effects of Timber Harvest on Mercury Cycling in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckley, C.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Tate, M. T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Kowalski, B.; Woodruff, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest receives some of the highest rates of atmospheric mercury deposition in the USA (>14 μg/m2/year) which is largely driven by the large volume of precipitation this region receives. Forested landscapes have been shown to act as a net sink for atmospheric Hg inputs which has resulted in a legacy of mercury accumulated in the soil. Timber production and harvesting (typically via clearcutting) is a common land-use feature throughout the Pacific Northwest, accounting for roughly 25% of the total land area. Timber harvesting and associated activities (road construction and slash removal) have fundamental effects on watershed hydrology and biogeochemicial processes, and can also alter mercury cycling dynamics. The objective of our study was to understand how different forest harvest practices impact key components of the mercury cycle including: mobilization in runoff, methylation, volatilization, and downstream bioaccumulation. The study utilized a paired harvested and un-harvest sub-watershed experimental design. Flumes were located at the outflow of each of the 8 sub-watershed studied and were continuously monitored for flow volume and other water quality parameters. Water samples for filtered and particulate total and methylmercury (as well as several ancillary parameters) were measured approximately monthly for 1.5 years following harvest and represented the full range of hydrological conditions. Surface-air flux measurements were conducted seasonally using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach. The results showed increased fluxes of mercury in streams and to the atmosphere in response for forestry operations. The stream fluxes showed higher loads in the filtered phase than associated with particulates. Methylmercury concentrations remained low (<0.05 ng/L) in all of the headwater catchments studied. Overall, these results highlight the effects of forestry operations on several important aspects of mercury cycling in forested landscapes.

  7. Integrated assessment of conservation opportunities in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Lezberg, A.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and cost per kWh saved for implementing currently available energy conservation measures in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest. A computer model that simulates the energy consumption process of irrigation systems and estimates the levelized costs of undertaking conservation investments is the primary analytical tool used in this research. Using engineering and economic input parameters for the various conservation measures that could potentially be implemented in irrigated agriculture, the Irrigation Sector Energy Planning (ISEP) model generates estimates of energy savings and cost per kWh saved for the measures. All parameters input to the ISEP model are based upon empirical field data. Results provided by the ISEP model indicate tht by the year 2003 a total of approximately 158.6 average MW of energy could potentially be saved in the Pacific Northwest irrigation sector on all sprinkler-irrigated acres. Approximately 130.4 average MW can be saved on acres currently by sprinkler, while an additional 28.2 average MW could be saved on new acres that are forecast to come under irrigation in the next 20 years. The largest share of the total savings (47%) is estimated to come from the use of low-pressure irrigation. Over 60% of the total potential savings 158.6 average MW is estimated to be available for a cost per kWh saved of 20 mills or less and over 75% could be achieved for a cost of 30 mills or less. Savings from low-pressure irrigation and the redesign of fittings and mainlines will normally cost less than 20 mills per kWh saved. Almost all of the savings that are estimated to cost more than 30 mills per kWh saved to obtain are savings from improved irrigation scheduling on irrigated acres that use surface water and have low average pumping lifts.

  8. Investigation of Prescribed Fires Impacts on Air Quality in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, V.; Chung, S. H.; Vaughan, J. K.; Lamb, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from wildland and prescribed fires cause significant aerosol loading in the atmospheric environment. Using 2011 NEI-Fire emission inventory, we investigate the impacts of prescribed fire emissions on the air quality of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for a month long period in October-November 2011. This study utilizes the AIRAPCT-4 regional air quality forecasting system, which is based on the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ framework. We simulate three different emission scenarios - 1) emissions with prescribed fires, 2) emissions without prescribed fires and 3) a scenario where prescribed fire emissions are reduced by 60%. AIRPACT-4 results are examined for impacts of prescribed fire emissions on ambient levels of PM2.5 and Ozone for entire PNW. We also look at the contribution of prescribed fire emissions to ambient PM2.5 concentrations for selected non-attainment areas in the PNW. This work supports the analysis of using woody residue as a feedstock for an aviation biofuel supply chain through the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  11. Chapter K: Progress in the Evaluation of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete Construction in the Pacific Northwest, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shrimer, Fred H.

    2005-01-01

    users of the concrete aggregates mined from these deposits. This situation is complicated by the length of time typically required for AAR to become noticeable in concrete construction in the Pacific Northwest, commonly on such a scale that other deterioration mechanisms may have masked the effects of AAR. Distinguishing between the effects of AAR and those related to other problems in concrete is important for understanding the nature and severity of AAR throughout the Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, developing an understanding of the extent of the problem will assist efforts to maximize the intelligent and stewardly use of aggregate resources in the Pacific Northwest. This chapter illustrates the current 'state of the art' of AAR studies in the Pacific Northwest, a region with a common geologic heritage as well as many distinct geologic elements. The optimal use of aggregates in the construction of concrete structures that will achieve their design life is possible through an understanding of the engineering and geologic properties of these aggregates and of their geologic setting.

  12. Ocean-atmosphere forcing of centennial hydroclimatic variability in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinman, Byron A.; Abbott, Mark B.; Mann, Michael E.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Feng, Song; Pompeani, David P.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Finney, Bruce P.; Bird, Broxton W.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing centennial timescale hydroclimate variability during the late Holocene is critically important for understanding large-scale patterns of drought and their relationship with climate dynamics. We present sediment oxygen isotope records spanning the last two millennia from 10 lakes, as well as climate model simulations, indicating that the Little Ice Age was dry relative to the Medieval Climate Anomaly in much of the Pacific Northwest of North America. This pattern is consistent with observed associations between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Northern Annular Mode and drought as well as with proxy-based reconstructions of Pacific ocean-atmosphere variations over the past 1000 years. The large amplitude of centennial variability indicated by the lake data suggests that regional hydroclimate is characterized by longer-term shifts in ENSO-like dynamics, and that an improved understanding of the centennial timescale relationship between external forcing and drought conditions is necessary for projecting future hydroclimatic conditions in western North America.

  13. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; Black, Allison; Kaufman, John; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic rhaboviral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes acute disease in juvenile fish of a number of populations of Pacific salmonid species. Heavily managed in both marine and freshwater environments, these fish species are cultured during the juvenile stage in freshwater conservation hatcheries, where IHNV is one of the top three infectious diseases that cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a comprehensive study of viral genetic surveillance data representing 2590 field isolates collected between 1958 and 2014 was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of IHNV in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous United States. Prevalence of infection varied over time, fluctuating over a rough 5–7 year cycle. The genetic analysis revealed numerous subgroups of IHNV, each of which exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Within all subgroups, dominant genetic types were apparent, though the temporal patterns of emergence of these types varied among subgroups. Finally, the affinity or fidelity of subgroups to specific host species also varied, where UC subgroup viruses exhibited a more generalist profile and all other subgroups exhibited a specialist profile. These complex patterns are likely synergistically driven by numerous ecological, pathobiological, and anthropogenic factors. Since only a few anthropogenic factors are candidates for managed intervention aimed at improving the health of threatened or endangered salmonid fish populations, determining the relative impact of these factors is a high priority for future studies.

  14. Growth responses of subalpine fir to climatic variability in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Peterson, D.L.; Ettl, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    We studied regional variation in growth-limiting factors and responses to climatic variability in subalpine forests by analyzing growth patterns for 28 tree-ring growth chronologies from subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stands in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains (Washington and Oregon, U.S.A.). Factor analysis identified four distinct time series of common growth patterns; the dominant growth pattern at any site varied with annual precipitation and temperature (elevation). Throughout much of the region, growth is negatively correlated with winter precipitation and spring snowpack depth, indicating that growth is limited primarily by short growing seasons. On the driest and warmest sites, growth is negatively correlated with previous summer temperature, suggesting that low summer soil moisture limits growth. Growth patterns in two regions were sensitive to climatic variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, apparently responding to low-frequency variation in spring snowpack and summer soil moisture (one negatively, one positively). This regional-scale analysis shows that subalpine fir growth in the Cascades and Olympics is limited by different climatic factors in different subregional climates. Climatea??growth relationships are similar to those for a co-occurring species, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carri??re), suggesting broad biogeographic patterns of response to climatic variability and change by subalpine forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest.

  15. Climatic Data Integration and Analysis - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.; Sheneman, L.; Gollberg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA) is a five-year USDA/NIFA-funded coordinated agriculture project to examine the sustainability of cereal crop production systems in the Pacific Northwest, in relationship to ongoing climate change. As part of this effort, an extensive data management system has been developed to enable researchers, students, and the public, to upload, manage, and analyze various data. The REACCH PNA data management team has developed three core systems to encompass cyberinfrastructure and data management needs: 1) the reacchpna.org portal (https://www.reacchpna.org) is the entry point for all public and secure information, with secure access by REACCH PNA members for data analysis, uploading, and informational review; 2) the REACCH PNA Data Repository is a replicated, redundant database server environment that allows for file and database storage and access to all core data; and 3) the REACCH PNA Libraries which are functional groupings of data for REACCH PNA members and the public, based on their access level. These libraries are accessible thru our https://www.reacchpna.org portal. The developed system is structured in a virtual server environment (data, applications, web) that includes a geospatial database/geospatial web server for web mapping services (ArcGIS Server), use of ESRI's Geoportal Server for data discovery and metadata management (under the ISO 19115-2 standard), Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) for data cataloging, and Interactive Python notebook server (IPython) technology for data analysis. REACCH systems are housed and maintained by the Northwest Knowledge Network project (www.northwestknowledge.net), which provides data management services to support research. Initial project data harvesting and meta-tagging efforts have resulted in the interrogation and loading of over 10 terabytes of climate model output, regional entomological data

  16. Precipitation extremes and their relation to climatic indices in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarekarizi, Mahkameh; Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Recently research has focused on the influence of climate indices on precipitation extremes. In the current study, we present the analysis of the precipitation-based extremes in Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific North-West USA. We first analyzed the precipitation-based extreme indices using statistically downscaled past and future climate projections from ten GCMs. Seven different precipitation-based indices that help inform about the flood duration/intensity are used in the study. These indices would give firsthand information on spatial and temporal scales for different service sectors including energy, agriculture, forestry etc. in the area. Temporally, historical and future projections are analyzed over the whole CRB using ten CMIP5 models. For each scenario, we have mapped out these indices over the area to see the spatial variation of past and future extremes. The analysis shows that high values of extreme indices are clustered in either western or southern parts of the basin while northern part of the basin is experiencing high increase in the indices in future scenarios. Here we focus our attention on evaluating the relation of these extreme and climate indices in historical period to understand which climate indices have more impact on extremes over CRB. Various climate indices are evaluated for their relationship using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Results indicated that, out of fifteen climate indices used in the study, CRB is being most affected negatively by East Pacific (EP), Western Pacific Index (WP), Eastern Asia (EA) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  17. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  18. Chemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Origin of Cenozoic Pacific Northwest Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Hart, W. K.; Grove, T. L.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Barr, J. A.; Till, C. B.

    2009-12-01

    Though there is little debate about the connection of Cascade volcanism to subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate, the cause of extensive Neogene volcanism east of the Cascades is not as well understood. Volumetrically, the most significant component of this volcanism, the flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau and Steens Mountain, are dominated by lavas that have suffered extensive crystal fractionation in crustal magma chambers. The evolved, crustally contaminated, nature of most of these basalts makes identification of the primary magma difficult, confounding interpretation of the background cause of the volcanism. Some Steens lavas are relatively undifferentiated (Johnson et al., USGS Open File report 98-0482). These Steens basalts have compositions that are distinguished from younger primitive basalts on the High Lava Plains (HLP) by distinctly lower Al and higher FeO, Ti, Zr and Nb concentrations, but also Mg#s that are too low to be in equilibrium with mantle that has Fo90 olivine. If these are primary magmatic characteristics, they suggest either a more fertile, FeO-rich source, or lower, not higher, degrees of melting at greater depth during the flood basalt era as opposed to the much smaller-volume younger HLP volcanism. Experimental results on primitive Quaternary HLP and Newberry Volcano lavas suggest last equilibration at pressures corresponding to just below the Moho (30-40 km) with water contents that range from substantial (up to 4 wt %) at Newberry to low (<0.3 wt %) at the eastern-most HLP activity at the Jordan Valley volcanic center. The high water contents, high Ba/Nb and other features of Newberry lavas suggest that this volcano is a Cascades volcano, not the western terminus of an HLP hot-spot. All the young HLP lavas, however, have at least somewhat elevated Ba/Nb and Pb isotopic compositions approaching those of Pacific Northwest oceanic sediments suggesting a subduction overprint on most of the young HLP magmatism. In contrast to the small

  19. Compensation of Cretaceous Seamounts of the Darwin Rise, northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Cecily J.; McNutt, Marcia K.

    1991-02-01

    We estimate the elastic thickness Te for the Pacific plate at the time of volcanism for approximately 60 guyots of Cretaceous age in the Japanese, Wake, and Mid-Pacific Mountain seamount groups of the northwest Pacific. The values of Te are constrained by comparing synthetic gravity and deflection of the vertical computed from digital bathymetry assuming regional compensation models to potential field data derived from Seasat radar altimetry. The amplitude of the gridded Seasat gravity field over the seamounts is consistent with Te values between 5 and 15 km, but these values represent only lower bounds since the 100-km spacing of satellite tracks may undersample the gravity for seamounts lying between adjacent passes. Direct modeling of the deflection of the vertical along individual satellite tracks avoids this distribution bias but can lead to errors if the bathymetric feature is mislocated with respect to the satellite coordinate system. Nevertheless, for no seamount does the root-mean-square (RMS) difference between observed and predicted deflection of the vertical show a distinct minimum for elastic plate thickness greater than 15 km. However, for some features the RMS minimum is unconstrained, allowing Te greater than 15 km. Given the possible bias in the modeling of satellite data, the low values for elastic plate thickness were confirmed for the Japanese and Wake group using shipborne gravity data and multibeam bathymetry collected during the Roundabout leg 10 expedition, supplemented with published Navy sonar array sounding system (SASS) bathymetry. The analysis of shipborne data constrains most elastic plate thickness values to between 10 and 15 km for crustal densities between 2600 and 2800 kg/m3. The low values for elastic plate thickness for these Cretaceous guyots that formed in the area of the "Darwin Rise" suggest either that they formed on lithosphere less than 40 m.y. old or that older lithosphere was reheated near the time of volcanism. While

  20. Cretaceous guyots in the northwest Pacific: An overview of their geology and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterer, Edward L.; Natland, James H.; Van Waasbergen, Robert J.; Duncan, Robert A.; McNutt, Marcia K.; Wolfe, Cecily J.; Silva, Isabella Premoli; Sager, William W.; Sliter, William V.

    Many Early Cretaceous seamounts in the northwest Pacific have summits that were once above sea level, where they were flattened by stream and wave erosion and then capped by rudist reefs. Subsidence during Barremianearly Aptian times allowed reefs in the Mid-Pacific Mountains (MPM) and on scattered seamounts farther west to evolve into atolls, with thicknesses of as much as 800 m of limestone. Available paleontological data suggest that these reefs drowned in early Aptian time and continued subsiding. The Japanese seamounts (JPS), which were emplaced in Albian times, have much thinner capping reefs (100-200 m) and evolved only to the barrier reef stage. During the latest Albian, a time of a major plate reorganization in the Pacific, and roughly coincident with the beginning of volcanism at the northernmost (Wake seamounts, WKS) end of the Marshall seamount chains, all the MPM and JPS reefs were uplifted, became emergent, and developed karstic topography. The WKS, although eroded nearly flat at sea level, did not develop reefs. MPM and JPS reefs drowned and were accumulating pelagic sediments by Turonian time. Whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating ages range from Barremian-Aptian (123-128 Ma) for edifice building in the MPM and at MIT Guyot, Albian (109-103 Ma) for the JPS, and Late Albian-Campanian (100-82 Ma) in the WKS. Some Barremian-Aptian seamounts may be overprinted by mid-Cretaceous volcanism. Petrologically, MPM volcanic rocks resemble near-rise-crest tholeiites such as those in the Galapagos Islands, while JPS and WKS have strong affinities to modern Samoan alkalic basalts and to volcanic rocks in French Polynesia with SOPITA signatures. Modeling of seamount magnetism yields paleolatitudes of formation of about 2°S-10°S for JPS and WKS, in agreement with previous estimates of the polar wander path of the Pacific plate, but at positions slightly north of the main region of the modern Superswell region of abnormally thin elastic plate thickness of the

  1. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowton, T.; Hughes, P. D.; Gibbard, P. L.

    2009-07-01

    Detailed geomorphological mapping provides evidence for at least three phases of glaciation in the Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, in northwest Spain. The most extensive glaciation was characterised by a large plateau ice cap. A combination of geomorphological evidence and glacier modelling indicates that this ice cap covered an area of more than 440 km 2, with a maximum ice thickness of c. 300 m and outlet glaciers reaching as low as 1000 m. This represents the largest ice mass in Iberia outside the Pyrenees and one of the largest in the mountains of southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Radiocarbon dates from the base of lacustrine sequences appear to suggest that the most extensive phase of ice-cap glaciation occurred during the last cold stage (Weichselian) with deglaciation occurring before 14-15 ka 14C BP. A second phase of glaciation is recorded by the moraines of valley glaciers, which may have drained small plateau ice caps; whilst a final phase of glaciation is recorded by moraines in the highest cirques.

  2. Roles of plate locking and block rotation in the tectonics of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zuoli

    The Pacific Northwest has potential for huge megathrust earthquakes. The influence of plate locking in the Cascadia subduction zone dominates crustal deformation off the shores of Washington and Oregon, but does not much affect areas far from the trench. The maximum principal strain rate epsilon 1 is -0.013 +/- 0.007 mustrain/yr in the Olympic Peninsula, 0.007 +/- 0.005 mustrain/yr in the Puget Sound, -0.005 +/- 0.005 mustrain/yr at Mt. Rainier, -0.004 +/- 0.005 mustrain/yr along the northern Oregon coast, and 0.011 +/- 0.006 mustrain/yr in central Oregon. The minimum principal strain rate epsilon2 is -0.083 +/- 0.008 mustrain/yr N56°E in the Olympic Peninsula, -0.034 +/- 0.007 mustrain/yr N63°E in the Puget Sound, -0.020 +/- 0.006 mustrain/yr N53°E at Mt. Rainier, -0.051 +/- 0.014 mustrain/yr N85°E along the northern Oregon coast, and -0.010 +/- 0.006 mustrain/yr N71°E in central Oregon. A new model of plate locking on the Cascadia subduction zone is similar to a model (1997). The uncertainty of the widths of the locked and transition zone in the model is about 25km--40km. Guided by computed site velocities, seismicity patterns, heat flow, volcanic data, and geological structures, we find it is necessary to divide the crust in the Pacific Northwest into separate moving blocks. We have analyzed a model in which the Oregon block is separated from the Washington block at latitude 46°. The Washington block has been further divided into 5-subblocks, three in the forearc and two in eastern Washington. We remove contributions of JDF plate locking from the site velocity field and determine a rotation pole and a strain rate for each sub-block. We conclude that Juan de Fuca plate locking has little direct effect on crustal earthquake occurrence in the Pacific Northwest (except for periodic megathrust earthquakes). In the Oregon block, plate locking and rigid block rotation are sufficient to explain GPS observations and the lower rate of seismicity in Oregon. The

  3. Hidden diversity and phylogeographic history provide conservation insights for the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme in the Northwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zi-Min; Li, Jing-Jing; Sun, Zhong-Min; Gao, Xu; Yao, Jian-Ting; Choi, Han-Gil; Endo, Hikaru; Duan, De-Lin

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the evolutionary processes that have created diversity and the genetic potential of species to adapt to environmental change is an important premise for biodiversity conservation. Herein, we used mitochondrial trnW-L and cox3 and plastid rbcL-S data sets to analyze population genetic variation and phylogeographic history of the brown alga Sargassum fusiforme, whose natural resource has been largely exterminated in the Asia-Northwest Pacific in the past decades. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis consistently revealed three major haplotype groups (A, B, and C) in S. fusiforme, with A and B distributed in the Japan-Pacific coast. Group C consisted of three subgroups (C1, C2, and C3) which were distributed in the Sea of Japan, the Yellow-Bohai Sea, and East China Sea, respectively. Isolation-with-migration (IM a) analysis revealed that the three groups diverged approximately during the mid-Pleistocene (c. 756-1,224 ka). Extended Bayesian skyline plots (EBSP) showed that groups A and B underwent relatively long-term stable population size despite a subsequent rapid demographic expansion, while subgroups C2 and C3 underwent a sudden expansion at c. 260 ka. FST and AMOVA detected low population-level genetic variation and high degrees of divergence between groups. The cryptic diversity and phylogeographic patterns found in S. fusiforme not only are essential to understand how environmental shifts and evolutionary processes shaped diversity and distribution of coastal seaweeds but also provide additional insights for conserving and managing seaweed resources and facilitate predictions of their responses to future climate change and habitat loss.

  4. Exploring Pacific Northwest ecosystem resilience: packaging climate change science for federal managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to jeopardize ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. Managing ecosystems for future resilience requires collaboration, innovation and communication. The abundance of data and documents describing the uncertainty around both climate change projections and impacts has become challenging to managers who have little funding and limited time to digest and incorporate these materials into planning and implementation documents. We worked with US Forest Service and BLM managers to help them develop vulnerability assessments and identify on-the-ground strategies to address climate change challenges on the federal lands in northwest Oregon (Siuslaw, Willamette and Mt. Hood National Forests; Eugene and Salem BLM Districts). We held workshops to promote dialogue about climate change, which were particularly effective in fostering discussions between the managers who often do not have the time to share their knowledge and compare experiences across administrative boundaries. We used the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) framework to identify measurable management objectives and rapidly assess local vulnerabilities. We used databasin.org to centralize usable information, including state-of-the-art CMIP5 climate projections, for the mandated assessments of vulnerability and resilience. We introduced participants to a decision support framework providing opportunities to develop more effective adaptation strategies. We built a special web page to hold the information gathered at the workshops and provide easy access to climate change information. We are now working with several Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) to design gateways - conservation atlases - to their relevant data repositories on databasin.org and working with them to develop web tools that can provide usable information for their own vulnerability assessments.

  5. Cryptococcus gattii in North American Pacific Northwest: whole-population genome analysis provides insights into species evolution and dispersal.

    PubMed

    Engelthaler, David M; Hicks, Nathan D; Gillece, John D; Roe, Chandler C; Schupp, James M; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Gilgado, Felix; Carriconde, Fabian; Trilles, Luciana; Firacative, Carolina; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Lazera, Marcia dos Santos; Melhem, Marcia S C; Pérez-Bercoff, Asa; Huttley, Gavin; Sorrell, Tania C; Voelz, Kerstin; May, Robin C; Fisher, Matthew C; Thompson, George R; Lockhart, Shawn R; Keim, Paul; Meyer, Wieland

    2014-07-15

    The emergence of distinct populations of Cryptococcus gattii in the temperate North American Pacific Northwest (PNW) was surprising, as this species was previously thought to be confined to tropical and semitropical regions. Beyond a new habitat niche, the dominant emergent population displayed increased virulence and caused primary pulmonary disease, as opposed to the predominantly neurologic disease seen previously elsewhere. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 118 C. gattii isolates, including the PNW subtypes and the global diversity of molecular type VGII, to better ascertain the natural source and genomic adaptations leading to the emergence of infection in the PNW. Overall, the VGII population was highly diverse, demonstrating large numbers of mutational and recombinational events; however, the three dominant subtypes from the PNW were of low diversity and were completely clonal. Although strains of VGII were found on at least five continents, all genetic subpopulations were represented or were most closely related to strains from South America. The phylogenetic data are consistent with multiple dispersal events from South America to North America and elsewhere. Numerous gene content differences were identified between the emergent clones and other VGII lineages, including genes potentially related to habitat adaptation, virulence, and pathology. Evidence was also found for possible gene introgression from Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii that is rarely seen in global C. gattii but that was present in all PNW populations. These findings provide greater understanding of C. gattii evolution in North America and support extensive evolution in, and dispersal from, South America. Importance: Cryptococcus gattii emerged in the temperate North American Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. Beyond a new environmental niche, these emergent populations displayed increased virulence and resulted in a different pattern of clinical disease. In particular

  6. What`s at stake in the Pacific Northwest salmon debate? Jobs, hydropower, agriculture, fish harvests...species survival

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, A.M.

    1995-03-01

    This article highlights the debate about the pacific salmon in the Pacific Northwest. The population levels of all salmonid species are down precipitously, with some listed as endangered, but no one has come up with a salmon restoration plan that is perceived to be both effective and painless to all the human parties with a vested interest. The Salmon issue touches everyone in the region directly or indirectly. Discussed are the following general topics: devising a plan for the salmon and the politics of planning and the problem of how the four fundamental areas, hydropower, habitat, hatcheries, and harvest, need to be prioritized.

  7. Understanding atmospheric and landscape level drivers of peak flow variability in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safeeq, M.; Grant, G.; Lewis, S.; Staab, B. P.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in timing and magnitude of streamflows under climate change pose significant risks to ecosystems, infrastructure, and overall availability of water for human use. Previously, we have successfully developed a spatial analysis that predicts how low flows are likely to change in the future over the Pacific Northwest. Potential changes in peak flows pose a very different set of risks and concerns to land managers, but this subject has received little attention despite potentially greater economic and environmental loss. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is potentially quite vulnerable to changes in peak flow regimes due to a warming climate. In the PNW snowpacks are considered 'warm' by climatological standards, meaning that snow typically falls and snowpacks ripen near the 0 degree C freezing point, so that a change of a few degrees can mean the difference between snow and rain, or between snow accumulation and rapid melt. Nearly 40% of the region is classified as in the transitional snow zone (TSZ), where the precipitation regime shifts between snow and rain depending on temperature. As a consequence of warming, hence changes in snowpack accumulation and melt, winter streamflows are likely to change in the future. The direction and magnitude of these changes are much less certain, however, and can be expected to vary dramatically across the landscape depending on sensitivity of precipitation regime to temperature. For example, in higher elevation watersheds, there may be increased risk for heavy winter rains or rain-on-snow events, both of which are major factors contributing to floods. In other areas, decreased winter snowpacks due to a greater proportion of winter rain may actually decrease the probability of rain-on-snow flooding. In this study we develop a set of spatial tools by combining the estimates of peak flows for a range of recurrence intervals, including 2, 5, 10, and 25 years with climate, hydro-morphologic, and land cover variables. Selected

  8. Seismic Monitoring with NetQuakes: The First 75 in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.; Luetgert, J. H.; Malone, S. D.; Delorey, A. A.; Steele, W. P.; Gibbons, D. A.; Walsh, L. K.

    2011-12-01

    NetQuakes accelerographs are relatively inexpensive Internet-aware appliances that we are using as part of our regional seismic monitoring program in the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). To date we have deployed approximately 65 units. By the end of 2011, we will have at least 75 systems sited and operating. The instruments are made by Swiss manufacturer GeoSig, Ltd., and have been obtained by PNSN through several cooperative programs with the US Geological Survey (USGS). The NetQuakes systems have increased the number of strong-motion stations in the Pacific Northwest by ~50%. NetQuakes instruments connect to the Internet via wired or wireless telemetry, obtain accurate timing vie Network Time Protocol, and are designed to be located in the ground floor of houses or small buildings. At PNSN we have concentrated on finding NetQuakes hosts by having technologically savvy homeowners self-identify as a response to news reports about the NetQuakes project. Potential hosts are prioritized by their proximity to target sites provided by a regional panel of experts who studied the region's strong-ground-motion monitoring needs. Recorded waveforms, triggered by strong motion or retrieved from a buffer of continuous data, are transmitted to Menlo Park, and then on to PNSN in Seattle. Data are available with latency of a few minutes to a little over an hour, and are automatically incorporated with the rest of PNSN network data for analysis and the generation of earthquake products. Triggered data may also be viewed by the public via the USGS website, [http://earthquake.usgs.gov/monitoring/netquakes/map/pacnw]. We present examples of ground motion recordings returned to date. Local earthquakes up to M4 (at a distance of ~60 km) reveal interesting patterns of local site effects. The 11 March M9 Tohoku, Japan earthquake produced ground motions recorded on the PNSN accelerographs, including many NetQuakes systems, that reveal the extent and severity of basin

  9. Using dendrometer and dendroclimatology data to predict the growth response of Douglas-fir to climate change in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered seasonal climate patterns towards hotter, drier summers through the 21st century resulting from global climate change could affect the growth of coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. The seasonal effects of temperature, precipitation,...

  10. Assessment of a model of forest dynamics under contrasting climate and disturbance regimes in the Pacific Northwest [FORCLIM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, Richard T.; Solomon, Allen M.

    2005-01-01

    An individual-based model of forest dynamics (FORCLIM) was tested for its ability to simulate forest composition and structure in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Simulation results across gradients of climate and disturbance were compared to forest survey data from several vegetation zones in western Oregon. Modelled patterns of tree species composition, total basal area and stand height across climate gradients matched those in the forest survey data. However, the density of small stems (<50 cm DBH) was underestimated by the model. Thus actual size-class structure and other density-based parameters of stand structure were not simulated with high accuracy. The addition of partial-stand disturbances at moderate frequencies (<0.01 yr-1) often improved agreement between simulated and actual results. Strengths and weaknesses of the FORCLIM model in simulating forest dynamics and structure in the Pacific Northwest are discussed.

  11. Constraints on the causes of mid-Miocene volcanism in the Pacific Northwest US from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson-Hedgecock, Sara; Wagner, Lara S.; Fouch, Matthew J.; James, David E.

    2012-03-01

    We use data from the 118-station High Lava Plains (HLP) seismic experiment together with other regional broadband seismic data to image the 3D shear wave velocity structure in the Pacific Northwest using ambient noise tomography. This extensive data set allows us to resolve fine-scale crustal structures throughout the HLP area in greater detail than previous studies. Our results show 1) a high velocity cylinder in the crust and average velocities in the upper mantle beneath the Owyhee Plateau; 2) a mid-crustal high velocity anomaly along the Snake River Plain that also extends south into Nevada and Utah; 3) a low velocity anomaly directly beneath Yellowstone throughout the crust; and 4) low velocities beneath the HLP both in the crust and uppermost mantle, possibly indicating very thin or absent mantle lithosphere in the area. These features provide important constraints on possible models for Miocene to recent volcanism in the Pacific Northwest.

  12. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.; Hartley, J.N.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2, Environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. For several years, studies of transport and diffusion have been extended to mesoscale areas of complex terrain. Atmospheric cleansing research has expanded to a regional scale, multilaboratory investigation of precipitation scavenging processes involving the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, the redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. A few long-range tracer experiments conducted in recent years and the special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity following the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986 offer important initial data bases for studying atmospheric processes at these super-regional scales.

  16. Virulence and Molecular Analyses Support Asexual Reproduction of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P; Chen, X M

    2014-11-01

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, occurs every year and causes significant yield losses in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). A large number of P. striiformis f. tritici races are identified every year and predominant races have changed rapidly. Barberry and mahonia plants, which have been identified under controlled conditions as alternate hosts for the fungus, are found in the region. However, whether sexual reproduction occurs in the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici population under natural conditions is not clear. To determine the reproduction mode of the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici population using virulence and molecular markers, a systematic collection of leaf samples with a single stripe of uredia was made in 26 fields in the PNW in 2010. In total, 270 isolates obtained from the PNW collection, together with 66 isolates from 20 other states collected in the same year, were characterized by virulence tests and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 21 races and 66 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were detected, of which 15 races and 32 MLGs were found in the PNW. Cluster analysis with the SSR marker data revealed two genetic groups, which were significantly correlated to the two virulence groups. The analyses of genotype/individual ratio, multilocus linkage disequilibrium, and heterozygosity strongly supported asexual reproduction for the pathogen population in the PNW, as well as other regions of the United States.

  17. Real-time GPS positioning of the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabak, I.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.; Melbourne, T. I.

    2009-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) is now comprised of nearly 130 continuously operating GPS receivers located throughout the Cascadia subduction zone. The stations straddle active crustal faults, volcanoes and landslides, they span the megathrust forearc and tsunamigenic regions along the Pacific coast, and they monitor ageing man-made structures such as dams, levees and elevated freeways. All data are streamed in real-time into CWU where they are processed in real-time into station position and tropospheric water content within a reference frame defined in central Washington. To disseminate these streams, we currently provide 16 station position streams via an interface to Google Maps to present geographically the three component real-time plots in 5 min, 1 hour, and 24 hour time periods. The user's web browser makes repeated requests at a refresh rate of 5 seconds and after the initial request it only requests new data points from the web server. The 5 min real-time plot is updated every second. The web server provides the data streams in a compact JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) form and data plotting is handled by the user's web browser. The data streams are parsed into JavaScript arrays and plotted using the new HTML5 "canvas" element. This approach produces faster response times for the data streams, and by reducing the load on the web server, allows distribution to large numbers of users. Data are also available via a dedicated Ntrip/TCP-IP socket interface. These real-time data are now being used to monitor geodetic displacements caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides; current efforts to develop real-time finite fault inversions and automated alarm systems will be discussed.

  18. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Constance A; Gould, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2-5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier.

  19. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Constance A.; Gould, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2–5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier. PMID

  20. Assessment of unabated facility emission potentials for evaluating airborne radionuclide monitoring requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Sula, M.J.

    1995-11-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for 31 emission locations at the US DOE`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the Hanford Site. Four buildings met Sate and Federal critical for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1995.

  1. Biology of amphibians and reptiles in old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Blaustein, A.R.; Beatty, J.J.; Olson, D.H.; Storm, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    The amphibian and reptile fauna of older forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest includes several endemic species, species with unique behavioral and ecological characteristics, and species whose populations have been in decline in recent years. The authors review the biology of these species and include information on their distinguishing characteristics, behavior, and ecology. Herpetofaunal associations with forest characteristic and the impact of habitat loss are addressed.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Toburen, L.H.

    1988-06-01

    This 1987 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1987. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section.

  3. Occurrence of Sustained Droughts in the Interior Pacific Northwest (A.D. 1733 1980) Inferred from Tree-Ring Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Soulé, Peter T.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of moderate and severe sustained droughts in the interior Pacific Northwest (PNW) from 1733 to 1980 was mapped using 18 western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook.) tree-ring chronologies. The frequency and duration of both moderate and severe sustained droughts are substantially greater in the northwest region of the interior PNW. Thus, this area is identified as a drought core region. These droughts are chiefly attributed to the presence of a Pacific blocking high off the NW coast that is associated with significant reductions in cool season precipitation. Specifically, the impacted northwest region lies within a transition zone between the fluxes of marine airflow during the cool season months and interior air during the warm season months. The waxing and waning of the boundaries of this transition zone particularly affect western juniper trees growing in this region. During years in which a blocking high is present, marine airflow is substantially reduced, exposing the trees in the transition zone to substantially drier springtime conditions that limit soil moisture and reduce radial growth. Although the most severe and persistent droughts were concentrated in the northwest region, four large-scale droughts also impacted the entire interior PNW during the study period. These droughts occurred principally during PDO warm phases, suggesting a regional-scale linkage to this climatic oscillation.

  4. Mass-Balance Fluctuations of Glaciers in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, E. G.; Bidlake, W. R.; March, R. S.; Kennedy, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    The mass balance of mid-latitude glaciers of the Pacific Northwest and southern Alaska fluctuates in response to changes in the regional and global atmospheric climate. More than 40 years of net and seasonal mass balance records by the U.S. Geological Survey for South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, show annual and inter-annual fluctuations that reflect the controlling climatic conditions. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the Northeast Pacific Ocean, and the winter balances are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Gulkana Glacier is more isolated from maritime influences and the net balance variation is more closely linked to the summer balance. By the late 1970's, mass-balance records for the three were long enough to reflect the 1976-77 shift in PDO from negative to positive. Both maritime glaciers responded, with net balance of South Cascade Glacier becoming consistently negative and that of Wolverine Glacier becoming predominantly positive. The overall trend of negative mass balance continued through 2004 for South Cascade Glacier, where the 1977 to 2004 cumulative net balance was about -22 meters water equivalent (mweq). After a gain of about 7 mweq, the trend of positive net balance for Wolverine Glacier ended in 1989. Beginning in 1989, the net balance trend for Wolverine Glacier became predominantly negative and the cumulative net balance for 1989 to 2004 was about -14 mweq. Net balance of Gulkana Glacier did not respond appreciably to the 1976-77 PDO shift. The cumulative net balance for Gulkana Glacier from the beginning of the record (1966) through 1988 was about -3 mweq. The major change in trend of mass balance occurred in 1989, when net balance became almost exclusively negative. The cumulative net balance during 1989 through 2004 was about 13 mweq. As a result trends in net balance had become strongly negative for more

  5. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    SciTech Connect

    Applied Management & Planning Group; United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  6. Radiological risk guidelines for nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.E.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Radiological risk evaluation guidelines for the public and workers have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) based upon the Nuclear Safety Policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established in Secretary of Energy Notice SEN-35-91. The DOE nuclear safety policy states that the general public shall be protected such that no individual bears significant additional risk to health and safety from the operation of a DOE nuclear facility above the risks to which members of the general population are normally exposed. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines developed at PNL are unique in that they are (1) based upon quantitative risk goals and (2) provide a consistent level of risk management. These guidelines are used to evaluate the risk from radiological accidents that may occur during research and development activities at PNL, and are not intended for evaluation of routine exposures. A safety analyst uses the,frequency of the potential accident and the radiological dose to a given receptor to determine if the accident consequences meet the objectives of the Nuclear Safety Policy. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines are an effective tool for assisting in the management of risk at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. These guidelines (1) meet the nuclear safety policy of DOE, (2) establish a tool for managing risk at a consistent level within the defined constraints, and (3) set risk at an appropriate level, as compared with other risks encountered by the public and worker. Table S.1 summarizes the guidelines developed in this report.

  7. Factors influencing consumption of farmed seafood products in the Pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Hall, Troy E; Amberg, Shannon M

    2013-07-01

    This study used a mail survey (n=1159 usable surveys) of Pacific northwest (US) residents to understand general seafood preferences (familiarity, price, freshness, health and environmental concerns), beliefs and attitudes specific to aquaculture versus wild products, and how those cognitive factors affect decisions to consume types of farmed seafood products. Respondents strongly agreed that seafood is healthy, and they preferred wild over farmed products. Many respondents were uncertain about human health and environmental benefits and problems associated with aquaculture. While there was agreement that aquaculture reduces pressure on wild fish, there was equally strong agreement that it has the same problems as other agricultural practices. Belief in the superiority of wild seafood was a strong predictor of consumption choices. Belief in the benefits of aquaculture was positively related to higher consumption of farmed products, but--unexpectedly--beliefs related to environmental and health problems associated with aquaculture did not predict specific consumption choices. Nearly half of respondents recalled hearing or reading about aquaculture in the mass media, and recall of negative stories contributed to a general preference for wild products, but not consumption of specific types of farmed products. Consumption of the different classes of products had some different predictors, and communication efforts directed at different beliefs may have different impacts on consumer behavior.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. F.; Kreml, S. A.; Wildung, R. E.; Hefty, M. G.; Perez, D. A.; Chase, K. K.; Elderkin, C. E.; Owczarski, E. L.; Toburen, L. H.; Parnell, K. A.; Faust, L. G.; Moraski, R. V.; Selby, J. M.; Hilliard, D. K.; Tenforde, T. S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in the environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environment Research in FY 1990. Research is directed toward developing the knowledge needed to guide government policy and technology development for two important environmental problems: environmental restoration and global change. The report is organized by major research areas contributing to resolution of these problems. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The PNL research program continues make contributions toward defining and quantifying processes that effect the environment at the local, regional, and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. University liaisons continue to be expanded to strengthen the research and to use PNL resources to train the scientists needed to address long-term environmental problems.

  9. Hindcasts of potential harmful algal bloom transport pathways on the Pacific Northwest coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, S. N.; MacCready, P.; Hickey, B. M.; Banas, N. S.; Davis, K. A.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Trainer, V. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Pelland, N. A.; Connolly, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a significant threat to human and marine organism health, and negatively impact coastal economies around the world. An improved understanding of HAB formation and transport is required to improve forecasting skill. A realistic numerical simulation of the US Pacific Northwest region is used to investigate transport pathways from known HAB formation hot spots, specifically for Pseudo-nitzschia (Pn), to the coast. We show that transport pathways are seasonal, with transport to the Washington (WA) coast from a northern source (the Juan de Fuca Eddy) during the summer/fall upwelling season and from a southern source (Heceta Bank) during the winter/early spring due to the predominant wind-driven currents. Interannual variability in transport from the northern source is related to the degree of wind intermittency with more transport during years with more frequent relaxation/downwelling events. The Columbia River plume acts to mitigate transport to the coast as the plume front blocks onshore transport. The plume's influence on alongshore transport is variable although critical in aiding transport from the southern source to the WA coast via plume entrainment. Overall transport from our simulations captures most observed Pn HAB beach events from 2004 to 2007 (characterized by Pseudo-nitzschia cell abundance); however, numerous false positives occur. We show that incorporating phytoplankton biomass results from a coupled biogeochemical model reduces the number of false positives significantly and thus improves our Pn HAB predictions.

  10. Assessing stream temperature variations in the Pacific Northwest using airborne thermal infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important indicator of water quality, and a significant concern for endangered cold-water fish species in the Pacific Northwest. Thermal-infrared (TIR) remote sensing allows for the observation of water temperatures in entire river systems in a relatively short space of time, as opposed to more traditional point-based in situ observing methods that can capture only localized water conditions. Point measurements can therefore miss important spatial patterns associated with various factors including exposure to solar radiation, urbanization, changes to riparian zone vegetation, and the presence of groundwater returns and springs. In this paper, we analyze moderate resolution TIR imagery collected from an airborne platform for the Green River in Washington State. Five-meter MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) imagery along the main channel of the Green River was acquired in multiple straight line passes with image overlaps occurring at time intervals of between 3 and 30 minutes on August 25 and 27, 2001. Overlaps of two adjacent images provide a detailed comparison of how stream temperature changes over relatively short time scales, while image captured from different days help identify persistent localized temperature differences. Trees and shrubs in the riparian zone increases shading of the stream and reduces along-stream increases in temperature compared to stream reaches with reduced shading, such as urban areas. Longitudinal profiles of stream temperature from upstream to downstream show that other factors, such as sandbars and cold-water seeps, also contribute to along-stream temperature variations.

  11. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 : Book 2 : Item-by-item Crosstabulations.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group

    1993-08-01

    This book constitutes a portion of the primary documentation for the 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey, Phase I. The complete 33-volume set of primary documentation provides information needed by energy analysts and interpreters with respect to planning, execution, data collection, and data management of the PNWRES92-I process. Thirty of these volumes are devoted to different ``views`` of the data themselves, with each view having a special purpose or interest as its focus. Analyses and interpretations of these data will be the subjects of forthcoming publications. Conducted during the late summer and fall months of 1992, PNWRES92-I had the over-arching goal of satisfying basic requirements for a variety of information about the stock of residential units in Bonneville`s service region. Surveys with a similar goal were conducted in 1979 and 1983. This volume discerns the information by region. ``Selected crosstabulations`` refers to a set of nine survey items of wide interest (Dwelling Type, Ownership Type, Year-of-Construction, Dwelling Size, Primary Space-Heating Fuel, Primary Water-Heating Fuel, Household Income for 1991, Utility Type, and Space-Heating Fuels: Systems and Equipment) that were crosstabulated among themselves.

  12. Modeling Pacific Northwest carbon and water cycling using CARAIB Dynamic Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, M.; Kim, J. B.; Still, C. J.; Francois, L. M.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    While uncertainties remain regarding projected temperature and precipitation changes, climate warming is already affecting ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Decrease in ecosystem productivity as well as increase in mortality of some plant species induced by drought and disturbance have been reported. Here, we applied the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB to PNW to simulate the response of water and carbon cycling to current and future climate change projections. The vegetation model has already been successfully applied to Europe to simulate plant physiological response to climate change. We calibrated CARAIB to PNW using global Plant Functional Types. For calibration, the model is driven with the gridded surface meteorological dataset UIdaho MACA METDATA with 1/24-degree (~4-km) resolution at a daily time step for the period 1979-2014. The model ability to reproduce the current spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks and fluxes was evaluated using a variety of available datasets, including eddy covariance and satellite observations. We focused particularly on past severe drought and fire episodes. Then, we simulated future conditions using the UIdaho MACAv2-METDATA dataset, which includes downscaled CMIP5 projections from 28 GCMs for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We evaluated the future ecosystem carbon balance resulting from changes in drought frequency as well as in fire risk. We also simulated future productivity and drought-induced mortality of several key PNW tree species.

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 evaluation of Integrated Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program (IAP) is the primary system to assess and monitor overall performance and to drive continuous improvement in the Laboratory. The approach used is a significant departure from the Laboratory`s traditional reliance on auditing methods. It is a move toward the contemporary concepts of measuring organizational performance by encouraging scientific, operational, and business excellence, through self-assessment and strengthening line management accountability for results in product and service quality, safety, and cost. This report describes the approach used (methods and processes), the deployment of that approach in the six Laboratory organizations selected to pilot the approach, and a summary of how the pilot organizations used the results they obtained. Section 3.0 of this report summarizes the top strengths and weaknesses in performance as identified by Division/Directorate self-assessments, Independent Oversight, Internal Audit and peer reviews, and includes the actions that have been, or will be taken, to improve performance in areas that are weak.

  14. Coastal foredune evolution: the relative influence of vegetation and sand supply in the US Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Ruggiero, Peter; Seabloom, Eric W; Hacker, Sally D

    2015-05-06

    Biophysical feedbacks between vegetation and sediment are important for forming and modifying landscape features and their ecosystem services. These feedbacks are especially important where landscape features differ in their provision of ecosystem services. For example, the shape of coastal foredunes, a product of both physical and biological forces, determines their ability to protect communities from rising seas and changing patterns of storminess. Here we assessed how sand supply and changes in vegetation over interannual (3 year) and decadal (21 year) scales influenced foredune shape along 100 km of coastline in the US Pacific Northwest. Across 21 years, vegetation switched from one congeneric non-native beachgrass to another (Ammophila arenaria to A. breviligulata) while sand supply rates were positive. At interannual timescales, sand supply rates explained the majority of change in foredune height (64-69%) and width (56-80%). However, at decadal scales, change in vegetation explained the majority of the change in foredune width (62-68%), whereas sand supply rates explained most of the change in foredune height (88-90%). In areas with lower shoreline change rates (±2 m yr(-1)), the change in vegetation explained the majority of decadal changes in foredune width (56-57%) and height (59-76%). Foredune shape directly impacts coastal protection, thus our findings are pertinent to coastal management given pressures of development and climate change.

  15. Occurrence and diversity of mesophilic Shewanella strains isolated from the North-West Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Sawabe, Tomoo; Zhukova, Natalia V; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Hayashi, Karin; Frolova, Galina M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Pavel, Konstantin G; Mikhailov, Valery V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2003-06-01

    Although bacteria of the genus Shewanella belong to one of the readily cultivable groups of "Gammaproteobacteria", little is known about the occurrence and abundance of these microorganisms in the marine ecosystem. Studies revealed that of 654 isolates obtained from marine invertebrates (ophiuroid Amphiopholis kochii, sipuncula Phascolosoma japonicum, and holothurian Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria japonica), seawater and sediments of the North-West Pacific Ocean (i.e. the Sea of Japan and Iturup Is, Kurile Islands), 10.7% belonged to the genus Shewanella. The proportion of viable Shewanella species varied from 4% to 20% depending on the source of isolation. From the isolation study, representative strains of different phenotypes (from seventy presumptive Shewanella strains) were selected for detailed characterization using phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic testing. 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis confirmed the results of tentative identification and placed the majority of these strains within only a few species of the genus Shewanella with 98-99% of 16S rDNA sequences identity mainly with S. japonica and S. colwelliana, suggesting that the strains studied might belong to these species. Numerically dominant strains of S. japonica were metabolically active and produced proteinases (gelatinases, caseinases), lipases, amylases, agarases, and alginases. Shewanella strains studied demonstrated weak antimicrobial and antifungal activities that might be an indication of their passive role in the colonization on living and non-living surfaces.

  16. Comparison of electrofishing techniques to detect larval lampreys in wadeable streams in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Chelgren, Nathan D.; Heck, Michael P.; Clark, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the probability of detecting larval lampreys using different methods of backpack electrofishing in wadeable streams in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Our primary objective was to compare capture of lampreys using electrofishing with standard settings for salmon and trout to settings specifically adapted for capture of lampreys. Field work consisted of removal sampling by means of backpack electrofishing in 19 sites in streams representing a broad range of conditions in the region. Captures of lampreys at these sites were analyzed with a modified removal-sampling model and Bayesian estimation to measure the relative odds of capture using the lamprey-specific settings compared with the standard salmonid settings. We found that the odds of capture were 2.66 (95% credible interval, 0.87–78.18) times greater for the lamprey-specific settings relative to standard salmonid settings. When estimates of capture probability were applied to estimating the probabilities of detection, we found high (>0.80) detectability when the actual number of lampreys in a site was greater than 10 individuals and effort was at least two passes of electrofishing, regardless of the settings used. Further work is needed to evaluate key assumptions in our approach, including the evaluation of individual-specific capture probabilities and population closure. For now our results suggest comparable results are possible for detection of lampreys by using backpack electrofishing with salmonid- or lamprey-specific settings.

  17. Meet the best Award-winning technologies from Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle Memorial Institute has managed the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy for 25 years. During this time, numerous new technologies have been discovered and developed at PNL as a result of our research programs. This document will introduce you to some of the more significant discoveries and newly commercialized technologies. Each of the technologies described has received an award from Research Development magazine or the Federal Laboratory Consortium--sometimes both Each technology is available to you through PNL's technology transfer program or one of our licensees. Similarly, our award-winning scientists and engineers are available to assist you as you search for innovative technologies to solve your technical problems. These researchers are familiar with current problems confronting industry, government agencies, and the academic community. They are happy to apply their skills and PNL's resources to your problems. PNL encourages its researchers to work with government agencies, universities, and US industries. PNL technology transfer programs address the nation's drive toward increased competitiveness by being flexible and aggressive, and are designed to tailor results to fit your needs and those of your clients. If you are in search of a new technology or increased competitiveness, consider collaborative efforts with our award-winning staff, whose accomplishments are synopsized in this booklet.

  18. Population trends in northern spotted owls: Associations with climate in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, E.M.; Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    We used reverse time capture-mark-recapture models to describe associations between rate of population change (??) and climate for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) at six long-term study areas in Washington and Oregon, USA. Populations in three of six areas showed strong evidence of declining populations, while populations in two additional areas were likely declining as well. At four areas, ?? was positively associated with wetter-than-normal conditions during the growing season, which likely affects prey availability. Lambda was also negatively associated with cold, wet winters and nesting seasons, and the number of hot summer days. The amount of annual variation in ?? accounted for by climate varied across study areas (3-85%). Rate of population change was more sensitive to adult survival than to recruitment; however, there was considerable variation among years and across study areas for all demographic rates. While annual survival was more closely related to regional climate conditions, recruitment was often associated with local weather. In addition to climate, declines in recruitment at four of six areas were associated with increased presence of barred owls. Climate change models predict warmer, wetter winters and hotter, drier summers for the Pacific Northwest in the first half of the 21st century. Our results indicate that these conditions have the potential to negatively affect annual survival, recruitment, and consequently population growth rates for northern spotted owls. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies. [Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  20. Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.R.; Cadwell, L.L.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Brauer, F.P.

    1981-02-01

    Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of /sup 129/I and /sup 127/I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of /sup 129/I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of /sup 129/I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of /sup 129/I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of /sup 129/I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of /sup 129/I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of /sup 129/I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site.

  1. Baseflow recession analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Elliot, W. J.; Gazel, E.; Boll, J.

    2015-03-01

    The storage-discharge relationships of 26 watersheds in the inland Pacific Northwest of the United States were analyzed. Four fitting methods were used to obtain the baseflow coefficients: lower envelope, organic correlation, and ordinary and inverse least squares. Several climatic and terrain attributes were evaluated as predictors of baseflow coefficients. Watersheds dominated by basalt and flatter landscapes exhibited the smallest recession time scales ( K) (12.5-20.0 days). Greater K values (33.3-66.7 days) were obtained over catchments dominated by metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Mean basin slope and the aridity index were found to be the best estimators of baseflow coefficients. Baseflow in flat basalt landscapes, located in dry warm climates, decrease rapidly during summer months and are most sensitive to future droughts and warming climates. Groundwater systems feeding streams during the driest months can drop to less than 1 mm of effective storage in these sensitive systems. In contrast, the minimum annual storage in mountainous systems can have greater than 10 mm effective storage. By understanding the main factors controlling baseflow recession characteristics, environmental agencies could prioritize efforts in areas where future droughts and land use changes may affect ecological assemblages and socio-economic activities.

  2. Child directed speech, speech in noise and hyperarticulated speech in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Richard; Carmichael, Lesley; Beckford Wassink, Alicia; Galvin, Lisa

    2004-05-01

    Three types of exaggerated speech are thought to be systematic responses to accommodate the needs of the listener: child-directed speech (CDS), hyperspeech, and the Lombard response. CDS (e.g., Kuhl et al., 1997) occurs in interactions with young children and infants. Hyperspeech (Johnson et al., 1993) is a modification in response to listeners difficulties in recovering the intended message. The Lombard response (e.g., Lane et al., 1970) is a compensation for increased noise in the signal. While all three result from adaptations to accommodate the needs of the listener, and therefore should share some features, the triggering conditions are quite different, and therefore should exhibit differences in their phonetic outcomes. While CDS has been the subject of a variety of acoustic studies, it has never been studied in the broader context of the other ``exaggerated'' speech styles. A large crosslinguistic study was undertaken that compares speech produced under four conditions: spontaneous conversations, CDS aimed at 6-9-month-old infants, hyperarticulated speech, and speech in noise. This talk will present some findings for North American English as spoken in the Pacific Northwest. The measures include f0, vowel duration, F1 and F2 at vowel midpoint, and intensity.

  3. Evaluation of CMIP5 20th century climate simulations for the Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, David E.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Hegewisch, Katherine C.; Mote, Philip W.

    2013-10-01

    temperature and precipitation data from 41 global climate models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) were compared to observations for the 20th century, with a focus on the United States Pacific Northwest (PNW) and surrounding region. A suite of statistics, or metrics, was calculated, that included correlation and variance of mean seasonal spatial patterns, amplitude of seasonal cycle, diurnal temperature range, annual- to decadal-scale variance, long-term persistence, and regional teleconnections to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Performance, or credibility, was assessed based on the GCMs' abilities to reproduce the observed metrics. GCMs were ranked in their credibility using two methods. The first simply treated all metrics equally. The second method considered two properties of the metrics: (1) redundancy of information (dependence) among metrics, and (2) confidence in the reliability of an individual metric for accurately ranking models. Confidence was related to how robust the estimate of the metric was to ensemble size, given that for most of the models only a small number of ensemble members (i.e., realizations of the 20th century) were available. A cursory comparison with 24 CMIP3 models revealed few differences between the two generations of models with respect to the statistics analyzed.

  4. Industrial-electricity-conservation potential in the Pacific Northwest. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.; Hinkle, B.K.

    1983-03-01

    The findings of an update of the assessment of industrial electricity conservation potential in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) completed in February 1982 are presented. Using a detailed process energy end use data base developed by SRC in an earlier study for BPA, conservation measures were identified for nine 4-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) industries, representing the most energy intensive industries in each of the major industry groups in the PNW, in the February 1982 report. Assumptions associated with these measures were revised in response to comments from industry representatives in the PNW. An engineering-economic analysis was performed for each conservation measure. Based on the economic attractiveness of the measure relative to average hurdle rates (which are equivalent to the cost of equity) in each industry, estimates of the economic potential of each conservation measure were made. A market penetration model was then used to estimate the actual implementation of each measure over time. The conservation potential estimated for the 4-digit industries was extrapolated to the 2-digit level using an analysis of the end uses of electricity and a baseline forecast of industrial electricity requirements provided by BPA. Options for BPA and utility programs to encourage industrial electricity conservaton were identified and their costs and benefits were estimated.

  5. Mantle dynamics beneath the Pacific Northwest and the generation of post-20 Ma volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. D.; Till, C. B.; Druken, K. A.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.; Grove, T. L.; Wagner, L. S.; Kincaid, C. R.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) has a complex recent tectonic history and over the past ~17 Ma has played host to several major episodes of intraplate volcanism. These include the Steens/Columbia River flood basalts (CRB) and the striking spatiotemporal trends of the Yellowstone/Snake River Plain (Y/SRP) and High Lava Plains (HLP) regions. Several different models have been proposed to explain these features, which variously invoke the putative Yellowstone plume, the rollback and steepening of the Cascadia slab, extensional processes in the lithosphere, or a combination of these. Here we integrate seismological, geodynamical, petrological, and geochemical results from the multidisciplinary HLP project and associated efforts related to EarthScope data to propose a conceptual model for mantle dynamics beneath the PNW and the relationships between mantle flow and surface tectonomagmatic activity. The model invokes rollback subduction as the main driver for mantle flow beneath the PNW; a major pulse of upwelling due to the initiation of rollback drove melting associated with the Steens/CRB volcanism and continuing trench migration enabled hot, shallow melting beneath the HLP. A buoyant mantle upwelling is required to explain the Y/SRP volcanism, but subduction-related processes likely played a role in controlling its timing and location. This conceptual model makes predictions that are broadly consistent with seismic anisotropy measurements, tomographic velocity models, geodynamical modeling experiments, petrological constraints, and geochemical observations.

  6. The role of agency partnerships in collaborative watershed groups: lessons from the pacific northwest experience.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Mahler, Robert L; Wulfhorst, J D; Shafii, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative watershed group experiences reveal commonalities in their approaches to facilitate decentralized and inclusive watershed planning and management in the United States, and increasingly around the world. Although watershed groups are widely recognized in the United States for positive accomplishments across local, state, and regional scales, the role of government agencies as watershed group partners often remains ambiguous and inconsistent. This paper details results of a survey used to determine the status of Pacific Northwest (PNW) watershed group-agency partnerships relative to planning and management. Specific inquiry was directed toward: (1) the role of technical information flow; and (2) watershed group needs. Mail surveys were administered to 304 watershed group participants in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Sixty-nine percent of the surveys were completed and returned. Based on the collected survey data, PNW watershed groups rely heavily on agency officials for technical watershed information. Respondents perceive support of state government to be the highest relative to federal agencies, local governments, and university Extension offices. However, evidence from the survey suggests that partnerships are underutilized across all agencies and organizations concurrently vested in watershed planning and management in the PNW. Sustained operational funding, increased group participation, and baseline watershed data are the most pressing needs of PNW watershed groups and present a significant opportunity for expanding watershed group-agency partnerships.

  7. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

    PubMed

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 µg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta roots at <10 µg/ml. Notably, four species of cedar trees and one of juniper in the family Cupressaceae dominated this group with LC50 for heartwood extracts ranging from 15 to 89 µg/ml. Moderate toxicity (LC50 100-500 µg/ml) was found in 38 extracts from 27 species, while weak toxicity (LC50 500-1000 µg/ml) was detected for 17 extracts in 16 species. There were 139 extracts from 99 species that were non-toxic (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory FY 1993 Site Maintenance Plan for maintenance of DOE nonnuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-09-28

    This Site Maintenance Plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nonnuclear Facilities. It is based on requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter I, Change No. 4. The objective of this maintenance plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE Order 4330.4A, to identify needed improvements, and to document the planned maintenance budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 and to estimate maintenance budgets for FY 1994 and FY 1995 for all PNL facilities. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected 12 of the 36 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A, Chapter I, for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are: Facility Condition Inspections; Work Request (Order) System; Formal Job Planning and Estimating; Work Performance (Time) Standards; Priority System; Maintenance Procedures and Other Work-Related Documents; Scheduling System; Post Maintenance Testing; Backlog Work Control; Equipment Repair History and Vendor Information; Work Sampling; and Identification and Control. Based upon a graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory FY 1993 Site Maintenance Plan for maintenance of DOE nonnuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-09-28

    This Site Maintenance Plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Nonnuclear Facilities. It is based on requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter I, Change No. 4. The objective of this maintenance plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE Order 4330.4A, to identify needed improvements, and to document the planned maintenance budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 and to estimate maintenance budgets for FY 1994 and FY 1995 for all PNL facilities. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected 12 of the 36 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A, Chapter I, for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are: Facility Condition Inspections; Work Request (Order) System; Formal Job Planning and Estimating; Work Performance (Time) Standards; Priority System; Maintenance Procedures and Other Work-Related Documents; Scheduling System; Post Maintenance Testing; Backlog Work Control; Equipment Repair History and Vendor Information; Work Sampling; and Identification and Control. Based upon a graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods.

  10. Geostrophic current estimation using altimeter data at ground track crossovers in the northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Longfei; Li, Ziwei; Zhou, Xuan

    2013-12-01

    Geostrophic current comprises a large portion of the ocean current, which plays an important role in global climate change. Based on classic oceanography, geostrophic current can be derived from pressure gradient. Assuming water density to be constant, we can estimate geostrophic current from Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT). In this paper, we use ADT data obtained from multi-satellite altimeters to extract sea surface tilts along-track at crossover points. The calculated tilts along these two tracks can be converted into orthogonal directions and are used to estimate geostrophic current. In northwest Pacific, computed geostrophic current velocities are evaluated with Argos data. In total, 771 pairs of temporally and spatially consistent Argos measurements along with estimated geostrophic velocity datasets are used for validation. In this study, the effect of different cut-off wavelengths of the low pass filter applied to ADT is discussed. Our results show that a cut-off wavelength of 75 km is the most suitable choice for the study area. The estimated geostrophic velocity and the Argos measurement are in good agreement with each other, with a correlation coefficient of 0.867 for zonal component, and 0.734 for meridional one. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between the estimated geostrophic velocity and Argos measurement is derived, providing us a favorable and convenient approach to estimate sea surface flow velocity from the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data. The experimental application of the derived method on Kuroshio reveals reasonable results compared with previous studies.

  11. Geostrophic current estimation using altimetric cross-track method in northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Longfei; Zheng, Quan'an; Li, Ziwei

    2014-03-01

    Geostrophic current contributes a large part of ocean current, which plays an important role in global climate change. Based on classic oceanography, geostrophic current can be derived from pressure gradient. Assuming water density to be constant, we can estimate geostrophic current from Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT). In this paper, we use ADT data obtained from multi-satellite altimeter to extract sea surface tilt along track at ground track crossover points. The calculated tilt along these two tracks can be converted into orthogonal directions and are used to estimate geostrophic current. In northwest Pacific, geostrophic current velocities computed above are evaluated using Argos data, a global Langrangian drifter program. 771 precisely temporal and spatial coherent Argos data with estimated geostrophic velocity data are used for evaluating. Effect of different threshold length of the low pass filter applied to ADT is discussed. A threshold length of 75 km is most suitable for the study area. The estimated geostrophic velocity and the Argos measurement agree well with each other, with correlation coefficient R equals 0.867 for zonal component, and 0.734 for meridional component. A relationship between the estimated geostrophic velocity and Argos measurement is drawn.

  12. Laboratory Measured Emission Losses of Methyl Isothiocyanate at Pacific Northwest Soil Surface Fumigation Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhou; Hebert, Vincent R; Miller, Glenn C

    2017-02-01

    Temperature is a major environmental factor influencing land surface volatilization at the time of agricultural field fumigation. Cooler fumigation soil temperatures relevant to Pacific Northwest (PNW) application practices with metam sodium/potassium should result in appreciably reduced methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) emission rates, thus minimizing off target movement and bystander inhalation exposure. Herein, a series of laboratory controlled flow-through soil column assessments were performed evaluating MITC emissions over the range of cooler temperatures (2-13°C). Assessments were also conducted at the maximum allowed label application temperature of 32°C. All assessments were conducted at registration label-specified field moisture capacity, and no more than 50% cumulative MITC loss was observed over the 2-day post-fumigation timeframe. Three-fold reductions in MITC peak fluxes at cooler PNW application temperatures were observed compared to the label maximum temperature. This study supports current EPA metam sodium/potassium label language that indicates surface fumigations during warmer soil conditions should be discouraged.

  13. Customer Satisfaction Survey of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Technical Assistance Partners -- FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, Robin L.; Spanner, Gary E.

    2011-11-02

    The businesses that have utilized PNNL's Technology Assistance Program were sent a survey to solicit feedback about the program and to determine what, if any, outcomes resulted from the assistance provided. As part of its small business outreach, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) offers technology assistance to businesses with fewer than 500 employees throughout the nation and to businesses of any size in the 2 counties that contain the Hanford site. Upon request, up to 40 staff-hours of a researcher's time can be provided to address technology issues at no charge to the requesting firm. During FY 2011, PNNL completed assistance for 54 firms. Topics of the technology assistance covered a broad range, including environment, energy, industrial processes, medical, materials, computers and software, and sensors. In FY 2011, PNNL's Technology Assistance Program (TAP) was funded by PNNL Overheads. Over the past 16 years, the Technology Assistance Program has received total funding of nearly $2.8 million from several federal and private sources.

  14. Modeling Hydrologic Response to Land Cover Change in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Link, T.; Hubbart, J.; Gravelle, J.

    2007-12-01

    Although physically based hydrologic models have been applied to understand the mechanisms by which land use change affects watershed hydrology, these models are not always directly transferable from region to region. This is partly because many different mechanisms may be responsible for producing runoff alterations. Perfect fitting of the hydrograph does not necessarily mean that all the internal hydrologic mechanisms have been accurately simulated. A detailed study has been designed to validate internal watershed mechanisms simulated by the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), to assess the hydrologic effects of land use change an interior Pacific Northwest experimental watershed. Hydrological measurements in the experimental area include streamflow, snowpack properties, canopy throughfall, soil moisture, and sap flow to assess the simulated hydrologic components, and hence the model's ability of predict the effects of land cover change. Model simulations span a 5-year pre-treatment, 4-year post-road construction without harvesting, and 5-year post-treatment period to ensure that the model parameterizations accurately quantify the effects of land cover alteration. The validated model was used to make a retrospective simulation of when the entire watershed was clear-cut to predict historical flow regimes. The historical fully clear-cut scenario was then used to provide a baseline to compare to contemporary harvest patterns characterized by sequential canopy removal and regrowth over smaller spatial units. Preliminary modeling results will be presented to illustrate the capability of hydrology model in predicting and forecasting hydrological responses to a range of contemporary forest practices.

  15. Habitat and co-occurrence of native and invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions can have dramatic effects on freshwater ecosystems and introduced crayfish can be particularly impacting. We document crayfish distribution in three large hydrographic basins (Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette/Columbia) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used occupancy analyses to investigate habitat relationships and evidence for displacement of native Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852) by two invaders. We found invasive Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), in 51 of 283 sites and in all three hydrographic basins. We found invasive Orconectes n. neglectus (Faxon, 1885) at 68% of sites in the Rogue basin and provide first documentation of their broad distribution in the Umpqua basin. We found P. clarkii in both lentic and lotic habitats, and it was positively associated with manmade sites. P. leniusculus was positively associated with lotic habitats and negatively related to manmade sites. In the Rogue and Umpqua basins, O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus were similar in their habitat associations. We did not find a negative relationship in site occupancy between O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus. Our data suggest that P. clarkii has potential to locally displace P. leniusculus. There is still time for preventive measures to limit the spread of the invasive crayfish in this region.

  16. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  17. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  18. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-12-12

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter-fisher-gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to 'collective' cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour.

  19. Spread of Heterobasidion annosum in Christmas Tree Plantations of the United States Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Dart, N L; Chastagner, G A; Peever, T L

    2007-05-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Heterobasidion annosum in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Christmas tree plantations was estimated at two spatial scales to assess the relative importance of primary and secondary infection, colonization, and spread of the pathogen. Ninety-three isolates from single trees in 27 discrete mortality pockets and 104 isolates from 12 individual root systems of noble and Fraser fir trees were sampled near Mossyrock, Washington. Isolates were genotyped using somatic compatibility assays and microsatellite markers to determine the spatial scale at which dispersal of single genotypes (genets) was occurring. All isolates sampled from different trees in discrete mortality pockets had distinct genotypes, whereas the root systems of single trees were dominated by one or two genotypes. These results suggest that infection of PNW Christmas trees results from frequent primary infection events of adjacent stumps and localized secondary spread within root systems rather than clonal spread of the pathogen between adjacent trees. We hypothesize that mortality pockets may be due to availability of infection courts and/or variation in inoculum levels during selective harvesting of patches of mature trees.

  20. The Role of Agency Partnerships in Collaborative Watershed Groups: Lessons from the Pacific Northwest Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Mahler, Robert L.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Shafii, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative watershed group experiences reveal commonalities in their approaches to facilitate decentralized and inclusive watershed planning and management in the United States, and increasingly around the world. Although watershed groups are widely recognized in the United States for positive accomplishments across local, state, and regional scales, the role of government agencies as watershed group partners often remains ambiguous and inconsistent. This paper details results of a survey used to determine the status of Pacific Northwest (PNW) watershed group-agency partnerships relative to planning and management. Specific inquiry was directed toward: (1) the role of technical information flow; and (2) watershed group needs. Mail surveys were administered to 304 watershed group participants in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Sixty-nine percent of the surveys were completed and returned. Based on the collected survey data, PNW watershed groups rely heavily on agency officials for technical watershed information. Respondents perceive support of state government to be the highest relative to federal agencies, local governments, and university Extension offices. However, evidence from the survey suggests that partnerships are underutilized across all agencies and organizations concurrently vested in watershed planning and management in the PNW. Sustained operational funding, increased group participation, and baseline watershed data are the most pressing needs of PNW watershed groups and present a significant opportunity for expanding watershed group-agency partnerships.

  1. Coastal foredune evolution: the relative influence of vegetation and sand supply in the US Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Zarnetske, Phoebe L.; Ruggiero, Peter; Seabloom, Eric W.; Hacker, Sally D.

    2015-01-01

    Biophysical feedbacks between vegetation and sediment are important for forming and modifying landscape features and their ecosystem services. These feedbacks are especially important where landscape features differ in their provision of ecosystem services. For example, the shape of coastal foredunes, a product of both physical and biological forces, determines their ability to protect communities from rising seas and changing patterns of storminess. Here we assessed how sand supply and changes in vegetation over interannual (3 year) and decadal (21 year) scales influenced foredune shape along 100 km of coastline in the US Pacific Northwest. Across 21 years, vegetation switched from one congeneric non-native beachgrass to another (Ammophila arenaria to A. breviligulata) while sand supply rates were positive. At interannual timescales, sand supply rates explained the majority of change in foredune height (64–69%) and width (56–80%). However, at decadal scales, change in vegetation explained the majority of the change in foredune width (62–68%), whereas sand supply rates explained most of the change in foredune height (88–90%). In areas with lower shoreline change rates (±2 m yr−1), the change in vegetation explained the majority of decadal changes in foredune width (56–57%) and height (59–76%). Foredune shape directly impacts coastal protection, thus our findings are pertinent to coastal management given pressures of development and climate change. PMID:25833242

  2. Oxygen isotope records of Holocene climate variability in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, Byron A.; Pompeani, David P.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Mihindukulasooriya, Lorita N.; Hillman, Aubrey L.

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements of authigenic carbonate from Cleland Lake (southeastern British Columbia), Paradise Lake (central British Columbia), and Lime Lake (eastern Washington) provide a ∼9000 year Holocene record of precipitation-evaporation balance variations in the Pacific Northwest. Both Cleland Lake and Paradise Lake are small, surficially closed-basin systems with no active inflows or outflows. Lime Lake is surficially open with a seasonally active overflow. Water isotope values from Cleland and Paradise plot along the local evaporation line, indicating that precipitation-evaporation balance is a strong influence on lake hydrology. In contrast, Lime Lake water isotope values plot on the local meteoric water line, signifying minimal influence by evaporation. To infer past hydrologic balance variations at a high temporal resolution, we sampled the Cleland, Paradise, and Lime Lake sediment cores at 1-60 mm intervals (∼3-33 years per sample on average) and measured the isotopic composition of fine-grained (<63 μm) authigenic CaCO3 in each sample. Negative δ18O values, which indicate wetter conditions in closed-basin lakes, occur in Cleland Lake sediment from 7600 to 2200 years before present (yr BP), and are followed by more positive δ18O values, which suggest drier conditions, after 2200 yr BP. Highly negative δ18O values in the Cleland Lake record centered on ∼2400 yr BP suggest that lake levels were high (and that the lake may have been overflowing) at this time as a result of a substantially wetter climate. Similarly, Paradise Lake sediment δ18O values are relatively low from 7600 to 4000 yr BP and increase from ∼4000 to 3000 yr BP and from ∼2000 yr BP to present, indicating that climate became drier from the middle through the late Holocene. The δ18O record from Lime Lake, which principally reflects changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation, exhibits less variability than the closed-basin lake records and follows a

  3. Outflow of Anthropogenic Semivolatile Organic Compounds From Asia and Trans-Pacific Transport to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. in Spring 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primbs, T.; Wilson, G.; Schmedding, D.; Higginbotham, C.; Simonich, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air pollutants, including semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), may undergo long-range atmospheric transport from Eurasian sources to the Pacific Coast of North America. SOCs can serve as molecular markers to indicate pollutant source type and geographical origin because they represent emissions from combustion (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), agricultural (pesticides), and industrial (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) sources. Additionally, SOCs exist in the gas and/or particle phases and have a wide range of atmospheric lifetimes (hours-months). Atmospheric measurements of anthropogenic SOCs were made at a high elevation site in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and at a site close to Eurasian sources (Okinawa, Japan) to further understand the trans-Pacific transport of SOCs. High volume air sampling (~25 m3/hr for 24 hour periods) of both the gas and particulate phases was conducted on top of the summit building of Mt Bachelor, Oregon, U.S.A., located in Oregon's Cascade Mountain Range, beginning the 20th of April 2004 and is ongoing. Additionally, high volume air sampling was conducted at Hedo Point, Okinawa, Japan during a six week campaign from the 19th of March to the 1st of May 2004. The gas phase was collected using a combination of polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2 resin, while the particle phase was collected using quartz fiber filters. The samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (electron impact and electron capture negative ionization). Air trajectories were calculated using data from NOAA`s HYSPLIT model and imported into the ARC/GIS program for spatial representation. The presence of 80 anthropogenic SOCs was investigated. Initial results from the measurements in Okinawa showed elevated levels of particulate phase PAHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs) in samples corresponding to trajectories from the direction of

  4. Changing Forest Land Use in the Pacific Northwest and Implications for Ecosystem Processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Human use of forests in the Pacific Northwest US has evolved from underburning for wildlife habitat, to clearing for subsistence living, and an emphasis on timber production. In Oregon, forests older than 200 years now occupy less than 1 percent of private land that accounts for half the forest area, and ranges from 15 to almost 60 percent of public lands depending on the ecoregion. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was implemented on public lands in 1993 as a region-wide forest management regime intended to conserve species at risk from extensive harvest of older forests. The result was an 82 percent reduction in harvest removals on public forest lands, and subsequently, public forestland became a carbon sink while private forest remained near carbon neutral. Currently, forest management on public lands in the PNW emphasizes widespread thinning of forests to reduce wildfire risk, and thinning and slash removal for bioenergy production. In addition, several states have set ambitious GHG reduction targets. These policies are being implemented even though many aspects have not been adequately assessed for the effects on forests. CLM4 simulations over Oregon show that by the year 2100, net carbon uptake increases by 32-68% depending on the climate and CO2 scenario, suggesting that enhanced productivity from a warmer climate and CO2 fertilization compensates for disturbance losses if business-as-usual management continues. Water cycle implications are also considered. Simulated repeat thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality and fire emissions, and clearcut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for both wood products and bioenergy. CLM input to a Life Cycle Assessment, which tracks emissions off-site, shows that none of the scenarios reduce regional net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by the end of the 21st century. Thinning dry forests to reduce potential fire emissions led to no net change in emissions from BAU

  5. Cyclic magnetite dissolution in Pleistocene sediments of the abyssal northwest Pacific Ocean: Evidence for glacial oxygen depletion and carbon trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korff, Lucia; Dobeneck, Tilo; Frederichs, Thomas; Kasten, Sabine; Kuhn, Gerhard; Gersonde, Rainer; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    The carbonate-free abyss of the North Pacific defies most paleoceanographic proxy methods and hence remains a "blank spot" in ocean and climate history. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic, geochemical, and sedimentological methods were combined to date and analyze seven middle to late Pleistocene northwest Pacific sediment cores from water depths of 5100 to 5700 m. Besides largely coherent tephra layers, the most striking features of these records are nearly magnetite-free zones corresponding to glacial marine isotope stages (MISs) 22, 12, 10, 8, 6, and 2. Magnetite depletion is correlated with organic carbon and quartz content and anticorrelated with biogenic barite and opal content. Within interglacial sections and mid-Pleistocene transition glacial stages MIS 20, 18, 16, and 14, magnetite fractions of detrital, volcanic, and bacterial origin are all well preserved. Such alternating successions of magnetic iron mineral preservation and depletion are known from sapropel-marl cycles, which accumulated under periodically changing bottom water oxygen and redox conditions. In the open central northwest Pacific Ocean, the only conceivable mechanism to cause such abrupt change is a modified glacial bottom water circulation. During all major glaciations since MIS 12, oxygen-depleted Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)-sourced bottom water seems to have crept into the abyssal northwest Pacific below ~5000 m depth, thereby changing redox conditions in the sediment, trapping and preserving dissolved and particulate organic matter and, in consequence, reducing and dissolving both, biogenic and detrital magnetite. At deglaciation, a downward progressing oxidation front apparently remineralized and released these sedimentary carbon reservoirs without replenishing the magnetite losses.

  6. Climate Change impacts on the hydrology and temperature of Pacific Northwest streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Su, F.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J.; Mantua, N. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    Distributed hydrologic modeling is an important tool for quantifying dynamic environmental constraints (river flow and temperature) on stream habitat quantity, quality and distribution as they may be affected by climate change. A regional scale hydrologic simulation scheme was developed to predict stream flow and temperature changes under historical (1976 to 2005) and future (to 2098) climate change scenarios (IPCC AR4) as they affect current and future patterns of freshwater salmon habitat and associated productivity of North Pacific Rim (NPR) river basins. An efficient simulation scheme was developed, including: a hierarchical Dominant River Tracing (DRT) algorithm for automated extraction and spatial upscaling of flow directions and river networks from fine scale hydrography; a Shuffled Complex Evolution method (SCE-UA) for automatic calibration of Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model simulations for more than 1500 NPR basins; and a DRT-based routing scheme and coupled stream temperature model. Initial implementation and testing of these algorithms was conducted using observations from 12 streams within the Pacific Northwest (PNW) basins. From the statistics over all PNW river segments (1/16 degree grid cells) with upstream drainage areas > 2,500 km2, these simulations show consistent patterns of increased winter, and decreased summer stream flows over the next 100 years, and warming trends in mean annual water temperatures, with a maximum of 0.27°C and a mean of 0.19°C per decade. Warming was slightly greater (0.21 °C per decade on average) for rivers in the southern portion of the domain relative to those in the north (0.18°C per decade). The mean annual frequency of continuous 7-day average temperatures exceeding 21°C increased from 3.4 (1976-2005) to 5.9 (2065-2094) averaged over all rivers, while the corresponding summer (June, July and August) flows show a mean decrease of 2.08% per decade. Our results suggest a future with increasing

  7. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under

  8. Potential climate-induced runoff changes and associated uncertainty in four Pacific Northwest estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, Madeline O.; Chang, Heejun; Reusser, Deborah A.; Brown, Cheryl A.; Jung, Il-Won

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation into potential effects of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest, we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries: Coquille River estuary, South Slough of Coos Bay, and Yaquina Bay in Oregon, and Willapa Bay in Washington. We used the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to model watershed hydrological processes under current and future climatic conditions. This model allowed us to explore possible shifts in coastal hydrologic regimes at a range of spatial scales. All modeled watersheds are located in rainfall-dominated coastal areas with relatively insignificant base flow inputs, and their areas vary from 74.3 to 2,747.6 square kilometers. The watersheds also vary in mean elevation, ranging from 147 meters in the Willapa to 1,179 meters in the Coquille. The latitudes of watershed centroids range from 43.037 degrees north latitude in the Coquille River estuary to 46.629 degrees north latitude in Willapa Bay. We calibrated model parameters using historical climate grid data downscaled to one-sixteenth of a degree by the Climate Impacts Group, and historical runoff from sub-watersheds or neighboring watersheds. Nash Sutcliffe efficiency values for daily flows in calibration sub-watersheds ranged from 0.71 to 0.89. After calibration, we forced the PRMS models with four North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program climate models: Canadian Regional Climate Model-(National Center for Atmospheric Research) Community Climate System Model version 3, Canadian Regional Climate Model-Canadian Global Climate Model version 3, Hadley Regional Model version 3-Hadley Centre Climate Model version 3, and Regional Climate Model-Canadian Global Climate Model version 3. These are global climate models (GCMs) downscaled with regional climate models that are embedded within the GCMs, and all use the A2 carbon emission scenario developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on

  9. The Impacts of Climate-Change on Estuarine Flooding: a Pacific Northwest Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, K. A.; Cheng, T.; Hill, D. F.; Beamer, J. P.; Garcia-Medina, G.

    2014-12-01

    While understanding of climate change's impact on coastal systems has recently seen great improvements, there still remains much to be understood, especially for systems as hydraulically complex as estuaries. The hydrodynamic climate in estuarine waters is controlled by multiple factors such as boundary conditions offshore (tides, waves), across the surface (winds), at the upper estuary margin (streamflow), as well as mean sea level. On the decadal to century scale, climate change modulated variability in these forcings will effect state of the overall system resulting in changes to experienced extreme water level events. A study of climate change impacts on two Pacific Northwest estuaries is presently underway. ADCIRC-SWAN is being used to conduct multi-decadal simulations of water levels across the study estuaries. A GCM-RCM configuration was selected from the NARCCAP project and then bias-corrected against the observation-based NARR data. This was separated into two data streams (historical and future) which were then run through a set of models in order to develop forcing for ADCIRC-SWAN. At the open ocean boundary, the model is forced with wave output from the WaveWatch III model. The free surface of the model is forced with surface winds and pressure. The streamflow boundaries are forced with hydrographs obtained from the Micromet - Snowmodel - Hydroflow suite of runoff routing models. The ADCIRC-SWAN output provides time series data on total water levels (TWLs) throughout the model domain. These time series can be used to construct CDFs of water elevation at any site of interest and also to derive return periods for extreme water level events. Of particular interest to this study is how these products change from the historical to future runs and which processes (changing offshore waves, changing streamflow) are primarily responsible for the observed changes in flooding characteristics.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory tasks supporting the Office of Technology Development national program

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a concise summary of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) tasks being conducted for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD). The summaries are useful to principal investigators who want to link their work to others doing similar work, to staff in DOE operating programs who are looking for better solutions to current problems, and to private industry which may be interested in teaming with PNL to commercialize the technology. The tasks are organized within Hanford`s overall Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), which is a hierarchical organization of the Hanford mission into subordinate missions. The technology development tasks are all in WBS 3.2. The first subordinate steps under WBS 3.2 are general categories of technology development, such as Soils and Groundwater Cleanup. The next level is the Integrated Program (IP) and Integrated Demonstration (ID) level. An IP is a centrally managed series of projects which explore and develop a particular technology, such as characterization, for application to a wide spectrum of problems. An ID brings multiple technology systems to bear on an actual problem; for example, a carbon tetrachloride plume migrating through the soil is being remediated with biological agents, heating the soil, and destruction of the contamination in vapor removed from the soil. IDs and IPs are identified by an alphanumeric code: GSO2 is the second ID under Groundwater and Soils Cleanup. The final step in the breakout is the Technical Task Plan (TTP). These are individual tasks which support the ID/IP. They are identified by a six-digit number in the format 3211-01. The WBS structure for Technology Development down to the ID/IP level is shown.

  11. Spatial patterns of March and September streamflow trends in Pacific Northwest Streams, 1958-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Steele, Madeline; Gannett, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Summer streamflow is a vital water resource for municipal and domestic water supplies, irrigation, salmonid habitat, recreation, and water-related ecosystem services in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the United States. This study detects significant negative trends in September absolute streamflow in a majority of 68 stream-gauging stations located on unregulated streams in the PNW from 1958 to 2008. The proportion of March streamflow to annual streamflow increases in most stations over 1,000 m elevation, with a baseflow index of less than 50, while absolute March streamflow does not increase in most stations. The declining trends of September absolute streamflow are strongly associated with seven-day low flow, January–March maximum temperature trends, and the size of the basin (19–7,260 km2), while the increasing trends of the fraction of March streamflow are associated with elevation, April 1 snow water equivalent, March precipitation, center timing of streamflow, and October–December minimum temperature trends. Compared with ordinary least squares (OLS) estimated regression models, spatial error regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models effectively remove spatial autocorrelation in residuals. The GWR model results show spatial gradients of local R 2 values with consistently higher local R 2 values in the northern Cascades. This finding illustrates that different hydrologic landscape factors, such as geology and seasonal distribution of precipitation, also influence streamflow trends in the PNW. In addition, our spatial analysis model results show that considering various geographic factors help clarify the dynamics of streamflow trends over a large geographical area, supporting a spatial analysis approach over aspatial OLS-estimated regression models for predicting streamflow trends. Results indicate that transitional rain–snow surface water-dominated basins are likely to have reduced summer streamflow under warming scenarios

  12. High-Biomass Forests of the Pacific Northwest: Who Manages Them and How Much is Protected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankina, Olga N.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Leonard, Jessica; Yatskov, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    To examine ownership and protection status of forests with high-biomass stores (>200 Mg/ha) in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States, we used the latest versions of publicly available datasets. Overlay, aggregation, and GIS-based computation of forest area in broad biomass classes in the PNW showed that the National Forests contained the largest area of high-biomass forests (48.4 % of regional total), but the area of high-biomass forest on private lands was important as well (22.8 %). Between 2000 and 2008, the loss of high-biomass forests to fire on the National Forests was 7.6 % (236,000 ha), while the loss of high-biomass forest to logging on private lands (364,000 ha) exceeded the losses to fire across all ownerships. Many remaining high-biomass forest stands are vulnerable to future harvest as only 20 % are strictly protected from logging, while 26 % are not protected at all. The level of protection for high-biomass forests varies by state, for example, 31 % of all high-biomass federal forests in Washington are in high-protection status compared to only 9 % in Oregon. Across the conterminous US, high-biomass forest covers <3 % of all forest land and the PNW region holds 56.8 % of this area or 5.87 million ha. Forests with high-biomass stores are important to document and monitor as they are scarce, often threatened by harvest and development, and their disturbance including timber harvest results in net C losses to the atmosphere that can take a new generation of trees many decades or centuries to offset.

  13. Genetic diversity of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Paranjpye, Rohinee; Hamel, Owen S; Stojanovski, Asta; Liermann, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Since 1997, cases of Vibrio parahaemolyticus-related gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw oysters harvested in Washington State have been higher than historical levels. These cases have shown little or no correlation with concentrations of potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (positive for the thermostable direct hemolysin gene, tdh) in oysters, although significant concentrations of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from shellfish-growing areas in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). We compared clinical and environmental strains isolated from the PNW to those from other geographic regions within the United States and Asia for the presence of virulence-associated genes, including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh), the thermostable-related hemolysin (trh), urease (ureR), the pandemic group specific markers orf8 and toxRS, and genes encoding both type 3 secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2). The majority of clinical strains from the PNW were positive for tdh, trh, and ureR genes, while a significant proportion of environmental isolates were tdh(+) but trh negative. Hierarchical clustering grouped the majority of these clinical isolates into a cluster distinct from that including the pandemic strain RIMD2210633, clinical isolates from other geographical regions, and tdh(+), trh-negative environmental isolates from the PNW. We detected T3SS2-related genes (T3SS2β) in environmental strains that were tdh and trh negative. The presence of significant concentrations of tdh(+), trh-negative environmental strains in the PNW that have not been responsible for illness and T3SS2β in tdh- and trh-negative strains emphasizes the diversity in this species and the need to identify additional virulence markers for this bacterium to improve risk assessment tools for the detection of this pathogen.

  14. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  15. Satellite telemetry and prey sampling reveal contaminant sources to pacific northwest ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Morrissey, C.A.; Henny, C.J.; Inzunza, E.R.; Shaw, P.

    2007-01-01

    Migratory behavior can be an important factor in determining contaminant exposure in avian populations. Accumulation of organochlorine (OC) pesticides while birds are wintering in tropical regions has been cited often as the reason for high concentrations in migrant populations. To explore this issue, we satellite tracked 16 Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) over the period 1996-2003 from breeding sites in British Columbia, Canada, and integrated the results into a database on 15 Ospreys that were satellite tracked over the period 1995-1999, from breeding locations in Washington and Oregon, USA. Data on wintering sites of 31 Ospreys in Mexico and Central America were used for spatially targeted sampling of prey fish. Concentrations of the main organochlorine contaminant, p,p???-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), in fish composites from Mexico ranged from 0.005 to 0.115 ??g/g wet mass. Significant differences existed among fish families in p,p???-DDE, total dichloro- diphenyltrichloroethane (??DDT), ??chlordanes, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs). Catfish (family Ariidae) generally had significantly higher levels of DDT metabolites and other organochlorine contaminants compared to other fish families collected. Differences in prey contaminant levels were detected among the collection sites around coastal Mexico, with fish from Veracruz State generally having higher levels of DDT metabolites, ??chlordanes, ??PCBs, and hexachlorobenzene. Eggs collected from 16 nests throughout the Pacific Northwest (nine from British Columbia, seven from Oregon and Washington) where Ospreys had been satellite tagged, showed marked variation in levels of DDT metabolites (p,p???-DDE; range 0.02-10.14 ??g/g). Wintering site had no significant effect on contaminant concentrations in sample eggs from those specific Ospreys; rather concentrations of p,p???-DDE, were predicted by breeding sites with highest levels in eggs of Ospreys breeding in the lower Columbia River

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Schrempf, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE's long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE's contribution to the US Global Change Research Program.

  17. Distribution and identification of red yeasts in deep-sea environments around the northwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, T; Hamamoto, M; Nakase, T; Takami, H; Horikoshi, K

    2001-10-01

    We isolated 99 yeast strains, including 40 red yeasts, from benthic animals and sediments collected from the deep-sea floor in various areas in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Comparing the yeast isolates from animals and sediments collected from shallow locations, the proportion of red yeasts differed considerably, comprising 81.5% and 10.6% of the isolates from animals and sediments, respectively. All of the red yeast isolates belonged to the genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces. On the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics, the isolates were identified as R. aurantiaca, R. glutinis, R. minuta and R. mucilaginosa of the genus Rhodotorula, and S. salmonicolor and S. shibatanus of the genus Sporobolomyces. Only R. glutinis and R. mucilaginosa were isolated from sediments. All of the others were isolated from animal sources. Phylogenetic analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and 5.8S rRNA gene sequences allowed us to establish the precise taxonomic placement of each of the isolates and thereby investigate the intraspecific relationships among the isolates. Twenty-two strains identified as members of R. glutinis, which showed a wide distribution in the deep-sea, and five isolates identified as R. minuta, which were isolated only from benthic animals, showed substantial heterogeneity within the species. The isolates phenotypically identified as Sporobolomyces species and R. mucilaginosa phylogenetically occupied the placements corresponding to these species. Some strains assigned to known species on the basis of phenotypic features should be regarded as new species as suggested by the results of molecular analysis.

  18. Projected climate change impacts on the hydrology and temperature of Pacific Northwest rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huan; Kimball, John S.; Elsner, Marketa M.; Mantua, Nate; Adler, Robert F.; Stanford, Jack

    2012-11-01

    A dominant river-tracing-based streamflow and temperature (DRTT) model was developed by coupling stream thermal dynamics with a source-sink routing model. The DRTT model was applied using 1/16 degree (˜6 km) resolution gridded daily surface meteorology inputs over a ˜988,000 km2 Pacific Northwest (PNW) domain to produce regional daily streamflow and temperature simulations from 1996 to 2005. The DRTT results showed favorable performance for simulation of daily stream temperature (mean R2= 0.72 and root-mean-square error = 2.35°C) and discharge (mean R2 = 0.52 and annual relative error = 14%) against observations from 12 PNW streams. The DRTT was then applied with a macroscale hydrologic model to predict streamflow and temperature changes under historical (1980s) and future (2020s, 2040s, and 2080s) climate change scenarios (IPCC AR4) as they may affect current and future patterns of freshwater salmon habitat and associated productivity of PNW streams. The model projected a 3.5% decrease in mean annual streamflow for the 2020s and 0.6% and 5.5% increases for the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with projected increase in mean annual stream temperatures from 0.55°C (2020s) to 1.68°C (2080s). However, summer streamflow decreased from 19.3% (2020s) to 30.3% (2080s), while mean summer stream temperatures warmed from 0.92°C to 2.10°C. The simulations indicate that projected climate change will have greater impacts on snow dominant streams, with lower summer streamflows and warmer summer stream temperature changes relative to transient and rain dominant regimes. Lower summer flows combined with warmer stream temperatures suggest a future with widespread increased summertime thermal stress for coldwater fish in the PNW region.

  19. High-biomass forests of the Pacific Northwest: who manages them and how much is protected?

    PubMed

    Krankina, Olga N; DellaSala, Dominick A; Leonard, Jessica; Yatskov, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    To examine ownership and protection status of forests with high-biomass stores (>200 Mg/ha) in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States, we used the latest versions of publicly available datasets. Overlay, aggregation, and GIS-based computation of forest area in broad biomass classes in the PNW showed that the National Forests contained the largest area of high-biomass forests (48.4 % of regional total), but the area of high-biomass forest on private lands was important as well (22.8 %). Between 2000 and 2008, the loss of high-biomass forests to fire on the National Forests was 7.6 % (236,000 ha), while the loss of high-biomass forest to logging on private lands (364,000 ha) exceeded the losses to fire across all ownerships. Many remaining high-biomass forest stands are vulnerable to future harvest as only 20 % are strictly protected from logging, while 26 % are not protected at all. The level of protection for high-biomass forests varies by state, for example, 31 % of all high-biomass federal forests in Washington are in high-protection status compared to only 9 % in Oregon. Across the conterminous US, high-biomass forest covers <3 % of all forest land and the PNW region holds 56.8 % of this area or 5.87 million ha. Forests with high-biomass stores are important to document and monitor as they are scarce, often threatened by harvest and development, and their disturbance including timber harvest results in net C losses to the atmosphere that can take a new generation of trees many decades or centuries to offset.

  20. Mantle dynamics beneath the Pacific Northwest and the generation of voluminous back-arc volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Maureen D.; Till, Christy B.; Druken, Kelsey A.; Carlson, Richard W.; Wagner, Lara S.; Fouch, Matthew J.; James, David E.; Grove, Timothy L.; Schmerr, Nicholas; Kincaid, Chris

    2012-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) has a complex tectonic history and over the past ˜17 Ma has played host to several major episodes of intraplate volcanism. These events include the Steens/Columbia River flood basalts (CRB) and the striking spatiotemporal trends of the Yellowstone/Snake River Plain (Y/SRP) and High Lava Plains (HLP) regions. Several different models have been proposed to explain these features, which variously invoke the putative Yellowstone plume, rollback and steepening of the Cascadia slab, extensional processes in the lithosphere, or a combination of these. Here we integrate seismologic, geodynamic, geochemical, and petrologic results from the multidisciplinary HLP project and associated analyses of EarthScope USArray seismic data to propose a conceptual model for post-20 Ma mantle dynamics beneath the PNW and the relationships between mantle flow and surface tectonomagmatic activity. This model invokes rollback subduction as the main driver for mantle flow beneath the PNW beginning at ˜20 Ma. A major pulse of upwelling due to slab rollback and upper plate extension and consequent melting produced the Steens/CRB volcanism, and continuing trench migration enabled mantle upwelling and hot, shallow melting beneath the HLP. An additional buoyant mantle upwelling is required to explain the Y/SRP volcanism, but subduction-related processes may well have played a primary role in controlling its timing and location, and this upwelling likely continues today in some form. This conceptual model makes predictions that are broadly consistent with seismic observations, geodynamic modeling experiments, and petrologic and geochemical constraints.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variability in ENSO Teleconnections to Daily Weather Donditions in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAfee, S. A.; Wise, E. K.; Csank, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Classic teleconnection analysis has focused on relationships between modes of variability and seasonal average conditions. Growing needs for seasonally specific planning, as well as an expanding body of research showing instability in teleconnections, suggest that there is a need to evaluate teleconnections over narrower seasonal windows and to investigate variables other than average temperature, snowpack, and total precipitation. Here, ENSO teleconnections to snow-fraction, wet-day frequency and temperature, and air-mass type (using Sheridan's synoptic classification), as well as to average temperature and precipitation, were evaluated at weather stations across the Pacific Northwest. The analysis was performed separately for early (October/November), middle (December/January) and late (February/March) portions of the cool-season. The stability of these relationships over time was also evaluated. Currently, ENSO has the strongest and most widespread influence on PNW weather late in the cool season, with some effect in the autumn, but little detectable impact in the mid-winter. Earlier in the 20th century, the autumn peak in ENSO influence was somewhat more pronounced and the spring somewhat less. There were also modest geographic differences in teleconnection patterns, such as a region-wide response in average February-March temperature, but more localized effects on wet-day temperature. Geographic and seasonal distinctions in teleconnections to weather and climate could drive important differences in ecological and hydrological outcomes. This type of daily-level analysis may be useful in meeting the needs of stakeholders interested in using teleconnections for seasonal planning, but who may need more seasonally specific information or non-standard variables. However, this study also demonstrates the need for a thorough understanding of teleconnection spatial patterns, seasonal variability, and temporal flexibility when they are being presented to stakeholders as

  2. A 300-year history of Pacific Northwest windstorms inferred from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Hadley, Keith S.

    2012-07-01

    Hurricane-force winds are frequently allied with mid-latitude cyclones yet little is known about their historical timing and geographic extent over multiple centuries. This research addresses these issues by extending the historical record of major mid-latitude windstorms along North America's Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast using tree-ring data collected from old-growth (> 350 years), wind-snapped trees sampled at seven coastal sites in Oregon, USA. Our objectives were to: 1) characterize historical windstorm regimes; 2) determine the relationship between high-wind events (HWEs) and phases of the PDO, ENSO and NPI; and 3) test the hypothesis that PNW HWEs have migrated northward. We based our study on the identification of tree-growth anomalies resulting from windstorm-induced canopy changes corresponding to documented (1880-2003) and projected HWEs (1701-1880). Our methods identified all major windstorm events recorded since the late 1800s and confirmed that variations in coastal tree-growth are weakly related to temperature, precipitation, and drought, but are significantly related to peak wind speeds. These results suggest wind-induced changes in canopy conditions control tree growth at all sites. Comparisons between the tree-ring record and the PDO, NPI, and ENSO revealed a significant positive correlation between HWEs and neutral to warm PDO conditions and a slightly weaker correlation with the NPI. ENSO events were not significantly related to the occurrence of HWEs. Latitudinal groupings of our sites revealed a gradual and non-significant northerly shift of HWEs until the late 19th century followed by a significant northward shift during the past 120 years. These results mark the application of dendroanemology as a method for characterizing windstorm regimes for multiple centuries.

  3. Regional scale sandbar variability: Observations from the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Leonardo, Diana; Ruggiero, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Understanding sandbar dynamics and variability is integral to developing a predictive capacity for nearshore flows, sediment transport, morphological change, and ultimately for determining coastline exposure to damaging storm waves. Here we report on a nearshore bathymetric data set from the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) that stretches from Point Grenville, Washington to Cascade Head, Oregon, over approximately 260 km in the alongshore and includes 8 distinct littoral cells. We describe and quantify the morphological variability of sandbars on a regional scale, using 560 individual cross-shore transects, as well as attempt to explain the inter-littoral cell variability via relationships to various environmental parameters. The cross-shore extent of the bar zone extends over 1 km from the shoreline in the northern part of the study area, but only to about 600 m from the shoreline in the southern part. Maximum bar crest depths are typically 7 m below MLLW. Bar heights range from a step in the cross-shore profile to over 3 m from crest to trough. The northernmost littoral cells typically have two or more subtidal sandbars per cross-shore profile whereas the littoral cells in the southern part of our study area have only one bar. The mean depths of the bars, however, are much more consistent across littoral cells even while the upper shoreface slope significantly increases from north to south, requiring that the maximum bar distance from the shoreline decreases from north to south. Results from a limited study of the temporal variability suggest that while data collected over large spatial scales captures significant amounts of overall sandbar variability, it does not completely characterize the variability over the entirety of the net offshore migration cycle.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, L.K.

    1993-03-01

    The 1992 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year 1992. This report consists of four volumes oriented to particular segments of the PNL program, describing research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. The parts of the 1992 Annual Report are: Biomedical Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Atmospheric Sciences; and Physical Sciences. This Report is Part II: Environmental Sciences. Included in this report are developments in Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development, Interactions with Educational Institutions, Technology Transfer, Publications, and Presentations. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. The Technology Transfer section of this report describes a number of examples in which fundamental research is laying the groundwork for the technology needed to resolve important environmental problems. The Interactions with Educational Institutions section of the report illustrates the results of a long-term, proactive program to make PNL facilities available for university and preuniversity education and to involve educational institutions in research programs. The areas under investigation include the effect of geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in deep subsurface environments, ways to address subsurface heterogeneity, and ways to determine the key biochemical and physiological pathways (and DNA markers) that control nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and the response of these systems to disturbance and climatic change.

  5. The problem of conifer species migration lag in the Pacific Northwest region since the last glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2013-10-01

    Multiproxy evidence indicates that warmer-than-present summers became established in Eastern Beringia as early as 14,000-13,000 years ago, but the dispersal of spruces, pines, cedars and hemlocks across the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of southern Alaska did not begin until at least 1500 years afterwards, and took many thousands of years to be completed. There are many potential reasons for this slow spread of PNW conifers towards their modern range limits. The absence of mycorrhizae in the soils of southern Alaska may have slowed conifer establishment. The availability of soil moisture was another limiting factor. With the exception of Pinus contorta, the other PNW conifers become established most readily from seeds that fall on moist, shaded substrates, thus they are not good pioneering species. Competition with alder and birch played an important role, especially along Prince William Sound and the Kenai Peninsula. Alder or alder and birch dominated these regions until the mid- to late Holocene. The other key element for most PNW conifer species is the precipitation regime. The hemlocks, cedars and Sitka spruce are not drought-hardy. So although the PNW temperature regime may have been warm enough in early postglacial times to support the growth of PNW conifers, it was probably too dry for them to successfully become established in new regions. The conflation of these environmental factors limits our present understanding of the problem, but the recent trend of multi-proxy analysis in Quaternary paleoecology will certainly sharpen our reconstructions. Such proxies as conifer needle stomata and insect fossil remains hold significant promise.

  6. Mitospore stages of Disciotis, Gyromitra and Morchella in the inland Pacific Northwest USA.

    PubMed

    Carris, Lori M; Peever, Tobin L; McCotter, Sean W

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Costantinella species growing on soil, moss and woody debris in the autumn in the inland Pacific Northwest USA were established in culture. Five different mitospore taxa were distinguished based on colony color, presence or absence of setae and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) rDNA amplicon size. Sequence data from the largest and second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II, translation elongation factor 1-α, D1 and D2 domains of nuclear large subunit rDNA and ITS were used to connect each of the distinct mitospore taxa to corresponding vernal-fruiting Pezizales, including Disciotis cf. venosa, Gyromitra cf. esculenta and three species of Morchella. Both meiospore and mitospore stages of Morchella brunnea and M. populiphila collected in spring and autumn within a meter of each other at two urban sites had identical multilocus haplotypes, providing evidence connecting the two stages of the life cycle. Among other Morchella mitospore stages collected, some had identical haplotypes to previously sampled meiospore stages, while others were distinct, possibly representing undescribed species. Mitospore isolates with sequences assigning them to Disciotis or Gyromitra had different haplotypes from meiospore stages occurring in the same area. Meiospore stages of Disciotis and Gyromitra sampled as part of the study were also genetically distinct from European collections of D. venosa and G. esculenta, indicating more diversity is present in these taxa than is reflected in the current taxonomy. The widespread occurrence of mitospore stages of these fungi suggests that the life cycles of morels, false morels and allied taxa are more complex than previously recognized.

  7. The seismic Moho structure of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinchang; Sager, William W.; Korenaga, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus are large igneous provinces formed by extraordinary eruptions that create thick oceanic crust, whose structure is poorly known owing to the lack of deep-penetration seismic data. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and wide-angle refraction data allow us to show Moho structure beneath a large part of the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Moho reflectors in the two data sets can be connected to trace the interface from the adjacent abyssal plain across much of the interior. The reflectors display varied character in continuity, shape, and amplitude, similar to characteristics reported in other locations. Beneath normal crust, the Moho is observed at ∼13 km depth (∼7 km below the seafloor) in MCS data and disappears at ∼20 km depth (∼17 km below the seafloor) beneath the high plateau. Moho at the distal flanks dips downward towards the center with slopes of ∼0.5°-1°, increasing to 3°-5° at the middle flanks. Seismic Moho topography is consistent with Airy isostasy, confirming this widely-applied assumption. Data from this study show that crustal thickness between the massifs in the interior of the plateau is nearly twice normal crustal thickness, despite the fact that this crust records apparently normal seafloor spreading magnetic lineations. The Moho model allows improved estimates of plateau area (5.33 ×105 km2) and volume (6.90 ×106 km3), the latter assuming that the entire crust was formed by Shatsky Rise volcanism because the massifs formed at spreading ridges. This study is unique in showing Moho depth and structure over an extraordinarily large area beneath an oceanic plateau, giving insight to plateau structure and formation.

  8. Characterizing the occurrence, sources, and variability of radon in Pacific Northwest homes.

    PubMed

    Turk, B H; Prill, R J; Grimsrud, D T; Moed, B A; Sextro, R G

    1990-04-01

    A compilation of data from earlier studies of 172 homes in the Pacific Northwest indicated that approximately 65 percent of the 46 homes tested in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie region of eastern Washington/northern Idaho had heating season indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations above the U. S. EPA guideline of 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1). A subset of 35 homes was selected for additional study. The primary source of indoor radon in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie was pressure-driven flow of soil gas containing moderate radon concentrations (geometric mean concentration of 16,000 Bq m-3) from the highly permeable soils (geometric mean permeability of 5 x 10(-11) m2) surrounding the house substructures. Estimated soil gas entry rates ranged from 0.4 to 39 m3h-1 and 1 percent to 21 percent of total building air infiltration. Radon from other sources, including domestic water supplies and building materials was negligible. In high radon homes, winter indoor levels averaged 13 times higher than summer concentrations, while in low radon homes winter levels averaged only 2.5 times higher. Short-term variations in indoor radon were observed to be dependent upon indoor-outdoor temperature differences, wind speed, and operation of forced-air furnace fans. Forced-air furnace operation, along with leaky return ducts and plenums, and openings between the substructure and upper floors enhanced mixing of radon-laden substructure air throughout the rest of the building.

  9. Effects of harvest on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest forest catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, Alex; McKane, Robert; Stieglitz, Marc; Pan, Feifei; Cheng, Yiwei

    2013-03-01

    We used a new ecohydrological model, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessments (VELMA), to analyze the effects of forest harvest on catchment carbon and nitrogen dynamics. We applied the model to a 10 ha headwater catchment in the western Oregon Cascade Range where two major disturbance events have occurred during the past 500 years: a stand-replacing fire circa 1525 and a clear-cut in 1975. Hydrological and biogeochemical data from this site and other Pacific Northwest forest ecosystems were used to calibrate the model. Model parameters were first calibrated to simulate the postfire buildup of ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks in plants and soil from 1525 to 1969, the year when stream flow and chemistry measurements were begun. Thereafter, the model was used to simulate old-growth (1969-1974) and postharvest (1975-2008) temporal changes in carbon and nitrogen dynamics. VELMA accurately captured observed changes in carbon and nitrogen dynamics before and after harvest. The interaction of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the model provided a means for interpreting these changes. Results show that (1) losses of dissolved nutrients in the preharvest old-growth forest were generally low and consisted primarily of organic nitrogen and carbon; (2) following harvest, carbon and nitrogen losses from the terrestrial system to the stream and atmosphere increased as a result of reduced plant nitrogen uptake, increased soil organic matter decomposition, and high soil moisture; and (3) the rate of forest regrowth following harvest was lower than that after fire because post-clear-cut stocks and turnover of detritus nitrogen were substantially lower than after fire.

  10. Formation of ferromanganese crusts on northwest intertropical Pacific seamounts: Electron photomicrography and microprobe chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeong, K.S.; Jung, H.-S.; Kang, J.-K.; Morgan, C.L.; Hein, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Seven ferromanganese crusts from the northwest intertropical Pacific seamounts were analyzed for photomicroscopic growth structures, microprobe chemistry, and ages based on Co-chronometer growth rate. The crusts on the Marshall Islands seamounts are thick and ale divided into phosphatized lower older and nonphosphatized upper younger growth generations: the older crust consists of compact laminations and columns impregnated with carbonate fluoapatite (CFA), whereas the younger crust is characterized by porous botryoids and columns of ??-MnO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide. The crusts on the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) and Palau Islands seamounts are thin and are often incorporated with inorganic opal-A in the uppermost part, comprising the younger generation. Some crusts show scours and fractures. Although the growth of crusts has been often interrupted by mass failure of slope sediments, the crusts on the Marshall Islands seamounts are estimated to have grown at rate of about 3 mm/Ma since the middle Eocene and to have been phosphatized in the late Oligocene during the host seamounts were located beneath the equatorial zone of high productivity. Prolonged infiltration of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) water into shallower water older crusts redistributed crust composition by precipitating CFA, enriching subsequent amounts of Mn and Ni, and removing some Co. The younger crust has formed at slower rate (about 2 mm/Ma) under the stronger influence of bottom-water circulation in the north of the equatorial zone, concentrating abundant Co. In the uppermost part of some crusts, siliceous skeletons transform with burial to inorganic opal-A and Si-rich Fe oxyhydroxide, suggesting that biosilica diagenesis can enhance crust growth. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Mercury Speciation and Trophic Magnification Slopes in Giant Salamander Larvae from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, M. S.; Crocker, J.; Wachtl, J.; Kleeman, P.; Fellers, G.; Currens, C.; Hothem, R.; Madej, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of stream salamanders in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States has received little attention. Here we report total Hg (HgT) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in larval giant salamanders (Dicamptodon spp.) and surface water from forested and chaparral lotic ecosystems distributed along a latitudinal gradient throughout Northern California and Washington. To test hypotheses related to potential effects from mining land-use activities, salamander larvae were also sampled from a reference site at Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, California, and at a nearby, upstream site (Shasta county) on Bureau of Land Management land where Hg contamination from gold mining activities has been documented. HgT concentrations in whole body larvae ranged from 4.6 to 74.5 ng/g wet wt. and percent MeHg ranged from 67% to 86%. Both HgT and MeHg larval tissue concentrations were significantly higher at the mining site in comparison to measured background levels (P < 0.001). We conclude that salamander larvae in remote stream ecosystems, where Hg sources were dominated by atmospheric deposition, were generally low in HgT and MeHg and, in comparison, watersheds with a legacy of land-use practices (i.e., mining operations) had approximately 4.5 - 5.5 times the level of HgT bioaccumulation. Moreover, trophic magnification slopes were highest in the Shasta county region where mining was present. These findings suggest that mining activities increase HgT and MeHg exposure to salamander larvae in the region and may present a threat to other higher trophically positioned organisms, and their associated food webs.

  12. Household attitudes toward energy conservation in the Pacific Northwest: overview and comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents an overview of a baseline residential energy conservation study for the Pacific Northwest conducted in November 1983 by RMH Research, Inc. It also compares the study results with available data from other surveys. The primary focus of the RMH study is conservation marketing. As such it assesses the attitudes, perceptions, and past conservation actions of the region's residents and provides market segmentation based upon past conservation actions and the propensity to invest in conservation in the future. Excluding renters, who account for about 24% of the region's households, three prospect groups for marketing conservation investments are identified: First Tier Prospects who are very likely to invest in additional conservation measures requiring larger sums of money (estimated at about 547,000 households, or 18 percent of the region's households); Second Tier Prospects who are somewhat likely to invest in full weatherization (estimated at about 22% of the region's households or 695,700); and Non-Prospects who are unlikely to invest in energy conservation in the near future (estimated to be 1,113,400 or 36% of the regional total). A summary comparison of the most important distinguishing attributes of the three prospect groups is presented. Considering the current surplus status of the region's electricity supply situation and the overall strategy in capability building, implications include (1) using public information programs through utilities and the news media to maintain the conservation interests of the first-tier prospects and (2) exploring ways to move the second-tier prospects into the first tier and to reach the so-called non-prospect and rental housing groups.

  13. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of smokers at 30 Pacific Northwest colleges and universities.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria; Chen, Lu; Thompson, L Anne; Halperin, Abigail; Jaffe, Robert; McAfee, Tim; Zbikowski, Susan M

    2007-03-01

    College is an important transition period during which young adults explore tobacco use. Few large-scale studies have been conducted among college students regarding tobacco use. We initiated a study examining tobacco use in 30 colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. We conducted a baseline survey among students. Sample size varied by the school size; for the 14 largest schools, we drew a random sample of all students, oversampling freshmen (n approximately 750) so that we could recruit and follow a cohort to assess smoking onset during the college years. Of the remaining students, we sampled equivalent numbers of sophomores, juniors, and seniors (n = 200 each). For the 16 schools with fewer than 1,350 students, we surveyed all students. We found overall smoking rates of 17.2%. Males (18.6%) were more likely to smoke than females (16.6%; p = .03), and public college students were more likely to smoke (20.5%) than those who attended private independent schools (18.9%; p = .61), whose rates were higher than those of private religious schools (11.6%; p = .001). Overall, college students are light smokers who do not smoke every day of the month. Further, they tend not to be highly dependent on tobacco, do not consider themselves regular smokers, and plan to quit before they graduate (56.8%). School type should be considered when estimating smoking rates among 4-year college students. Data indicate that college smokers wish and plan to quit before graduation, suggesting that efforts to assist smokers in quitting during the college years may be fruitful.

  15. Methodology used to produce an encoded 1:100,000-scale digital hydrographic data layer for the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a River Reach File data layer for the Pacific Northwest for use in water-resource management applications. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) River Reach Files, a geo-referenced river reach data layer at 1:100,000-scale, are encoded with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency"s (EPA) reach numbers. The encoding was a primary task of the River Reach project, because EPA"s reach identifiers are also an integral hydrologic component in a regional Northwest Environmental Data Base-an ongoing effort by Federal and State agencies to compile information on reach-specific resources on rivers in Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and western Montana. A unique conflation algorithm was developed by the USGS to transfer the EPA reach codes and other meaningful attributes from the 1:250,000-scale EPA TRACE graphic files to the PNW Reach Files. The PNW Reach Files also were designed so that reach-specific information upstream or downstream from a point in the stream network could be extracted from feature attribute tables or from a Geographic Information System. This report documents the methodology used to create this 1:100,000-scale hydrologic data layer.

  16. Influence of northwest Pacific productivity on North Pacific Intermediate Water oxygen concentrations during the Bølling-Ållerød interval (14.7-12.9 ka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crusius, John; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Kienast, Stephanie; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Labeyrie, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Elevated productivity in the northwest Pacific is suggested as a new possible control driving past intervals of low-O2 intermediate water along the western continental margin of North America. According to this mechanism, O2 consumption would occur near the site of formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), due to increased respiration of organic carbon in response to a high-productivity event. Evidence is provided for such a productivity increase during the B??lling-A??ller??d interval (14.7-12.9 ka), a time when laminated sediments were deposited along the northern California margin. By this mechanism, low-O2 events in intermediate waters off the western North American margin could occur without significant changes in the rate of NPIW ventilation. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  17. Primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Raworth, D A; Pike, K S; Tanigoshi, L K; Mathur, S; Graf, G

    2008-04-01

    Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 +/- 0.024 and 0.090 +/- 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 degrees C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  19. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  20. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  1. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1983 to the Office of Energy Research, includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research. The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped under the subheadings and each section is introduced by a divider page that indicates the Field Task Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1983. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details.

  4. Changes in the Carbon and Energy Balance of the Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystem of the Pacific Northwest - White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Minnie Lala Stansbury; Clawson, K. L.; Inouye, R. S.

    2002-11-01

    We propose a multi-agency study to understand the impacts of land-use change on the carbon and energy balance of the Pacific Northwest. By integrating data for the carbon and energy fluxes across different scales within each land-use type, we will develop more accurate input parameters for the regional climate models. The product of this study will address two priorities recommended by the National Academy of Sciences; 1) reduce uncertainties in climate change projections and 2) provide a more definitive evaluation of long-term changes.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1986. The program is focused on terrestrial, subsurface, and coastal marine systems, and this research forms the basis, in conjunction with remote sensing, for definition and quantification of processes leading to impacts at the global level. This report is organized into sections devoted to Detection and Management of Change in Terrestrial Systems, Biogeochemical Phenomena, Subsurface Microbiology and Transport, Marine Sciences, and Theoretical (Quantitative) Ecology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual projects.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Gulfstream I measurements of the Kuwait oil-fire plume, July--August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Busness, K M; Hales, J M; Hannigan, R V; Thorp, J M; Tomich, S D; Warren, M J; Al-Sunaid, A A; Daum, P H; Mazurek, M

    1992-11-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of aircraft measurements to determine pollutant and radiative properties of the smoke plume from oil fires in Kuwait. This work was sponsored by the US Department emanating of Energy, in cooperation with several other agencies as part of an extensive effort coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization, to obtain a comprehensive data set to assess the characteristics of the plume and its environmental impact. This report describes field measurement activities and introduces the various data collected, but provides only limited analyses of these data. Results of further data analyses will be presented in subsequent open-literature publications.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4. Physical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Toburen, L.H.

    1986-02-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985. The reader should contact the principal investigators named or examine the publications cited for more details.

  8. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 4, Physical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Toburen, L.H.

    1987-02-01

    This 1986 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1986. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 4 includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reports in this document are grouped by budget category and each section is introduced by an abstract that indicates the Field Task Proposal/Agreement reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1985.

  10. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest)--ghost and blue mud shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornig, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic range: The ghost shrimp is found in intertidal areas along the west coast of North America from Mutiny Bay, Alaska, to the mouth of the Tijuana River, San Diego County, California; MacGinitie (1934) and Ricketts and Calvin (1968) reported finding specimens as far south as El Estuario de Punto Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The blue mud shrimp is found from southeastern Alaska to San Quentin Bay (Bahia de San Quentin) in Baja California Norte. The general distribution of the two species in the Pacific Northwest is identical (Figure 3).

  11. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  12. Molecular Evidence that the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii Outbreak has Expanded into the United States Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Edmond J.; Bildfell, Robert; Frank, Sheryl A.; Mitchell, Thomas G.; Marr, Kieren; Heitman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans frequently causes fungal meningitis in immunocompromised patients, whereas the related species Cryptococcus gattii is restricted to tropical/subtropical regions, usually infecting immunocompetent individuals. A C. gattii outbreak that began in 1999 on Vancouver Island is now endemic, causing numerous human and veterinary infections, and has spread to mainland British Columbia. The outbreak isolates are molecular type VGIIa/major or VGIIb/minor. Since 2006, human and veterinary cases have emerged in Washington and Oregon. Multilocus sequence typing demonstrates C. gattii VGIIa and VGIIb spread from Vancouver Island to the Pacific Northwest. Clinical strains from Oregon represent a unique VGIIc genotype. PMID:19220140

  13. General Motors Corporation and Pacific Northwest Laboratory Staff Exchange: Instrumentation for rapid measurement of automotive exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.W.; Sharpe, S.W.; Sloane, T.M.

    1995-07-01

    Information in this report on the staff exchange of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff with the AIGER Consortium (General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Navistar, the environmental protection Agency, and the California Air Resources Board) includes the purpose and objectives, a summary of activities, significant accomplishments, significant problems, industry benefits realized, recommended follow-on work and potential benefits from that work, and two appendices. Appendix A is a brief description of the fast gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy chemometric technologies and their application to the rapid characterization of automobile exhaust emissions. Appendix B is a list of key contacts and the schedule of activities pertaining to the staff exchange.

  14. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D.

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Survey of levels of cadmium in oysters, mussels, clams and scallops from the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Bendell, L I

    2009-01-01

    Field and retail collections of bivalves from the Pacific Northwest, Canada, were analysed for cadmium concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Both collections of varnish (Nuttallia obscurata) and manila (Venerupis philippinarum) clams contained cadmium concentrations of less than 0.5 µg g(-1), well below international safety guidelines of 1 and 2 µg g(-1) wet weight cadmium for the European and Hong Kong markets, respectively, as well as the 2 µg g(-1) safety guideline set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Cadmium concentrations in retail collections of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were generally above 2 µg g(-1) wet weight (range = 1.5-3.56 µg g(-1)). Retail collections of the mussel, Mytilus spp., contained cadmium concentrations below the 2 µg g(-1) wet weight guideline, but not always the 1 µg g(-1) limit (range = 0.15-1.8 µg g(-1)). However, field collections of Mytilus spp. contained cadmium concentrations between 0.35 and 4.00 µg g(-1) wet weight, and depending on sampling location, concentrations exceeded the CAC guidelines by more than two-fold. Locations where mussels had high cadmium concentrations correlated with regions that had previously reported high values for cadmium in Pacific oysters (r = 0.65; p < 0.05). Of the various shellfish analysed, the four species of scallops, Chlamys hastata, C. rubida, Crassadoma gigantea, and Patinopecten yessoensis, contained the greatest concentrations of cadmium, in excess of 5 µg g(-1) wet weight (range = 4.97-8.98 µg g(-1)) with the greatest concentrations determined for C. gigantea. Cadmium concentrations in shellfish from the Pacific Northwest are greater than values reported for shellfish from other regions of the world and consumers need be aware of Health Canada consumption guidelines for shellfish from this region.

  18. Coping with drought: A High Resolution Drought Monitoring and Prediction System for the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, M.; Nijssen, B.; Shukla, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) region in North America (defined here as the Columbia and Klamath River basins plus the coastal drainages) is a diverse geographic region with complex topography and a variety of climates. Agriculture (dryland and irrigated), forestry, fisheries, and hydropower provide significant economic benefit to the region and are directly dependent on the availability of sufficient water at the right time. Additional demands are made on water supplies by recreation, ecosystem services and emerging needs such as hydropower generation in support of wind energy integration. Several major droughts have occurred over the region in recent decades (notably 1977, 2001, and 2004), which have had significant consequences for the region's agricultural, hydropower production, and environment. An emerging need for the region is the coordination of existing regional climate activities, including a better awareness of the current water availability conditions across the region. The University of Washington has operated a surface water monitor for the continental United States since 2005, which provides near real-time estimates of surface water conditions at a spatial resolution of 1/2 degree in terms of soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and total moisture based on a suite of land surface models. A higher resolution Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (DMPS) for Washington State was originally implemented at 1/8 degree and later increased to 1/16 degree. This presentation describes the extension of this system to the entire PNW region at 1/16 degree. The expanded system provides daily updates of three primary drought-related indices based on near real-time station observations in the region: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Runoff Index (SRI), and Soil Moisture Percentiles (SMP). To make the drought measures relevant to water managers, surface water conditions are not only reported on a gridded map, but watershed-level drought summary

  19. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  20. Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology and Temperature of Pacific Northwest Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, J. A.; Wu, H.; Su, F.; Lucotch, J.; Kimball, J. S.; Mantua, N. J.

    2010-12-01

    A regional scale hydrologic simulation scheme was developed to predict stream flow and stream temperature changes under historical (1979 to 1999) and future (to 2098) climate change scenarios (IPCC AR4) as they affect current and future patterns of freshwater salmon habitat and associated productivity of Pacific Northwest (PNW) river basins. An efficient simulation scheme was developed, including: a hierarchical Dominant River Tracing (DRT) algorithm for automated extraction and spatial upscaling of flow directions and river networks from fine scale hydrography; a Shuffled Complex Evolution method (SCE-UA) for automatic calibration of Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model simulations, and a DRT-based routing scheme and coupled stream temperature model. An observation-based meteorological forcing data set was applied to simulate historical daily flow and temperature conditions for PNW basins. The gridded daily meteorology intputs included daily precipitation, maximum and minimum daily air temperature and wind speed gridded to 1/8 degree spatial resolution. Five (of 15 candidate) GCMs (i.e. MPI ECHAM5, GFDL CM2.1, MIROC3.2, UKMO HADCM3, CCCma CGCM3.1) were selected to provide surface meteorological forcings under projected (IPCC A1B and B1) climate scenarios on the basis of favorable model performance relative to historical weather station records. The GCM simulations were statistically bias corrected and spatially and temporally downscaled. The resulting model simulations show favorable agreement for daily flow (with mean Nash coefficient of 52% and annual relative error of 18% from validations at 12 gauges) and temperature (with mean Nash coefficient of 74%, absolute relative error of 1.30 °C and RMSE of 2.21 °C, p<0.001 from validations at 15 gauges) simulations relative to in situ observations. The initial calibration and validation results on stream flow and temperature suggest future increases in summertime thermal stress with lower stream