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Sample records for pacific northwest natural

  1. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  2. Interagency strategy for the Pacific Northwest Natural Areas Network

    Treesearch

    Todd M. Wilson; Reid Schuller; Russ Holmes; Curt Pavola; Robert A. Fimbel; Cynthia N. McCain; John G. Gamon; Pene Speaks; Joan I. Seevers; Thomas E. DeMeo; Steve. Gibbons

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Pacific Northwest Interagency Natural Areas Committee has promoted the establishment and management of natural areas in Oregon and Washington—protected areas devoted to research, education, and conservation of biodiversity. This growing collection of sites is now unmatched in its diversity and representation of both common and unique natural...

  3. Pacific Northwest ecoclass codes for seral and potential natural communities.

    Treesearch

    Frederick C. Hall

    1998-01-01

    Lists codes for identification of potential natural communities (plant association, habitat types), their seral status, and vegetation structure in and around the Pacific Northwest. Codes are a six-digit alphanumeric system using the first letter of tree species, life-form, seral status, and structure so that most codes can be directly interpreted. Seven appendices...

  4. A research framework for natural resource-based communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Harriet H. Christensen; Ellen M. Donoghue

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station developed a problem analysis to direct the research on natural resource-based communities in the Pacific Northwest over the next 5 years. The problem analysis identifies four problem areas: (1) social values related to rural peoples, communities, and development, and their ties to resource management are largely unknown; (2...

  5. Pacific Northwest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The Rocky, Cascade, and Coast Mountain Ranges dominate the landscape of the Pacific Northwest in this image created June 11-17, 2012 from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Potato and other agriculture can be seen in the bottom center of the image, as the Rockies transition to the plains of Idaho. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Photo series for quantifying natural forest residues in common vegetation types of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Wayne G. Maxwell; Franklin R. Ward

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-five series of photographs display different levels of natural forest residue loadings by size classes for areas of like vegetation in the Pacific Northwest. Information with each photo includes measured weights, volumes, and other data on residues, information about live vegetation, and fuel ratings.These photo series provide a fast, easy-to-use way to...

  7. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  8. Research natural area needs in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    C. T. Dyrness; Jerry F. Franklin; Chris Maser; Stanton A. Cook; James D. Hall; Glenda. Faxon

    1975-01-01

    Research Natural Areas are examples of typical and distinctive natural ecosystems and habitats reserved for scientific and educational use. This outline of the minimal Research Natural Area system needed to provide adequate field laboratories for ecological, environmental, and land management research was developed by an interinstitutional, interdisciplinary working...

  9. Durability of exterior natural wood finishes in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    William C. Feist; Edward A. Mraz

    1980-01-01

    There is a growing demand for natural exterior wood finishes that retain the original attractive appearance of wood with the least change in color and masking of grain. A number of experimental finishes are being evaluated for their performance in the cool, moist climate of Olympia, Wash. This study, started in 1966, has included observations on the weathering...

  10. Pacific Northwest AGU Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, David C.; Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The 30th AGU Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting was held September 29 to October 1, 1983, on the campus of Western Washington University, Bellingham, Wash. Approximately 125 attended the meeting, and 36 papers were presented. The meeting included two fields trips, five special symposia, and a banquet where keynote speaker Don Swanson presented “Dome building on Mt. St. Helens.”The meeting highlights included a symposium on Tertiary sedimentary basins of Washington and Oregon which revealed the importance of sedimentological studies for deciphering the timing and nature of accretionary processes in tectonically active areas. Geological and geophysical studies on the recent tectonics of the Juan de Fuca plate and nearby continent were presented by workers from the United States and Canada as well as ongoing studies for the evolution and character of the crystalline North Cascades of Washington and British Columbia.

  11. Pacific Northwest election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamar, Anthony

    Six AGU members have been elected members of the Regional Committee of the AGU Pacific Northwest Region. Their terms are July 1, 1986, to June 30, 1988. The Regional Committee, which directs the activities of the branch, is composed of a representative of each of the AGU sections taking part in branch activities.Those elected are Robert M. Ellis, Tectonophysics Section; Stephen L. Gillett, Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section; Tark S. Hamilton, Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section; Renner B. Hofmann, Seismology Section; Charles W. Slaughter, Hydrology Section; and Richard E. Thomson, Ocean Sciences Section.

  12. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    Ricardo Sanchez-Murillo; Erin S. Brooks; William J. Elliot; Jan Boll

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of ä2H = 7.42·ä18O + 0.88 (n = 316; r2 = 0.97...

  13. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  14. The Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Treesearch

    Forest Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1937-01-01

    The research organization of the United States Forest Service in the North Pacific Region is the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, one of the 12 regional experiment stations maintained by the service. This station, which has headquarters in Portland, Oregon, is making studies and surveys in the fields of economics, forest management, forest...

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory CALIOPE overview

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, R.S.; Kelly, J.F.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1995-03-01

    This overview covers progress in the following areas in which Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributes to the CALIOPE Program: (1) Fabrication of electro-optic modulators to generate FM-coding on IR lasers in the 8-12 and 3-5 {mu}m regions. (2) IR spectroscopy of signature species, abnormal isotopic distributions, hydrolysis and kinetics of effluents interacting with the atmosphere, and reflectance measurements of natural surfaces. (3) Systems analysis of FM-DIAL concepts, including lateral phase coherence and MTF measurements, and laboratory tests of detector technology and demodulation methods. (4) Field tests of FM-DIAL, covering field validation of portable diode laser concepts, FM-CO{sub 2} interrogation of Hanford sites, and signal returns from natural specular surfaces. (5) Ancillary matters: ground-truthing at Hanford (and RSTR?), countermeasures, and new laser design concepts.

  16. Raindrop Characteristics in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest, influenced by maritime air masses for most of the year, generally exhibits low rainfall intensities. The drop-size characteristics of such low-intensity storms are rarely studied. An investigation of natural drop sizes and their distribution was conducted at the Palouse ...

  17. Genetic variability of natural populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 in Pacific Northwest vineyards.

    PubMed

    Jarugula, Sridhar; Alabi, Olufemi J; Martin, Robert R; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2010-07-01

    Genetic variability of field populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) in Pacific Northwest (PNW) vineyards was characterized by sequencing the entire coat protein (CP) and a portion of the heat-shock protein-70 homolog (HSP70h) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of CP and HSP70h nucleotide sequences obtained in this study and corresponding sequences from GenBank revealed segregation of GLRaV-2 isolates into six lineages with virus isolates from PNW distributed in 'PN', 'H4', and 'RG' lineages. An estimation of the ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site indicated that different selection pressures may be acting on the two genomic regions encoding proteins with distinct functions. Multiple alignments of CP amino acid sequences showed lineage-specific differences. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results indicated that GLRaV-2-specific antibodies from a commercial source are unable to reliably detect GLRaV-2 isolates in the RG lineage, thereby limiting antibody-based diagnosis of all GLRaV-2 isolates currently found in PNW vineyards. A protocol based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was developed for differentiating GLRaV-2 isolates belonging to the three lineages present in the region. The taxonomic status of GLRaV-2 is discussed in light of the current knowledge of global genetic diversity of the virus.

  18. Hispanics in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Annabel Kirschner

    Sources of diversity in the Pacific Northwest's Spanish origin population, up 79.7% since 1970, was the subject of research based on 1980 Census data. Census information for Whites and Hispanics from metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties with 400 or more persons of Spanish origin was compared on the basis of age, family/household structure,…

  19. Optical characteristics of natural waters protect amphibians from UV-B in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palen, Wendy J.; Schindler, David E.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bury, R. Bruce; Diamond, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been proposed as a major environmental stressor leading to global amphibian declines. Prior experimental evidence from the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) indicating the acute embryonic sensitivity of at least four amphibian species to UV-B has been central to the literature about amphibian decline. However, these results have not been expanded to address population-scale effects and natural landscape variation in UV-B transparency of water at amphibian breeding sites: both necessary links to assess the importance of UV-B for amphibian declines. We quantified the UV-B transparency of 136 potential amphibian breeding sites to establish the pattern of UV-B exposure across two montane regions in the PNW. Our data suggest that 85% of sites are naturally protected by dissolved organic matter in pond water, and that only a fraction of breeding sites are expected to experience UV-B intensities exceeding levels associated with elevated egg mortality. Thus, the spectral characteristics of natural waters likely mediate the physiological effects of UV-B on amphibian eggs in all but the clearest waters. These data imply that UV-B is unlikely to cause broad amphibian declines across the landscape of the American Northwest.

  20. OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL WATERS PROTECT AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS FROM UV-B IN THE US PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been proposed as a major environmental stressor leading to global amphibian declines. Prior experimental evidence from the US Pacific Northwest (PNW) indicating the acute embryonic sensitivity of at least 4 amphibian specie...

  1. OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL WATERS PROTECT AMPHIBIANS FROM UV-B IN THE U.S. PACIFIC NORTHWEST: A REPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been proposed that UV-B is a cause of malfomations seen in amphibians. This document comments on the paper which discusses the concept that the optical characteristics of water may protect amphibians in the U.S. Pacific Northwest from the harmful effects of UV-B.

  2. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  3. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  4. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Brooks, Erin S; Elliot, William J; Boll, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 7.42·δ(18)O + 0.88 (n = 316; r(2) = 0.97). Isotope compositions exhibited a strong temperature-dependent seasonality. Despite this seasonal variation, the stream δ(18)O variation was small. A significant regression (τ = 0.11D(-1.09); r(2) = 0.83) between baseflow MTTs and the damping ratio was found. Baseflow MTTs ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 years (human-altered), 0.7 to 1.7 years (mining-altered), and 0.7 to 3.2 years (forested). Greater MTTs were represented by more homogenous aqueous chemistry whereas smaller MTTs resulted in more dynamic compositions. The isotope and geochemical data presented provide a baseline for future hydrological modelling in the inland PNW.

  5. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R.; Hinthome, J.

    The 28th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, September 13-20, 1981, was hosted by the Department of Geology at Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. A total of 31 papers was presented to the 91 registrants in two general sessions. Topics included seismology, general geophysics, volcanology, hydrology, oceanography, and two special symposia: Tectonics of the Columbia Plateau and Neogene —Quaternary Faults of the Pacific Northwest' and ‘Studies of the Eruption of Mount Saint Helens.’ Before and after the formal meetings, several field conferences were conducted to examine the Neogene tectonics of the Coast Range (Bob Bentley, Al Niem, and Ray Wells, leaders); the Columbia River Gorge (Bob Bentley, Marv Beeson, and Terry Tolan, leaders); the western Columbia Plateau northsouth transect (Bob Bentley and Jim Anderson, leaders); Quaternary structures of the Toppenish Ridge anticline (Don Tahkeal, Newell Campbell, and Bob Bentley, leaders); the Umtanum imbricate fault zone and pre-Saddle Mountains unconformity near Priest Rapids Dam (Ed Price and Bob Bentley, leaders); and the Yakima anticlines in the Cle Elum-Wallula deformed zone between Ellensburg and Yakima (Bob Bentley, leader).

  6. The role of fire in Research Natural Areas in the Northern Rockies and Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Greene; Angela Evenden

    1996-01-01

    Forest Service Research Natural Areas are established to preserve examples of all significant natural ecosystems for comparison with those influenced andlor managed by humans, to provide educational and research areas for ecological and environmental studies, and to preserve gene pools for typical and rare and endangered species. The Research Natural Area program in...

  7. Ecological foundations of biodiversity: lessons from natural and managed forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen years of research on old-growth and managed coniferous forests have provided sufficient understanding of biodiversity to suggest a basis for ecosystem management. First, natural old forests have a metaphysics values associated with their existence and function can never be addressed fully with the scientific method alone; we cannot recreate old growth. Second,...

  8. Resident perceptions of natural resources between cities and across scales in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the global population becomes increasingly urban, research is needed to explore how local culture, land use, andpolicy will influence urban natural resource management. We used a broad-scale comparative approach and survey of residents within the Portland (Oregon)-Vancouver (W...

  9. Resident perceptions of natural resources between cities and across scales in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the global population becomes increasingly urban, research is needed to explore how local culture, land use, andpolicy will influence urban natural resource management. We used a broad-scale comparative approach and survey of residents within the Portland (Oregon)-Vancouver (W...

  10. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  11. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  12. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  13. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  14. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  15. Forest management challenged in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Heilman, P.E. )

    1990-11-01

    This article discusses the US Forest Service Pacific Northwest and current management practice in the light of increasingly cynical public questions about forest policy. Policy challenges to the Service include clearcutting, sustainability, diversity, and ecosystem preservation.

  16. Delimiting communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Ellen M. Donoghue

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for delimiting communities in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) region of the Pacific Northwest that responds to the need to assess impacts and issues associated with broad-scale ecosystem management. Census block groups are aggregated to provide an alternative to more commonly used geographic delimitations of communities, specifically...

  17. Sources of plutonium to the tropical Northwest Pacific Ocean (1943-1999) identified using a natural coral archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Patric; Asami, Ryuji; Iryu, Yasufumi; Worsfold, Paul; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Choi, Min-Seok

    2011-03-01

    The Pu isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, were determined in annually-banded skeletons of an accurately dated (1943-1999) modern coral ( Porites lobata) from Guam Island to identify historical Pu sources to the tropical Northwest Pacific Ocean. Activity concentrations of 239+240Pu and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios were determined in the dated coral bands using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Close-in fallout from the former US Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands and global fallout were identified as the two main sources. The Guam site was dominated by PPG close-in fallout in the 1950s, with an average 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio of 0.315 ± 0.005. In addition, a higher 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio (0.456 ± 0.020) was observed that could be attributed to fallout from the "Ivy Mike" thermonuclear detonation in 1952. The atom ratio decreased in the 1960s and 1970s due to increase in the global fallout with a low 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio (˜0.18). Recent coral bands (1981-1999) are dominated by the transport of remobilised Pu, with high 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios, from the Marshall Islands to Guam Island along the North Equatorial Current (NEC). This remobilised Pu was estimated to comprise 69% of the total Pu in the recent coral bands, although its contribution was variable over time.

  18. 2008 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    This report highlights significant research findings and accomplishments by scientists at the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station during fiscal year 2008. The mission of the PNW Research Station is to generate and communicate scientific knowledge that helps people understand and make informed choices about people, natural resources, and the environment. The work...

  19. 2009 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights significant research findings and accomplishments by scientists at the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station during fiscal year 2009. The mission of the PNW Research Station is to generate and communicate scientific knowledge that helps people understand and make informed choices about people, natural resources...

  20. 2011 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2012-01-01

    Expertise, dedication, and partnership: these are key elements to success within the Pacific Northwest Research Station. Fostering these elements enables the station to generate timely scientific information for land managers and policymakers to use for decisions about managing natural resources. In 2011, several projects examined ecosystem processes across...

  1. Verticillium wilt in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt is a serious disease of many economically important agricultural and horticultural crops in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). The disease affects herbaceous annuals and perennials as well as woody trees and shrubs. Plants affected by Verticillium wilt exhibit chlorosis, wilting, defolia...

  2. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  3. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  4. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  5. Planting native oak in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington

    2010-01-01

    The extent of oak woodland and savanna habitat in the Pacific Northwest has been dramatically reduced since settlement in the mid-1800s. This report presents a practical guide for landowners and managers who are interested in reestablishing native oak by planting seedlings. Keys to successful establishment are (1) planting quality...

  6. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  7. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest study will be the third regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the first two—the Midwest in 2013 and the Southeast in 2014 (Van Metre and others, 2012, 2014).

  8. Fire and birds in maritime Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Mark H. Huff; Nathaniel E. Seavy; John D. Alexander; C. John Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers face the challenge of understanding how numerous factors, including fire and fire suppression, influence habitat composition and animal communities. We summarize information on fire effects on major vegetation types and bird/fire relations within the maritime Pacific Northwest, and pose management related questions and research considerations....

  9. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  10. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  11. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  12. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  13. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  15. Anthropogenic Elevation Change in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prush, V. B.; Lohman, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a valuable tool for studying crustal deformation signals. Its applications to studies of tectonic and non-tectonic sources are varied, including earthquakes and fault-related processes, volcanic deformation, vegetation structure, and anthropogenic signals. In addition to studies of crustal deformation, the sensitivity of interferometric phase to topography makes InSAR a superb tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). While much of the focus of InSAR research in recent years has been on deformation, changes in the elevation of the ground surface can be of great scientific or societal interest as well. Examples include elevation and volume change due to anthropogenic processes such as landfill and open-pit mining operations, and natural processes such as glacier thinning or terrain alteration resulting from effusive volcanic eruptions. Our study describes two elevation change signals observed in the Pacific Northwest that are of anthropogenic origin. Using the baseline-dependent nature of the topographic component of interferometric phase, we have determined a proxy for canopy height using coherent interferometric phase differences between adjacent logged and forested regions, as well as a means for determining estimates of the amount and time history of material displaced during mining operations at the Centralia Coal Mine in Centralia, Washington. Quantifying the amount of surface change due to anthropogenic activities is not only critical for tracking the altering landscape of the Pacific Northwest and reducing the observed error in interferograms attributable to elevation change. Deforestation is one of the most significant contributors to global carbon emissions, and quantifying changes in vegetation structure can assist in efforts to monitor and mitigate the effects of deforestation on climate change. Similarly, mining operations can have a lasting

  16. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  17. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 4

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-18

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 237,030 customers remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 8 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington.

  18. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 4. Pacific Northwest cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Responses for the Pacific Northwest to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use are presented. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana with a total of 4030 households sampled. Information on the 54 tables is explained. (MCW)

  19. The quality and character of Pacific Northwest waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert A.

    1954-01-01

    This paper is a general discussion of the quality and chemical character of surface and ground waters in the Pacific Northwest as shown by the available data. Previous quality of water studies reported in the literature are reviewed. The composition of natural waters is considered as to the source and significance of the different mineral constituents. Analytical data are presented showing mineral constituents and physical properties of selected surface and ground waters in the region.

  20. The California condor in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1973-01-01

    The California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus), once found along the Pacific Coast from Baja California to British Columbia, had become very rare north of California by 1850. Koford (1953), summarizing information available on the species in the Pacific Northwest, tentatively concluded that birds seen in that area were wanderers from California, perhaps forced north in some years by food shortages. As support for his theory he noted that there were no records of fossil condors in this northern region, known occurrences there were all in winter, and only a few individuals seemed to be present at any one time.Recently information has come to light that suggests the Pacific Northwest condors were permanent residents with a long history there. An Indian midden on the Columbia River near The Dalles, Oregon, has yielded a considerable number of California Condor bones, dating back thousands of years (Miller, 1957). A more recent, but still precaucasian condor bone was found in another midden in southwestern Oregon (Miller, 1942). These finds indicate the condors are not recent invaders from California.

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  2. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  3. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  4. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 6

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-20

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 134,868 customers remain without power. The number of outages is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent less than 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy and Seattle City Light.

  5. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 2

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-16

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006 resulting in major power outagesin the region. The storm is now moving off into southern Canada. A new weather disturbance nearing the Northwest coast may generate a few rain and snow showers across the Seattle and Portland areas today, but widespread active weather is not expected. There are roughly 950,000 customers in the region (including Canada) without power as a result of the Pacific Northweststorms, down from a peak of 1.8 million customers. This represents about 26 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. As of 12:30 PM EST, the Renton Control Center for the Olympic Pipeline (petroleum products) had power restored. The pipeline, serviced by Puget Sound Energy, was shut down after it lost power during the storm. According to a pipeline official, the pipeline is expected to restart in approximately 2-3 hours with some reduced throughput later today. SeaTac International Airport receives jet fuel from the pipeline; however, it’s been reported that the airport has approximately eight days of jet fuel inventories on hand. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel production. There are some temporary and minor distribution at retail gas stations due to lack of power. Fuel delivery is also slowed in some areas due to delays on some roads. ESF #12 has not been deployed

  6. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

  7. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

  8. Meeting the challenge: invasive plants in Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    Timothy B. Harrington; Sarah H. Reichard

    2007-01-01

    During September 19-20, 2006, a conference was held at the University of Washington Botanic Gardens, Seattle, WA, with the title "Meeting the challenge: invasive plants in Pacific Northwest Ecosystems." The mission of the conference was to create strategies and partnerships to understand and manage invasions of non-native plants in the Pacific Northwest. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  10. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  11. Pacific Northwest geothermal - Review and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, W.

    1980-11-01

    Activities associated with geothermal exploration and development in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington are reviewed. A geothermal electric plant on the Raft River is almost operational. Tests for space heating projects at Rexburg and in the City of Boise continue. The State of Oregon conducts its regional temperature gradient drilling program, and a number of shallow wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980. Deep well drilling (projected to 5,000 to 7,000 ft.) is pursued at Mount Hood. The eruption of Mount St. Helens has increased interest in the geothermal resources in Washington. A study of the warm and hot water potential on the northwest flank of Mount Ranier is negotiated. Possible space heating sources in 22 cities, towns, and hamlets in the Columbia Basin have been identified. Deleterious environmental impact on the forest regions of the Pacific Northwest is one reason for the Federal leasing problems. The electric power situation will be critical in the Northwest in 1983, as no additional power will probably be available to utilities from the Bonneville Power Administration. Indigenous U.S. energy sources can be developed and exploration activity can be increased if federal lease processing is greatly expedited.

  12. Vertical land motion of Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Montillet, J. P.; Szeliga, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    We use GPS measurements from 400 stations located throughout the Pacific Northwest to estimate steady-state vertical land motion for the purpose of constraining relative sea level rise projections. Vertical motions are typically only a few percent of horizontal rates and the same order of magnitude as current sea level rise rates, so may either ameliorate or exacerbate future climate impacts. We use data from receivers operating from 1994 through 2015, each with at least three years of continuous daily measurements. Furthermore, daily position time series resulting from the processing of two GPS centers, namely the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA), are considered throughout this study. The goal is two fold: the dissemination into the scientific community of the difference in processing between these two centers, and the level of agreement between the estimated crustal for future sea-level studies in the Pacific Northwest. We model both target and reference frame receiver trajectories as a superposition of discrete processes comprising steady-state tectonic motion, annual and bi-annual sinusoids exhibiting stationary phase and amplitude that reflect both local hydrology as well as artifacts introduced through satellite clock and orbit corrections, and discrete offsets due to known earthquakes (with Mw > 6) and hardware changes. Qualitatively, Vancouver Island shows long-term uplift of ~2 mm/year, consistent with both interseismic strain accumulation from the Juan de Fuca subduction along the coast and post-glacial rebound inland, and consistent with earlier reports based on few stations and shorter time series. Further south, coastal uplift rates transition to near-zero south of Pacific Beach, and remain low southward to Cape Blanco. Vertical motion is more heterogeneous throughout Puget Sound, but most regions show subsidence of ~0.5 - 1 mm/yr. The predominant subsidence throughout Puget Sound, where the

  13. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs

  14. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  15. Descriptors of natural thermal regimes in streams and their responsiveness to change in the Pacific Northwest of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy

    2013-01-01

    characteristics or descriptors of thermal regimes in streams. The descriptors we provide herein can be applied across hydro-ecological regions to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in thermal regimes. Evaluation of coherence and synchrony of different components of thermal regimes can facilitate identification of impacts of regional climate variability or local human or natural influences.

  16. Climate change impacts and adaptation in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    The University of Washington Climate Impacts Group (CIG) is an interdisciplinary research group that studies the impacts of natural climate variability and change on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Through research and interaction with regional stakeholders, the CIG works to increase the resilience of the Pacific Northwest to fluctuations and long-term changes in climate. The CIG's research focuses on four key sectors of the PNW environment: water resources, aquatic ecosystems, forests, and coasts. This talk focuses specifically on the water resources sector of CIG, and its work addressing potential climate change impacts on the region's hydrology being undertaken under an ongoing statewide climate impacts assessment (known as HB 1303). In the Pacific Northwest, as in most of the western U.S., warming temperatures are expected to result in lower winter snowpack, thus shifting seasonal runoff peaks earlier in the year, and increasing the duration of the summer and fall low flow period. The ongoing HB1303 work is based on IPCC 2007 climate scenarios. Hydrologic scenarios have been generated by downscaling GCM scenarios to 1/16 degree latitude-longitude spatial resolution, and using these downscaled scenarios to force the macroscale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. We describe the range of hydrologic projections recently performed for 16 downscaled GCMs and 2 global emissions scenarios for the next 100 years, with particular attention on reservoir systems serving water supply needs in the Puget Sound basin and irrigation water in the Yakima River basin. We also evaluate implications of the changing climate for the Columbia River reservoir system, both in terms of the tradeoff between reservoir releases made for salmonid protection and restoration and hydropower generation, and for flood control.

  17. Climate change impacts and adaptation in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2008-05-01

    The University of Washington Climate Impacts Group (CIG) is an interdisciplinary research group that studies the impacts of natural climate variability and change on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Through research and interaction with regional stakeholders, the CIG works to increase the resilience of the Pacific Northwest to fluctuations and long-term changes in climate. The CIG's research focuses on four key sectors of the PNW environment: water resources, aquatic ecosystems, forests, and coasts. This talk focuses specifically on the water resources sector of CIG, and its work addressing potential climate change impacts on the region's hydrology, and the potential for adaptation of water management, primarily through changes in reservoir operating policies, in response to projected effects of climate change. In the Pacific Northwest, as in most of the western U.S., warming temperatures are expected to result in lower winter snowpack, thus shifting seasonal runoff peaks earlier in the year, and increasing the duration of the summer and fall low flow period. The CIG is currently conducting a statewide assessment of the impacts of climate change for the State of Washington based on IPCC 2007 climate scenarios. Hydrologic scenarios have been generated by downscaling GCM scenarios to 1/16 degree latitude-longitude spatial resolution, and using these downscaled scenarios to force the macroscale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. We describe the range of hydrologic projections recently performed for 16 downscaled GCMs and 2 global emissions scenarios for the next 100 years, with particular attention on the Puget Sound basin and the Yakima River basin. We also evaluate implications of the changing climate for the Columbia River reservoir system, both in terms of the tradeoff between reservoir releases made for salmonid protection and restoration and hydropower generation, and for flood control.

  18. Landsat: 25 Years in the Pacific Northwest Forest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This visualization shows a sequence of Landsat-based data in the Pacific Northwest. There is one data set for each year representing an aggregate of the approximate peak of the growing season (arou...

  19. Streamflow Duration Assessment Method for the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Streamflow Duration Assessment Method for the Pacific Northwest is a scientific tool developed by EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a rapid assessment framework to distinguish between ephemeral, intermittent and perennial streams.

  20. FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  1. 1956 bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1957-01-01

    In 1956, a summary of references on Pacific Northwest forest soils research was developed to begin a systematic annual recording of regionally published material in this comparatively new field. This summary included references for all years through 1955.

  2. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: FORECASTING THEIR STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  3. FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  4. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: FORECASTING THEIR STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  5. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population) have declined and some have been e...

  6. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have been ...

  7. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  8. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  9. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population) have declined and some have been e...

  10. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for CY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ceffalo, G.M.; Oxley, C.L.; Wright, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    This report provides summary results of the CY 1990 ALARA Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Information has been included regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, and the nonradiological ALARA program.

  12. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions

  13. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to

  14. A program of forest soils research for the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1949-01-01

    Pacific Northwest" and "great forests" are closely associated terms in the minds of most people. A great share of the regional income is derived from forest products, many towns in Oregon and Washington being established squarely on a base of forest harvests. A prosperous Northwest depends heavily on continued growth of trees on its large forest areas....

  15. Seahawk: telemedicine project in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongmin; Cabral, James E., Jr.; Parsons, David M.; Lipski, Gregory L.; Kirchdoerfer, Richard G.; Sado, Anthony; Bender, Gregory N.; Goeringer, Fred

    1995-05-01

    Telemedicine is becoming increasingly possible due to the confluence of ongoing technical advances in such areas as telecommunications, imaging, multimedia, computers, and information systems. Project Seahawk is a regional telemedicine program in the Pacific Northwest with Madigan Army Medical Center (MAMC) as the hub connecting various military and other federal hospitals and clinics utilizing the state-of-the-art technologies. The first phase of Project Seahawk successfully connected MAMC in Tacoma, Wash. to the University of Washington in Seattle, Wash. through the Western Washington Local Access Transport Area (LATA) Integrated Optical Network (LION) Sonet Ring using asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and two MediaStation 5000s as a feasibility demonstration. Several telemedicine scenarios were demonstrated including synchronized image manipulation, real- time transmission of ultrasound and medical images, and video and audio teleconferencing, and remote consultation. The second phase implementation will consist of increasing the number of hospitals and clinics with telemedicine capability, e.g., Bremerton Naval Hospital, Oak Harbor Naval Hospital, Seattle VA, and American Lake VA.

  16. Seasonal hydrologic responses to climate change in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, Julie A.; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2015-04-01

    Increased temperatures and changes in precipitation will result in fundamental changes in the seasonal distribution of streamflow in the Pacific Northwest and will have serious implications for water resources management. To better understand local impacts of regional climate change, we conducted model experiments to determine hydrologic sensitivities of annual, seasonal, and monthly runoff to imposed annual and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land-surface hydrology model applied at 1/16° latitude-longitude spatial resolution over the Pacific Northwest (PNW), a scale sufficient to support analyses at the hydrologic unit code eight (HUC-8) basin level. These experiments resolve the spatial character of the sensitivity of future water supply to precipitation and temperature changes by identifying the seasons and locations where climate change will have the biggest impact on runoff. The PNW exhibited a diversity of responses, where transitional (intermediate elevation) watersheds experience the greatest seasonal shifts in runoff in response to cool season warming. We also developed a methodology that uses these hydrologic sensitivities as basin-specific transfer functions to estimate future changes in long-term mean monthly hydrographs directly from climate model output of precipitation and temperature. When principles of linearity and superposition apply, these transfer functions can provide feasible first-order estimates of the likely nature of future seasonal streamflow change without performing downscaling and detailed model simulations.

  17. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC...

  19. 1. Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest facade, view to southeast (90mm lens). The original building is at right, addition at left. The cold joint between the original and addition is approximately at the line of color differentiation near center of the roof. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  20. ANIMAL-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch (EPA, Newport, OR) is to determine the effects of habitat alteration by stressors on ecological resources in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries. Research being conducted in support of this mission includes identifying critical hab...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC...

  2. ANIMAL-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch (EPA, Newport, OR) is to determine the effects of habitat alteration by stressors on ecological resources in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries. Research being conducted in support of this mission includes identifying critical hab...

  3. Resolving mantle structure beneath the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darold, A. P.; Humphreys, E.; Schmandt, B.; Gao, H.

    2011-12-01

    Cenozoic tectonics of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and the associated mantle structures are remarkable, the latter revealed only recently by EarthScope seismic data. Over the last ~66 Ma this region experienced a wide range of tectonic and magmatic conditions: Laramide compression, ~75-53 Ma, involving Farallon flat-slab subduction, regional uplift, and magmatic quiescence. With the ~53 Ma accretion of Siletzia ocean lithosphere within the Columbia Embayment, westward migration of subduction beginning Cascadia, along with initiation of the Cascade volcanic arc. Within the continental interior the Laramide orogeny was quickly followed by a period of extension involving metamorphic core complexes and the associated initial ignimbrite flare-up (both in northern Washington, Idaho, and western Montana); interior magmo-tectonic activity is attributed to flat-slab removal and (to the south) slab rollback. Rotation of Siletzia created new crust on SE Oregon and, at ~16 Ma, the Columbia River Flood Basalt (CRB) eruptions renewed vigorous magmatism. We have united several EarthScope studies in the Pacific Northwest and have focused on better resolving the major mantle structures that have been discovered. We have tomographically modeled the body waves with teleseismic, finite-frequency code under the constraints of ambient noise tomography and teleseismic receiver function models of Gao et al. (2011), and teleseismic anisotropy models of Long et al. (2009) in order to resolve structures continuously from the surface to the base of the upper mantle. We now have clear imaging of two episodes of subduction: Juan De Fuca slab deeper than ~250 km is absent across much of the PNW, and it has an E-W tear located beneath northern Oregon; Farallon slab (the "Siletzia curtain") is still present, hanging vertically just inboard of the core complexes, and with a basal tear causing the structure to extend deeper (~600 km) beneath north-central Idaho than beneath south-central Idaho and

  4. The Pacific Northwest Research Station biodiversity initiative: collaborating for biodiversity management.

    Treesearch

    Peter Nelson; Rachel White; Randy. Molina

    2006-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Research Station launched a biodiversity initiative to assist natural resource professionals in integrating complex biodiversity concepts into natural resource management processes. We canvassed clients from various affiliations to determine the main challenges they face in biodiversity management, to define their information needs, and to...

  5. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  6. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  8. Stakeholder perspectives on appropriate forest management in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, A.R.; Bradley, G. . Coll. of Forest Resources); Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S. )

    1999-02-01

    One potential source of the controversy over forest management in the Pacific Northwest is differences in stakeholders' conceptualizations, or perspectives, on appropriate forest management. This study explores the nature of stakeholders' perspectives and identifies some of the differences and commonalities among them. Study participants included 23 individuals from 3 forest stakeholder groups: the USDA Forest Service, timber industry, and environmentalists. Participants' perspectives on appropriate forest management were assessed using a conceptual content cognitive map (3CM) task. Results indicate the existence of a wide range of concerns including issues related to the focus, setting, and process of management. The pattern of differences and similarities among stakeholder groups with respect to these concerns was found to be complex and to deviate substantially from common stereotypes. In addition, participants' perceptions of the other stakeholder groups were found to be highly stereotypical and were not supported by the data.

  9. The Pacific Northwest; linkage between earthquake and volcano hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosson, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (Oregon, Washington, and northern California) is experiencing rapid industrial and population growth. The same conditions that make the region attractive- close proximity to both mountains and oceans, volcanoes and spectacular inland waters- also present significant geologic hazards that are easily overlooked in the normal timetable of human activities. The catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens 10 years ago serves as a dramatic reminder of the forces of nature that can be unleashed through volcanism. other volcanoes such as  mount Rainier, a majestic symbol of Washington, or Mount hood in Oregon, lie closer to population centers and could present far greater hazards should they become active. Earthquakes may affect even larger regions, prodcuging more cumulative damage. 

  10. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest..., Colorado River Storage Project Manager, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social.... Thomas Hackett, Rates Team Lead, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social...

  11. Interagency Operating Plan for Pacific Northwest Volcanic Ash Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, J. M.; Birch, S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), United States Geological Survey (USGS)and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have partnered on the development of an operating plan for volcanic ash events in the Pacific Northwest. This plan provides an overview of integrated, multi-agency operations in response to the threat of volcanic ash in the Pacific Northwest, and describes communication links and operational actions necessary to support the NWS/USGS/FAA Volcano Hazards Program. This regional plan follows guidelines in support of the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM) National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW).

  12. REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS: THE FUTURE OF SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  13. REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS: THE FUTURE OF SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  14. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  15. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  16. Predicting landscape sensitivity to present and future floods in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    Mohammad Safeeq; Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis; Brian Staab

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent natural disaster, causing more loss of life and property than any other in the USA. Floods also strongly influence the structure and function of watersheds, stream channels, and aquatic ecosystems. The Pacific Northwest is particularly vulnerable to climatically driven changes in flood frequency and magnitude, because snowpacks that...

  17. Wood productivity of Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir: estimates from growth-and-yield models.

    Treesearch

    David D. Marshall; Eric C. Turnblom

    2005-01-01

    With increases in harvest of forests in the Pacific Northwest during the late 1800s and early 1900s came a concern for future timber supplies. Unsuccessful attempts at selective logging in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) France) and a better understanding of requirements for natural regeneration led to the adoption of moderate-sized...

  18. Animal damage to conifers on national forests in the Pacific Northwest region.

    Treesearch

    Glenn L. Crouch

    1969-01-01

    Animal damage to conifers is a timely topic in the Pacific Northwest. Foresters in this Region are increasingly concerned and perplexed by damage caused by animals to natural and planted seedlings and larger growing stock. Nearly every animal inhabiting for st land is believed to injure seedlings and small trees to some degree. Mice girdle small trees, and bears girdle...

  19. Ecology of northern flying squirrels: implications for ecosystem management in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in the USA Pacific Northwest are keystone species that disseminate the spores of ectomycorrhizal fungi symbiotic with Pinaceae and that are preyed upon by a variety of vertebrate predators. Substantial research has shown that these squirrels tend to be most abundant in naturally regenerated forests...

  20. The Pacific Northwest Research Station biodiversity initiative: scooping out the challenges in managing for biodiversity.

    Treesearch

    Rachel White; Randy. Molina

    2006-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station's Biodiversity Initiative seeks to determine the types of science tools needed by natural resource professionals to meet diverse and complex biodiversity goals. During the scoping phase of this Initiative, we asked a broad cross-section of people whose work involves managing for biodiversity, from state...

  1. Progress on the development of seismic resilient Tall CLT Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Shiling Pei; Jeffrey Berman; Daniel Dolan; John van de Lindt; James Ricles; Richard Sause; Hans-Erik Blomgren; Marjan Popovski; Douglas Rammer

    2014-01-01

    As urban densification occurs in U.S. regions of high seismicity, there is a natural demand for seismically resilient tall buildings that are reliable, economically viable, and can be rapidly constructed. In urban regions on the west coast of the U.S., specifically the Pacific Northwest, there is significant interest in utilizing CLT in 8-20 story residential and...

  2. Spring wheat tolerance and resistance to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae reduces wheat yields in the Pacific Northwest. Previous evaluations of cultivar resistance had been in controlled environments. Cultivar tolerance had not been evaluated. Seven spring wheat trials were conducted in naturally infested fields in three states ...

  3. IMPLEMENTING REGIONAL SCALE MONITORING IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION OF THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vast forest greeted the early non-native explorers and settlers as they traversed the Pacific Northwest, currently the states of Washington, Oregon and Northern California, west of the Cascade Mountains. This natural resource supported an ever-expanding logging industry, with su...

  4. IMPLEMENTING REGIONAL SCALE MONITORING IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION OF THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vast forest greeted the early non-native explorers and settlers as they traversed the Pacific Northwest, currently the states of Washington, Oregon and Northern California, west of the Cascade Mountains. This natural resource supported an ever-expanding logging industry, with su...

  5. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 31, November 30, 1940.

    Treesearch

    P.A. Briegleb; Theodore Kachin; L.A. Isaac; Fremont McComb; T.T. Munger

    1940-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry in the Pacific Northwest is able to compete successfully in national and world markets primarily bemuse it is favored with dense stands of high-grade pulpwood in its back yard. This natural advantage need not be temporary. Here industry can obtain such stands continuously because it can grow them.

  6. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  7. 77 FR 54575 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...-54576] [FR Doc No: 2012-21806] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project--Rate Order No. WAPA-159 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE... the Secretary of Energy the power marketing functions of the Secretary of the Department of...

  8. Competition for national forest timber in the Northern, Pacific Southwest, and Pacific Northwest regions.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes

    1980-01-01

    Competition for National Forest timber was examined in the Northern, Pacific Southwest, and Pacific Northwest Regions of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The impacts of sealed bidding and the Small Business Set-Aside Program were found to vary widely among the different appraisal zones. Noncompetitive sales were screened for collusive activity; and...

  9. Losses Caused by Annosus Root Disease in Pacific Northwest Forests

    Treesearch

    Ellen Michaels Goheen; Donald J. Goheen

    1989-01-01

    Annosus root disease affects three tree species groups in the Pacific Northwest-the hemlocks, the pines, and the true firs. The disease causes significant decay and stem breakage in old growth western hemlock stands but little damage in young managed stands. Losses in ponderosa pine are minor over most of the region but can be substantial in selectively harvested...

  10. Silvicultural use of herbicides in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    H. Gratkowski

    1975-01-01

    After a brief description of silvicultural problems, the author tells how to prescribe herbicidal sprays for aerial, application in Pacific Northwest forests. The publication offers a detailed discussion of the five basic considerations: (1) selection of the best herbicide or herbicides, (2) amount of herbicide to be applied per acre, (3) carriers, (4) volume of spray...

  11. Glutenin alleles in U.S. Pacific Northwest wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), comprised of the states of Washington, Idaho and Oregon, produces about 8 million metric tonnes of wheat annually. This region is somewhat unique in that it grows winter and spring wheats, hard and soft wheats, white and red-grained wheats, and club and lax-head (‘c...

  12. Predicting logging residue volumes in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Stan Zarnoch; Micah G. Scudder

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest forest managers seek estimates of post-timber-harvest woody residue volumes and biomass that can be related to readily available site- and tree-level attributes. To better predict residue production, researchers investigated variability in residue ratios, growing-stock residue volume per mill-delivered volume, across Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and...

  13. HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: TWEAKING THE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) has recently been documented in Pacific Northwest forests, but the controls governing this process and its importance to shallow-rooted species are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to manipulate the soil-root system to tease apart ...

  14. Secondary Climate Change Education in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, P. Troy; Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is an important issue students should understand to be productive members of society. The objectives were to evaluate the instruction and teacher perceptions relating to CC in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) secondary (7-12) classes across disciplines. The teacher perceptions, instructional frequency, perceived barriers to…

  15. Estimating postfire water production in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Potts; David L. Peterson; Hans R. Zuuring

    1989-01-01

    Two hydrologic models were adapted to estimate postfire changer in water yield in Pacific Northwest watersheds. The WRENSS version of the simulation model PROSPER is used for hydrologic regimes dominated by rainfall: it calculates water available for streamflow onthe basis of seasonal precipitation and leaf area index. The WRENSS version of the simulation model WATBAL...

  16. The Pacific Northwest region vegetation and monitoring system.

    Treesearch

    Timothy A. Max; Hans T. Schreuder; John W. Hazard; Daniel D. Oswald; John Teply; Jim. Alegria

    1996-01-01

    A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific North-west Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. A less technical description of the selected...

  17. Winter safflower, a potential alternative crop for the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dryland cropping system in the Pacific Northwest is dominated by a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system that occupies more than 90% of the dryland hectares. Success in finding a viable alternative crop has been limited because the annual precipitation in this region varies from less than 1...

  18. Special forest products: species information guide for the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Nan C. Vance; Melissa Borsting; David Pilz; Jim. Freed

    2001-01-01

    This guide is a collection of information about economically important vascular and nonvascular plants and fungi found in the Pacific Northwest that furnish special forest products. Many of these plants and fungi are also found in Alaska, northern Idaho, and western Montana. They contribute to many botanical, floral, woodcraft, and decorative industries and to the...

  19. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  20. Bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications through 1955.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1956-01-01

    During the past ten years, interest and development of research in forest soils has grown steadily in the Pacific Northwest. Prior to 1946, no full-time work in forest soils was being done in the region. Today, both private and public land-management organizations employ forest soils research technicians. In addition, two colleges in the region offer instruction in...

  1. Harvesting minor forest products in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Adams

    1960-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest yield a number of secondary or so-called minor forest products. These include those smaller, side-line items of commercial value that can usually be harvested without intensive management or cultivation. They are generally only incidental to a primary use of the land for sawtimber or pulpwood production. In most cases they can be...

  2. 1958 bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1959-01-01

    This fourth annual summary of references is compiled to maintain a systematic recording of publications in the comparatively new field of forest soils research in the Pacific Northwest. It is intended to serve both as a checklist and as a record of development of knowledge.

  3. Sampling methods for amphibians in streams in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Bury; Paul Stephen. Corn

    1991-01-01

    Methods describing how to sample aquatic and semiaquatic amphibians in small streams and headwater habitats in the Pacific Northwest are presented. We developed a technique that samples 10-meter stretches of selected streams, which was adequate to detect presence or absence of amphibian species and provided sample sizes statistically sufficient to compare abundance of...

  4. 1957 bibliography of Pacific Northwest forest soils publications.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1958-01-01

    In 1956, The Forest Soils Committee of the Douglas-fir Region endorsed preparation of an annual bibliography dealing with forest soils research in the Pacific Northwest. The first list, published as Research Note No. 130, summarized all forest soils publications pertaining to the region through 1955. A summary of such publications appearing in 1956 was released as...

  5. Watershed analysis on federal lands of the Pacific northwest

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer; Michael J. Furniss

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Watershed analysis-the evaluation of processes that affect ecosystems and resources in a watershed-is now being carried out by Federal land-management and regulatory agencies on Federal lands of the Pacific Northwest. Methods used differ from those of other implementations of watershed analysis because objectives and opportunities differ. In particular,...

  6. Secondary Climate Change Education in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, P. Troy; Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is an important issue students should understand to be productive members of society. The objectives were to evaluate the instruction and teacher perceptions relating to CC in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) secondary (7-12) classes across disciplines. The teacher perceptions, instructional frequency, perceived barriers to…

  7. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  8. 2007 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Treesearch

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    As I look back at 2007 for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station, I am very gratified at the contributions of our scientists and support staff in producing scientific knowledge and tools. This year has brought unprecedented recognition of the contributions of our scientists. Ralph Alig (research forester), Ron Neilson (bioclimatologist), and David L. Peterson (...

  9. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  10. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  11. Investigations of Fusarium diseases within Inland Pacific Northwest forest nurseries

    Treesearch

    Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium spp. cause important diseases that limit production of seedlings in forest nurseries worldwide. Several aspects of these diseases have been investigated for many years within Inland Pacific Northwest nurseries to better understand disease etiology, pathogen inoculum sources, and epidemiology. Investigations have also involved improving...

  12. HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: TWEAKING THE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) has recently been documented in Pacific Northwest forests, but the controls governing this process and its importance to shallow-rooted species are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to manipulate the soil-root system to tease apart ...

  13. Risk assessment for biodiversity conservation planning in Pacific Northwest forests

    Treesearch

    Becky K. Kerns; Alan Ager

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a robust strategy for landscape-scale planning challenges associated with species conservation and habitat protection in Pacific Northwest forests. We provide an overview of quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment with focus on the application of approaches and influences from the actuarial, financial, and technical...

  14. Sciurids in Pacific Northwest managed and old-growth forests.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the factors governing sciurid abundance in the Pacific Northwest is essential for prescribing forest management practices for second-growth forests where recovery of Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) populations and enhancement of biodiversity are objectives. We compared results of companion studies of sciurids in western...

  15. Soil and Water Challenges for Pacific Northwest Agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450 ...

  16. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: IN SEARCH OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds...

  17. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: THE MOST LIKELY FUTURE AND SOME ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of...

  18. Green Mansions: The Evergreen Forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philipek, Frances; Smith, Shelley; Brook, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ecosystem in Pacific Northwest Coastal America and investigates land management issues. Discusses the impact of canopy trees on temperature and the forest itself. Explains fungi's relationship with trees and presents activities on stream flow, wood, volcanoes, and plants for the classroom. (YDS)

  19. Green Mansions: The Evergreen Forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philipek, Frances; Smith, Shelley; Brook, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ecosystem in Pacific Northwest Coastal America and investigates land management issues. Discusses the impact of canopy trees on temperature and the forest itself. Explains fungi's relationship with trees and presents activities on stream flow, wood, volcanoes, and plants for the classroom. (YDS)

  20. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 2. Technical appendix

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The technical appendix presents the technical aspects of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: the survey questionnaire, exhibit cards, instructions for interviewers, and a description of the survey plan. A description of the sample plan (method used to determine which 4000 households) is given. (MCW)

  1. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: THE MOST LIKELY FUTURE AND SOME ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of...

  2. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides summary results of the CY 1992 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).(a) This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, and the nonradiological ALARA program.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for CY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report provides summary results of the CY 1991 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).(a) This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, and the nonradiological ALARA program.

  5. Potential canopy interception of nitrogen in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey M. Klopatek; Matthew J. Barry; Dale W. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition is increasing worldwide from anthropogenic sources and encroactring upon previously N limited ecosystems. Recent literature reports increases in inorganic N deposition in Pacific Northwest forests of the United States due to expanding urbanization. We examined the contributions of atmospheric deposition of inorganic N to old-growth and second-growth...

  6. Ex situ gene conservation for conifers in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Sara R. Lipow; J. Bradley St. Clair; G.R. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a group of public and private organizations responsible for managing much of the timberland in western Oregon and Washington formed the Pacific Northwest forest tree Gene Conservation Group (GCG) to ensure that the evolutionary potential of important regional tree species is maintained. The group is first compiling data to evaluate the genetic resource status...

  7. 2013 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (2013 White Book) is BPA's latest projection of the Pacific Northwest regional retail loads, contract obligations, contract purchases, and resource capabilities. The 2013 White Book is a snapshot of conditions as of October 1, 2013, documenting the loads and resources for the Federal system and region for the 10-year study period OY 2014 through 2023. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). Starting with the 2012 White Book, BPA changed the annual production schedule for future White Books. BPA is scheduled to publish a complete White Book, which includes a Federal System Needs Assessment analysis, every other year (even years). In the odd-numbered years, BPA will publish a biennial summary update (Supplement) that only contains major changes to the Federal System and Regional System analyses that have occurred since the last White Book. http://www.bpa.gov/power/pgp/whitebook/2013/index.shtml.

  8. Subduction, Extension, and a Mantle Plume in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, W. B.; Allen, R. M.; Richards, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction zones are some of the most important systems that control the dynamics and evolution of the earth. The Cascadia Subduction Zone offers a unique natural laboratory for understanding the subduction process, and how subduction interacts with other large-scale geodynamical phenomena. The small size of the Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate and the proximity of the system to the Yellowstone Hotspot and the extensional Basin and Range province allow for detailed study of the effects these important systems have on each other. We present both a P-wave and an S-wave tomographic model of the Pacific Northwestern United States using regional seismic arrays, including the amphibious Cascadia Initiative. These models share important features, such as the Yellowstone plume, the subducting JdF slab, a gap in the subducting slab, and a low-velocity feature beneath the shallowest portions of the slab. But subtle differences in these features between the models—the size of the gap in the subducting JdF slab and the shape of the Yellowstone plume shaft above the transition zone, for example—provide physical insight into the interpretation of these models. The physics that we infer from our seismic tomography and other studies of the region will refine our understanding of subduction zones worldwide, and will help to identify targets for future amphibious seismic array studies. The discovery of a pronounced low-velocity feature beneath the JdF slab as it subducts beneath the coastal Pacific Northwest is, thus far, the most surprising result from our imaging work, and implies a heretofore unanticipated regime of dynamical interaction between the sublithospheric oceanic asthenosphere and the subduction process. Such discoveries are made possible, and rendered interpretable, by ever-increasing resolution that the Cascadia Initiative affords seismic tomography models.

  9. Classification of species attributes for Pacific Northwest freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaroban, D.W.; Mulvey, M.P.; Maret, T.R.; Hughes, R.M.; Merritt, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    Fish assemblages integrate physical and chemical habitat conditions and are used to evaluate the condition of water resources in the Pacific Northwest. To facilitate such evaluations, we classified each of the 132 freshwater fish species known to occur in the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon, Washington) by its origin, overall pollution tolerance, adult habitat, adult feeding, and water temperature preference. Recommendations from regional fishery experts, published literature, and the aggregate experience of the authors were used to classify species. The attribute classifications were responsive to human disturbance of aquatic habitats when applied to fish assemblages sampled from throughout the region. Our attribute classification of fish species promotes use of fish assemblages to evaluate water resource conditions regionally and fosters greater acceptance of biological measures of water resource quality.

  10. Will climate change affect biodiversity in pacific northwest forests

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, S.; Rosenbaum, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. The forests of the Pacific Northwest have a high biological diversity, not only in terms of tree species, but also in terms of herbs, bryophytes and hepatophytes, algae, fungi, protist, bacteria, and many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Global circulation and vegetation model projections of global climate change effects on PNW forests include reductions in species diversity in low elevation forests as well as elevational and latitudinal shifts in species ranges. As species are most likely to be stressed at the edges of their ranges, plant and animal species with low mobility, or those that are prevented from migrating by lack of habitat corridors, may become regionally extinct. Endangered species with limited distribution may be especially vulnerable to shifts in habitat conditions.

  11. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  12. Is Snowpack Drought an Increasing Threat in the Pacific Northwest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, M. G.; Liu, M.; Stockle, C.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Adam, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    In spite of near normal precipitation during the winter of water year 2015, the Pacific Northwest (PNW) has experienced drought because of insufficient snow accumulation in the mountains, which was exacerbated by an unusually warm and dry summer. Low mountain snowpack resulted from an anomalously warm winter and subsequently affected water supply for irrigation, fish habitat, ecosystem, and recreation, necessitating a statewide drought emergency declaration in the Washington State. While the 2015 drought is likely a result of natural variability superposed with climate warming, we ask how the frequency of droughts of this character are likely to change as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Downscaled climate data from multiple Global Climate Models from the Fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project were used with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to calculate both the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Snow Melt and Rain Index (SMRI) indices for quantifying meteorological and snowpack droughts, respectively, in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) under historic and future climate change scenarios. Our results show that snowpack droughts increase in severity and frequency in the future in response to the sensitivity of the snowpack to warming, whereas there is a less systematic trend in meteorological drought. Water resources in the CRB largely depend on the mountain snowpack and spring snowmelt. More frequent occurrence of snowpack drought will have serious implications in this system, which need to be addressed in future studies.

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  15. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  16. The Pacific Northwest Demand Response Market Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; DeSteese, John G.

    2008-07-20

    This paper describes the implementation and results of a field demonstration wherein residential electric water heaters and thermostats, commercial building space conditioning, municipal water pump loads, and several distributed generators were coordinated to manage constrained feeder electrical distribution through the two-way communication of load status and electric price signals. The field demonstration took place in Washington and Oregon and was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy and several northwest utilities. Price is found to be an effective control signal for managing transmission or distribution congestion. Real-time signals at 5-minute intervals are shown to shift controlled load in time. The behaviors of customers and their responses under fixed, time-ofuse, and real-time price contracts are compared. Peak loads are effectively reduced on the experimental feeder. A novel application of portfolio theory is applied to the selection of an optimal mix of customer contract types. Index Terms—demand response, power markets, retail markets, distribution automation, distributed resources, load control.

  17. Tree improvement in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    R. Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Advanced-generation tree breeding programs are underway for Douglas-fir and coastal western hemlock. These programs will continue to improve growth rates and other traits. Regardless of whether seeds is from a seed orchard or natural collection, it must be used in its appropriated breeding zone or seed zone. These zones vary by species. Breeding programs are underway...

  18. The pacific northwest remote sensing project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The history of a 3-year effort in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to establish operational capabilities to analyze LANDSAT digital data and apply the results to natural resources management programs is related. Currently a number of agencies are conduct operational applications projects utilizing the data analysis facilities available and LANDSAT-derived data are being used by these agencies in their day-to-day operations. The image analysis systems and software used in each state are described and the participating state and local agencies are listed.

  19. Drought in the Pacific Northwest, 1920-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, M.; Nijssen, B.; Mao, Y.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Drought, which is usually defined as an extended period of water supply deficit, is one of the costliest natural hazards. Agricultural, fisheries, hydropower generation and water resource management are all directly affected by droughts. Droughts are usually classified as meteorological, agricultural, or hydrological. The first type is defined based on precipitation and the latter two are connected with hydrological variables (soil moisture and runoff). Because observations of soil moisture and (spatially distributed) runoff are sparse, agricultural and hydrological drought is more difficult to quantify, and hydrological models are often used in their analysis. Nonetheless, the temporal and spatial characteristics of these types of drought are not well understood. Based on hydrological model simulation results for a period of nearly a century, we evaluate the historical characteristics of drought over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, defined as the Columbia River basin and coastal drainages. Major droughts in the 1930s, 1977 and early 2000s caused substantial economic losses to the region. We used the VIC macroscale hydrology model to simulate 94 years (1920-2013) of runoff and soil moisture over the region. In order to minimize the effects of model error, we interpret results as percentiles that are calculated according to simulation outputs distribution. We explore in particular the characteristics of drought in the PNW. The main results are: 1, the dry time period are more likely to be included in a drought event while the onset are usually earlier; 2, little snow-melting can lead to hydrological drought (below-normal streamflow) in that year; 3, the spatial pattern of agricultural drought frequency is highly related with precipitation and soil moisture persistence.

  20. Thresholds for protecting Pacific Northwest ecosystems from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: state of knowledge report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, Tonnie; Blett, Tamara; Porter, Ellen; Geiser, Linda; Graw, Rick; McMurray, Jill; Perakis, Steven S.; Rochefort, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service manage areas in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington – collectively referred to in this report as the Pacific Northwest - that contain significant natural resources and provide many recreational opportunities. The agencies are mandated to protect the air quality and air pollution-sensitive resources on these federal lands. Human activity has greatly increased the amount of nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere, resulting in elevated amounts of nitrogen being deposited in park and forest ecosystems. There is limited information in the Pacific Northwest about the levels of nitrogen that negatively affect natural systems, i.e., the critical loads. The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service, with scientific input from the U.S. Geological Survey, have developed an approach for accumulating additional nitrogen critical loads information in the Pacific Northwest and using the data in planning and regulatory arenas. As a first step in that process, this report summarizes the current state of knowledge about nitrogen deposition, effects, and critical loads in the region. It also describes ongoing research efforts and identifies and prioritizes additional data needs.

  1. An index of biological integrity (IBI) for Pacific Northwest rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Maret, T.R.; Hughes, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a commonly used measure of relative aquatic ecosystem condition; however, its application to coldwater rivers over large geographic areas has been limited. A seven-step process was used to construct and test an IBI applicable to fish assemblages in coldwater rivers throughout the U.S. portion of the Pacific Northwest. First, fish data from the region were compiled from previous studies and candidate metrics were selected. Second, reference conditions were estimated from historical reports and minimally disturbed reference sites in the region. Third, data from the upper Snake River basin were used to test metrics and develop the initial index. Fourth, candidate metrics were evaluated for their redundancy, variability, precision, and ability to reflect a wide range of conditions while distinguishing reference sites from disturbed sites. Fifth, the selected metrics were standardized by being scored continuously from 0 to 1 and then weighted as necessary to produce an IBI ranging from 0 to 100. The resulting index included 10 metrics: number of native coldwater species, number of age-classes of sculpins Cottus spp., percentage of sensitive native individuals, percentage of coldwater individuals, percentage of tolerant individuals, number of alien species, percentage of common carp Cyprinus carpio individuals, number of selected salmonid age-classes, catch per unit effort of coldwater individuals, and percentage of individuals with selected anomalies. Sixth, the IBI responses were tested with additional data sets from throughout the Pacific Northwest. Last, scores from two minimally disturbed reference rivers were evaluated for longitudinal gradients along the river continuum. The IBI responded to environmental disturbances and was spatially and temporally stable at over 150 sites in the Pacific Northwest. The results support its use across a large geographic area to describe the relative biological condition of coolwater and

  2. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  3. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  4. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  5. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  8. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging.

  9. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging.

  10. Seismic survey probes urban earthquake hazards in Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Brocher, T.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Trehu, A.M.; Weaver, C.S.; Creager, K.C.; Crosson, R.S.; Parsons, T.; Cooper, A. K.; Mosher, D.; Spence, G.; Zelt, B.C.; Hammer, P.T.; Childs, J. R.; Cochrane, G.R.; Chopra, S.; Walia, R.

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary seismic survey earlier this year in the Pacific Northwest is expected to reveal much new information about the earthquake threat to U.S. and Canadian urban areas there. A disastrous earthquake is a very real possibility in the region. The survey, known as the Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS), engendered close cooperation among geologists, biologists, environmental groups, and government agencies. It also succeeded in striking a fine balance between the need to prepare for a great earthquake and the requirement to protect a coveted marine environment while operating a large airgun array.

  11. Seismic survey probes urban earthquake hazards in Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M. A.; Brocher, T. M.; Hyndman, R. D.; Trehu, A. M.; Weaver, C. S.; Creager, K. C.; Crosson, R. S.; Parsons, T.; Cooper, A. K.; Mosher, D.; Spence, G.; Zelt, B. C.; Hammer, P. T.; ten Brink, U.; Pratt, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Childs, J. R.; Cochrane, G. R.; Chopra, S.; Walia, R.

    A multidisciplinary seismic survey earlier this year in the Pacific Northwest is expected to reveal much new information about the earthquake threat to U.S. and Canadian urban areas there. A disastrous earthquake is a very real possibility in the region.The survey, known as the Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS), engendered close cooperation among geologists, biologists, environmental groups, and government agencies. It also succeeded in striking a fine balance between the need to prepare for a great earthquake and the requirement to protect a coveted marine environment while operating a large airgun array.

  12. 1998 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: 1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and 2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. The load forecast is derived by using economic planning models to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract

  13. Perceptions of earthquake and tsunami issues in U.S. Pacific Northwest port and harbor communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Good, James W.

    2005-01-01

    Although there is considerable energy focused on assessing natural hazards associated with earthquakes and tsunamis in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, little has been done to understand societal vulnerability to these hazards. Part of understanding societal vulnerability includes assessing the perceptions and priorities of public sector individuals with traditional emergency management responsibilities and of private citizens who could play key roles in community recovery. In response to this knowledge gap, we examine earthquake and tsunami perceptions of stakeholders and decision makers from coastal communities in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, focusing on perceptions of (1) regional hazards and societal vulnerability, (2) the current state of readiness, and (3) priorities for future hazard adjustment efforts. Results of a mailed survey suggest that survey participants believe that earthquakes and tsunamis are credible community threats. Most communities are focusing on regional mitigation and response planning, with less effort devoted to recovery plans or to making individual organizations more resilient. Significant differences in expressed perceptions and priorities were observed between Oregon and Washington respondents, mainly on tsunami issues. Significant perception differences were also observed between private and public sector respondents. Our results suggest the need for further research and for outreach and planning initiatives in the Pacific Northwest to address significant gaps in earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and readiness.

  14. Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

  15. Photo series for quantifying natural fuels. Volume XI: eastern Oregon sagebrush-steppe and spotted owl nesting habitat in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Clinton S. Wright; Robert E. Vihnanek; Joseph C. Restaino; Jon E. Dvorak

    2012-01-01

    Three series of photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings for sagebrush-steppe types that are ecotonal with grasses, western juniper, and ponderosa pine in eastern Oregon, and one series of photographs displays a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings for northern spotted owl nesting habitat in forest types in Washington and Oregon....

  16. Characterizing Inland Pacific Northwest American Viticultural Areas with Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Ian-Huei; Davenport, Joan R.; Rupp, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    American Viticultural Areas are officially recognized appellations for wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). They represent not only geographic identification for growers, but also economic significance through price premiums for grapes from desirable appellations and wines sourcing grapes from such appellations. Petitions for establishment and official descriptions of American Viticultural Areas in the inland Pacific Northwest have traditionally relied on general descriptions of physical attributes and data from point measurements, namely weather stations. Examination of spatial datasets in a geographic information system provides a more holistic means of assessing viticultural areas and a spatially continuous representation of an area. Comparison of spatial datasets to official appellation descriptions largely corroborate petitioners' claims, often with greater detail, but also highlight some shortcomings of official appellation descriptions. By focusing on spatial data representing environmental factors most important to wine grape production, viticultural areas can be described more thoroughly and accurately and appellations may be more appropriately delineated. We examined inland Pacific Northwest American Viticultural Areas with a geographic information system approach, illustrating the utility of spatial datasets in characterization and delineation of American Viticultural Areas. PMID:23614001

  17. Connectivity among straits of the northwest Pacific marginal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yang-Ki; Seo, Gwang-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Sangil; Kim, Young-Gyu; Youn, Yong-Hoon; Dever, Edward P.

    2009-06-01

    The connectivity among straits of the northwest Pacific marginal seas is investigated with a primitive-equation ocean circulation model simulated for 10 years from 1994 to 2003. Over the simulation interval the temporal and spatial means and variations of the model sea surface temperature are comparable to those of the satellite sea surface temperature. The model transport through the straits shows good agreement with the available observations and a high seasonality in the Taiwan Strait, the Korea Strait, and the Soya Strait but relatively low seasonality in the Tsugaru Strait. The Kuroshio and Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) are two sources of water flowing through the Korea Strait. The volume transport in the Korea Strait is dominated by the Kuroshio in winter (83%) and by the TWC in summer (66%). Relative to the transport through the Korea Strait, the transport percentages of the Tsugaru Strait connecting to the northwest Pacific Ocean are 79% in winter and 65% in summer. The seasonality of the Korea Strait transport is positively correlated with the cross-strait wind stress. The drifter experiments show that it takes about 4 months for most of the drifters deployed in the Taiwan Strait to enter the Korea Strait and more than 2 months to travel from the Korea Strait to the Tsugaru and Soya straits.

  18. Geospatial Habitat Analysis in Pacific Northwest Coastal Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B. ); Thom, Ronald M. ); Rumrill, Steven; Miller, L M.

    2003-08-01

    We assessed historical changes in the location and amount of estuarine habitat in three of the four largest coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest (Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Coos Bay) as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS). To accomplish this, navigation charts, hydrographic survey data, maps, and published descriptions were used to gain information on the location of the shoreline, bathymetry, and vegetated habitats, which was then digitized and subjected to geospatial analysis using a geographic information system. In addition, we used present-day elevational boundaries for marshes, flats, and eelgrass meadows to help define habitat areas where they were not indicated on historical maps. The analysis showed that tidal flats have decreased in all study areas; potential eelgrass habitat has increased in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay and decreased slightly in Coos Bay; tidal wetland area has declined in all three coastal estuaries, with increases in localized areas due to filling and sedimentation; and dramatic changes have occurred at the mouths of Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay. As has been shown before, these data illustrate that direct physical alteration (filling and diking) has resulted in large changes to habitats. However, indirect impacts from forest practices in the watershed, as well as variation in climatic factors and oceanographic processes, may also have contributed to changes. The information provides more evidence for managing estuarine habitats in the region and a employing a historical template to plan habitat restoration in the future.

  19. Validation Efforts of the Pacific Northwest River Restoration Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, J. M.; Katz, S. L.; Morehead, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    The improvement of science in river restoration relies heavily on the evaluation of previously established projects in order to assess the ecosystem response and project outcome (Bernhard et al, 2005). To facilitate this, there needs to be competent project tracking and documentation of outcomes. In the Pacific Northwest, the National Marine Fisheries Service's Northwest Fisheries Science Center has compiled a database containing over 26,000 restoration actions at 36,000 locations in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana (Katz, et al. in review). Recent efforts have been undertaken to validate this database through selection of random samples for telephone interviews and field site visits. 47 project managers were interviewed via telephone regarding their restoration activities within four project category intents. In addition, six Columbia River sub-basins were selected for site validation sampling of 170 projects. The basins included for site validations are the Lemhi and Pahsimeroi Rivers in Idaho, the Methow and Entiat Rivers in Washington, and the Upper and Lower John Day Rivers in Oregon. Survey results are presented with statistical estimators to validate the database. Regional trends in river restoration were found to exist and differences were found between reporting agencies and on the smaller, local scale. The implementation of restoration activities is examined to see if projects are being instigated as intended and case studies are examined to reveal lessons learned from practitioners. In general, the effectiveness of various river restoration activities in the Pacific Northwest would be better charted through standardization in project tracking and documentation. References Bernhardt, E. S., Palmer, M. A., Allan, J. D., Alexander, G., Barnas, K., Brooks, S., Carr, J., Clayton, S., Dahm, C., Follstad-Shah, J., Galat, D., Gloss, S., Goodwin, P., Hart, D., Hassett, B., Jenkinson, J., Katz, S., Kondolf, G. M., Lake, P. S., Lave, R., Meyer, J. L., O

  20. Chip prices as a proxy for nonsawtimber prices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes

    1999-01-01

    The heavy focus on Pacific Northwest saw-log prices makes it difficult for land managers to develop price expectations for stands that contain both sawtimber and nonsawtimber logs. This raises the question: What is a reasonable proxy (or measure) for nonsawtimber prices in the Pacific Northwest? One such proxy is export chip prices, which serve as a reasonable measure...

  1. Supplemental Pacific Northwest History Materials: Overcoming Racism and Sexism. Multicultural Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Stephen Lawrence

    Twenty-four units which focus on the contribution of women and minority group members to the development of the Pacific Northwest provide supplementary material for high school social studies classes. The lives of 12 women are treated in separate units. Other topics include the Pacific Northwest 100 years ago, the temperance movement, oral history…

  2. Cognitive styles of Forest Service scientists and managers in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey

    1997-01-01

    Preferences of executives, foresters, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Research Station and executives, District Rangers, foresters, engineers, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Region, National Forest System (USDA Forest Service), were compared for various thinking styles. Herrmann brain dominance profiles from 230 scientists and managers were drawn from...

  3. Fluvial processes in Puget Sound rivers and the Pacific Northwest [Chapter 3

    Treesearch

    John M. Buffington; Richard D. Woodsmith; Derek B. Booth; David R. Montgomery

    2003-01-01

    The variability of topography, geology, climate; vegetation, and land use in the Pacific Northwest creates considerable spatial and temporal variability of fluvial processes and reach-scale channel type. Here we identify process domains of typical Pacific Northwest watersheds and examine local physiographic and geologic controls on channel processes and response...

  4. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. These stresses include increased temperatures, sea level rise, and high nutrient inputs, all of which may directly affect the productivi...

  5. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. These stresses include increased temperatures, sea level rise, and high nutrient inputs, all of which may directly affect the productivi...

  6. Azole resistance in Cryptococcus gattii from the Pacific Northwest: Investigation of the role of ERG11.

    PubMed

    Gast, Charles E; Basso, Luiz R; Bruzual, Igor; Wong, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is responsible for an expanding epidemic of serious infections in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States (Pacific Northwest). Some patients with these infections respond poorly to azole antifungals, and high azole MICs have been reported in Pacific Northwest C. gattii. In this study, multiple azoles (but not amphotericin B) had higher MICs for 25 Pacific Northwest C. gattii than for 34 non-Pacific Northwest C. gattii or 20 Cryptococcus neoformans strains. We therefore examined the roles in azole resistance of overexpression of or mutations in the gene (ERG11) encoding the azole target enzyme. ERG11/ACT1 mRNA ratios were higher in C. gattii than in C. neoformans, but these ratios did not differ in Pacific Northwest and non-Pacific Northwest C. gattii strains, nor did they correlate with fluconazole MICs within any group. Three Pacific Northwest C. gattii strains with low azole MICs and 2 with high azole MICs had deduced Erg11p sequences that differed at one or more positions from that of the fully sequenced Pacific Northwest C. gattii strain R265. However, the azole MICs for conditional Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg11 mutants expressing the 5 variant ERG11s were within 2-fold of the azole MICs for S. cerevisiae expressing the ERG11 gene from C. gattii R265, non-Pacific Northwest C. gattii strain WM276, or C. neoformans strains H99 or JEC21. We conclude that neither ERG11 overexpression nor variations in ERG11 coding sequences was responsible for the high azole MICs observed for the Pacific Northwest C. gattii strains we studied.

  7. 1999 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands—firm loads—are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and “contracted for” resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of

  8. New Forestry Principles from Ecosystem Analysis of Pacific Northwest Forests.

    PubMed

    Swanson, F J; Franklin, J F

    1992-08-01

    Forest management practices on Federal lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have been the center of intense controversy. Conflicting value systems, new information, and new perspectives have fueled the debate over the balance between timber production and preservation of natural ecosystems. In this paper we consider examples from three aspects of forest management: (1) management of forest stands, (2) management of the patchwork of forest stands at the landscape scale, and (3) management of streams and riparian networks. In each of these cases we examine: management practices and perspectives of the recent past, findings from ecosystem research that are leading to change in those practices, resulting changes in management practices, and future research directions. We also suggest a path for future change, including systems for managing in the face of uncertainty. Results of research in natural and managed forest and stream ecosystems have been pivotal in reassessment and redesign of management practices to provide a broader range of management options for society to consider. Results of studies of natural disturbance processes and their effects are used as reference points for management systems intending to sustain biological diversity and ecosystem productivity. Stand management practices, for example, are being modified to retain some live trees and greater amounts of dead woody debris, both standing and down, in areas that would instead be clear-cut under intensive plantation forestry practices. The motivations for these modified practices are to sustain biological diversity, including key wildlife species, and to maintain soil productivity. Models of alternative forest-cutting patterns at a landscape scale are being used to examine their effects on ecosystem structure and function. One result of this analysis has been to shift from the previous system of dispersing cutting units to a system involving greater aggregation of units using designs to

  9. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  10. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  11. Experimental Warming and Precipitation Effects on Plant Community Composition, Productivity, Nutrient Availability, and Soil Respiration in Pacific Northwest Prairies along a Natural Climate Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgham, S. D.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Tomaszewski, T.; Reynolds, L.; Goklany, M.; Wilson, H.; Johnson, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change effects on soil respiration and carbon stores in grasslands globally may have significant implications for future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Climate change may also may negatively impact native plant species and favor exotic species. We are experimentally increasing temperature by 3 degrees C and increasing precipitation by 25% above ambient in three upland prairie sites along a natural climate gradient from southwestern Oregon to central-western Washington to determine how future climate change will affect (i) plant community composition and the relative success of native versus introduced plant species and (ii) above- and belowground carbon and nutrient dynamics. Sixty plots (20 at each site) were restored by mowing, raking, and herbicide application followed by the sowing of the same 34 native grass and forb species in each plot. Differences in total cover, net primary productivity, and community composition were much greater among sites than among treatments within sites in both 2010--the establishment year, and 2011-the first full year of treatment. Strong successional dynamics occurred over the two years as competition intensified, but these were dependent on a site-treatment interaction, with lower native plant survival in heated plots because of competitive exclusion by exotic, invasive plants. A strong treatment - season interaction in canopy cover (as determined by canopy reflectance) also occurred, with heating causing greater cover during the wet season and lower cover during the dry season. This effect was strongest in the southernmost site which experiences earlier and more intense drought conditions. There were also strong site, treatment, and season interactions on nutrient availability as determined by cation-anion exchange resins. Heating increased nutrient availability in all but the northernmost site during the growing season, and that site also had much lower nutrient availability, but overall availability and

  12. A dynamic model for intertemporal allocation of old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Carver, Andrew D; Lee, John G; LeMaster, Dennis C

    2002-12-01

    Across the globe, continued policy debates regarding the management of old-growth forests center around the difficult task of balancing economic and ecological considerations. Though the forests of the Pacific Northwest United States are among the most studied old-growth ecosystems, ecological and economic analyses have yielded public land management directives that remain controversial. Specifically, the recently adopted Northwest Forest Plan lacks explicit goals for maintaining intergenerational equity for the use of forest resources and the diversity of old-growth ecosystems. Unlike previous studies which rely on monetary quantification of costs and benefits, this study develops and applies a conceptual framework for evaluating socially optimal Pacific Northwest old-growth forest utilization strategies. Conditions for the optimal management of old-growth forests are derived using dynamic programming. The objective function synthesizes relevant biological and economic attributes of the old-growth allocation problem. Results in the form of extraction paths are compared given social pressure for consumptive and non-consumptive benefits, as well as different planning horizons, rates of social time preference, and environmental variance. Lengthening the planning horizon results in a vast divergence of optimal policies in the absence of discounting. Extraction rates appear to approach zero as the planning horizon approaches infinity. While higher rates of social time preference increase the rate of extraction, forest stocks remaining at the terminal time period equal levels remaining with a lower discount rate. Increasing environmental variance results in a higher level of stock remaining at the terminal time period. This analysis, while specific to the old-growth controversy of the Pacific Northwest, does provide general guidelines for addressing similar problems of multiple uses of natural areas, particularly where such uses are mutually incompatible, or where one

  13. High dose calibrations at the pacific northwest laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. C.; Fox, R. A.

    1989-04-01

    he need is increasing for both high radiation exposures and calibration measurements that provide traceability of such exposures to national standards. The applications of high exposures include: electronic component damage studies, sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Accurate high exposure measurements are difficult to obtain and cannot, in general, be carried out with a single dose measurement system or technique because of the wide range of doses and the variety of materials involved. This paper describes the dosimetric measurement and calibration techniques used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that make use of radiochromic dye films, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), ionization chambers and calorimetric dosimeters. The methods used to demonstrate the consistency of PNL calibrations with national standards will also be discussed.

  14. Characterization of radiation environments at selected Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, C.L.

    1992-10-01

    This report is based on a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from December 15, 1990 to December 15, 1991, to characterize the radiation environments at selected locations within PNL facilities. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed at 72 locations to measure non-productive radiation exposure to identify areas in which continuous occupation by a staff member would expose the staff member to radiation exceeding the 100 mrem/yr limit. The areas measured were found to be below the 0.05 mR/hr limit with the exception of three locations. At these three locations above the limit, radiation exposure was reduced by changing office locations and by additional shielding around radiation sources. Evaluations are recommended to determine the causes of elevated exposure rate readings.

  15. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  16. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  17. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  18. A peak load simulation model for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, R.D.; Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G. ); Vinnard, A.E. )

    1990-04-01

    A PC-based Peak Load Management (PLM) model was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) to evaluate the effect of demand-side management programs on peak winter loads. The PLM model is based on a similar, but much larger, demand-side analysis model previously developed by PNL for Bonneville. Revisions include (1) a direct comparison between program savings on average winter days and peak winter days; (2) a reduction in size, allowing the model to run much faster and fit on a PC without expanded memory; and (3) greater flexibility for quick modification. Output from the model consists of electricity consumption by hour on each of the two daytypes, with and without a demand-side program in place. A test case evaluating electric thermal storage is presented to describe PLM model operation. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Validation of Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes at the Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Comeleo, R. L.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between the physical properties of a catchment (form) and climatic forcing of precipitation and energy control how water is partitioned, stored, and conveyed through a catchment (function). Hydrologic Landscapes (HLs) were previously developed across Oregon and describe climatic and physical properties for over 5000 assessment units. This approach was then extended to the three Pacific Northwest states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho (PNW HL). The HLs were developed using the National Hydrography Dataset's WBD HU12 scale and are comprised of classification components describing climate, climate seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability. To compare the PNW HL classification to catchment hydrologic behavior, HLs were aggregated to catchment scale to compare against the input/output of water in the catchment. HL aggregation must preserve information on the location of the HL within the catchment outlet (upstream vs. downstream) and properties of that HL (i.e. water source vs. sink). Catchment function was investigated by use of hydrologic signatures, which are attributes of long-term time series of water into and out of the catchment. Signatures include Runoff Ratio, Baseflow Index, Snow Ratio, and Recession Coefficients. This study has three primary objectives: 1) derivation of hydrologic signatures to capture the hydrologic behavior for catchments in the Pacific Northwest: 2) development of methodology to aggregate HLs to the catchment scale; and 3) statistical analysis of signature values and trends with respect to aggregated HL classification. We hypothesize that we will find: 1) strong relationships between aggregated HLs and hydrologic signatures; 2) signatures related to water balance are explained by climatic conditions; and 3) signatures describing flow paths are predicted by terrain, soil, and aquifer permeability. This study examined 230 catchments to achieve objectives and test hypotheses stated.

  20. On subduction zone earthquakes and the Pacific Northwest seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Dae H.

    1991-12-01

    A short review of subduction zone earthquakes and the seismicity of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States is provided for the purpose of a basis for assessing issues related to earthquake hazard evaluations for the region. This review of seismotectonics regarding historical subduction zone earthquakes and more recent seismological studies pertaining to rupture processes of subduction zone earthquakes, with specific references to the Pacific Northwest, is made in this brief study. Subduction zone earthquakes tend to rupture updip and laterally from the hypocenter. Thus, the rupture surface tends to become more elongated as one considers larger earthquakes (there is limited updip distance that is strongly coupled, whereas rupture length can be quite large). The great Aleutian-Alaska earthquakes of 1957, 1964, and 1965 had rupture lengths of greater than 650 km. The largest earthquake observed instrumentally, the M{sub W} 9.5, 1960 Chile Earthquake, had a rupture length over 1000 km. However, earthquakes of this magnitude are very unlikely on Cascadia. The degree of surface shaking has a very strong dependency on the depth and style of rupture. The rupture surface during a great earthquake shows heterogeneous stress drop, displacement, energy release, etc. The high strength zones are traditionally termed asperities and these asperities control when and how large an earthquake is generated. Mapping of these asperities in specific subduction zones is very difficult before an earthquake. They show up more easily in inversions of dynamic source studies of earthquake ruptures, after an earthquake. Because seismic moment is based on the total radiated-energy from an earthquake, the moment-based magnitude M{sub W} is superior to all other magnitude estimates, such as M{sub L}, m{sub b}, M{sub bLg}, M{sub S}, etc Probably, just to have a common language, non-moment magnitudes should be converted to M{sub W} in any discussions of subduction zone earthquakes.

  1. Yeasts Harbored by Vespine Wasps in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Sebastian Ibarra; Carroll, Cassandra; Babcock, Tamara; Derstine, Nathan; Hadwin, Alison; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The ecological role of social wasps has been extensively studied, but little is known about symbiotic relationships of these wasps with microbes. Recently, it was shown that vespid wasps in Europe carry yeasts, predominantly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in their gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Interestingly, this niche allowed for sexual recombination of yeasts to occur and the formation of novel hybrid species. Our goals were 1) to survey the GI tract of eusocial wasps in the Pacific Northwest for the presence of yeasts and 2) to compare the diversity of such yeasts to that described for wasps in Europe. The GI tracts of 19 individual wasps from five species were plated, and 27 yeast-like colonies were identified to the species level. Yeasts in the genera Lachancea and Hanseniaspora each comprised ∼30% of the isolates; ∼25% were identified as Metschnikowia spp., with the remaining 10% belonging to Rhodotorula. Four bacterial isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and two isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Yeasts were present at all life stages of the wasps except for two unfed gynes of Dolichovespula maculata (L.) that contained only bacteria. The presence of a particular yeast species was not correlated with any wasp species. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae was not found in any wasp species. This highlights an interesting difference in the life cycle of both S. cerevisiae and wasps in Europe and the Pacific Northwest, and prompts further studies on the interactions of these microbes with their host wasps. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  3. Identifying block structure in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Wells, Ray E.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified block structure in the Pacific Northwest (west of 116°W between 38°N and 49°N) by clustering GPS stations so that the same Euler vector approximates the velocity of each station in a cluster. Given the total number k of clusters desired, the clustering procedure finds the best assignment of stations to clusters. Clustering is calculated for k= 2 to 14. In geographic space, cluster boundaries that remain relatively stable as k is increased are tentatively identified as block boundaries. That identification is reinforced if the cluster boundary coincides with a geologic feature. Boundaries identified in northern California and Nevada are the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, the west side of the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Bartlett Springs Fault. Three blocks cover all of Oregon and Washington. The principal block boundary there extends west-northwest along the Brothers Fault Zone, then north and northwest along the eastern boundary of Siletzia, the accreted oceanic basement of the forearc. East of this boundary is the Intermountain block, its eastern boundary undefined. A cluster boundary at Cape Blanco subdivides the forearc along the faulted southern margin of Siletzia. South of Cape Blanco the Klamath Mountains-Basin and Range block extends east to the Central Nevada Seismic Belt and south to the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. The Siletzia block north of Cape Blanco coincides almost exactly with the accreted Siletz terrane. The cluster boundary in the eastern Olympic Peninsula may mark permanent shortening of Siletzia against the Intermountain block.

  4. Hydrologic response of Pacific Northwest river to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, F.; Cuo, L.; Wu, H.; Mantua, N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    The climate of the Pacific Northwest (PNW - which we define as the Columbia River basin and watersheds draining to the Oregon and Washington coasts) is expected to warm by approximately 0.3°C per decade in the next 100 years based on the IPCC the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) results. PNW hydrology is particularly sensitive to a warming climate because of the dominant role of snowmelt in seasonal streamflow. Timing shifts in seasonality of flows, peak discharge, and base flows will impact water resource management, regional electrical energy production, and freshwater ecosystems. In this work we update previous studies of implications of climate change on PNW hydrology using a macroscale hydrology model driven by simulations of temperature and precipitation downscaled from runs of 20 General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two emissions scenarios (lower B1 and mid-high A1B) in the 21st century. The hydrology model is implemented at 1/16th degree spatial resolution over the entire PNW. A (statistical) bias-correction and spatial disaggregation downscaling approach is used for translating the transient monthly climate model output into continuous daily forcings for the hydrologic analysis. We evaluate projected changes in snow water equivalent, seasonal streamflow, and frequency of peak low flows over a set of case study watersheds in the region. We also compare these hydrologic projections with previous analysis based on delta downscaling method over the PNW. This research is part of a project investigating climate change impacts on the future of wild Pacific salmon, and is a pilot effort to investigate the hydrologic sensitivity of salmon bearing watersheds around the entire North Pacific Rim.

  5. Simulations of the ENSO Hydroclimate Signals in the Pacific Northwest Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai R.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Kumar, Arun

    1999-11-01

    Natural fluctuations in the atmosphere–ocean system related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induce climate variability over many parts of the world that is potentially predictable with lead times from seasons to decades. This study examines the potential of using a model nesting approach to provide seasonal climate and streamflow forecasts suitable for water resources management. Two ensembles of perpetual January simulations were performed with a regional climate model driven by a general circulation model (GCM), using observed climatological sea surface temperature (SST) and the mean SST of the warm ENSO years between 1950 and 1994. The climate simulations were then used to drive a macroscale hydrology model to simulate streamflow. The differences between the two ensembles of simulations are defined as the warm ENSO signals. The simulated hydroclimate signals were compared with observations. The analyses focus on the Columbia River basin in the Pacific Northwest. Results show that the global and regional models simulated a warming over the Pacific Northwest that is quite close to the observations. The models also correctly captured the strong wet signal over California and the weak dry signal over the Pacific Northwest during warm ENSO years. The regional climate model consistently performed better than the GCM in simulating the spatial distribution of regional climate and climate signals. When the climate simulations were used to drive a macroscale hydrology model at the Columbia River basin, the simulated streamflow signal resembles that derived from hydrological simulations driven by observed climate. The streamflow simulations were considerably improved when a simple bias correction scheme was applied to the climate simulations. The coupled regional climate and macroscale hydrologic simulations demonstrate the prospect for generating and utilizing seasonal climate forecasts for managing reservoirs.

  6. Applicability of Hydrologic Landscapes for Model Calibration at the Watershed Scale in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) at the assessment unit scale has provided a solid conceptual classification framework to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A collection of tec...

  7. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Manipulations on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climate change will have a large impact on the three predominate drivers of estuarine seagrass productivity, temperature, light and nutrients. I experimentally evaluate the response of Pacific Northwest Z. marina to interactive effects of temperature and nutrient conditio...

  8. Simultaneous Semi-Distributed Model Calibration Guided by Hydrologic Landscapes in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modelling approaches to transfer hydrologically-relevant information from locations with streamflow measurements to locations without such measurements continues to be an active field of research for hydrologists. The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) provide a sol...

  9. 75 FR 20812 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northwest Region Pacific Whiting Shoreside...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northwest Region Pacific Whiting Shoreside Fishery Monitoring and Catch Accounting Program AGENCY: National Oceanic...

  10. Simultaneous Semi-Distributed Model Calibration Guided by Hydrologic Landscapes in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modelling approaches to transfer hydrologically-relevant information from locations with streamflow measurements to locations without such measurements continues to be an active field of research for hydrologists. The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) provide a sol...

  11. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  12. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  13. Distribution of intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) with bathymetry in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and non-vegetated substrates in three coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) were determined using color infrared (CIR) aerial orthophotography during daylight low tides. Comparison of the digital classif...

  14. A GUIDE TO MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS AND NONVEGETATED HABITATS IN ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides technical guidance for planning and implementing the production of aerial photomaps of intertidal vegetative habitats in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest USA (PNW). The focus is on methods of documenting the intertidal distribution of the seagras...

  15. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Manipulations on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climate change will have a large impact on the three predominate drivers of estuarine seagrass productivity, temperature, light and nutrients. I experimentally evaluate the response of Pacific Northwest Z. marina to interactive effects of temperature and nutrient conditio...

  16. Applicability of Hydrologic Landscapes for Model Calibration at the Watershed Scale in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) at the assessment unit scale has provided a solid conceptual classification framework to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A collection of tec...

  17. A GUIDE TO MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS AND NONVEGETATED HABITATS IN ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides technical guidance for planning and implementing the production of aerial photomaps of intertidal vegetative habitats in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest USA (PNW). The focus is on methods of documenting the intertidal distribution of the seagras...

  18. Distribution of intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) with bathymetry in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and non-vegetated substrates in three coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) were determined using color infrared (CIR) aerial orthophotography during daylight low tides. Comparison of the digital classif...

  19. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tilden, Harold T.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Lowry, Kami L.; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Mendez, Keith M.; Raney, Elizabeth A.; Chamness, Michele A.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  1. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  2. Recent population decline of the Marbled Murrelet in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Sherri L. Miller; Martin G. Raphael; Gary A. Falxa; Craig Strong; Jim Baldwin; Thomas Bloxton; Beth M. Galleher; Monique Lance; Deanna Lynch; Scott F. Pearson; C. John Ralph; Richard D. Young

    2012-01-01

    We document here a decline of nearly 30% in the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) population of Washington, Oregon, and northern California between 2000 and 2010. The Northwest Forest Plan is an ecosystem-management plan for federal forest lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States that incorporates monitoring to determine if...

  3. Forest Management Policy and Community Well-Being in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Ellen M. Donoghue; Cassandra Moseley

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a multiscale, multimethods approach to examine the effects of declining timber harvests on the well-being of forest communities in the Pacific Northwest as a result of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). We found that the effects of declining timber harvests were variable and depended on the importance of the timber sector in a community in the late...

  4. Forest management policy and community well-being in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Ellen M. Donoghue; Cassandra Moseley

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a multiscale, multimethods approach to examine the effects of declining timber harvests on the well-being of forest communities in the Pacific Northwest as a result of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). We found that the effects of declining timber harvests were variable and depended on the importance of the timber sector in a community in the late...

  5. Monitoring late-successional forest biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Spies; Jon R. Martin

    2006-01-01

    The era of ecosystem management for federal forest lands in the Pacific Northwest began in 1994 with the adoption of the Northwest Forest Plan. This plan was designed to maintain and restore species and ecosystems associated with late successional and old-growth forests on over 10 million ha. of federal lands in Washington, Oregon and California. The plan called for...

  6. Historic and Industrial Lead within the Northwest Pacific Ocean Evidenced by Lead Isotopes in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Zurbrick, Cheryl M; Gallon, Céline; Flegal, A Russell

    2017-02-07

    We report the continued lead (Pb) contamination of the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2002 and present the first comprehensive Pb isotope data set for that region. In the upper ocean, a Pb concentration maxima (64-113 pmol kg(-1)) extended throughout the entire North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). We determined most of the Pb in this feature was from industrial emissions by many nations in the 1980s and 1990s, with the largest contributions from leaded gasoline emissions. In contrast, the deep water (>1000 m) Pb concentrations were lower (6-37 pmol kg(-1)), and constituted a mix of background (natural) Pb and anthropogenic Pb inputs from preceding decades. Deep water below the Western Subarctic Gyre (WSAG) contained more industrial Pb than below the NPSG, which was attributed to a calculated 60-fold greater flux of particulate Pb to abyssal waters near the Asian continent. Assuming Pb isotope compositions in the North Pacific Ocean were homogeneous prior to large-scale 20th century anthropogenic inputs, this evidence suggests a relatively faster change in Pb isotope ratios of North Pacific deep water below the WSAG versus the NPSG.

  7. Time of Emergence of Climate Extremes in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, C.; Salathe, E. P., Jr.; Snover, A. K.; Yu, R.

    2014-12-01

    The time at which a climate variable emerges from the noise of climate variability, or "time of emergence" (ToE), is explored from a stakeholder-driven perspective. Using both global and statistically downscaled climate model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and hydrologic model results, management-relevant measures of the climate and environment are analyzed for the Pacific Northwest (PNW), within the broader context of the continental United States. The specific climate variables were selected through meetings with key regional resource managers at federal, state, and local agencies, and generally relate to exceptional events in temperature, precipitation, and streamflow. Uncertainty in ToE calculations is also examined due to three sources: 1) statistical estimation of emergence 2) future emission scenarios (rcp4.5 and rcp8.5) and 3) multi-model ensemble spread. In the PNW, results show that for temperature related climate variables, ToE is likely within the next 50 years, with a strong positive trend, regardless of emission scenario. Precipitation related variables show a much later ToE, with a weak positive signal despite some model disagreement in direction of change. As this data is intended for socio-economic stakeholders in the PNW, a web tool has been designed to allow for visualizing and analyzing ToE for multiple climate variables and the associated probability statistics across the PNW domain. This information will help guide resource managers in the prioritization and timing of climate change adaption activities.

  8. Cenozoic Plume-Slab Interaction Beneath the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrebski, M. J.; Allen, R. M.; Hung, S.; Pollitz, F. F.

    2009-12-01

    Here we present new images of the structure beneath the Pacific Northwest obtained by inverting both compressional and shear teleseismic body waves and using finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. The models use all available seismic data from the Earthscope Transportable Array, regional seismic networks and two Flexible Array experiments (Mendocino and FACES experiments) deployed on the west coast. By picking P, S and SKS arrivals manually and estimating station-to-station relative arrival times through cross correlation of the waveforms, we select only the highest quality data. East from the Juan de Fuca slab and north from the Mendocino Triple Junction, the mantle structure is dominated by high velocity blocks that are likely to be fragments of the Farallon slab. In the middle of the slab fragments, both our compressional (DNA09-P) and shear (DNA09-S) velocity models show a continuous low velocity anomaly that extends from the Yellowstone Caldera down into the lower mantle. We interpret this feature as a deep-seated mantle plume. The striking contrast between the slab-dominated mantle north from the MTJ and the continuous deep-seated Yellowstone mantle plume suggests the plume disrupted the Farallon slab during its ascent to the surface.

  9. Pacific northwest vowels: A Seattle neighborhood dialect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Jennifer K.; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia

    2005-04-01

    According to current literature a large region encompassing nearly the entire west half of the U.S. belongs to one dialect region referred to as Western, which furthermore, according to Labov et al., ``... has developed a characteristic but not unique phonology.'' [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono-atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html] This paper will describe the vowel space of a set of Pacific Northwest American English speakers native to the Ballard neighborhood of Seattle, Wash. based on the acoustical analysis of high-quality Marantz CDR 300 recordings. Characteristics, such as low back merger and [u] fronting will be compared to findings by other studies. It is hoped that these recordings will contribute to a growing number of corpora of North American English dialects. All participants were born in Seattle and began their residence in Ballard between ages 0-8. They were recorded in two styles of speech: individually reading repetitions of a word list containing one token each of 10 vowels within carrier phrases, and in casual conversation for 40 min with a partner matched in age, gender, and social mobility. The goal was to create a compatible data set for comparison with current acoustic studies. F1 and F2 and vowel duration from LPC spectral analysis will be presented.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Catalysis Highlights for FY2007

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Bruce C.

    2007-11-15

    To reduce the nation’s dependence on imported oil, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal and private agencies are investing in understanding catalysis. This report focuses on catalysis research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its collaborators. Using sophisticated instruments in DOE’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility, research was conducted to answer key questions related to the nation’s use of automotive fuels. Research teams investigated how hydrogen can be safely stored and efficiently released, critical questions to use this alternative fuel. Further, they are answering key questions to design molecular catalysts to control the transfer of hydrogen atoms, hydrides, and protons important to hydrogen production. In dealing with today’s fuels, researchers examined adsorption of noxious nitrous oxides in automotive exhaust. Beyond automotive fuel, researchers worked on catalysts to harness solar power. These catalysts include the rutile and anatase forms of titanium dioxide. Basic research was conducted on designing catalysts for these and other applications. Our scientists examined how to build catalysts with the desired properties atom by atom and molecule by molecule. In addition, this report contains brief descriptions of the outstanding accomplishments of catalysis experts at PNNL.

  11. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  12. Water and energy conservation modeling in Pacific Northwest irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture and electrical energy supply in the Pacific Northwest are intricately bound by mutual dependence on Columbia River Basin water. Diversion and instream demands on the water have intensified through recent development in the region. Water conservation opportunities exist in present irrigation that could supplement regional firm hydroelectricity. A two-level mathematical programming model is developed to evaluate irrigator production and regional price responses to water and electricity conservation policies. Stage one emphasizes decision criteria at producer level - irrigable land, water, electricity and labor demand, and water response yields on major crops. Irrigators choose cropping and irrigation mixes and rates at expected commodity prices under resource constraints consistent with regional policy. Stage two employs production and resource use solutions from stage one in a regional allocation and price equilibrium-seeking program. Alfalfa, apple, and potato prices are determined endogenously, and a decomposition-type linkage reiterates production area response to regional equilibrium prices. Baseline irrigated acreage, water electricity, production, and crop prices are estimated for 1982. Water pricing policies reflecting the opportunity value of Columbia River water for hydrogeneration indicate increasing net social benefits, net farm returns, and hydropower potential accruing from conservation in irrigation.

  13. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies were conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function; (2) experiments on cancer development in animals; and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats were shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies were conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels were shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements were performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  14. Genetic Structure of First Nation Communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Cris E; Rogers, Mary P; Owings, Amanda C; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Harry, Harold; Williams, Theresa; Goldberg, Dena; Labuda, Damian; Smith, David Glenn; Cybulski, Jerome S; Malhi, Ripan S

    2016-10-01

    This study presents genetic data for nine Native American populations from northern North America. Analyses of genetic variation focus on the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal, and autosomal DNA variants, we aimed to more closely address the relationships of geography and language with present genetic diversity among the regional PNW Native American populations. Patterns of genetic diversity exhibited by the three genetic systems were consistent with our hypotheses: genetic variation was more strongly explained by geographic proximity than by linguistic structure. Our findings were corroborated through a variety on analytic approaches, with the unrooted trees for the three genetic systems consistently separating inland from coastal PNW populations. Furthermore, analyses of molecular variance support the trends exhibited by the unrooted trees, with geographic partitioning of PNW populations (FCT = 19.43%, p = 0.010 ± 0.009) accounting for over twice as much of the observed genetic variation as linguistic partitioning of the same populations (FCT = 9.15%, p = 0.193 ± 0.013). These findings demonstrate a consensus with previous PNW population studies examining the relationships of genome-wide variation, mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies, and skeletal morphology with geography and language.

  15. Mapping "At Risk" Snow in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolin, A. W.; Daly, C.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most visible and widely felt impacts of climate change is the change (mostly loss) of low elevation snow cover in the mid-latitudes. Snow cover that accumulates at temperatures close to the ice-water phase transition is at greater risk to climate warming than cold climate snow packs because it affects both precipitation phase and ablation rates. Changes in such climatologically sensitive snow packs can impact hydropower generation, reservoir storage, rain-on-snow floods, and winter recreation. Using a climatologically based global snow cover classification (Sturm et al., 1995) "at risk" snow is defined as lower elevation maritime and alpine snow classes. This original classification was produced globally at 0.5-degree resolution and used monthly means of temperature and precipitation as well as vegetation cover to map snow climates. In this work, the classification is updated for the Pacific Northwest region using fields of temperature and precipitation from PRISM as well as MODIS-derived global maps of vegetation cover. This new classification has significantly improved grid resolution (4 km x 4 km) and is able to clearly identify regions of ephemeral and lower elevation maritime and alpine snow that are thought to be at risk in a climate warming scenario. Results indicate that the economic impacts of this shift from snow- to rain-dominated winter precipitation that lower elevation ski areas in the region would experience significant negative impacts.

  16. International Safeguards and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Smith, Leon E.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schanfein, Mark J.; Sayre, Amanda M.; Jones, Rebecca L.

    2016-07-21

    Established in 1965, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) strong technical ties and shared heritage with the nearby U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site were central to the early development of expertise in nuclear fuel cycle signatures, separations chemistry, plutonium chemistry, environmental monitoring, modeling and analysis of reactor systems, and nuclear material safeguards and security. From these Hanford origins, PNNL has grown into a multi-program science and engineering enterprise that utilizes this diversity to strengthen the international safeguards regime. Today, PNNL supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its mission to provide assurances to the international community that nations do not use nuclear materials and equipment outside of peaceful uses. PNNL also serves in the IAEA’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) by providing analysis of environmental samples gathered around the world. PNNL is involved in safeguards research and development activities in support of many U.S. Government programs such as the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Office of Research and Development, NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control, and the U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards. In addition to these programs, PNNL invests internal resources including safeguards-specific training opportunities for staff, and laboratory-directed research and development funding to further ideas that may grow into new capabilities. This paper and accompanying presentation highlight some of PNNL’s contributions in technology development, implementation concepts and approaches, policy, capacity building, and human capital development, in the field of international safeguards.

  17. Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years: Initial results of the Sino-German Pacific Ocean Experiment (SiGePax)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerrit; Lembke-Jene, Lester; Scholz, Patrick; Gong, Xun; Max, Lars; Tiedemann, Ralf; Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Liu, Yanguang; Wu, Yonghua; Ge, Shulan

    2016-04-01

    Arctic and Subarctic Regions are most sensitive to climate change, and reversely provide dramatic feedbacks to the global climate. Paleoclimate studies in these regions are of vital importance for a better understanding of the natural processes in the climate system prior to the influences of human activities. With a focus on discovering paleoceanographic evolutions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years, we show first results of the German-Sino cooperation programme SiGePax. We present a collection of sediment cores covering climatical key regions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Our climate simulations provide the first step towards 'Data-Model Syntheses', which are crucial for exploring the underlying mechanisms of observed changes in proxy records. Analyses of Holocene sea surface temperature records on a basin-wide scale show a spatially heterogenous, but no simple warming or cooling pattern, indicating that extratropical atmospheric dynamics is involved. The temperature data are compared to model scenarios. We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration, with a regional focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean to provide the underlying dynamics. We find that the Okhotsk Sea is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice cover, where due to brine release, the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water is formed, contributing to North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pacific herring

    SciTech Connect

    Lassuy, D.R. . Oregon Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit)

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, ecological role, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist coastal managers, engineers, and biologists in the gathering of information pertinent to coastal development activities. The Pacific herring has a long history of exploitation for human consumption, animal feed, and trade. It also provides food for a wide variety of pelagic, intertidal, and avian predators. The herring roe fishery has dominated catches since Japan opened its market to imports in the early 1970's. Pacific herring spawn in quiescent, nearshore areas, primarily on marine vegetation. Spawning peaks in the Pacific Northwest region during February and March. Larvae remain inshore, transform into juveniles after 2--3 months, then move offshore in the fall. Adults move inshore on their spawning migration in late fall and early winter. Optimum physiological performance during the early life history is achieved at about 12--17 ppT salinity at temperatures near 6.5--8.3{degree}C. It is important to avoid siltation at or near the spawning grounds in order to prevent disruption of spawning behavior or smothering of eggs. 65 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pacific oyster

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, G.B.; Van Der Raay, B.; Troutt, D.

    1988-09-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessments. The Pacific oyster is found in the estuarine waters of California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. It is sought both commercially and recreationally. Washington leads all other areas combined with a commercial production of 5.5 million pounds valued at $3.8 million. This is 26% of Washington State's total shellfish production value. These are very prolific animals, releasing up to 70 million eggs per year. Larvae are sensitive to a variety of environmental conditions, primarily temperature and salinity, and to pollutants including sulphite waste liquor. Growth is rapid and most noticeable in the third and fourth years. Along with other shellfish, Pacific oysters may accumulate toxin from /ital Gonyaulax cantenella/ (responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning), but they lose the toxin more rapidly than other shellfish. Optimum water temperature for adults is 20/degree/C and optimum salinities are above 20 ppt for adults. Ambient temperature is the single most critical item to breeding success in the Pacific Northwest.

  20. Balancing conflicting values: ecosystem solutions in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes; Robert C. Szaro; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem approaches to sustainable forest management in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada have arisen in response to significant changes that have occurred in these societies over the past century or so (Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force, 1995). One such change as been rapid population growth along the Pacific Coast, where the mild...

  1. Classification of Regional Patterns of Environmental Drivers and Benthic Habitats in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    While increased anthropogenic nutrient loading of coastal ecosystems is a growing ecological and economic problem both in the U.S. and globally, the extent of such excess nutrient loading in Pacific Northwest estuaries is poorly known. To help determine the vulnerability of Pacif...

  2. Classification of Regional Patterns of Environmental Drivers and Benthic Habitats in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    While increased anthropogenic nutrient loading of coastal ecosystems is a growing ecological and economic problem both in the U.S. and globally, the extent of such excess nutrient loading in Pacific Northwest estuaries is poorly known. To help determine the vulnerability of Pacif...

  3. Measuring the Impact of the Private College in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchman, James H.

    The impact of the following private colleges in the Pacific Northwest is examined: Willamette University (Salem, Oregon), Pacific University (Forest Grove, Oregon), Linfield College (McMinnville, Oregon), Lewis and Clark College (Portland, Oregon), Whitman College (Walla Walla, Washington), University of Puget Sound (Tacoma, Washington), Whitworth…

  4. Mesoscale variability of deep currents in the Northwest Pacific Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Oka, E.; Yanagimoto, D.; Fujio, S.; Kurogi, M.; Hasumi, H.

    2014-12-01

    mooring observations conducted near 30°N, 146°40'E in the late 1970's. In the Northwest Pacific Basin, simulated EKE was highest at the Kuroshio Extension, and a high-EKE area extended about 500 km north and south of it.

  5. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  6. Marine Photochemistry of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Shiller, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    A systematical study of hydrogen peroxide in seawater, rainwater, and marine air in the Northwest Pacific Ocean was conducted during a transect from Osaka, Japan, to Hawaii, USA, in May and June of 2002. During the transect, surface seawater samples were analyzed continuously for peroxide which showed the effects of photochemical production, wet deposition, and terrestrial impact. In the surface waters, hydrogen peroxide decreased with latitude from a little over 25 nM in the north (50°N) to more than 150 nM in the south (22°N). This latitudinal variation of hydrogen peroxide followed a trend similar to shipboard measurement of ultraviolet radiation. Diel variations of surface hydrogen peroxide were observed at several locations, with surface water concentrations increasing during the day and decreasing at night. The concentration of surface water peroxide increased to over 200 nM following rain events. Higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>150 nM) were also observed near Asia. The profiles of hydrogen peroxide were obtained at 10 stations that exhibited surface maxima of 24 to 120 nM. The rate constant of dark decay varied from 0.08 d-1 to 0.22 d-1. Rate of photo-production decreased from 10 nM hr-1 at noon to 0 at night. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide varied from 16 μM to 526 μM in rainwater. The data set permits a systematical analysis and modeling of factors regulating the dynamics of hydrogen peroxide in marine environment.

  7. Customer Satisfaction Assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N.; Sours, Mardell L.

    2000-03-20

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. We present the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of 2 major sections, Strategic Value and Project Performance. The Strategic Value section of the questionnaire consists of 5 questions that can be answered with a 5 point Likert scale response. These questions are designed to determine if a project is directly contributing to critical future national needs. The Project Performance section of the questionnaire consists of 9 questions that can be answered with a 5 point Likert scale response. These questions determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. Many approaches could be used to analyze customer survey data. We present a statistical model that can accurately capture the random behavior of customer survey data. The properties of this statistical model can be used to establish a "gold standard'' or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then assess progress. The gold standard is defined from input from laboratory management --- answers to 4 simple questions, in terms of the information obtained from the CSAP customer survey, define the standard: *What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? *What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? *What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? *What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? We discuss how to analyze CSAP customer survey data with this model. Our discussion will include "lessons learned" and issues that can invalidate this type of assessment.

  8. Customer satisfaction assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DN Anderson; ML Sours

    2000-03-23

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. This report presents the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of two major sections: Strategic Value and Project Performance. Both sections contain a set of questions that can be answered with a 5-point Likert scale response. The strategic value section consists of five questions that are designed to determine if a project directly contributes to critical future national needs. The project Performance section consists of nine questions designed to determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. A statistical model for customer survey data is developed and this report discusses how to analyze the data with this model. The properties of the statistical model can be used to establish a gold standard or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then to assess progress. The gold standard is defined using laboratory management input--answers to four questions, in terms of the information obtained from the customer survey: (1) What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? (2) What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? (3) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? (4) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? To be able to provide meaningful answers to these questions, the PNNL customer survey will need to be fully implemented for several years, thus providing a link between management perceptions of laboratory performance and customer survey data.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section`s Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance.

  10. The Last Frontier: Catch Records of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Heather M.; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Fordham, Sonja V.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Hussey, Nigel E.

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126–602 cm total length (TL) and 16–2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  11. Dynamics of the Pacific Northwest Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic imaging resolves a complex structure beneath the Pacific Northwest (PNW) that is interpreted as: an high-velocity piece of accreted (~50 Ma) Farallon lithosphere that deepens from being exposed (at coast, where it is called Siletzia) to lower crust in SE Washington and then descending vertically to ~600 km as a 'curtain' beneath central Idaho; a stubby Juan de Fuca slab (to <250 km in most places, and with a gap beneath much of Oregon); and very slow 'fingers' above the slab with an especially anomalous volume beneath central Oregon. The evacuation of asthenosphere with the descending Juan de Fuca slab presents an interesting problem. Typical corner-flow supply is prevented because the mantle wind blows eastward. A stagnation line between mantle drawn west into the mantle wedge and that flowing east in the far field may exist near the Farallon curtain. Other sources of supply to the Cascadia mantle wedge include: mantle flowing north beneath California, entrained with the Pacific Plate; flow from below the Juan de Fuca slab, perhaps especially through the Oregon gap; toroidal flow around the southern edge of the slab; and possible up-flow beneath the backarc. Anisotropy studies suggest the importance of toroidal flow. PNW lithosphere stress is dominated by N-S compression, a result of the Sierra Nevada driving the PNW into British Columbia; this push, and oblique subduction, are responsible for PNW clockwise rotation. Modeled (in 2D, map view) north-directed tractions on the Cascadia mega-thrust average ~4 TN per meter of along-strike fault length, or probably a shear stress of ~40 MPa over much of the locked mega-thrust (i.e., much more shear stress than the typical earthquake stress drop of 1-10 MPa). Normal to the coast, southern Cascadia is relatively tensional (where margin-normal compression is less than typical ridge push by ~4 TN/m of along-strike fault length) whereas northern Cascadia is compressional. This indicates that the southern Cascadia

  12. Deep circulation in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, W. Brechner; Warren, Bruce A.

    2001-04-01

    , and probably into the Japan Trench as well, flows northward through the Kuril Trench, and, at least at some levels, around the northern end of the Emperor Seamount Chain to fill the long Aleutian Trench. This plus eastward flows through the Main Gap in the Emperor Seamount Chain and the passage between the Hess Rise and the Hawaiian Ridge seem to be the principal deep outflows from the Northwest Pacific Basin into the Northeast Pacific Basin. The Meiji Sediment Drift, lying along the eastern flank of the far northern Emperor Seamount Chain, is composed of material from the Bering Sea. To account for its deposition, we conjecture that the deep Kamchatka Current, presently carrying this material southward, splits at the latitude of the northernmost Emperors, one branch flowing eastward as a zonal jet, and continuing southward along the eastern flank of the Seamount Chain as a deep western-boundary current. Descriptive ambiguities and dynamical puzzles are considered.

  13. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  14. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  16. Energy Efficient and Sustainable HPC at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tuma, Phil; Marquez, Andres; Sego, Landon H.; Schmidt, Roger; Cader, Tahir

    2009-09-01

    Power consumption in US data centers has been escalating at an alarming rate. In response to Public Law 109-431, EPA reported that electricity usage by US data centers accounted for 1.5% of the total electricity used in the US in 2006. They projected that if current data center operating practices continue, electricity usage will almost double to 2.9% of the total electricity used in the US in 2011 (EPA, 2007). Consequently EPA issued a call to action to both government and industry to collaborate and set aggressive goals to reduce power consumption in data centers. In the spirit of responding to the findings and recommendations of the EPA report, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has teamed with several key organizations including: The Green Grid (TGG), ASHRAE TC9.9, IBM, 3M, and SprayCool. As part of this effort, a highly instrumented liquid-cooled cluster has been installed at PNNL. The cluster is housed in an 800 ft2 data center which resides in a mixed-use data center with a significant amount of instrumentation as well. The eventual objective of the effort is to be able to report the real-time power consumption, energy efficiency, and productivity of the liquid-cooled data center. Preliminary results from the effort at PNNL are reported in this paper. Thermal results are reported for the hottest server components, including the microprocessors and memory DIMMs. Under all conditions tested, the components have not exceeded manufacturers’ specifications. More importantly, the data show that the liquid-cooled servers can be maintained within specifications while rejecting to non-chilled facility water at 78°F (25.6°C). Furthermore, a reasonable extrapolation suggests that the specifications can still be maintained at 86°F (30°C). In an effort to address global warming, work has started on the qualification of a new 3M Fluoroketone fluid that has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1. This GWP is the lowest published value of all commercially

  17. Teleseismic receiver function imaging of the Pacific Northwest, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eager, Kevin Charles

    The origins of widespread Cenozoic tectonomagmatism in the Pacific Northwest, United States likely involve complex dynamics including subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate and mantle upwelling processes, all of which are reflected in the crust and upper mantle. To provide an improved understanding of these processes, I analyze P-to- S converted phases using the receiver function method to image topographic variations on regional seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle, which provides constraints on mantle thermal structure, and the crust-mantle interface, which provides constraints on crustal thickness and composition. My results confirm complexity in the Juan de Fuca slab structure as found by regional tomographic studies, including limited evidence of the slab penetrating the transition zone between the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. Evidence is inconclusive for a simple mantle plume beneath the central Oregon High Lava Plains, but indicates a regional increase in mantle temperatures stretching to the east. This result implies the inflow of warm material, either from around the southern edge of the Juan de Fuca plate as it descends into the mantle, or from a regional upwelling to the east related to the Yellowstone hotspot. Results for regional crustal structure reveal thin (˜31 km) crust beneath the High Lava Plains relative to surrounding regions that exhibit thicker (35+ km) crust. The thick (≥ 40 km) crust of the Owyhee Plateau has a sharp western boundary and normal Poisson's ratio, a measure of crustal composition. I find a slightly thickened crust and low Poisson's ratio between Steens Mountain and the Owyhee Plateau, consistent with residuum from source magma of the Steens flood basalts. Central and southern Oregon exhibit very high Poisson's ratios and low velocity zones within the crust, suggesting a degree of intracrustal partial melt not seen along the center of the age-progressive High Lava Plains magmatic track, perhaps due to crustal melt

  18. Investigating alongshore wind trends in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylhouwer, B.; Ianson, D. C.; Kohfeld, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal upwelling regions are important for both global fisheries populations and the carbon cycle. Alongshore winds draw up cold, relatively acidic and nutrient-rich water from intermediate depths and enhance primary productivity that supports over 20% of global fish stocks and can create large air-sea carbon fluxes. Coastal winds can also be seasonal, alternating between upwelling-favourable and either a relaxed or downwelling-favourable state throughout the year. Climate change is expected to enhance coastal winds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as sea-land pressure gradients intensify, and the associated change in upwelling could deliver more acidic water onto continental shelves during vulnerable life stages for many marine organisms. The goal of our study is to quantify the magnitude and temporal changes in coastal marine winds since 1979 along the PNW from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Oregon. Daily wind speed and direction data were collected from 12 meteorological buoy and lighthouse stations from 1983 to the present, covering a study area from 45.16°N to 50.91°N and within 100 km of the coastline. Due to significant gaps in data from all but 3 stations, North American Regional Re-analysis (NARR) data from 12 locations spanning the study area was also collected to supplement our analysis. Through our analysis, we have determined objective criteria for selecting the regional upwelling and downwelling seasons based on the annual accumulating total of upwelling-favourable alongshore wind stress. Our seasonal transitions follow previously published qualitative estimates made off the coast of Vancouver Island. Our analyses show no change in the timing or duration of seasons since 1979, although they do indicate significant inter-annual variability. Intra-season analyses show greater upwelling in the summer season and greater downwelling in the winter season, with no significant changes in the spring or fall transitional periods. Our results indicate

  19. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  20. Views, Beliefs, & Opinions of Business Education by State Employment Service Managers in the Pacific Northwest, Secondary Principals in the Pacific Northwest, Chief State School Officers throughout the United States, State Directors of Employment & Training throughout the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Martha C.

    State employment service managers in the Pacific Northwest, secondary principals in the Pacific Northwest, chief state school officers throughout the United States, and state directors of employment and training throughout the United States were asked to rate students on a list of 15 attributes seen as key to performance on the job. Their…

  1. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  2. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  3. Collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, L.K.; Eakin, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify potential methods for the collection, transportation and storage of agricultural and forest residues in the Pacific Northwest. Information was gathered from available literature and through contacts with researchers, equipment manufacturers, and other individuals involved in forest and agricultural activities. This information was evaluated, combined, and adapted for situations existing in the Pacific Northwest. A number of methods for collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues using currently available technology are described. Many of these methods can be applied to residue fuel materials along with their current uses in the forest and agricultural industries.

  4. Economic impacts of interregional competition in the forest products industry during the 1970's: the South and the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Con H. Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki

    1986-01-01

    Until the 1970's, the Pacific Northwest dominated national markets for softwood lumber and plywood. During the 1970's, however, the region's share declined while production increased in the South. Meanwhile, the South's and the Pacific Northwest's shares of the Nation's employment in lumber and wood products declined. This resulted mainly...

  5. 33 CFR 165.T13-240 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest... Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.T13-240 Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain... passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules; and (ii) Permit commercial vessels anchored in...

  6. Assessment of the risk of invasion of national forest streams in the Pacific Northwest by farmed Atlantic salmon.

    Treesearch

    Peter A. Bisson

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the evidence for invasion of Pacific Northwest streams by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that have escaped from marine salmon farms, and assesses the potential impact of farmed salmon invasion on native fishes inhabiting streams on National Forest System lands. The current risk to streams on National Forest lands in the Pacific Northwest from...

  7. Multidecadal wind-driven shifts in northwest Pacific temperature, salinity, O2, and PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Eun Young; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Young-Gyu; Park, Young-Hyang; Dunne, John; Chang, Kyung-Il

    2016-11-01

    The North Pacific gyre boundaries are characterized by stark contrasts in physical and biogeochemical properties. Meridional movement of gyre boundaries, influenced by climate change, can therefore exert a large influence not only on marine ecosystems but also on climate. We examine the evidence for wind-driven southward shifts in subsurface temperature, salinity, PO4, and O2 within the northwest Pacific from the 1950s to the 2000s. Gyre boundary shifts can explain 30-60% of temperature and salinity trends zonally averaged in the northwest Pacific and observed PO4 and O2 trends along the 137°E and 144°E meridians. The close tie between the wind-driven shifts in gyre boundaries and the tracer distributions is further supported by results from an eddy-resolving (0.1° × 0.1°) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory climate model, suggesting that the physical and biogeochemical properties averaged within the northwest Pacific gyre boundaries closely follow the latitude changes of the zero Sverdrup stream function with lags of 0 to 3 years. The gyre shift effect on tracer distribution is poorly represented in a coarse resolution (1° × 1°) model due partly to poor representations of fronts and eddies. This study suggests that future changes in northwest Pacific PO4 and O2 content may depend not only on ocean temperature and stratification but also on the ocean gyre response to winds.

  8. Interactions between fuel choice and energy-efficiency in new homes in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    In recent years the Bonneville Power Administration has instituted programs to prompt the implementation of the residential Model Conservation Standards (MCS) issued by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1983. These standards provide alternative methods for designing and constructing homes to cost effectively reduce residential energy consumption. Authority exists to apply them only to new, electrically heated homes. Because they apply to electrically heated homes, concerns have arisen about how the standards might affect buyers' decisions to purchase a new home, in particular, their choice of a heating fuel. Early data suggested that electricity started losing market share in Tacoma about when the MCS went into effect in 1984, and recent data have shown that about half of electricity's share of the new home market has shifted to natural gas. This decline in electric heating was consistent with concerns about the possible detrimental effect of the cost of MCS on sales of electrically heated homes. A desire to understand the causes of the perceived decline in electricity's market share was part of the impetus for this study. Multiple techniques and data sources are used in this study to examine the relationship between residential energy-efficiency and fuel choice in the major metropolitan areas in Washington: Spokane, Clark, Pierce, and King Counties. Recent regional surveys have shown that electricity is the predominant space heating fuel in the Pacific Northwest, but it appears to be losing its dominance in some markets such as Tacoma.

  9. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients - November 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of temperature and nutrient quantity on Z. marina growth and physiology. Ma...

  10. Barberry as alternate host is important for Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, but not for Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common barberry (Berberis vulgaris) has been known to serve as an alternate host for the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), under natural conditions in the U. S. Pacific Northwest for a long time. The plant has been recently shown to be infected by basidiospores of th...

  11. Effect of multiple stressors on eelgrass Zostera marina L. from the Pacific Northwest, USA: Manipulation of temperature and nutrients - November 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine eelgrass beds in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are being exposed to a range of natural and anthropogenic stressors and climate change. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of temperature and nutrient quantity on Z. marina growth and physiology. Ma...

  12. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Flood Frequency in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergel, D. R.; Stumbaugh, M. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    A key concern about climate change as related to water resources is the potential for changes in hydrologic extremes, including flooding. We explore changes in flood frequency in the Pacific Northwest using downscaled output from ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for historical forcings (1950-2005) and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 (2006-2100). We use archived output from the Integrated Scenarios Project (ISP) (http://maca.northwestknowledge.net/), which uses the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method for statistical downscaling. The MACA-downscaled GCM output was then used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model with a 1/16th degree spatial resolution and a daily time step. For each of the 238 HUC-08 areas within the Pacific Northwest (USGS Hydrologic Region 15), we computed, from the ISP archive, the series of maximum daily runoff values (surrogate for the annual maximum flood), and then the mean annual flood. Finally, we computed the ratios of the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 mean annual floods to their corresponding values for the historical period. We evaluate spatial patterns in the results. For snow-dominated watersheds, the changes are dominated by reductions in flood frequency in basins that currently have spring-dominant floods, and increases in snow affected basins with fall-dominant floods. In low elevation basins west of the Cascades, changes in flooding are more directly related to changes in precipitation extremes. We further explore the nature of these effects by evaluating the mean Julian day of the annual maximum flood for each HUC-08 and how this changes between the historical and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios.

  14. The rise and fall of the Pacific Northwest log export market.

    Treesearch

    Jean M. Daniels

    2005-01-01

    For decades, softwood log exports were an important component of international wood products trade from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Log exports to the Pacific Rim began in earnest after the Columbus Day Storm of 1962 generated billions of board feet of salvaged timber. This market was maintained and expanded owing to Japan’s demand for high...

  15. The Specific Features of Pollution Transport in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diansky, Nikolay; Fomin, Vladimir; Gusev, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    Two calculations of pollutant dispersal in the Northwest Pacific Ocean are presented: (1) during possible shipwrecks in the process of spent nuclear fuel transportation from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and (2) pollutant spread from the Japanese coast after the Fukushima 1 nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011. The circulation was simulated using a σ - coordinate ocean model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) developed at the INM RAS. The INMOM is based on the primitive equations using the spherical σ - coordinate system with a free ocean surface. The INMOM was realized for the Pacific Ocean basin from the equator to the Bering Strait with a high 1/8° spatial resolution for reproducing the mesoscale ocean variability. The pollutant dispersal in the case of possible shipwrecks was estimated for currents for a statistically average year with atmospheric forcing from Common Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE) for normal year data. The pollution spread from the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant (NPP) was estimated for currents calculated with the real atmospheric forcing in accordance with the NCEP GFS (0.5 degree grid). The simulation period of pollutant dispersal from Fukushima 1 was 17 days: from March 11 to 28, 2011. The results of numerical simulation show that pollutant dispersal from the Fukushima 1 spread eastward according to the Kuroshio. Moreover, exceeding of natural background radiation level was simulated in the narrow region of the Japanese coast with width of less than 50 km.

  16. Imperial science: a naturalist in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Schefke, Brian

    2008-09-01

    British imperial expansion opened up new worlds for naturalists to collect and catalogue many species of plants and animals unknown in Europe. David Douglas' travels to the northwest region of North America in the 1820s exemplified, in many ways, the science of empire. Under the aegis of the Hudson's Bay Company, the main representative of British influence in the Northwest, Douglas was able to journey throughout the region and collect a significant number of plants that found their way into British gardens. Yet Douglas was not only a collector aided by imperial institutions, but also, through his expertise, an agent of imperialism.

  17. US EPA Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research: A Pacific Northwest Demonstration Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 2-page fact sheet is a communication product aimed at EPA clients, cooperators and stakeholders. It describes ecosystem services research being conducted in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) by the EPA Western Ecology Division, in association with EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Com...

  18. Comparisons of annual no-till spring cereal cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WWF) has been the prevalent rotation in the low rainfall zone of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for more than 130 years; however this rotation is characterized by poor soil health, poor environmental sustainability, and high pest incidence. A 6-year ...

  19. Knowledge-Based Information Management for Watershed Analysis in the Pacific Northwest U.S.

    Treesearch

    Keith Reynolds; Richard Olson; Michael Saunders; Donald Latham; Michael Foster; Bruce Miller; Lawrence Bednar; Daniel Schmoldt; Patrick Cunningham; John Steffenson

    1996-01-01

    We are developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to graphically navigate to specific provinces and watersheds and display a variety of themes and other area-specific information, (2) an analysis...

  20. Geographies of Indigenous Leaders: Landscapes and Mindscapes in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This essay features three stories of "place-based" leadership in two Indigenous communities in the Pacific Northwest. Author Michael Marker weaves together stories from Nisga'a Elders in the Nass Valley of British Columbia, Coast Salish Elders in Washington State, and his own experiences as a researcher, teacher educator, and community…

  1. Flows of the future—How will climate change affect streamflows in the Pacific Northwest?

    Treesearch

    Andrea Watts; Gordon Grant; Mohammad. Safeeq

    2016-01-01

    Much of the water supply in the Pacific Northwest originates in national forests. It sustains the region’s aquatic ecosystems, agriculture, hydroelectric power, and community water supplies. Understanding how climate change will affect water supply is one of the most pressing issues of our time. Substantial changes are projected in the types of...

  2. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  3. Predicting change in eelgrass distribution due to sea level rise in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted...

  4. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. The missing mountain water: Slower westerlies decrease orographic enhancement in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Treesearch

    C. H. Luce; J. T. Abatzoglou; Z. A. Holden

    2013-01-01

    Trends in streamflow timing and volume in the Pacific Northwest United States have been attributed to increased temperatures because trends in precipitation at lower elevation stations were negligible. We demonstrate that observed streamflow declines likely are associated with declines in mountain precipitation, revealing previously unexplored differential trends....

  6. US EPA Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research: A Pacific Northwest Demonstration Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 2-page fact sheet is a communication product aimed at EPA clients, cooperators and stakeholders. It describes ecosystem services research being conducted in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) by the EPA Western Ecology Division, in association with EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Com...

  7. Emergent lessons from a century of experience with Pacific Northwest timber markets.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes

    2008-01-01

    Timber markets in the United States are areas where timber prices tend to be uniform because of the continuous interactions of buyers and sellers. These markets are highly competitive, volatile, and change relentlessly. This paper looks at how market interactions in the Pacific Northwest have responded to changes in underlying determinants of market behavior and...

  8. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel - CERF 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  9. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service - August 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has r...

  10. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  11. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has ...

  12. Forest cover dynamics in the Pacific Northwest west side: regional trends and predictions.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Daolan Zheng; Thomas A. Spies; Brett J. Butler

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to (1) analyze recent rates of transitions among forest cover types on private timberland, (2) identify differences by ownership class, and (3) project future changes under different scenarios related to current policy issues in the Pacific Northwest. Timber harvests are the dominant class of disturbance on private timberland in...

  13. A hydrogeologic framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to climate warming in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    M. Safeeq; G.E. Grant; S.L. Lewis; M.G. Kramer; B. Staab

    2014-01-01

    Summer streamflows in the Pacific Northwest are largely derived from melting snow and groundwater discharge. As the climate warms, diminishing snowpack and earlier snowmelt will cause reductions in summer streamflow. Most regional-scale assessments of climate change impacts on streamflow use downscaled temperature and precipitation projections from general circulation...

  14. Characteristics of lightning and wildland fire ignition in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Miriam L. Rorig; Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    Lightning is the primary cause of fire in the forested regions of the Pacific Northwest, especially when it occurs without significant precipitation at the surface. Using thunderstorm occurrence and precipitation observations for the period 1948–77, along with automated lightning strike data for the period 1986–96, it was possible to classify convective days as either...

  15. Men, Not Money: E. W. Scripps and the Penny Newspapers of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Mike

    E.W. Scripps's penny newspapers brought a new style of public service journalism to the Pacific Northwest's four largest cities--Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, and Portland--in the turbulent years of the Progressive movement from 1899 to 1912. Minimal investment, tight cost controls, and the idea that a small, condensed newspaper could be more popular…

  16. Smoke exposure among firefighters at prescribed burns in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar; Andrew J.S. Hanneman

    2000-01-01

    Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters during prescribed burns in the Pacific Northwest between 1991 and 1994 showed that a small but significant percentage of workers experienced exposure to carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants that exceeded occupational exposure limits. This most often was caused by unfavorable winds or fire behavior and occurred mostly...

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  18. Application of a Eutrophic Condition Index to Benthic Macroalgal Accumulation in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of benthic macroalgal accumulation in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest, USA, were conducted over a 12-year period, including aerial mapping and ground surveys. The results were applied to an assessment framework for eutrophication developed by the European Unio...

  19. Predicting change in eelgrass distribution due to sea level rise in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina is the dominant estuarine seagrass on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America and provides important ecosystem services and functions. The loss of eelgrass bed acreage due to environmental pressures is of world-wide concern, yet predicted...

  20. Mass failures and other processes of sediment production in Pacific northwest forest landscapes

    Treesearch

    Frederick J. Swanson; Lee E. Benda; Stanley H. Duncan; Gordon E. Grant; Walter F. Megahan; Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1987-01-01

    Abstract - Accelerated sediment production by mass failures and other erosion processes is an important link between management of forest resources and fish resources. Dominant processes and the rates of sediment production vary greatly throughout the Pacific Northwest in response to geologic and climatic factors. The complex sediment routing systems characteristic...

  1. Bed Stability and sedimentation associated with human disturbances in Pacific Northwest streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate anthropogenic sedimentation in United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest coastal streams, we applied an index of relative bed stability (LRBS*) to summer low flow survey data collected using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessme...

  2. New approaches to forest planning: inventorying and mapping place values in the Pacific Northwest Region

    Treesearch

    Troy E. Hall; Jennifer O. Farnum; Terry C. Slider; Kathy Ludlow

    2009-01-01

    This report chronicles a large-scale effort to map place values across the Pacific Northwest Region (Washington and Oregon) of the U.S. Forest Service. Through workshops held with Forest Service staff, 485 socioculturally meaningful places were identified. Staff also generated corresponding descriptions of the places’ unique social and biophysical elements—in other...

  3. An approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest Estuaries: A case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of an approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, based on a case study of Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. The approach is based on a synthesis of research from field studies, analyses of historical trends in wat...

  4. DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRIETERIA FOR ESTUARIES WITH VARIABLE OCEAN INPUTS: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest have major intraannual and within estuary variation in sources and magnitudes of nutrient inputs. To develop an approach for setting nutrient criteria for these systems, we conducted a case study for Yaquina Bay, OR based on a synthesis of resea...

  5. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; Peter J. Gould

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season...

  6. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Treesearch

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  7. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 01, November 1, 1928.

    Treesearch

    1928-01-01

    The several research projects upon which the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station is working are continually yielding results of interest and value to those engaged in forest enterprises. To make these results immediately available to those most likely to use them is the purpose of these "Forest Research Notes". They will be issued at irregular...

  8. Predicting moisture content: fuel moisture indicator sticks in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1961-01-01

    Successful day-to-day planning of presuppression activities requires accurate prediction of burning index. In the Pacific Northwest, forecasts of burning index are prepared by the fire-control man and are based on predictions of windspeed and fuel moisture. Although fuel moisture is affected by a number of weather elements and is consequently difficult to predict, the...

  9. Dwarf mistletoe and host tree interactions in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Donald M. Knutson; Robert. Tinnin

    1980-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoes in the Pacific Northwest infect true firs, larch, pine, Douglas-fir, and hemlock. Forty-one percent of all stands east of the crest of the Cascade Range and 10 percent of west-side stands are infected. General characteristics of dwarf mistletoe are discussed including mortality and growth losses rate of spread within a tree and within stands. Relation...

  10. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 03, October 30, 1929.

    Treesearch

    1929-01-01

    To obtain definite information which can be used in formulating slash disposal policies, the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station has begun a study of the slash problem in the Douglas fir region. Although there are numerous related but widely different aspects to this study, only one phase is treated in this brief summary, namely, the effect of fire on the...

  11. Assessment and management of animal damage in Pacific Northwest forests: an annotated bibliography.

    Treesearch

    D.M. Loucks; H.C. Black; M.L. Roush; S.R. Radosevich

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of published literature provides a comprehensive source of information on animal damage assessment and management for forest land managers and others in the Pacific Northwest. Citations and abstracts from more than 900 papers are indexed by subject and author. The publication complements and supplements A Silvicultural Approach to...

  12. A guide to ozone injury in vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Sarah Brace; David L. Peterson; Darci. Bowers

    1999-01-01

    Controlled-exposure studies have shown that several plant species native to the Pacific Northwest are potentially sensitive to elevated ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone. This guide reports visual and descriptive documentation of ozone injury symptoms for common tree, shrub, and herbaceous species in the region. Symptoms observed in leaves of these species...

  13. Timber resource statistics for the Pacific Northwest as of January 1, 1963.

    Treesearch

    Melvin E. Metcalf

    1965-01-01

    The report by the Forest Service on the national timber situation, "Timber Trends in the United States," presents timber resource data by States and broad regional groups. The timber resources of the Pacific Northwest (the States of Oregon and Washington) are a vital part of this national picture. Although only 9 percent of the total commercial forest land...

  14. Forest economics research at the Pacific Northwest Research Station, to 2000.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora

    2003-01-01

    The contributions for over 80 years by scientists at the Pacific Northwest Research Station to developments in economic theory, economic tools, policies, and economic issues are summarized. This is a story of progressive accomplishments set against a constantly changing background of economic and social events.

  15. Non-wadeable river bioassessment: spatial variation of benthic diatom assemblages in Pacific Northwest rivers, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current bioassessment efforts are focused on small wadeable streams, at least partly because assessing ecological conditions in non-wadeable large rivers poses many additional challenges. In this study, we sampled 20 sites in each of seven large rivers in the Pacific Northwest, U...

  16. Prediction of growth and mortality of Oregon White Oak in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Gould; David D. Marshall; Constance A. Harrington

    2008-01-01

    We developed new equations to predict Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook.) development with ORGANON, a stand-development model that is widely used in the Pacific Northwest. Tree size, competitive status, crown ratio, and site productivity were statistically significant predictors of growth and mortality. Three scenarios were...

  17. RELATING FINE ROOT BIOMASS TO SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The additive contribution of fine root biomass for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) to the stand average fine root biomass were estimated for eight conifer stands in the Pacific Northwest. Base...

  18. Physical hydrology and the effects of forest harvesting in the Pacific Northwest: a review.

    Treesearch

    R. Dan Moore; S.M. Wondzell

    2005-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest encompasses a range of hydrologic regimes that can be broadly characterized as either coastal (where rain and rain on snow are dominant) or interior (where snowmelt is dominant). Forest harvesting generally increases the fraction of precipitation that is available to become streamflow, increases rates of snowmelt, and modifies the runoff pathways...

  19. Improving the Outcomes of Science Education for the Pacific Northwest. Science and Mathematics Initiatives. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This report represents an effort to stimulate regional discussion and delineate issues of relevance for educators concerned with science education in the Pacific Northwest. It suggests topics of inquiry germane to the context of national initiatives and regional, state, and local challenges. Information is needed to understand "where we…

  20. 78 FR 70858 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Grain Handlers Association facilities: The Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in Portland... interim rule and request for comments titled, ``Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association...

  1. 78 FR 7665 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim... the following Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association facilities: the Columbia Grain facility on... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice regarding our public dockets in...

  2. 78 FR 47567 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim... the following Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association facilities: the Columbia Grain facility on... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice regarding our public dockets in...

  3. The Alsea Watershed Study: a comparison with other multi-year investigations in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Peter A. Bisson; Stanley V. Gregory; Thomas E. Nickelson; James D. Hall

    2008-01-01

    The Alsea Watershed Study (AWS) was the first long-term fisheries research project to address the effects of forestry operations on salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest using a watershed approach. To this day it remains one of a very limited number of investigations that have provided long-term information on salmon and trout responses to forestry operations....

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEAGRASSES, BENTHIC MACROALGAE AND NUTRIENTS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest estuaries are characterized by large tidal ranges (2-3 m) that routinely expose submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as seagrass and benthic macroalgae. The dominant native seagrass in PNW estuaries is the eelgrass Zostera marina. However, in recent decades...

  5. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  6. Crop Response to Hybrid Poplar Alternative Soilless Substrate Component for Pacific Northwest Ornamental Container Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Douglas fir bark (DFB) is the primary component used in soilless substrate to grow woody ornamental plants in the Pacific Northwest. Bark is a by-product of the timber industry and is used for landscape mulch, a soilless substrate component, or bio-energy. The decline in the housing market and rise ...

  7. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay

    Treesearch

    Yvette M. Karchesy; Rick G. Kelsey; George Constantine; Joseph J. Karchesy

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 μg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta...

  8. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  9. Introducing winter canola to the winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growers in the low-rainfall, winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest are in need of an alternative crop to diversify their markets, manage pests, and increase wheat yields. Winter canola may be a viable crop option for growers in the region. However, agronomic research for winter canol...

  10. DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRIETERIA FOR ESTUARIES WITH VARIABLE OCEAN INPUTS: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest have major intraannual and within estuary variation in sources and magnitudes of nutrient inputs. To develop an approach for setting nutrient criteria for these systems, we conducted a case study for Yaquina Bay, OR based on a synthesis of resea...

  11. Sediment and PM10 flux from no-tillage cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wind erosion is a concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States where the emission of fine particulates from winter wheat – summer fallow (WW/SF) dryland cropping systems during high winds degrade air quality. Although no-tillage cropping systems are not yet economically viable, these ...

  12. Carbon storage in coarse and fine fractions of Pacific Northwest old-growth forest soils.

    Treesearch

    P.S. Homann; S.M. Remillard; M.E. Harmon; B.T. Bormann

    2004-01-01

    Many assessments of soil C have been restricted to the 2-mm fractions of forest mineral soils. Our objective was to determine the importance of the >2mm fraction to whole-soil C pools in Pacific Northwest old-growth coniferous forests. Seventy-nine pedons in 18 western Washington and Oregon forests were...

  13. Traditional and local ecological knowledge about forest biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; A. Paige Fischer; Eric T. Jones

    2008-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the existing literature about traditional and local ecological knowledge relating to biodiversity in Pacific Northwest forests in order to assess what is needed to apply this knowledge to forest biodiversity conservation efforts. We address four topics: (1) views and values people have relating to biodiversity, (2) the resource use and management...

  14. Guidelines for evaluating air pollution impacts on class I wilderness areas in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Janice Peterson; Daniel L. Schmoldt; David Peterson; Joseph Eilers; Richard Fisher; Robert. Bachman

    1992-01-01

    Forest Service air resource managers in the Pacific Northwest are responsible for protecting class I wilderness areas from air pollution. To do this, they need scientifically defensible information to determine critical concentrations of air pollution having the potential to impact class I wilderness values. This report documents the results of a workshop where current...

  15. A first look at measurement error on FIA plots using blind plots in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Susanna Melson; David Azuma; Jeremy S. Fried

    2002-01-01

    Measurement error in the Forest Inventory and Analysis work of the Pacific Northwest Station was estimated with a recently implemented blind plot measurement protocol. A small subset of plots was revisited by a crew having limited knowledge of the first crew's measurements. This preliminary analysis of the first 18 months' blind plot data indicates that...

  16. Maturation and reproduction of northern flying squirrels in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Villa; Andrew B. Carey; Todd M. Wilson; Karma E. Glos

    1999-01-01

    Northern flying squirrels are the primary prey of northern spotted owls and are important dispersers of fungal spores in Pacific Northwest forests. Despite the importance of these squirrels in forest ecosystems, information is lacking on life history and methods for determining age and reproductive condition. In the laboratory, we measured epiphyseal notch, femur...

  17. Riparian communities associated with pacific northwest headwater streams: assemblages, processes, and uniqueness.

    Treesearch

    John S. Richardson; Robert J. Naiman; Frederick J. Swanson; David E. Hibbs

    2005-01-01

    Riparian areas of large streams provide important habitat to many species and control many instream processes - but is the same true for the margins of small streams? This review considers riparian areas alongside small streams in forested, mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest and asks if there are fundamental ecological differences from larger streams and from...

  18. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  19. Potential climate change impacts on tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tidal wetlands along the coast of the Pacific Northwest provide wildlife habitat and support important ecosystem functions such as primary productivity. The future structure and function of these ecosystems may be altered by sea-level rise (SLR) or other climate change effects. W...

  20. Working in John Wayne Country: Racist and Sexist Termination at a Pacific Northwest University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Robert Free

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experiences in working as a tribal liaison consultant to an AIDS education and training center at a Pacific Northwest university's health education research center. The author's experience shows the concerted efforts by the university lawyers to bury issues of discriminatory racism and sexism in hiring…

  1. Ties that bind: Pacific Northwest truffles, trees, and animals in symbiosis

    Treesearch

    Marie Oliver; Randy Molina; Jane E.  Smith

    2009-01-01

    Soil organisms play essential roles in forest health, and truffle fungi are one of the more fascinating groups of these important organisms. After 40 years of specimen collection and study, scientists with Pacific Northwest Research Station have published a report documenting how truffle fungi affect tree survival and growth, perform valuable functions in nutrient...

  2. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 23, November 27, 1937.

    Treesearch

    J. Elton Lodewick; P.A. Briegleb; F.L. Moravets; Leo A. Isaac; William G. Morris; Wade. DeVries

    1937-01-01

    Douglas fir, the most abundant and most used lumber species in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, is being pulped on a commercial scale by the sulfate and soda processes. The markets for unbleached pulps are limited, and there has been much speculation as to the possibilities of developing pulping processes whereby the enormous quantities of otherwise unutilized...

  3. Challenges of Avian Conservation on Non-Federal Forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Joseph B. Buchanan

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of species associated with mature forest habitats remains an important objective for non-federal lands in the Pacific Northwest. With few exceptions, state forest practices rules, a Washington state pilot landscape planning program, and federal Habitat Conservation Plans provide little functional habitat for species, like the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus...

  4. Conserving and managing the trees of the future: genetic resources for Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic resource management has historically called for altering the genetic structure of plant populations through selection for traits of interest such as rapid growth. Although this is still a principal component of tree breeding programs in the Pacific Northwest, managing genetic resources now also brings a clear focus on retaining a broad diversity within and...

  5. Specialty fruit production in the Pacific Northwest: Adaptation strategies for a changing climate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specialty crops, defined by the USDA as fruits and vegetables, tree nuts, dried fruits and horticulture and nursery crops, including floriculture, represent a substantial portion of agricultural production in the Pacific Northwest. Climate change may threaten water sources, lengthen the dry season, ...

  6. Understanding key issues of sustainable wood production in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Seth M. White

    2005-01-01

    Researchers involved with the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station Sustainable Wood Production Initiative have outlined some of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable wood production in the region. Sustainable wood production is defined as the capacity of forests to produce wood, products, and services on a long-term basis and in the context of human...

  7. Potential climate change impacts on tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tidal wetlands along the coast of the Pacific Northwest provide wildlife habitat and support important ecosystem functions such as primary productivity. The future structure and function of these ecosystems may be altered by sea-level rise (SLR) or other climate change effects. W...

  8. Guidelines for evaluating air pollution impacts on class I wilderness areas in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    J. Peterson; D. Schmoldt; D. Peterson; J. Eilers; R. Fisher; R. Bachman

    1992-01-01

    Forest Service air resource managers in the Pacific Northwest are responsible for protecting class 1 wilderness areas from air pollution. To do this, they need scientifically defensible information to determine critical concentrations of air pollution having the potential to impact class 1 wilderness values. This report documents the results of a workshop where current...

  9. Projected dryland cropping system shifts in the Pacific Northwest in response to climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agriculture in the dryland region of the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW, including northern Idaho, eastern Washington and northern Oregon) is typically characterized based on annual rainfall and associated distribution of cropping systems that have evolved in response to biophysical and socio-econom...

  10. Analysis of potential impacts of climate change on forests of the United States Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Gregory Latta; Hailemariam Temesgen; Darius Adams; Tara Barrett

    2010-01-01

    As global climate changes over the next century, forest productivity is expected to change as well. Using PRISM climate and productivity data measured on a grid of 3356 plots, we developed a simultaneous autoregressive model to estimate the impacts of climate change on potential productivity of Pacific Northwest forests of the United States. The model, coupled with...

  11. Non-wadeable river bioassessment: spatial variation of benthic diatom assemblages in Pacific Northwest rivers, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current bioassessment efforts are focused on small wadeable streams, at least partly because assessing ecological conditions in non-wadeable large rivers poses many additional challenges. In this study, we sampled 20 sites in each of seven large rivers in the Pacific Northwest, U...

  12. Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    James M. Trappe; Randy Molina; Daniel L. Luoma; Efren Cázares; David Pilz; Jane E. Smith; Michael A. Castellano; Steven L. Miller; Matthew J. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest have been an epicenter for the evolution of truffle fungi with over 350 truffle species and 55 genera currently identified. Truffle fungi develop their reproductive fruit-bodies typically belowground, so they are harder to find and study than mushrooms that fruit aboveground. Nevertheless, over the last five decades, the Corvallis...

  13. An Evaluation of Oregon's Participation in the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Joanne

    The purpose of this study was to survey and evaluate past and current participation in the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Center (PNBC) by Oregon libraries. Summarized, the findings were: (1) the PNBC has become a major source of assistance in the flow of interlibrary loans and bibliographic data; (2) it is part of a variety of formal and…

  14. Impact of rolling and phosphorous acid on root rot of dry peas in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rolling soil after planting is standard in dry pea production areas in the Pacific Northwest but can increase compaction resulting in increase of root rot by oomycetes and other pathogens. Phosphorous acid has been used to manage oomycete pathogens, therefore, the impact of not rolling soil after s...

  15. Conservation and development of nontimber forest products in the Pacific Northwest: an annotated bibliography.

    Treesearch

    Bettina Von Hagen; James F. Weigand; Rebecca McLain; Roger Fight; Harriet H. Christensen

    1996-01-01

    This bibliography encompasses literature on the historic and current scope of nontimber forest product industries in the Pacific Northwest and includes references on international markets and trade that bear on these industries. Key themes in the bibliography are biological and socioeconomic aspects of resource management for sustainable production; procedures for...

  16. The biology of amphibians and reptiles in old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    A.P. Blaustein; J.J. Beatty; D.H. Olson; R.M. Storm

    1995-01-01

    The amphibian and reptile fauna of older forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest includes several endemic species, species with unique behavioral and ecological characteristics, and species whose populations have been in decline in recent years. We review the biology of these species and include information on their distinguishing characteristics, behavior, and...

  17. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  18. Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger investigation into potential impacts of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries. These were the Coquille River estuary, the South Slough of Coos Bay, and the Yaquina Bay...

  19. An approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest Estuaries: A case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of an approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, based on a case study of Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. The approach is based on a synthesis of research from field studies, analyses of historical trends in wat...

  20. Developing Blueberry Plants with Shock Virus Tolerance for the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Pacific Northwest, Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) causes short term blighting of flowers and young leaves in young and established blueberry fields, resulting in yield loss for one or two years. After the initial shock phase, plants recover and do not exhibit symptoms again. The virus is pol...

  1. YAQUINA ESTUARY NUTRIENT CRITERIA CASE STUDY: GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRITERIA IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an introduction to the Yaquina Estuary Nutrient Case Study which includes considerations for development of estuarine nutrient criteria in the Pacific Northwest. As part of this effort, a database of historic and recent data has been assembled consistin...

  2. YAQUINA BAY NUTRIENT CRITERIA CASE STUDY: APPROACHES TO ESTUARINE NUTRIENT CRITERIA IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation presents an introduction to the Yaquina Bay Nutrient Case Study which provides approaches for development of estuarine nutrient criteria in the Pacific Northwest. As part of this effort, a database of historic and recent data has been assembled consisting of phy...

  3. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel - CERF 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  4. Men, Not Money: E. W. Scripps and the Penny Newspapers of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Mike

    E.W. Scripps's penny newspapers brought a new style of public service journalism to the Pacific Northwest's four largest cities--Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, and Portland--in the turbulent years of the Progressive movement from 1899 to 1912. Minimal investment, tight cost controls, and the idea that a small, condensed newspaper could be more popular…

  5. Soil and water conservation in the Pacific Northwest through no-tillage and intensified crop rotations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) summer fallow rotation typically practiced in the intermediate precipitation zone [300-450 mm (12-18 in)] of the inland Pacific Northwest has proven to be economically stable for producers in this region. However multiple tillage operations are used to control...

  6. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  7. Inferred origin of several Native American potatoes from the Pacific Northwest using SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certain Native Americans from the Pacific Northwest and Alaska of the USA have grown potatoes in their gardens for many generations. However, the origin of these potatoes was unclear. In this study, the origin of several potatoes collected from Native gardens, including two potatoes, “Ozette” (fro...

  8. Current Status of Grapvine Viruses in the Pacific Northwest Vineyards of the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wine grape industry in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, consisting of Washington, Oregon and Idaho, is emerging as one of the country’s leading producers of premium wine. Samples from a total of about 2000 individual grapevines were collected from twenty-eight red- and white-ber...

  9. Knock on wood: Is wood production sustainable in the Pacific Northwest?

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest is one of the world’s major timber-producing regions, and its capacity to produce wood on a sustained-yield basis is widely recognized. Nonetheless, there has been increasing public interest in assuring that forests are being sustainably managed, as well as a desire by landowners to demonstrate their commitment to responsible stewardship.

  10. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  11. YAQUINA ESTUARY NUTRIENT CRITERIA CASE STUDY: GUIDANCE FOR DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRITERIA IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an introduction to the Yaquina Estuary Nutrient Case Study which includes considerations for development of estuarine nutrient criteria in the Pacific Northwest. As part of this effort, a database of historic and recent data has been assembled consistin...

  12. Application of a Eutrophic Condition Index to Benthic Macroalgal Accumulation in Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of benthic macroalgal accumulation in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest, USA, were conducted over a 12-year period, including aerial mapping and ground surveys. The results were applied to an assessment framework for eutrophication developed by the European Unio...

  13. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  14. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  15. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  16. RELATING FINE ROOT BIOMASS TO SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The additive contribution of fine root biomass for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) to the stand average fine root biomass were estimated for eight conifer stands in the Pacific Northwest. Base...

  17. Bed Stability and sedimentation associated with human disturbances in Pacific Northwest streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate anthropogenic sedimentation in United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest coastal streams, we applied an index of relative bed stability (LRBS*) to summer low flow survey data collected using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessme...

  18. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  19. Pacific Northwest forest tree seed zones: a template for native plants?

    Treesearch

    GR Johnson; Frank C Sorensen; J Bradley St Clair; Richard C. Cronn

    2004-01-01

    Seed movement guidelines for restoration activities are lacking for most native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The forestry community has decades of experience in establishing seed zones and seed movement guidelines that may be of value to restoration managers. We review the history of seed zone development in forest trees, with emphasis on the Pacific Northwest, and make...

  20. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEAGRASSES, BENTHIC MACROALGAE AND NUTRIENTS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest estuaries are characterized by large tidal ranges (2-3 m) that routinely expose submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as seagrass and benthic macroalgae. The dominant native seagrass in PNW estuaries is the eelgrass Zostera marina. However, in recent decades...

  1. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has ...

  2. Pacific Northwest tide channel utilization by fish as an ecosystem service - August 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods: Saltwater marsh tide channels are considered to be important in the ecology of estuarine fish serving both as a refuge and as a provider of enhanced food resources. However, this presumed function of tide channels in Pacific Northwest estuaries has r...

  3. Geographies of Indigenous Leaders: Landscapes and Mindscapes in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This essay features three stories of "place-based" leadership in two Indigenous communities in the Pacific Northwest. Author Michael Marker weaves together stories from Nisga'a Elders in the Nass Valley of British Columbia, Coast Salish Elders in Washington State, and his own experiences as a researcher, teacher educator, and community…

  4. DIALECT CHECKLIST - PACIFIC NORTHWEST. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL FOR ELEVENTH GRADE UNIT ON "LINGUISTIC GEOGRAPHY AND DIALECT."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    THE CHECKLIST WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY CHARACTERISTIC WORD USAGE IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. THE STUDENT IS ASKED TO CIRCLE THE WORD IN A GROUP OF WORDS WHICH HE ORDINARILY USES TO DESIGNATE A SPECIFIC THING. FOR INSTANCE--SELF OVER FIREPLACE - MANTEL, MANTEL BOARD, MANTEL PIECE, SHELF, CHILDHOOD WORD FOR MOTHER - MA, MAMA, MOM, MOTHER, MOMMY. ONE…

  5. Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger investigation into potential impacts of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries. These were the Coquille River estuary, the South Slough of Coos Bay, and the Yaquina Bay...

  6. Comparing algorithms for estimating foliar biomass of conifers in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Crystal L. Raymond; Donald. McKenzie

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates of foliar biomass (FB) are important for quantifying carbon storage in forest ecosystems, but FB is not always reported in regional or national inventories. Foliar biomass also drives key ecological processes in ecosystem models. Published algorithms for estimating FB in conifer species of the Pacific Northwest can yield signifi cantly different...

  7. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  8. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).

  9. Establishing a regional monitoring strategy: The Pacific Northwest Forest Plan

    Treesearch

    Paul L. Ringold; Barry Mulder; Jim Alegria; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Tim Tolle; Kelly Burnett

    1999-01-01

    This paper identifies lessons learned and issues raised during the development of an ecosystem monitoring strategy intended to support the Northwest Forest Plan. Adaptive ecosystem management, which requires monitoring as essential feedback to management, recognizes that action is necessary or appropriate, although knowledge may be imperfect. We suggest that this...

  10. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciTech Connect

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  11. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  12. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  13. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  14. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  15. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1984-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional energy resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy resources. The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of generic studies including Contaminant Characterizations and Transformation; Boundary Layer Meteorology; and Dispersion, Deposition and Resupension of Atmospheric Contaminants.

  18. Effect of different surface forcings on the circulation and stratification in a global model with focus on the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Patrick; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    The subarctic oceans like the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, the Labrador Sea or the Greenland-Irminger-Norwegian (GIN) Sea react particularly sensitive to global climate changes and have the potential to reversely regulate climate change by CO2 uptake in the other areas of the world. So far, the natural processes in the Arctic and Subarctic system, especially of the Pacific realm, remains barely studied in terms of sedimentary records, but especially in terms of numerical modeling. In this study we focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific (e.g. the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan), which have nowadays a significant role in the climate system of the Northwest Pacific by influencing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as the hydrology of the Pacific water masses. Especially the Sea of Okhotsk is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice coverage, where in autumn and winter due to massive sea ice formation and brine rejection, the Sea of Okhotsk Intermediate Water (SOIW) is formed contributing to the mid-depth (500-1000m) water layer of the North Pacific known as newly formed North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration with a regional focus on the marginal sea of the Northwest Pacific Ocean with a resolution of up to 8 km. As a preliminary study we compare the influence of the Comprehensive Ocean Ice Reference Experiment version 2 (COREv2) and ECMWF Era 40/interim forcing data set on the general circulation and stratification of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. We evaluate the reliability of both forcing data sets based on a comparison with observational derived data from the World Ocean Atlas 2013.

  19. Plutonium isotopes in settling particles: transport and scavenging of Pu in the western Northwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2006-07-01

    We examined the vertical distributions of 239+240Pu activity and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in settling particles and quantified the particulate 239+240Pu fluxes in the water column in the western Northwest Pacific. Settling particle samples were collected using sediment traps. Plutonium isotopes were analyzed using a sector field high-resolution ICP-MS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that both Pu activity and Pu isotope ratio data have been obtained for settling particles in the Pacific Ocean. The high (>0.18) 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in settling particles indicate that plutonium from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) source in the central Pacific is transported toward the western Northwest Pacific. Evidence indicates that Pu scavenging onto the settling particles is strongly dependent upon the bulk mass flux. The results suggest that advective lateral transport of dissolved Pu from the open ocean to the ocean margin and removal of Pu into the margin sediments by particle scavenging is a common phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean. Plutonium can be considered as a useful tracer to study the transport and fate of other contaminants that readily adsorb to particles in marine environments.

  20. Farmed Atlantic salmon: potential invader in the Pacific Northwest?

    Treesearch

    Jonathan Thompson; Pete Bisson

    2008-01-01

    Commercial farming of Atlantic salmon in marine net-pens has become a booming industry. At present, approximately 130 salmon farms exist along the Pacific coast of North America. Most of these farms are in cold marine bays within British Columbia, where farmed salmon have become the province’s most valuable agricultural export. Each year, thousands of farmed Atlantic...

  1. RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

  2. RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

  3. Low thermal tolerances of stream amphibians in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for riparian and forest management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature has a profound effect on survival and ecology of amphibians. In the Pacific Northwest, timber harvest is known to increase peak stream temperatures to 24??C or higher, which has potential to negatively impact cold-water stream amphibians. I determined the Critical Thermal Maxima (CT max) for two salamanders that are endemic to the Pacific Northwest. Rhyacotriton variegatus larvae acclimated at 10??C had mean CTmax of 26.7 ?? 0.7 SD??C and adults acclimated at 11??C had mean CT max of 27.9 ?? 1.1??C. These were among the lowest known values for any amphibian. Values were significantly higher for larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus acclimated at 14??C (x = 29.1 ?? 0.2??C). Although the smallest R. variegatus had some of the lowest values, size of larvae and adults did not influence CTmax in this species. Current forest practices retain riparian buffers along larger fish-bearing streams; however, such buffers along smaller headwaters and non-fish bearing streams may provide favorable habitat conditions for coldwater-associated species in the Pacific Northwest. The current study lends further evidence to the need for protection of Northwest stream amphibians from environmental perturbations. Forest guidelines that include riparian buffer zones and configurations of upland stands should be developed, while monitoring amphibian responses to determine their success. ?? 2008 Brill Academic Publishers.

  4. Surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wise, D.R.; Johnson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts.

  5. The Pacific Northwest's Climate Impacts Group: Climate Science in the Public Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantua, N.; Snover, A.

    2006-12-01

    Since its inception in 1995, the University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group (CIG) (funded under NOAA's Regional Integrated Science and Assessments (RISA) Program) has become the leader in exploring the impacts of climate variability and climate change on natural and human systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), specifically climate impacts on water, forest, fish and coastal resource systems. The CIG's research provides PNW planners, decision makers, resource managers, local media, and the general public with valuable knowledge of ways in which the region's key natural resources are vulnerable to changes in climate, and how this vulnerability can be reduced. The CIG engages in climate science in the public interest, conducting original research on the causes and consequences of climate variability and change for the PNW and developing forecasts and decision support tools to support the use of this information in federal, state, local, tribal, and private sector resource management decisions. The CIG's focus on the intersection of climate science and public policy has placed the CIG nationally at the forefront of regional climate impacts assessment and integrated analysis.

  6. Radioactive impacts on nekton species in the Northwest Pacific and humans more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Men, Wu; Deng, Fangfang; He, Jianhua; Yu, Wen; Wang, Fenfen; Li, Yiliang; Lin, Feng; Lin, Jing; Lin, Longshan; Zhang, Yusheng; Yu, Xingguang

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the radioactive impacts on 10 nekton species in the Northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) from the two perspectives of contamination and harm. Squids were especially used for the spatial and temporal comparisons to demonstrate the impacts from the FNA. The radiation doses to nekton species and humans were assessed to link this radioactivity contamination to possible harm. The total dose rates to nektons were lower than the ERICA ecosystem screening benchmark of 10μGy/h. Further dose-contribution analysis showed that the internal doses from the naturally occurring nuclide (210)Po were the main dose contributor. The dose rates from (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (90)Sr and (110m)Ag were approximately three or four orders of magnitude lower than those from naturally occurring radionuclides. The (210)Po-derived dose was also the main contributor of the total human dose from immersion in the seawater and the ingestion of nekton species. The human doses from anthropogenic radionuclides were ~ 100 to ~ 10,000 times lower than the doses from naturally occurring radionuclides. A morbidity assessment was performed based on the Linear No Threshold assumptions of exposure and showed 7 additional cancer cases per 100,000,000 similarly exposed people. Taken together, there is no need for concern regarding the radioactive harm in the open ocean area of the Northwest Pacific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of Pu in the Northwest Pacific Ocean using modern coral archives.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Patric; Andersen, Morten B; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul; Hyeong, Kiseong; Choi, Min-Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-04-01

    Historical (239)Pu activity concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were determined in skeletons of dated modern corals collected from three locations (Chuuk Lagoon, Ishigaki Island and Iki Island) to identify spatial and temporal variations in Pu inputs to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The main Pu source in the Northwest Pacific is fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing which consists of global fallout and close-in fallout from the former US Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands. PPG close-in fallout dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as was observed with higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) at the Ishigaki site. Specific fallout Pu contamination from the Nagasaki atomic bomb and the Ivy Mike thermonuclear detonation at the PPG were identified at Ishigaki Island from the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios of 0.07 and 0.46, respectively. During the 1960s and 1970s, global fallout was the major Pu source to the Northwest Pacific with over 60% contribution to the total Pu. After the cessation of the atmospheric nuclear tests, the PPG again dominated the Pu input due to the continuous transport of remobilised Pu from the Marshall Islands along the North Equatorial Current and the subsequent Kuroshio Current. The Pu contributions from the PPG in recent coral bands (1984 onwards) varied over time with average estimated PPG contributions between 54% and 72% depending on location. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The University of Washington Department of Surgery: training surgeons in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peter C; Pellegrini, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    The General Surgery Residency Program at the University of Washington Affiliated Hospitals serves as the sole university training program in the Pacific Northwest, which encompasses a region representing nearly one-fourth of the United States land mass. We value our role to train excellent surgeons for the communities of the Northwest as well as mentor future leaders in academic surgery. The Department strives to stay on the leading edge of surgical education and continually seeks to improve the quality of the training program. We indeed feel fortunate to have the opportunity to train the best and brightest in one of the most exciting and rewarding professions in medicine.

  9. Free-Trade Agreements: North America and the Northwest Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    and Currency Zones, The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 1991 . Bhagwati , Jagdish, The World Trading System at Risk, Princeton University Press...Mexico initiated negotiations in 1991 to establish a North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Like the UCFTA, a NAFTA would be consistent with GATT...for a Pacific Community," Foreign Affairs, Winter 1991 /92, Vol.70, No. 5. Bello, Walden and Rosenfeld, Stephanie, Dragons in Distress, Institute for

  10. Detection of a ULVZ at the base of the mantle beneath the northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Koper, Keith D.

    2009-09-01

    We used the Yellowknife seismic array (YKA) to measure the slowness of 1,371 P and P diff waves from earthquakes occurring in the circum-Pacific region. The corresponding anomalies in P-velocity show a sharp reduction of up to 6% across a patch of the lowermost mantle beneath the Northwest Pacific with lateral dimensions of several hundred kilometers. The location of this ultra low velocity zone (ULVZ) correlates with a long-wavelength compositional boundary revealed by probabilistic mantle tomography. We interpret the ULVZ as partial melt created by paleo-slab material that is being swept laterally from northwestern Pacific subduction zones towards the large, chemically distinct province beneath the south-central Pacific.

  11. Coxiella burnetii infection of marine mammals in the Pacific Northwest, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Raverty, Stephen A; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Self, Joshua S; Akmajian, Adrianne M; Jeffries, Steven J; Huggins, Jessica; Drew, Clifton P; Zaki, Sherif R; Massung, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans are commonly exposed via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria derived from the waste products of domesticated sheep and goats, and particularly from products generated during parturition. However, many other species can be infected with C. burnetii, and the host range and full zoonotic potential of C. burnetii is unknown. Two cases of C. burnetii infection in marine mammal placenta have been reported, but it is not known if this infection is common in marine mammals. To address this issue, placenta samples were collected from Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Coxiella burnetii was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the placentas of Pacific harbor seals (17/27), harbor porpoises (2/6), and Steller sea lions (1/2) collected in the Pacific Northwest. A serosurvey of 215 Pacific harbor seals sampled in inland and outer coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest showed that 34.0% (73/215) had antibodies against either Phase 1 or Phase 2 C. burnetii. These results suggest that C. burnetii infection is common among marine mammals in this region.

  12. Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids in a Pacific Northwest estuary.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bryan E; Riemer, Susan D; Brown, Robin F; Ougzin, Aicha M; Bucklin, Katherine A

    2007-03-01

    The populations of many native species have increased or expanded in distribution in recent decades, sometimes with negative consequences to sympatric native species that are rarer or less adaptable to anthropogenic changes to the environment. An example of this phenomenon from the Pacific Northwest is predation by locally abundant pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) on threatened, endangered, or otherwise depleted salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. We used survey sampling methodology, acoustic telemetry, and molecular genetics to quantify the amount of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) predation on a depressed run of coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to determine whether some seals consumed a disproportionately higher number of salmonids than others. Based on a probability sample totaling 759.5 h of observation, we estimated that seals consumed 1161 adult salmonids (95% CI = 503-1818 salmonids) during daylight hours over an 18.9-km estuarine study area in Oregon during an 84-d period in fall 2002. Simultaneous tracking of 56 seals via an acoustic telemetry array indicated that a small proportion of marked seals (12.5%) exhibited behavior that was consistent with specialization on salmonids. These seals spent the majority of their time in the riverine portion of the study area and did so disproportionately more at night than day. Genetic analysis of 116 salmonid structures recovered from 11 seal fecal samples suggested that coho salmon accounted for approximately one-half of total salmonid consumption. Though subject to considerable uncertainty, the combined results lead us to infer that seals consumed 21% (range = 3-63%) of the estimated prespawning population of coho salmon. We speculate that the majority of the predation occurred upriver, at night, and was done by a relatively small proportion of the local seal population. Understanding the extent and nature of pinniped predation can provide important inputs into risk assessments and other modeling efforts designed to

  13. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  14. Nonlinear growth responses of Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest to summer temperatures in the past decade

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered seasonal climate patterns resulting from global climate change could affect the productivity of coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. This study examined seasonal patterns of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and plant available...

  15. Nonlinear growth responses of Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest to summer temperatures in the past decade

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered seasonal climate patterns resulting from global climate change could affect the productivity of coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. This study examined seasonal patterns of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and plant available...

  16. Root diseases in bareroot and container nurseries of the Pacific Northwest: epidemiology, management, and effects on outplanting performance

    Treesearch

    Kasten R. Dumroese; Robert L. James

    2005-01-01

    In forest and conservation nurseries in the Pacific Northwest USA, seedling production can be limited by root diseases caused by fungi in the genera Fusarium Link:Fr., Cylindrocarpon Wollenw., Phytophthora de Barry, and Pythium Pringsh. Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon, and ...

  17. Development of approaches to predict the distribution of Zostera marina and Z. japonica in Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dominant species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries is the intertidal and shallow subtidal seagrass, Zostera marina. Beds of Z. marina constitute a critical habitat, including providing habitat for juvenile salmon. Additionally, the n...

  18. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  19. Development of approaches to predict the distribution of Zostera marina and Z. japonica in Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dominant species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries is the intertidal and shallow subtidal seagrass, Zostera marina. Beds of Z. marina constitute a critical habitat, including providing habitat for juvenile salmon. Additionally, the n...

  20. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  1. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Scott; Schrlau, Jill; Butler, Jack; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Harding, Anna; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010-2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant's contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations.

  2. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010–2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant’s contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337

  3. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kausik; Bartlett, Karen H.; Baer, Rebecca; Byrnes, Edmond; Galanis, Eleni; Heitman, Joseph; Hoang, Linda; Leslie, Mira J.; MacDougall, Laura; Magill, Shelley S.; Morshed, Muhammad G.

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii has emerged as a human and animal pathogen in the Pacific Northwest. First recognized on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, it now involves mainland British Columbia, and Washington and Oregon in the United States. In Canada, the incidence of disease has been one of the highest worldwide. In the United States, lack of cryptococcal species identification and case surveillance limit our knowledge of C. gattii epidemiology. Infections in the Pacific Northwest are caused by multiple genotypes, but the major strain is genetically novel and may have emerged recently in association with unique mating or environmental changes. C. gattii disease affects immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, causing substantial illness and death. Successful management requires an aggressive medical and surgical approach and consideration of potentially variable antifungal drug susceptibilities. We summarize the study results of a group of investigators and review current knowledge with the goal of increasing awareness and highlighting areas where further knowledge is required. PMID:19757550

  4. Long term mean annual water temperature for stream reaches in Pacific Northwest United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Long-term mean annual water temperature (degrees Celsius) was estimated for the E2RF1 stream network (Brakebill and Terziotti, 2011) located within the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (HUC2 = 17; the Columbia River basin, the Puget Sound watershed, the coastal drainages of Washington and Oregon, and the closed basins in southern Oregon). Multiple linear regressions were used to select reach-scale watershed attributes (explanatory variables) for predicting the long-term mean annual water temperature (dependent variable) at a set of USGS water-quality monitoring stations. The results from the multiple linear regressions were used to predict the long-term mean water temperature for the Pacific Northwest reaches in the E2RF1 network.

  5. Modeling the effect of land use on carbon storage in the forests of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Wallin, David O.; Harmon, Mark E.; Sollins, Philip; Daly, Christopher; Ferrell, William K.

    1992-01-01

    There is concern as to how the balance of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem will change in response to a variety of land use practices. A study is described in which a methodology is being developed to help narrow this uncertainty for the temperate forets of the Pacific Northwest region of the US. A carbon storage model is being developed to respond to forest harvesting, the dominant use of land in the region. By linking the carbon model to satellite imagery and a climate simulation model, the current amount of carbon stored in the forests of the Pacific northwest is estimated. The archive of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images permits a 20-year historical perspective of land use changes in the region. With these data, the recent impact of regional land use in forest carbon stores is assessed.

  6. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, with Index (Public Law 96-501).

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act was enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America. It was enacted to assist the electrical consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal columbia River Power System to achieve cost-effective energy conservation, to encourage the development of renewable energy resources, to establish a representative regional power planning process, to assure the region of an efficient and adequate power supply, and for other purposes. Contents of the Act are: short title and table of contents; purposes; definitions; regional planning and participation; sale of power; conservation and resource acquisition; rates; amendments to existing law; administrative provisions; savings provisions; effective date; and severability.

  7. Getting into trouble: perspectives on stress and suicide prevention among Pacific Northwest Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Strickland, C June; Cooper, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Suicide rates among Indian youth in the United States are two to three times the national average. Although researchers have identified related risk and protective factors, they have limited understanding of the perspectives of youth at risk. In this descriptive, ethnographic study in a Pacific Northwest tribe, the goal was to gain an understanding of the life experiences of the youth. Focus groups and observations were conducted with 30 Indian youth aged between 14 and 19 years in a Pacific Northwest tribe. Youth were asked to talk about their stressors, sense of family/community support, and hopes for the future. Youth reported major stress and noted that friends and family were both a support and also a source of stress. They hoped for strengthening of cultural values, economic development, and opportunities to give their talents to the tribe. These findings provide further insight about suicide risk among Indian youth and advance the understanding of suicide prevention in a transcultural setting.

  8. Modeling the effect of land use on carbon storage in the forests of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Wallin, David O.; Harmon, Mark E.; Sollins, Philip; Daly, Christopher; Ferrell, William K.

    1992-01-01

    There is concern as to how the balance of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem will change in response to a variety of land use practices. A study is described in which a methodology is being developed to help narrow this uncertainty for the temperate forets of the Pacific Northwest region of the US. A carbon storage model is being developed to respond to forest harvesting, the dominant use of land in the region. By linking the carbon model to satellite imagery and a climate simulation model, the current amount of carbon stored in the forests of the Pacific northwest is estimated. The archive of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images permits a 20-year historical perspective of land use changes in the region. With these data, the recent impact of regional land use in forest carbon stores is assessed.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling.

  11. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  12. Ventilation Measurements in Energy-Efficient Multifamily Dwelling Units in the Pacific Northwest Region.

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham Bradley

    1990-03-01

    A ventilation field measurement study was conducted during the 1986/1987 and 1987/1988 heating seasons in 39 energy-efficient multifamily dwelling units. Four buildings, two in eastern Washington and two in western Washington, were involved in the study. The purpose of the study was to determine the total and baseline (natural) air exchange rates in units representing energy-efficient construction in the multifamily sector of the Pacific Northwest. This information will be used to aid in the development of future construction codes and standards. The air exchange rate was measured a multiple perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technique. Most measurements were taken over a 2- to 4-week period, with a few measurements taken over a period of one to three consecutive months. The PFT technique allows one to determine the fresh air flow into any unit within a building as well as the air flow between adjacent units. In addition, the volumetric air flow and usage of the mechanical ventilation system installed in the units were measured. Temperature, weather, structure, and occupancy data were also collected. 12 refs., 19 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1991. Each project in the PNL research program is a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. Examples include definition of the role of fundamental geochemical and physical phenomena on the diversity and function of microorganisms in the deep subsurface, and determination of the controls on nutrient, water, and energy dynamics in arid ecosystems and their response to stress at the landscape scale. The Environmental Science Research Center has enable PNL to extend fundamental knowledge of subsurface science to develop emerging new concepts for use in natural systems and in environmental restoration of DOE sites. New PNL investments have been made in developing advanced concepts for addressing chemical desorption kinetics, enzyme transformations and redesign, the role of heterogeneity in contaminant transport, and modeling of fundamental ecological processes.

  14. Wildfire exposure analysis on the national forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alan A; Buonopane, Michelle; Reger, Allison; Finney, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed wildfire exposure for key social and ecological features on the national forests in Oregon and Washington. The forests contain numerous urban interfaces, old growth forests, recreational sites, and habitat for rare and endangered species. Many of these resources are threatened by wildfire, especially in the east Cascade Mountains fire-prone forests. The study illustrates the application of wildfire simulation for risk assessment where the major threat is from large and rare naturally ignited fires, versus many previous studies that have focused on risk driven by frequent and small fires from anthropogenic ignitions. Wildfire simulation modeling was used to characterize potential wildfire behavior in terms of annual burn probability and flame length. Spatial data on selected social and ecological features were obtained from Forest Service GIS databases and elsewhere. The potential wildfire behavior was then summarized for each spatial location of each resource. The analysis suggested strong spatial variation in both burn probability and conditional flame length for many of the features examined, including biodiversity, urban interfaces, and infrastructure. We propose that the spatial patterns in modeled wildfire behavior could be used to improve existing prioritization of fuel management and wildfire preparedness activities within the Pacific Northwest region. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  16. Restoring Resiliency: Case Studies from Pacific Northwest Estuarine Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Vavrinec, John; Borde, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of many ecological restoration projects is to establish an ecosystem with fully developed structure and function that exhibits resistance to and resilience from disturbances. Coastal restoration projects in the Pacific Northwest provide opportunities to understand what is required to restore the resilience of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations. Factors influencing resilience observed in three case studies of eelgrass restoration include minimum viable population, adaptations of transplant populations, and natural and anthropogenic disturbances at restoration sites. The evaluation of resiliency depends on selecting appropriate monitoring metrics and the frequency and duration of monitoring. Eelgrass area, cover and shoot density provide useful and reliable metrics for quantifying resilience of restored meadows. Further, five years of monitoring of these metrics provides data that can reasonably predict the long-term viability of a planted plot. Eelgrass appears to be a resilient ecosystem in general, though one that data suggest may exhibit tipping points brought about by compounded environmental conditions outside of its tolerance ranges. Explicit inclusion of resilience in the planning and practice of habitat restoration may reduce uncertainties and improve the performance of restored systems by increasing buffering capacity, nurturing sources of renewal (e.g., seeds and rhizomes), and managing for habitat forming and maintaining processes (e.g., sediment dynamics) at multiple scales.

  17. Microsatellite primers for the Pacific Northwest conifer Callitropsis nootkatensis (Cupressaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Tara N.; Knaus, Brian J.; Alderman, Katherine; Hennon, Paul E.; D’Amore, David V.; Cronn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis) to provide quantitative measures for gene conservation that can assist in guiding management decisions for a species experiencing climate-induced decline. • Methods and Results: Using multiplexed massively parallel sequencing, we identified 136,785 microsatellite-containing sequences from 489,625 Illumina paired-end 80-bp reads. After stringent filtering, we selected 144 primer pairs and screened variation at these loci in five populations of C. nootkatensis. Loci show between three and 36 dinucleotide repeats per locus, with an average of 13. Screening of these markers in the Pacific Northwest relative Chamaecyparis lawsoniana demonstrated no marker transferability. This finding highlights the narrow taxonomic utility of microsatellite markers in Callitropsis. • Conclusions: These microsatellites show high polymorphism and can be used for routine screening of natural variation in Callitropsis nootkatensis, and will be particularly helpful in identifying clones and inbred relatives at the stand-level. PMID:25202587

  18. Anthropogenic Factors Affecting the Status of Salmon Stocks in Pacific Northwest Watersheds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    census.gov/cgi-bin/gazetter. (June 1997). US Department of Agriculture - Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Region. 1988. National forests of the...land and lack of forest area correctly classified 71% of fall Chinook stocks. Indian tribal land, human population and number of dams correctly...by categorizing watersheds as to their relative amount of urban population and subdivision development, agricultural and forest type land

  19. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.

    1980-05-19

    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  1. PUREX environmental radiological surveillance - preoperational and operational support program conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Price, K.R.

    1983-10-01

    This report describes the radiological environmental sampling program that is being conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in support of resumed operation of the PUREX fuel processing plant. The report also summarizes preoperational radiological environmental data collected to date. The activities described herein are part of the ongoing Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program, operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE.

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  3. Potential conservation opportunities from the use of improved irrigation scheduling in the Pacific Northwest region

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B J; Lezberg, A J

    1985-03-01

    This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and the costs per kWh saved from using systematic rather than traditional irrigation scheduling to reduce water usage in the irrigated agricultural sector of the Pacific Northwest. This research is part of an overall project aimed at developing a computer model and data base that will allow for estimation of the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of a number of conservation technologies that are available for use in irrigated agriculture.

  4. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  5. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Lingcod

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Res. Board Can. Kabata, F. 1973. The species of 20(2):257-264. Lepeophiheirus ( Copepoda : Caligidae) from fishes in British Columbia. J. Fish. Res...AD-A224 839 Biological Report 82(11.119) TR EL-82-4 December 1989 OTC FiLE COPY Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of...1989 Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) LINGCOD by William N

  6. Hardwood supply in the Pacific northwest: A policy perspective. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Raettig, T.L.; Connaughton, K.P.; Ahrens, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but in the long term, the supply is uncertain and cause for concern. Hardwoods need to be recognized in forest management in the Pacific Northwest.

  7. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Effects of loqqinq on the habitat behavioral ecology of juvenile coho of coho salmon and cutthroat trout salmon in stream channels. J. Fish. in coastal...SEnvironmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and UT! CW Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) EET SCOHO SALMON E CE 2Y -N o SCoastal Ecology Group SFish and...organisms, principally fish, of sport, commercial, or ecological importance. The profiles are designed to provide coastal managers, engineers, and

  8. Prescribed Fire Versus Air Quality in 2000 in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    David V. Sandberg

    1987-01-01

    In 1970, it was widely assumed that by 1980 in the Pacific Northwest, prescribed fire would be a thing of the past. By 1985, however, half way from 1970 to the end of the century, the area treated by fire increased. Now, the demise of forest burning is widely expected to occur by the year 2000. Can, and will, a compromise be found between the resurgence in appreciation...

  9. Tropical Cyclone Footprint in the Ocean Mixed Layer Observed by Argo in the Northwest Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-25

    RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2014JC010316 Tropical cyclone footprint in the ocean mixed layer observed by Argo in the Northwest Pacific HongLi Fu1...Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA Abstract This study systematically investigated the ocean mixed layer responses to tropical cyclone (TC...5 m, with IL cooling up to 0.4C. 1. Introduction Oceanic response to tropical cyclones (TCs) has been a hot topic due to its importance for climate

  10. The Formation, Alteration and Preservation of Flood Deposits on the Pacific Northwest Continental Margin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    rivers . APPROACH Box cores are the primary sampling device used in this research. Cores are taken in two different modes: (1) replicate time-series...sampling of four stations along the 70-m isobath, and (2) broad, large- scale coverage of the Eel and other river -system margins. Subsequent sources of...composition, abundance and biomass. In addition, box cores were collected offshore of several other major rivers in the Pacific Northwest (e.g

  11. Great oaks from little acorns grow: planting native oak in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Gail Wells; Warren Devine; Connie. Harrington

    2010-01-01

    The decline of oak woodlands is an urgent conservation challenge in the Pacific Northwest. Prior to settlement by Euro-Americans, prairies, oak-dominated savannas, and oak woodlands were abundant in the low-lying areas of the region. Now it’s estimated that 1 to 5 percent of that native oak savanna remains. The rest has been supplanted by pastures, fields, Douglas-fir...

  12. Climate change and forest trees in the Pacific Northwest: guide to vulnerability assessment methodology

    Treesearch

    W. Devine; C. Aubry; J. Miller; K. Potter; A. Bower

    2012-01-01

    This guide provides a step-by-step description of the methodology used to apply the Forest Tree Genetic Risk Assessment System (ForGRAS; Potter and Crane 2010) to the tree species of the Pacific Northwest in a recent climate change vulnerability assessment (Devine et al. 2012). We describe our modified version of the ForGRAS model, and we review the model’s basic...

  13. Riparian communities associated with Pacific Northwest headwater streams: assemblages, processes, and uniqueness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, J.S.; Naiman, R.J.; Swanson, F.J.; Hibbs, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Riparian areas of large streams provide important habitat to many species and control many instream processes a?? but is the same true for the margins of small streams? This review considers riparian areas alongside small streams in forested, mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest and asks if there are fundamental ecological differences from larger streams and from other regions and if there are consequences for management from any differences. In the moist forests along many small streams of the Pacific Northwest, the contrast between the streamside and upslope forest is not as strong as that found in drier regions. Small streams typically lack floodplains, and the riparian area is often constrained by the hillslope. Nevertheless, riparian-associated organisms, some unique to headwater areas, are found along small streams. Disturbance of hillslopes and stream channels and microclimatic effects of streams on the riparian area provide great heterogeneity in processes and diversity of habitats. The tight coupling of the terrestrial riparian area with the aquatic system results from the closed canopy and high edge-to-area ratio for small streams. Riparian areas of the temperate, conifer dominated forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique environment. Forest management guidelines for small streams vary widely, and there has been little evaluation of the local or downstream consequences of forest practices along small streams.

  14. Drought variability in the Pacific Northwest from a 6,000-yr lake sediment record

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Abbott, Mark B.; Steinman, Byron; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Rosenmeier, Michael F.; Finney, Bruce P.; Riedel, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We present a 6,000-yr record of changing water balance in the Pacific Northwest inferred from measurements of carbonate δ18O and grayscale on a sediment core collected from Castor Lake, Washington. This subdecadally resolved drought record tracks the 1,500-yr tree-ring-based Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstructions of Cook et al. [Cook ER, Woodhouse CA, Eakin CM, Meko DM, Stahle DW (2004) Science 306:1015–1018] in the Pacific Northwest and extends our knowledge back to 6,000 yr B.P. The results demonstrate that low-frequency drought/pluvial cycles, with occasional long-duration, multidecadal events, are a persistent feature of regional climate. Furthermore, the average duration of multidecadal wet/dry cycles has increased since the middle Holocene, which has acted to increase the amplitude and impact of these events. This is especially apparent during the last 1,000 yr. We suggest these transitions were driven by changes in the tropical and extratropical Pacific and are related to apparent intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation over this interval and its related effects on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The Castor Lake record also corroborates the notion that the 20th century, prior to recent aridity, was a relatively wet period compared to the last 6,000 yr. Our findings suggest that the hydroclimate response in the Pacific Northwest to future warming will be intimately tied to the impact of warming on the El Niño Southern Oscillation. PMID:21368149

  15. Drought variability in the Pacific Northwest from a 6,000-yr lake sediment record.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel B; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron; Polissar, Pratigya J; Stansell, Nathan D; Ortiz, Joseph D; Rosenmeier, Michael F; Finney, Bruce P; Riedel, Jon

    2011-03-08

    We present a 6,000-yr record of changing water balance in the Pacific Northwest inferred from measurements of carbonate δ(18)O and grayscale on a sediment core collected from Castor Lake, Washington. This subdecadally resolved drought record tracks the 1,500-yr tree-ring-based Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstructions of Cook et al. [Cook ER, Woodhouse CA, Eakin CM, Meko DM, Stahle DW (2004) Science 306:1015-1018] in the Pacific Northwest and extends our knowledge back to 6,000 yr B.P. The results demonstrate that low-frequency drought/pluvial cycles, with occasional long-duration, multidecadal events, are a persistent feature of regional climate. Furthermore, the average duration of multidecadal wet/dry cycles has increased since the middle Holocene, which has acted to increase the amplitude and impact of these events. This is especially apparent during the last 1,000 yr. We suggest these transitions were driven by changes in the tropical and extratropical Pacific and are related to apparent intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation over this interval and its related effects on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The Castor Lake record also corroborates the notion that the 20th century, prior to recent aridity, was a relatively wet period compared to the last 6,000 yr. Our findings suggest that the hydroclimate response in the Pacific Northwest to future warming will be intimately tied to the impact of warming on the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  16. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Herring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    these times are salmon, seals, abnormalities developed in the lower jaws of sea lions, killer whales, dogfish , and birds larvae from eggs incubated at 4.0...offshore, important predators include Optimal temperatures for juvenile and adult hake, sablefish, dogfish , Pacific cod, and salmon. Pacific herring

  17. Contemporary vertical crustal motion in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdahl, Sandford R.; Faucher, Francois; Dragert, Herb

    A map of recent vertical crustal motion has been compiled for coastal Washington and southwest British Columbia. Average velocities over the past 80 years were determined by least squares adjustment of repeated precise levelings and mean sea-level observations from 21 tide gauges. Annual variations in mean sea level were determined directly within the adjustment model under the assumption that they were identical at all tide gauges in a given year. The derived vertical velocities range from -2.0±0.9 mm/yr near Seattle, to 2.5±0.8 mm/yr at the northwest tip of the Olympic Peninsula, and over 3 mm/yr in the region to the north of Campbell River on Vancouver Island. Determination of a constant velocity in this latter region is complicated by about 10 cm of coseismic subsidence associated with a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1946, and an apparent increase in uplift rate over the past decade. Qualitatively, the regional velocity pattern is consistent with features of the current plate convergence model: 1) the rapid uplift of the region north of central Vancouver Island is consistent with the overriding of the young (<6My), buoyant Explorer Plate which may be underplating the coastal margin in this area; and 2) the ridge of uplift extending from the Neah Bay area north across Vancouver Island to Campbell River is consistent with a pattern expected from a locked subduction zone underlying this coastal region. The large-scale subsidence to the southwest of Puget Sound is more difficult to explain in the context of plate convergence.

  18. Ecology of Pacific Northwest coastal sand dunes: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, A.M.

    1984-03-01

    Sand dunes occur in 33 localities along the 950 km of North American Pacific coast between the Straits of Juan de Fuca (49/sup 0/N) and Cape Mendocino (40/sup 0/). The dune landscape is a mosaic of dune forms: transverse ridge, oblique dune, retention ridge, foredune, parabola dune, sand hummock, blowout, sand plain, deflation plain, dune ridge, swale, remnant forest, and ponds and lakes. These forms are the basic morphological units making up the four dune systems: parallel ridge, parabola dune, transverse ridge, and bay dune. Vegetation is well-developed on stabilized dunes. Of the 21 plant communities identified, nine are herbaceous, five are shrub, and seven are forest. A wide variety of vertebrate animals occur in seven distinct habitats: open dunes, grassland and meadow, shrub thicket, forest, marsh, riparian, and lakes and ponds. Urban development, increased rate of stabilization due to the introduction of European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link), and massive disturbance resulting from heavy off-road vehicle traffic are the greatest threats to the long-term survival and stability of a number of sand dune habitats. Two animals and three plants dependent on dune habitats are listed as rare, threatened, or endangered. 93 references, 52 figures, 13 tables.

  19. Northwest Climate Science Center: Integrating Regional Research, Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, P.; Bisbal, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010, among the first three of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium (Oregon State University, University of Idaho, and the University of Washington), which has the capacity to generate and coordinate decision-relevant science related to climate, thus serving stakeholders across the Pacific Northwest region. The NW CSC has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. Collaboration between the NW CSC and these three LCCs addresses the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Early in 2012, the NW CSC released its first Strategic Plan for the period 2012-2015. The plan offers a practical blueprint for operation and describes five core services that the NW CSC provides to the Northwest community. These core services emphasize (a) bringing together the regional resource management and science communities to calibrate priorities and ensure efficient integration of climate science resources and tools when addressing practical issues of regional significance; (b) developing and implementing a stakeholder-driven science agenda which highlights the NW CSC's regional leadership in generating scenarios of the future environment of the NW; (c) supporting and training graduate students at the three consortium universities, including through an annual 'Climate science boot camp'; (d) providing a platform for effective climate-change-related communication among scientists, resource managers, and the general public; and (e) national leadership in data management and climate scenario development.

  20. Scaling Forest Management Practices in Earth System Models: Case Study of Southeast and Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Becknell, J. M.; Hall, J.; Desai, A. R.; Boring, L. R.; Duffy, P.; Staudhammer, C. L.; Starr, G.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    A wide array of human-induced disturbances can alter the structure and function of forests, including climate change, disturbance and management. While there have been numerous studies on climate change impacts on forests, interactions of management with changing climate and natural disturbance are poorly studied. Forecasts of the range of plausible responses of forests to climate change and management are need for informed decision making on new management approaches under changing climate, as well as adaptation strategies for coming decades. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate and assess simultaneous responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climatic perturbations and management across multiple spatio-temporal scales, but currently do not represent a wide array of management activities known to impact carbon, water, surface energy fluxes, and biodiversity. The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) incorporates non-linear impacts of fine-scale (~10-1 km) heterogeneity in ecosystem structure both horizontally and vertically at a plant level. Therefore it is an ideal candidate to incorporate different forest management practices and test various hypotheses under changing climate and across various spatial scales. The management practices that we implemented were: clear-cut, conversion, planting, partial harvest, low intensity fire, restoration, salvage, and herbicide. The results were validated against observed data across 8 different sites in the U.S. Southeast (Duke Forest, Joseph Jones Ecological Research Center, North Carolina Loblolly Pine, and Ordway-Swisher Biological Station) and Pacific Northwest (Metolius Research Natural Area, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Wind River Field Station, and Mount Rainier National Park). These sites differ in regards to climate, vegetation, soil, and historical land disturbance as well as management approaches. Results showed that different management practices could successfully

  1. 2010 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, station researchers provided land managers and policymakers with critical information related to ecological processes, environmental threats, forest management, and use of natural resources. The station also capitalized on opportunities to expand its research in these arenas. The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was one such opportunity that has...

  2. 2012 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Treesearch

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2013-01-01

    Research Benefits Society. Forest Service research helps society make choices about water, wildlife, and natural resources. Scientific understanding gained from research transforms the way land managers rise to challenges. For example, the tools and information used daily by managers and policymakers to make cost-effective and environmentally sound fire management...

  3. Forest fragmentation in the Pacific Northwest: quantification and correlations

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Jennifer J. Swenson; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    A forest fragmentation index was produced for western Oregon and western Washington that combined measures of forested area, percentage edge, and interspersion. While natural, human land-cover, and human land-use processes contribute to forest fragmentation in the region, the drivers of these processes are categorically different. Here we examine forest fragmentation...

  4. Status of mature and old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Strittholt, James R; DellaSala, Dominick A; Jiang, Hong

    2006-04-01

    Nearly 10 million ha of federal lands in the Pacific Northwest have been managed under the Northwest Forest Plan since 1994. The plan reduced logging levels by 80%; only recently, however have inventories on status and condition of mature and old-growth forests become available. Our objectives were to (1) determine the areal extent of old (> 150 years) and mature (50-150 years) conifer forests based on 2000 Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery, (2) examine levels of protection, (3) determine the degree of additional protection afforded to old and mature conifer forests if late-successional reserves (LSRs) and inventoried roadless areas (IRAs) were fully protected, and (4) review management options to achieve greater protection of older forests. The historical extent of old-growth forest in the Pacific Northwest was roughly two-thirds (16,672,976 ha) of the total land area. Since the time of European settlement, approximately 72% of the original old-growth conifer forest has been lost, largely through logging and other developments. Of the remaining old growth, the Central and Southern Cascades and Klamath-Siskiyou account for nearly half Mature conifer area (4,758,596 ha) nearly equaled the amount of old conifer More than 78% of the old growth and 50% of mature forest were located on public lands. Approximately one-quarter (1,201,622 ha) of the old-growth conifer (or 7% of the historical old-growth area) was classified as GAP status 1 (strictly protected) or GAP status 2 (moderately protected). The total area of LSRs was slightly more than 3 million ha, approximately 36% (1,073,299 ha) of which contained old-growth conifer forest. Combined old and mature conifer within LSRs was approximately 59% of the total LSR area. The total amount of IRA for the Pacific Northwest was approximately 1,563,370 ha; of this, 526,912 ha (34%) was old growth. The combined area of old-growth conifer forest accounted for by protected areas (GAP 1 and 2), LSRs, and IRAs was 2,401,780 ha, which

  5. Glacial vicariance in the Pacific Northwest: evidence from a lodgepole pine mitochondrial DNA minisatellite for multiple genetically distinct and widely separated refugia.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Julie; Fazekas, Aron; Newton, Craig H; Yeh, Francis C; Bousquet, Jean

    2008-05-01

    The Canadian side of the Pacific Northwest was almost entirely covered by ice during the last glacial maximum, which has induced vicariance and genetic population structure for several plant and animal taxa. Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud.) has a wide latitudinal and longitudinal distribution in the Pacific Northwest. Our main objective was to identify relictual signatures of glacial vicariance in the population structure of the species and search for evidence of distinct glacial refugia in the Pacific Northwest. A maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA minisatellite-like marker was used to decipher haplotype diversity in 91 populations of lodgepole pine located across the natural range. Overall population differentiation was sizeable (G(ST) = 0.365 and R(ST) = 0.568). Four relatively homogeneous groups of populations, possibly representative of as many genetically distinct glacial populations, were identified for the two main subspecies, ssp. latifolia and ssp. contorta. For ssp. contorta, one glacial lineage is suggested to have been located at high latitudes and possibly off the coast of mainland British Columbia (BC), while the other is considered to have been located south of the ice sheet along the Pacific coast. For ssp. latifolia, two genetically distinct glacial populations probably occurred south of the ice sheet: in the area bounded by the Cascades and Rocky Mountains ranges, and on the eastern side of the Rockies. A possible fifth refugium located in the Yukon may have also been present for ssp. latifolia. Zones of contact between these ancestral lineages were also apparent in interior and northern BC. These results indicate the role of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Alexander Archipelago as a refugial zone for some Pacific Northwest species and the vicariant role played by the Cascades and the American Rocky Mountains during glaciation.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1983. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 5 of the 1983 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety and the Office of Operational Safety. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during FY 1983. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  7. Moss harvest truncates the successional development of epiphytic bryophytes in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Peck, Jerilynn E; Frelich, Lee E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of commercial moss harvest on the development of an understory epiphyte community in the Pacific Northwest by characterizing natural development stages using data from both a long-term regrowth study and demographic sampling. First, experimentally stripped 1 m long cylindrats on 46 shrub stems in the Oregon Coast Range were monitored for species composition and abundance annually during the first five years of recovery and again in year 10. Second, a pathway of community development was inferred by examining the relative species composition and abundance of epiphytic species present in moss mats in a four-stage chronosequence. We (1) characterized the change in richness and composition from year 1 through 10 of regrowth following experimental disturbance, (2) quantified the proportion of approximately 1-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year-old moss mats of commercially harvestable species that were monodominant, diverse, and late successional, and (3) contrasted these proportions with estimates from a compositional transition matrix derived from long-term monitoring. Roughly half of the observed moss mats demonstrated neutral dynamics and were composed of a mixture of readily dispersed acrocarps and pleurocarps. The remaining half exhibited positive dynamics and were dominated by aggressively growing pleurocarpous species such as Isothecium myosuroides. Following structural developmental pathways well established for vascular plants, moss mats shift with time from high diversity and evenness in the initial colonization and extended establishment phases to increasing Isothecium dominance during a presumed competitive-exclusion phase. Old mats exist in alternate states of either Isothecium dominance or mixed composition, either of which may have late-successional species. Patchy historic commercial moss harvest likely facilitated high diversity by increasing the simultaneous occurrence of all moss mat age classes, while modern strip harvesting methods are

  8. A Modeling Study of Hydrodynamic Circulation in a Fjord of the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2012-10-01

    Increased eutrophication and degraded water quality in estuarine and coastal waters have been a worldwide environmental concern. While it is commonly accepted that anthropogenic impact plays a major role in many emerging water quality issues, natural conditions such as restricted water circulations controlled by geometry may also substantially contribute to unfavorable water quality in certain ecosystems. To elucidate the contributions from different factors, a hydrodynamic-water quality model that integrates both physical transport and pollutant loadings is particularly warranted. A preliminary modeling study using the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is conducted to investigate hydrodynamic circulation and low dissolved oxygen (DO) in Hood Canal, a representative fjord in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Because the water quality modeling work is still ongoing, this paper focuses on the progress in hydrodynamic modeling component. The hydrodynamic model has been set up using the publicly available forcing data and was calibrated against field observations or NOAA predictions for tidal elevation, current, salinity and temperature. The calibrated model was also used to estimate physical transport timescales such as residence time in the estuary. The preliminary model results demonstrate that the EFDC Hood Canal model is capable of capturing the general circulation patterns in Hood Canal, including weak tidal current and strong vertical stratification. The long residence time (i.e., on the order of 100 days for the entire estuary) also indicates that restricted water circulation could contribute to low DO in the estuary and also makes the system especially susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance, such as excess nutrient input.

  9. Estimation of Typhoon Rainfall in Northwest Pacific Using TRMM/TMI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, N.-C.; Wang, J.-L.; Chen, W.-J.; Hu, J.-C.; Tsai, M.-D.; Liu, G.-R.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, there were a lot of natural disasters in Taiwan, especially caused by torrential rainfall from typhoons. The major reason for these disasters was the huge amounts of rain falling in short periods. People need real time rain information to prepare for disasters and to reduce the damage and loss of lives and properties. It is the aim of this study to provide accurate rainfall estimations for severe weather systems. The Bayesian approach was used in this study. At first a prior probability distribution was created by using about a total of 4 million rain rate retrievals from Precipitation Radar (PR) data during 2002-2010 period over Northwest Pacific. A conditional probability distribution was then derived by simulating the 9 channel brightness temperatures of TMI using a microwave radiative transfer model (RTM), in which vertical hydrometeors were obtained from the Weather Research and forecasting Model (WRF) outputs. Finally, a posterior probability distribution of rain rate was calculated by multiplying a prior probability distribution by conditional probability distribution. In addition, 9 channel-brightness-temperature thresholds for non-raining cases was obtained by using more than one hundred thousand data pairs of TMI brightness temperatures and PR rain rates. An attenuation index, defined as the ratio of the polarization difference between the vertical and the horizontal brightness temperatures at rainy case to that at clear sky case, was used to estimate rain rates over ocean. This index has great advantage in rain rate retrievals, because its value decreases with increasing rain rate but not being easily saturated. The retrieved rain rates were validated with the standard PR rainfall products. Keyword: Bayesian approach, posterior distribution, radiative transfer model, WRF

  10. Evolving patterns of coupled glacio-hydrology across the Pacific Northwest Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frans, C. D.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Fountain, A. G.; Bachmann, M.; Clarke, G. K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recession of mountain glaciers in partially glacierized headwater catchments has the potential to impact watershed dynamics in a range of ways, including reduced low flows, erosion of exposed steep soils, increased sediment transport, and ecosystem succession. The response of glaciers and glacierized watershed processes to progressive climatic warming will vary greatly with local environmental attributes (aspect, hypsometry, slope, debris cover) and climatic forcing (topography driven climatic gradients, prevailing wind direction, precipitation variability and perturbation). To identify the relative influence of these controlling factors and to identify locations where these changes will have significant influence on stream discharge in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), we gather a rich data set of glacio-hydrological variables and use a recently developed glacio-hydrology model in conjunction with data to evaluate the hydrologic response of partially glacierized river basins at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The distributed hydrologic modeling framework, which incorporates a physical representation of changes in glacier area through glacier dynamics, allows the analysis of hydrologic and glaciological change at extended temporal and fine spatial scales. Among the river basins we examine are the Hoh River on the Olympic Peninsula of Western Washington, the Hood River in Northern Oregon, the Nisqually River in the Puget Sound drainage basin, and multiple watersheds in the North Cascades Region. For each of these basins, tipping points of hydrologic response to glacier recession are identified and projected. We 1) describe varied patterns of coupled glacio-hydrologic response 2) identify influential environmental controls and 3) identify vulnerable areas in space and time. We close with a discussion of the implications of ongoing and projected glacio-hydrologic changes for the management of water and natural resources in the PNW.

  11. Global climate change and effects on Pacific Northwest salmonids: An exploratory case study

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Recently, a number of papers have addressed global warming and freshwater fisheries. The recent report to Congress by the US Environmental Protection Agency included an analysis of potential effects of global warming on fisheries of the Great Lakes, California, and the Southeast. In California, the report stated that salinity increases in the San Francisco Bay could enhance the abundance of marine fish species, while anadromous species could be adversely affected. This paper discusses global climate changes and the effects on Pacific Northwest Salmonids. The impacts of climate change or Spring Chinook production in the Yakima Sub-basin was simulated using a computer modeling system developed for the Northwest Power planning council. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Assessing rarity of species with low detectability: Lichens in Pacific Northwest forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.C.; Cutler, D.R.; Geiser, L.; Alegria, J.; McKenzie, D.

    2004-01-01

    We show how simple statistical analyses of systematically collected inventory data can be used to provide reliable information about the distribution and habitat associations of rare species. Using an existing design-based sampling grid on which epiphytic macrolichens had been inventoried in the Northwest Forest Plan area of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, we (1) estimate frequencies and standard errors for each of 25 lichen species having special management designation (i.e., Survey and Manage), (2) assess the probability that individual species were associated with specific land allocation and forest stand age classifications, and (3) provide estimates of sample sizes necessary to ensure sufficient detections for these analyses. We conclude with a discussion of management and conservation information needs that extant data can satisfy and identify advantages and limitations of random vs. nonrandom sampling strategies. Combining design-assisted and model-assisted approaches can overcome some of the limitations of either single strategy.

  13. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Climate Impact Assessment for Pacific Northwest Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MU, J.; Antle, J. M.; Zhang, H.; Capalbo, S. M.; Eigenbrode, S.; Kruger, C.; Stockle, C.; Wolfhorst, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) are projections of plausible future biophysical and socio-economic conditions used to carry out climate impact assessments for agriculture. The development of RAPs iss motivated by the fact that the various global and regional models used for agricultural climate change impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation or public availability. These practices have hampered attempts at model inter-comparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. This paper aims to (1) present RAPs developed for the principal wheat-producing region of the Pacific Northwest, and to (2) combine these RAPs with downscaled climate data, crop model simulations and economic model simulations to assess climate change impacts on winter wheat production and farm income. This research was carried out as part of a project funded by the USDA known as the Regional Approaches to Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest (REACCH). The REACCH study region encompasses the major winter wheat production area in Pacific Northwest and preliminary research shows that farmers producing winter wheat could benefit from future climate change. However, the future world is uncertain in many dimensions, including commodity and input prices, production technology, and policies, as well as increased probability of disturbances (pests and diseases) associated with a changing climate. Many of these factors cannot be modeled, so they are represented in the regional RAPS. The regional RAPS are linked to global agricultural and shared social-economic pathways, and used along with climate change projections to simulate future outcomes for the wheat-based farms in the REACCH region.

  14. Relationship between lightning activity and tropical cyclone intensity over the northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yijun; Zheng, Dong; Wang, Fei; Xu, Liangtao

    2015-05-01

    Lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network along with tropical cyclone (TC) track and intensity data from the China Meteorological Administration are used to study lightning activity in TCs over the northwest Pacific from 2005 to 2009 and to investigate the relationship between inner core lightning and TC intensity changes. Lightning in TCs over the northwest Pacific is more likely to occur in weak storms at tropical depression (10.8-17.1 m s-1) and tropical storm (17.2-24.4 m s-1) intensity levels, in agreement with past studies of Atlantic hurricanes. The greatest lightning density (LD) in the inner core appears in storms undergoing an intensity change of 15-25 m s-1 during the next 24 h. Lightning is observed in all storm intensity change categories: rapid intensification (RI), average intensity change (AIC), and rapid weakening (RW). The differences in LD between RI and RW are largest in the inner core, and the LD for RI cases is larger than for RW cases in the inner core (0-100 km). Lightning activity there, rather than in the outer rainbands, may be a better indicator for RI prediction in northwest Pacific storms. There was a marked increase in the lightning density of inner core during the RI stage for Super Typhoon Rammasun (2008). Satellite data for this storm show that the RI stage had the highest cloud top height and coldest cloud top temperatures, with all the minimum black body temperature values being below 200 K in the inner core.

  15. Influence of background particulate matter (PM) on urban air quality in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Timonen, H; Wigder, N; Jaffe, D

    2013-11-15

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations due to Asian long-range transport (LRT) are frequently observed in the free troposphere (FT) above the Pacific Northwest, U.S. Transport of this aerosol from the FT to the boundary layer (BL) and its effect to local air quality remain poorly constrained. We used data collected at the Mount Bachelor observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l) and from ground stations in the Pacific Northwest to study transport of fine particulate matter (PM) from the FT to the BL. During Asian LRT episodes PM concentrations were clearly elevated above the corresponding monthly averages at MBO as well as at low elevation sites across Washington and Oregon. Also, a clear correlation between MBO and low elevation sites was observed, indicating that LRT episodes are seen in both the FT and BL. In addition, drum impactor measurements show that the chemical composition of PM at MBO was similar to that measured at the BL sites. Using a simple regression model, we estimate that during springtime, when the transport from Asia is most effective, the contribution of Asian sources to PM2.5 in clean background areas of the Pacific Northwest was on average 1.7 μg m(-3) (representing approximately 50-80% of PM). The influence of LRT PM was also seen in measurement stations situated in the urban and urban background areas. However, the fraction of LRT PM was less pronounced (36-50% of PM) due to larger local emissions in the urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Decade of Surface Solar Radiation Deposition Across the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, T. P.; Hinkelman, L. M.; Schaeffer, N.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory maintains monitoring sites throughout the Pacific Northwest, from which we obtained continuous, 5-minute frequency time series data for the 10 year period between 2004 and 2013. We chose to analyze five sites within the Pacific Northwest (three in Oregon and one each in Idaho and Montana). The sites range in climate from wet lowland coastal to semi-arid high plains to intermountain valley, and elevations from 150 to 1500 m. Analysis of the time series yielded descriptive statistics of solar energy deposition on daily, seasonal and annual timescales for each site. Estimates of the contributions of clear and cloudy skies to the solar deposition have been obtained using the Long-Ackerman (JGR, 2000) technique. We are currently creating comparisons on varying timescales between measured surface solar energy deposition at these five sites and estimates from satellite data. In this presentation, we will describe the results of our analysis, focusing both on the variability at each site and comparisons among the five sites. To our knowledge, this level of detail has not previously been reported across the highly variable terrain of the Pacific Northwest region. While a 10-year period is inadequate for trend analysis, it does provide considerable insight into interannual variability on daily to seasonal timescales. In addition, we will present comparisons between satellite estimates and surface solar deposition measurements. Given the on-going need to use satellite estimates as a proxy for actual ground-based measurements, these assessments are critically important to understand the reliability of the satellite estimates on a variety of timescales and differing regional surface types.

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix R: Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA).

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region`s non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region`s power producers to maximize the power system`s reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest`s hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement.

  18. Height-age and site index curves for Pacific silver fir in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Hoyer; Francis R. Herman

    1989-01-01

    Forty felled dominant and codominant Pacific silver fir trees (Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes) from 39 locations provided the basis for height-age and site index curves. Trees were from upper slope forests of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Trees ranged in age from 100 to 300 years and were identified by their height-growth trend as...

  19. Design Calculation Procedure for Passive Solar Houses at Navy Installations in the Pacific Northwest. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST -- VOLUME IV October 1981 DTICS ELECTE. DEC 1 0 1981 ) An Investigation Conducted by B New Mexico State University Las Cruces...New Mexico C. CN62583-79-MR-585 U Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 81, 12 10 019 11.. - -- -A* Unclassified St RU Vy C.ASSIFICATIOD... Mexico State University 64710 N Z0350 Las Cruces, NM 88003 64710N, Z0350Z0350-01, Z0350-01-55i1 11 CDNTROL.ING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12 REPORT DATE Naval

  20. Climate Change in the Pacific Northwest and its Impact on Energy Planning : Preliminary Report on Findings.

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, John E.

    1987-09-01

    This report is a summary of the FY 87 research on energy related climatic variation. The report will discuss the findings, their implications and suggest profitable areas of research. Examination of climate variation is particularly timely consideration given the recent drought in the Pacific Northwest. This report describes a number of interesting trends, cyclic variations and inter-relationships that could be useful in energy planning. Topics include wind drought, recent snowpack variations, precipitation trends, temperature trends and future climate research. 37 refs., 51 figs., 3 tabs.