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Sample records for pacific ocean woce

  1. WOCE Ocean Surface Layer Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deSzoeke, Roland

    The initial meeting of a U.S. working group to consider the surface layers of the ocean and their role in the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was held January 25, 1985, at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) in La Jolla, Calif., under the auspices of the U.S. WOCE Science Steering Committee. Present were A. Bennett (Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sydney, Canada), F. Bretherton (National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colo.), C. Collins (National Science Foundation (NSF), Washington, D.C.), R. Davis (SIO), R. deSzoeke (Oregon State University (OSU), Corvallis), D. Halpern (University of Washington, Seattle), W. Large (NCAR), J . Luyten (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, Mass.), J. McWilliams, (NCAR), W. Nowlin (Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex.), C. Paulson (OSU), C. Rooth (Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami, Fla.), R. Weiss (SIO), R. Weller (WHOI), W. White (SIO), and C. Wunsch (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.).

  2. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P16C)

    SciTech Connect

    Goyet, C.; Guenther, P.R.; Keeling, C.D.; Talley, L.D.; Kozyr, A.

    1996-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), hydrographic, and chemical data during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P16C). Conducted as a part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, on August 31, 1991, and finished in Honolulu, Hawaii, on October 1, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P16C along 150{degree}W and between 18{degree}S and 19{degree}N was completed during the 31-day expedition. All 105 hydrographic and 8 large-volume stations were completed to the full water column depth. Station spacing was 30 nautical miles (nm), except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S where it was 10 nm. Twenty-five bio-optics stations were sampled for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and at 21 stations carbon dioxide measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s CO{sub 2} program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P16C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  3. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Thomas Washington TUNES-1 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P17C)

    SciTech Connect

    Goyet, C.; Key, R.M.; Sullivan, K.F.; Tsuchiya, M.; Kozyr, A. |

    1997-06-01

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain measurements of total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon ({Delta} {sup 14}C), as well as hydrographic and chemical data, during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P17C). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in San Diego, California, on May 31, 1991, and ended in Papeete, Tahiti, on July 11, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P17C, along 135{degree}W and between {approximately}5{degree}S and 36{degree}N, was completed during the 42-day expedition. All 123 hydrographic stations (including 9 large-volume stations) were completed to the full water-column depth. Spacing between stations was 30 nautical miles, except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S, where it was 10 nautical miles. At 30 stations, CO{sub 2} measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P17C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen (measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor), as well as bottle measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, {Delta} {sup 14}C, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  4. Oceanic CO{sub 2} measurements for the WOCE hydrological survey in the Pacific Ocean; Shipboard alkalinity analyses during 1991 and 1992. Final technical report, February 1, 1992--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.D.

    1998-07-01

    This research group contributed titration alkalinity analyses to transects of the WOCE Hydrological Survey during 1991 and 1992. The results have been transmitted to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC) of the Department of Energy in a technical data report having two parts: Oceanic CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey of the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shipboard Analyses During 1991 and 1992, Part 1. Alkalinity Measurements on TUNES, Leg 3, 1991. Oceanic CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey of the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shipboard Analyses During 1991 and 1992, Part 2. Alkalinity Measurements on CGC92, Legs 1 and 2, 1992. This report contains a paper entitled, ``Total dissolved inorganic carbon measurements made on WOCE leg P13`` by Andrew G. Dickson. A brief description of how these measurements were made and calibrated has been provided along with a statement of the quality of the measurements. The data themselves have been sent to ORNL CDIAC for archival and distribution.

  5. Near-surface circulation of the northeast Pacific Ocean derived from WOCE-SVP satellite-tracked drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bograd, Steven J.; Thomson, Richard E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; LeBlond, Paul H.

    1999-11-01

    Statistics of the near-surface circulation in the northeast Pacific Ocean were derived from the trajectories of nearly 100 surface drifters tracked between August 1990 and December 1995 as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment's (WOCE) Surface Velocity Program (SVP). Drifters were drogued within the mixed layer (15 m drogue depth) or near the top of the permanent halocline (120 m). All branches of the Alaskan Gyre were well-sampled at both depths, revealing a weak Subarctic Current, a bifurcation of the Subarctic Current near 48°N, 130°W at 15 m depth, and strong, variable flow in the Alaska Current and Alaskan Stream. At 120 m depth, northward flow in the Alaska Current occurred much farther offshore than within the mixed layer. The drifter trajectories revealed interannual variability, with evidence of an intensified Alaskan Gyre during the winters of 1991-92 and 1992-93 and more southerly transport during winter 1994-95. A minimum in eddy kinetic energy was found at both depths within the northern branch of the Subtropical Gyre. Eddy kinetic energies were nearly twice as high in the mixed layer compared to below, and were 2-3 times larger in winter than in summer throughout most of the near-surface Alaskan Gyre. High eddy energies observed near the eastern perimeter of the Alaskan Gyre may be due to the offshore intrusion of eddies formed by coastal current instabilities. Taylor's theory of single-particle dispersion was applied to the drifter ensembles to estimate Lagrangian decorrelation scales and eddy diffusivities. Both the initial dispersion and random walk regimes were identified in the dispersion time series computed for several regions of both ensembles. The integral time scales and eddy diffusivities computed from the dispersion scale linearly with r.m.s. velocity, which is consistent with drifter studies from the Atlantic. An exception is the meridional integral time scales, which were nearly constant throughout the study area and at both

  6. [CO{sub 2} measurements along the WOCE P-16 and 19 sections in the south Pacific Ocean: A joint LDGO/WHOI program]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goyet, C.

    1992-12-31

    With the support from the Department of Energy, we participated in the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) cruises to document the spatial variation of the properties of the carbonate system over the world ocean. With the other members of the DOE C0{sub 2} science team, we took advantage of the initial postponed ship schedule to initiate an intercomparison of total dissolved inorganic carbon measurement in seawater. This work has proven to be essential for the measurements performed at sea soon after. We participated in 2 cruises in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean along 150{degree} W and 135{degree} W. Surface seawater C0{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) measured along 150{degree} W has been compared with earlier measurements made by Ray Weiss in 1979 along the same cruise track. The large variations of surface seawater pCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}{sup sea}) on short spatial and temporal scale do not allow us to determine whether anthropogenic C0{sub 2} modified pC0{sub 2}{sup sea} in this ocean area. In the laboratory we also investigated a different means of measuring total alkalinity by thermometry. In this highly variable ocean, several complementary approaches are now underway to detect the anthropogenic signal and predict future changes: Continual monitoring of the carbonate properties in the ocean; Modeling and remote sensing; and monitoring of atmospheric pCO{sub 2} and pO{sub 2}. In this report, we summarize the results of the at-sea measurements of the parameters of the carbonate system in seawater on the WOCE cruises P16c and P17c, as well as the theoretical and experimental results of laboratory studies made to improve the measurement techniques.

  7. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C.; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D.

    1998-06-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  8. Oceanic CO{sub 2} measurements for the WOCE hydrographic survey in the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shore based analyses. Technical data report

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, P.R.; Keeling, C.D.; Emanuele, G. III

    1991-12-31

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research, of the US Department of Energy (DOE), actively supports global survey investigations of carbon dioxide in the oceans. This large scale study is in conjunction with the hydrographic program of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE/HP). On ocean cruises operated by WOCE/HP, carbon dioxide analysis groups, from various oceanographic institutions, perform shipboard chemical measurements of the inorganic carbon system in the ocean. Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are of central importance to this carbon survey. Shipboard measurements of DIC were made by employing a coulometric technique. The majority of coulometric measurements were made on an integrated automatic device, the Single Operator Multi-Parameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). In addition to DIC determinations, shipboard analytical groups measured at least one additional parameter of sea water carbon chemistry. This was done to more fully characterize the inorganic carbon system of the sea water sample. This thechnical data report presents DIC and ALK measurements performed in the SIO laboratory on replicate samples collected on the five expedition legs of the WOCE/HP cruises.

  9. World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Young Investigator Workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Meg

    2004-01-01

    The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Young Investigator Workshops goals and objectives are: a) to familiarize Young Investigators with WOCE models, datasets and estimation procedures; b) to offer intensive hands-on exposure to these models ard methods; c) to build collaborations among junior scientists and more senior WOCE investigators; and finally, d) to generate ideas and projects leading to fundable WOCE synthesis projects. To achieve these goals and objectives, the Workshop will offer a mixture of tutorial lectures on numerical models and estimation procedures, advanced seminars on current WOCE synthesis activities and related projects, and the opportunity to conduct small projects which put into practice the techniques advanced in the lectures.

  10. World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Young Investigator Workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Meg

    2004-01-01

    The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Young Investigator Workshops goals and objectives are: a) to familiarize Young Investigators with WOCE models, datasets and estimation procedures; b) to offer intensive hands-on exposure to these models ard methods; c) to build collaborations among junior scientists and more senior WOCE investigators; and finally, d) to generate ideas and projects leading to fundable WOCE synthesis projects. To achieve these goals and objectives, the Workshop will offer a mixture of tutorial lectures on numerical models and estimation procedures, advanced seminars on current WOCE synthesis activities and related projects, and the opportunity to conduct small projects which put into practice the techniques advanced in the lectures.

  11. Measurements of the total CO[sub 2] concentration and partial pressure of CO[sub 2] in seawater during WOCE expeditions in the South Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Rubin, S.I.

    1993-06-29

    During the first year of the grant, we participated in three WOCE expeditions (a total of 152 days at sea) in the South Pacific Ocean, and the field phase of the proposed investigation has been successfully completed. The total CO[sub 2] concentration and pCO[sub 2] were determined at sea in 4419 water samples collected at 422 stations. On the basis of the shipboard analyses of SIO Reference Solutions for CO, and a comparison with the results of previous expeditions, the overall precision of our total CO[sub 2] determinations is estimated to be about [plus minus]2 uM/kg. The deep water data indicate that there is a CO[sub 2] maximum centered about 2600 meters deep. This appears to represent a southward return flow from the North Pacific. The magnitude and distribution of the CO, maximum observed along the 135.0[degrees]W meridian differ from those observed along the 150.5[degrees]W meridian due to Tuamotu Archipelago, a topographic high which interferes with the southward return flow. The surface water pCO[sub 2] data indicate that the South Pacific sub-tropical gyre water located between about 15[degrees]S and 50[degrees]S is a sink for atmospheric CO[sub 2].

  12. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Akademik Ioffe cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, February--April 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Rubin, S.; Sutherland, S.C.; Koshlyakov, M.H.; Kozyr, A. |

    1997-07-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples during the Research Vessel (R/V) Akademik Ioffe Expedition in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on February 14, 1992, and ended in Wellington, New Zealand, on April 6, 1992. WOCE Section S4P, located along {approximately}67{degree}S between 73{degree}W and 172{degree}E, was completed during the 51-day expedition. One hundred and thirteen hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section S4P included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; bottle salinity; bottle oxygen, phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate, TCO{sub 2}; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 C.

  13. Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.F.

    1998-10-15

    All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in the global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N{sub 2}O. For both of these compounds, the oceans play a major role in their global budgets. In the case of CO{sub 2}, roughly half of the anthropogenic production through the combustion of fossil fuels has been absorbed by the world's oceans. In the case of N{sub 2}O, roughly a third of the natural flux to the atmosphere originates in the oceans. As the interpretation of the variability in the oceanic distributions of these compounds improves, measurements such as those supported by this research project are playing an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate and ozone. (B204)

  14. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4 - October 21, 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, A.

    2001-01-11

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles, California, on August 4, 1992, with a transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, the R/V John V. Vickers arrived in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs, and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 of Section P13 on September 26. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2} , and TALK. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by coulometry using a Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. The CO{sub 2} -related measurements aboard the R/V John V. Vickers were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The WOCE Section P13 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data-retrieval routine files, a documentation file, and this printed report, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions on how to access the data are provided.

  15. Final Technical Report: Ocean CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey in the Pacific Ocean, 1992-1995 Field Years: Shore Based Analysis of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon January 1, 1993-April 15, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, Charles D.

    1998-04-15

    Participation in the hydrographic survey of the world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) began in December 1990 with a two year grant from DOE for shore related analyses of inorganic carbon in sea water. These analyses were intended to assure that the measurements carried out under difficult laboratory conditions on board ships were consistent with measurements made under more carefully controlled shore laboratory conditions.

  16. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO[sub 2]. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO[sub 2] on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO[sub 2] in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  17. Oceanic CO[sub 2] measurements for the WOCE Hydrological Survey in the Pacific Ocean; Shipboard Alkalinity analyses during 1991 and 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of several years the DOE Carbon Dioxide Science Team is contributing measurements of the carbon cycle in sea water on transects of the WOCE Hydrological Survey sponsored by the United States. As noted in our report of 6 December, 1991, our laboratory is contributing measurements of titration alkalinity of sea water to this effort. This paper discusses technical progress made in 1992.

  18. Oceanic CO sub 2 measurements for the WOCE hydrographic survey in the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shore based analyses during Legs 1--3

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    During the winter and spring of 1991 we made preparations for sampling on three legs of the US World Ocean Circulation Experiment in the Pacific Ocean. These transects, postponed from an original start date early in 1991, took place between May 31 to October 1. For the project, 1400 0.5 liter Pyrex sampling bottles were used for the collection of sea water. A second major pre-expedition task was the construction of a dual titration cell system of new design, as described in the original proposal and our previous semi-annual report.

  19. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  20. Measurements of the total CO{sub 2} concentration and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in seawater during WOCE expeditions in the South Pacific Ocean. Progress report, [January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Rubin, S.I.

    1993-06-29

    During the first year of the grant, we participated in three WOCE expeditions (a total of 152 days at sea) in the South Pacific Ocean, and the field phase of the proposed investigation has been successfully completed. The total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} were determined at sea in 4419 water samples collected at 422 stations. On the basis of the shipboard analyses of SIO Reference Solutions for CO, and a comparison with the results of previous expeditions, the overall precision of our total CO{sub 2} determinations is estimated to be about {plus_minus}2 uM/kg. The deep water data indicate that there is a CO{sub 2} maximum centered about 2600 meters deep. This appears to represent a southward return flow from the North Pacific. The magnitude and distribution of the CO, maximum observed along the 135.0{degrees}W meridian differ from those observed along the 150.5{degrees}W meridian due to Tuamotu Archipelago, a topographic high which interferes with the southward return flow. The surface water pCO{sub 2} data indicate that the South Pacific sub-tropical gyre water located between about 15{degrees}S and 50{degrees}S is a sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  1. Oceanic CO sub 2 measurements for the WOCE hydrological survey in the Pacific Ocean; Shipboard alkalinity analyses during 1991 and 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    The DOE Carbon Dioxide Science Team is contributing measurements of the carbon system in sea water on transects of the WOCE Hydrological Survey sponsored by the United States. This project is to provide measurements of titration alkalinity of sea water, an effort that is in addition to our collecting samples of sea water brought back to our shore laboratory and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity. Our original proposal called for approximately 1200 analyses at sea in 1991 and 4400 in 1992. In preparation for measurements at sea, the project budget called for the construction of a dual potentiometric sea-going titration system. The titration system is of novel design in order to achieve at sea as close as possible the same high precision that we have previously achieved in the laboratory using gravimetric procedures. Two motor driven precision syringes dispense sea water volumetrically to two titration cells, each separately connected to a Dosimat acid dispenser. Each system is driven by a notebook computer that analyzes the full titration curve of sea water and calculates the alkalinity.

  2. Measurements of carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean along the WOCE S-4 section

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Rubin, S.I.; Takahashi, T.

    1992-08-01

    During the fist year of this two-year grant, we have completed the data acquisition phase at sea along the WOCE-S4 section located along 67{degree}S between 73{degree}W and 172{degree}E in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The expedition was carried out aboard the Russian Research Ship Akademik IOFFE'' in the period February 14 through April 6, 1992. The total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} in a total of about 1290 water samples were determined using a coulometer for total CO{sub 2} and an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system for pCO{sub 2}. Surface water samples were analyzed at all the 112 hydrographic stations occupied. Complete or partial profiles were obtained at 58 stations. In addition, a total of 172 determinations were made at sea for 62 bottles of the Standard Reference Solution.

  3. CO sub 2 measurements along WOCE P-16 and 19 sections in the South Pacific Ocean: A joint LDGO/WHOI program

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Taro.

    1990-07-30

    This report covers the progress made since June 1, 1990, the beginning of this grant. The objective of the six-month period covered by this grant is to prepare for the field operations in the South Pacific Ocean. The coulometer and gas chromatograph systems, which will be used for the measurements of the total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} aboard research ships, are being calibrated presently. Various spare parts needed for the expedition are being ordered, and the Pure-Air generators and hydrogen generators are being serviced. Our preparation is on schedule. We have participated in two meetings where the problems associated with instrumentation and calibration were actively discussed among the participants of the DOE CO{sub 2} program.

  4. Measurements of carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean along the WOCE S-4 section. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Rubin, S.I.; Takahashi, T.

    1992-08-01

    During the fist year of this two-year grant, we have completed the data acquisition phase at sea along the WOCE-S4 section located along 67{degree}S between 73{degree}W and 172{degree}E in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The expedition was carried out aboard the Russian Research Ship ``Akademik IOFFE`` in the period February 14 through April 6, 1992. The total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} in a total of about 1290 water samples were determined using a coulometer for total CO{sub 2} and an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system for pCO{sub 2}. Surface water samples were analyzed at all the 112 hydrographic stations occupied. Complete or partial profiles were obtained at 58 stations. In addition, a total of 172 determinations were made at sea for 62 bottles of the Standard Reference Solution.

  5. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE]. Summary of research progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under ``Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE`` and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO{sub 2}. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO{sub 2} on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO{sub 2} in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  6. Oceanic CO{sub 2} measurements for the WOCE Hydrological Survey in the Pacific Ocean; Shipboard Alkalinity analyses during 1991 and 1992. Technical progress report, 1 February 1992--31 October, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    Over a period of several years the DOE Carbon Dioxide Science Team is contributing measurements of the carbon cycle in sea water on transects of the WOCE Hydrological Survey sponsored by the United States. As noted in our report of 6 December, 1991, our laboratory is contributing measurements of titration alkalinity of sea water to this effort. This paper discusses technical progress made in 1992.

  7. Oceanic CO{sub 2} measurements for the WOCE hydrographic survey in the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shore based analyses during Legs 1--3. Technical progress report, 1 December 1990--28 January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.D.

    1992-05-01

    During the winter and spring of 1991 we made preparations for sampling on three legs of the US World Ocean Circulation Experiment in the Pacific Ocean. These transects, postponed from an original start date early in 1991, took place between May 31 to October 1. For the project, 1400 0.5 liter Pyrex sampling bottles were used for the collection of sea water. A second major pre-expedition task was the construction of a dual titration cell system of new design, as described in the original proposal and our previous semi-annual report.

  8. Oceanic CO{sub 2} measurements for the WOCE hydrological survey in the Pacific Ocean; Shipboard alkalinity analyses during 1991 and 1992. Technical progress report, 1 February 1991--31 January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.D.

    1992-02-01

    The DOE Carbon Dioxide Science Team is contributing measurements of the carbon system in sea water on transects of the WOCE Hydrological Survey sponsored by the United States. This project is to provide measurements of titration alkalinity of sea water, an effort that is in addition to our collecting samples of sea water brought back to our shore laboratory and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity. Our original proposal called for approximately 1200 analyses at sea in 1991 and 4400 in 1992. In preparation for measurements at sea, the project budget called for the construction of a dual potentiometric sea-going titration system. The titration system is of novel design in order to achieve at sea as close as possible the same high precision that we have previously achieved in the laboratory using gravimetric procedures. Two motor driven precision syringes dispense sea water volumetrically to two titration cells, each separately connected to a Dosimat acid dispenser. Each system is driven by a notebook computer that analyzes the full titration curve of sea water and calculates the alkalinity.

  9. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  10. Thermocline ventilation and oxygen utilization rates in the subtropical North Pacific based on CFC distributions during WOCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnerup, Rolf E.; Quay, Paul D.; Bullister, John L.

    1999-05-01

    Thermocline ventilation rates for the subtropical North Pacific are determined using a 1-dimensional (meridional) along-isopycnal advective-diffusive model tuned to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations measured along 152°W in 1991 during WOCE P16. Mean southward advection rates in the subtropics range from 1.03 to 0.56 cm s -1 between σθ=25.5 and 26.6. Model-derived ventilation times for the subtropical gyre increase from about 10 to 27 years for that isopycnal range. Oxygen utilization rates (OURs) determined using the advective-diffusive model decrease with depth from 6.6 to 3.2 μmol kg -1 yr -1 between σθ=25.5 and 26.6. Extrapolation of the OUR versus depth trend to the base of the euphotic zone with the 1/ Z power function of Martin et al. (1987) and integration from 500 to 100 m depth implies a carbon export rate from the overlying euphotic zone of 2.2±0.5 moles C m -2 yr -1 at 30°N, 152°W. Analysis of the WOCE radiocarbon and salinity distributions indicates that zonal and cross-isopycnal transport terms would have to be considered in modeling these tracers in the subtropical North Pacific.

  11. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  12. The JADE and WOCE I10/IR6 Throughflow sections in the southeast Indian Ocean. Part 2: velocity and transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprintall, Janet; Wijffels, Susan; Chereskin, Teresa; Bray, Nancy

    Velocity and transports are estimated for five recent hydrographic sections and one full-depth velocity section that cross the Indonesian Throughflow in the southeast Indian Ocean between Australia and Indonesia. The sections are: JADE August 1989 and JADE February 1992, both between northwestern Australia and Bali; WOCE repeat sections IR6 April 1995, IR6 September 1995 and I10 November 1995, all between Western Australia to near Sunda Strait, Java. The three WOCE surveys include direct velocity measurements from shipboard and lowered (I10 only) acoustic Doppler current profilers. None of the WOCE hydrographic surveys measured the Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone between ˜9°S and the Java coast. Concurrent XBT and XCTD observations taken as part of the regular co-located IX1-XBT transect were used to complete the sections. Both the velocity fields and the transport estimates vary widely in magnitude and direction, and reflect the seasonal and the shorter-term variability from the eddy field at the time of each survey. The eddies are found during each of the WOCE surveys in the South Equatorial Current between 14°S-12°S, and have a significant impact on the velocity structure: the mass transport tends to recirculate within the features. The direct current estimates support the finding that the strongest flow across all sections is found within the eddy structures, as well as in the South Java Current that flows along the Java coastline. The semi-annually reversing South Java Current plays an important role in distributing freshwater into and out of the southeast Indian Ocean. The errors and uncertainties of the transport calculations are assessed in terms of salinity variability in the region using different available salinity fields. For the shallow-layer transport, a new mean historical salinity estimate does a good job of reproducing the transports determined from synoptically available fields. However, for deeper reference layers, the presence of the

  13. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  14. Variability of the Antarctic Surface Water and the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water from 1992 WOCE and 2007-2008 Argo data along the section P19 in Southeastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, E.; Seung, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The variability of the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) and Antarctic Surface Water (AASW) is examined based upon the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) data in 1992 and Argo data in 2007 and 2008 along the section P19. D.G. Martinson (2012) examined the Antarctic Circumpolar Current's role in the Antarctic Ice System and showed that 3-color WOCE temperature sections, including section P19, showed that tilt of the isopycnals associated with ACC prevent warm tropical waters from reaching Antarctic continental margin. The paper also described that warm UCDW layer slips along the tilted isopycnals to reach the continental slope in section P19 along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). It is also revealed that the UCDW, associated with the ACC in section P19, occupies the domain from 58°S to 68°S with meridional ACC width of about 1,000km. In order to estimate the fluctuation of the warm UCDW layer the Argo data both in 2007 and 2008 were collected and the location of the warm UCDW from Argo data in 2007 and 2008 was compared with that of WOCE from Martinson (2012) in 1992. The argo data in 2007 and 2008 are used to examine the tilted isopycnal pattern of the warm UCDW represented by warm waters above 1.8°C. One thing to note is that the southern limit of the UCDW in the WOCE data in 1992, appears to move northward in Argo data of 2007 and 2008. Also AASW less than 2.0°C from the WAP in Argo data replaces the rather warm thin layer between 62°S nearly to 69°S shown in the WOCE data in 1992. The low salinity layer bounded by 34.0 psu extends far north compared with that of WOCE data, indicating that the ice melting water from the WAP flows northward. Since all year round data in case of Argo data are used and the error by the seasonal fluctuation may be introduced in the location of the upper 500m depth. The global wind stress curl data by SCOW (Scatterometer Climatology of Ocean Wind) are available over 1997 to 2007, which reveals that the wind stress

  15. Tropical Thunderstorm, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This tropical thunderstorm was photographed over the Pacific Ocean NW of New Guinea (10.0N, 130.0E). Taken late in the day in low light, the three dimensional effect is the result of the interaction of atmospheric dust and rays of sunlight passing through the atmosphere. The high cumulonimbus clouds reach the upper atmosphere and often produce unusual lighting effects.

  16. Ocean Thermohydrodynamic Characteristics Obtained By Synthesizing A Woce Hydrographic Section With Climatic Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisyan, A.; Levitus, S.

    As a main chain for synthesizing a WOCE "synoptic" hydrographic section with the neighbouring climatic data serves a modern high resolution 3DPEM. The calculation procedure is as follows: 1.Replacing climatic T,S data by observed unfiltered hydro- logic section; 2.Making a short model time diagnostic-prognostic investigation by a special freezing-defreezing method. As a result we obtain mutually adjusted synoptic fields of all physical characteristics at narrow strip embracing the WOCE section.This method, after some preliminary test, was validated by using the observed data of the R/V "AKADEMIK Sergei Vavilov" in her 11th cruise to the Barents Sea on Sept. 1997 (Sarkisyan and Sidorova, 1998). More comprehensive calculations were made by using the WOCE A05 section data, 24.5N in the North Atlantic (S.Levitus and Sarkisyan, 2001) The main results of this work are as follows. (1) A clearly defined asymmetry occurs in the spatial distribution of the effect of inlaying syn-optic data. Namely, (a) the effect of synoptic information decays in the meridional direction at a distance of a few degrees from the section, and it is obvious that this effect also decays with depth because of baroclinicity; (b) in the zonal direction, the effect is propagated westward under the action of Rossby waves and other factors, and, in the continental slope (east of 80W), this effect enhances through die JEBAR and is propagated north- ward by the Antilles Current and further by the Gulf Stream. This western intensifi- cation is clearly reflected in the mass and heat transport values. (2) Due to eddies and other-type spatial variability, as well as to the action of the JEBAR, meridional trans- port processes in the region of the section are an order of magnitude stronger than those in the case of computations based on climatic data, which is confirmed by direct observations in the Bahamas region. From computations, it is inferred that the western intensification and a high degree of

  17. Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As with most small island groups around the world, the Marquesas Island group 9.0S, 140.0W) is usually concealed by heavy cloud cover throughout the day making them very difficult to photograph in their entirety. Located in the south central Pacific Ocean, just north of the Tuamotu Archipelago, the islands partially seen in this view are: Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka and Ua Pu.

  18. Decadal Changes in Pacific Ocean Inorganic Carbon Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.; Millero, F. J.; Dickson, A.; Mecking, S.; Wanninkhof, R.; Greeley, D.

    2006-12-01

    The primary goal of the CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program is to quantify the ocean's role in sequestering anthropogenic CO2 and the effects of natural variability and climate change on marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry. The Pacific Ocean plays a unique role in the ocean carbon cycle because it is the final destination of deep waters containing high levels of preformed nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and because of the way that Pacific circulation affects the transport and storage of anthropogenic CO2. Discrete high-quality DIC and total alkalinity data were acquired as part of the WOCE/JGOFS global CO2 survey cruises in the early 1990s. Hydrographic survey cruises conducted as part of the CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program recently reoccupied the east-west P2 line along 30°N in 2004 and the north-south P16 line along 152°W in 2005 and 2006. DIC increases since WOCE/JGOFS were about 10-15 μmol kg-1 in shallow waters along these lines, but not all of the observed changes can be attributed to anthropogenic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. We discuss approaches for separating out the anthropogenic CO2 uptake signal from the effects of variability in local circulation and potential changes in new production and/or remineralization along the flow path. Results suggest that the average annual uptake of anthropogenic CO2 in the mixed layer of the Pacific over the last decade has been about 1 μmol kg-1 yr-1, roughly consistent with the increases observed in atmospheric CO2 over this period.

  19. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine, C.L.; Key, R.M.; Hall, M.; Kozyr, A.

    1999-08-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon (delta 14C), at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) during the R/V Thomas G. Thompson oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Suva, Fiji, on October 5, 1993, and ended in Yokohama, Japan, on November 10, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section P10 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by conductivity temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, TALK, delta 14C, and underway pCO2.

  20. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data from the F/S Meteor Cruise No. 18 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1/E) during September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Schneider, B.; Mintrop, L.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (C{sub T}), total alkalinity, and underway pCO{sub 2} data during the F/S Meteor Cruise 18 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1/E). The F/S Meteor departed Reykjavik on September 2, 1991 and docked in Hamburg early on the morning of September 25, 1991 after 24 days at sea. A two day steam from Reykjavik brought the ship to the starting position for WOCE zonal section A1/east (A1/E) on September 5. Section work began and ended with a closely spaced series hydrocasts on the SE-Greenland (60{degree}N 42{degree}30 minutes W) and Porcupine Shelves (52{degree}20 minutes N 14{degree}15 minutes W), respectively. The cast schedule was interrupted for equipment problems (6 and 7 September), current meter deployments (9, 10, 11, 14, and 19 September), and by high seas (13, 14, and 17 September). Of 64 CTD casts made, 58 were bottle casts including two calibration stations. Measurements made included CTD pressure, temperature, salinity, bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, total alkalinity, CFC`S, total carbon dioxide, and continuous underway pCO{sub 2} of surface waters. Carbonate samples were collected from 31 section stations (55.4% of the section stations), one test station, and two calibration stations. Repeated XBT, and ADCP profiles were taken throughout the cruise. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  1. Consistency and synthesis of Pacific Ocean CO2 survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, M. F.; Sabine, Chris; Feely, R. A.; Wanninkhof, R.; Key, Robert; Johnson, G.C.; Millero, F. J.; Lee, K.; Peng, T.-H.; Kozyr, Alexander; Bullister, J.L.; Greeley, D.; Byrne, R.H.; Chipman, D.W.; Dickson, A.G.; Goyet, C.; Guenther, P.R.; Ishii, M.; Johnson, K.M.; Ono, Tsueno; Tilbrook, B.; Takahashi, Taro; Wallace, D.W.R.; Watanabe, Y.W.; Winn, C.; Wong, C. S.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1999, carbon measurements were made on twenty-five WOCE/JGOFS/OACES cruises in the Pacific Ocean. Investigators from 15 different laboratories and four countries analyzed at least two of the four measurable ocean carbon parameters (DIC, TAlk, fCO2, and pH) on almost all cruises. The goal of this work is to assess the quality of the Pacific carbon survey data and to make recommendations for generating a unified data set that is consistent between cruises. Several different lines of evidence were used to examine the consistency, including comparison of calibration techniques, results from certified reference material analyses, precision of at-sea replicate analyses, agreement between shipboard analyses and replicate shore based analyses, comparison of deep water values at locations where two or more cruises overlapped or crossed, consistency with other hydrographic parameters, and internal consistency with multiple carbon parameter measurements. With the adjustments proposed here, the data can be combined to generate a Pacific Ocean data set, with over 36,000 unique sample locations analyzed for at least two carbon parameters in most cases. The best data coverage was for DIC, which has an estimated overall accuracy of ~3 umol/kg. TAlk, the second most common carbon parameter analyzed, had an estimated overall accuracy of ~5 umol/kg. To obtain additional details on this study, including detailed crossover plots and information on the availability of the compiled, adjusted data set, visit the Global Data Analysis Project web site at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/glodap.

  2. Equatorial Wave Line, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Equatorial Wave Line (2.0 N, 102.5W) seen in the Pacific Ocean is of great interest to oceanographers because of the twice annual upwelling of the oceans nutrients. As a result of nearly constant easterly winds, cool nutrient rich water wells up at the equator. The long narrow line is an equatorial front or boundry between warm surface equatorial water and cool recently upwelled water as the intermix of nutrients takes place.

  3. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor cruise 15/3 in the South Atlantic Ocean. WOCE Section A9, February--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Goyet, C.; Kozyr, A.

    1995-06-01

    The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations (as well as in other radiatively active trace gases) because of human activity has produced serious concern regarding the heat balance of the global atmosphere (Moore and Braswell 1994). The increasing concentrations of these gases may intensify the earth`s natural greenhouse effect, and force the global climate system in ways that are not well understood. The oceans play a major role in global carbon cycle processes. Carbon in the oceans is unevenly distributed because of complex circulation patterns and biogeochemical cycles, neither of which are completely understood. To better understand the ocean`s role in climate and climatic changes, several large experiments have been conducted in the past, and others are currently under way. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) is a major component of the World Climate Research Program. Although total carbon dioxide (TC0{sub 2}) is not an official WOCE measurement, a coordinated effort, supported in the United States by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is being made on WOCE cruises (through 1998) to measure the global, spatial, and temporal distributions of TC0{sub 2} and other carbon-related parameters. The CO{sub 2} survey goals include estimation of the meridional transport of inorganic carbon in a manner analogous to the oceanic heat transport (Bryden and Hall 1980; Brewer et al. 1989; Roemmich and Wunsch 1985), evaluation of the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the atmosphere and the ocean, and preparation of a database suitable for carbon-cycle modeling and the subsequent assessment of the anthropogenic C0{sub 2} increase in the oceans. The C0{sub 2} survey is taking advantage of the sampling opportunities provided by the WOCE cruises during this period. The final data set is expected to cover {approx_gt}23,000 stations.

  4. Pacific Ocean buoy temperature date

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pacific Ocean buoy temperature dataThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Carbone, F., M. Landis, C.N. Gencarelli, A. Naccarato, F. Sprovieri, F. De Simone, I.M. Hedgecock, and N. Pirrone. Sea surface temperature variation linked to elemental mercury concentrations measured on Mauna Loa. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, online, (2016).

  5. Cross equator transport of 137Cs from North Pacific Ocean to South Pacific Ocean ( BEAGLE2003 cruises)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, M.; Fukasawa, M.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, Y.; Kawano, T.; Povinec, P. P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and some transuranics are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. 137Cs, with a half-life of 30 years, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation at a time scale of several decades. At WOCE P6 line along 30°S during the BEAGLE cruise in 2003, surface seawater (around 80 L) was collected a few meters below the ocean surface by a pumping system. Water column samples (from 5 to 20 L) were collected using a Rosette multisampling system and Niskin bottles. 137Cs was separated from seawater samples using ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and analysed for 137Cs in low-level HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. Results allowed to draw a detailed picture of the distribution of 137Cs in the South Pacific Ocean along P6 line. A 137Cs depth section was depicted from about 160 samples. 137Cs concentrations in the subsurface layers ranged from 0.07 ± 0.04 Bq m -3 to 1.85 ± 0.145 Bq m -3, high in the Tasman Sea and very low in the eastern region where upwelling occurs. Water column inventories of 137Cs from surface to 1000 dbar depth ranged from 270 ± 104 to 1048 ± 127 Bq m -2. It was concluded that the source of higher 137Cs concentration and inventories in the Tasman Sea was 137Cs deposited in the mid latitude of the North Pacific Ocean and transported across the equator during four decades.

  6. Equatorial Wave Line, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-95-042 (13-19 Jan 1993) --- The Equatorial Pacific Ocean is represented in this 70mm view. The international oceanographic research community is presently conducting a program called Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) to study the global ocean carbon budget. A considerable amount of effort within this program is presently being focused on the Equatorial Pacific Ocean because of the high annual average biological productivity. The high productivity is the result of nearly constant easterly winds causing cool, nutrient-rich water to well up at the equator. In this view of the sun glint pattern was photographed at about 2 degrees north latitude, 103 degrees west longitude, as the Space Shuttle passed over the Equatorial Pacific. The long narrow line is the equatorial front, which defines the boundary between warm surface equatorial water and cool, recently upwelled water. Such features are of interest to the JGOFS researchers and it is anticipated that photographs such as this will benefit the JGOFS program.

  7. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-16

    STS049-71-042 (8 May 1992) --- This photograph, taken from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour, shows a collapsed thunderstorm in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The clouds were pushed from this circular area of the ocean's surface by relatively cool air that spread downward and outward from a dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new, though smaller, storms are developing. The photo was taken on May 8, 1992, between Borneo and the Philippine island of Mindoro. Two coral atolls can be seen near the center of the photograph. The crew members used a handheld Hasselblad camera, 250-mm lens, color film to expose the image.

  8. PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) Database: A Data Synthesis Resource (NDP-92, ORNL/CDIAC-159)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Suzuki, T.; Ishii, M.; Aoyama, M. R; Christian, J. R.; Enyo, K.; Kawano, T.; Key, R. M.; Kosugi, N.; Kozyr, A.; Miller, L. A.; Murata, A.; Nakano, T.; Ono, T.; Saino, T.; Sasaki, K.; Sasano, D; Takatani, Y.; Wakita, M.; Sabine, C.

    PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) was an international collaborative project for synthesis of data on ocean interior carbon and its related parameters in the Pacific Ocean. The North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Section on Carbon and Climate (S-CC) supported the project. Hydrographic/hydrochemical datasets have been merged from a total of 272 cruises, including those from cruises conducted between the late 1980s and 2000 but not included in GLODAP, as well as CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography datasets from the 2000s. Adjustments were calculated to account for analytical offsets in dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients (nitrate and nitrite, phosphate, and silicic acid) for each cruise as a result of the secondary quality control procedure, based on crossover analysis using data from deep layers (Tanhua et al., 2010). A total of 59 adjusted datasets from Line P off the west coast of Canada were also merged. Finally, the authors have produced the adjusted PACIFICA database that consists of datasets from a total of 306 cruises that also includes 34 datasets from WOCE Hydrographic Program cruises in the Pacific Ocean conducted in the 1990s. The PACIFICA database is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP-92) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the primary PACIFICA data site at pacifica.pices.jp. The NDP consists of the original cruise data files, adjusted data product, and the documentation.

  9. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  10. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E, September 1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Schneider, B.; Mintrop, L.; Kozyr, A.

    1996-07-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is characterized by an intense meridional circulation cell carrying near-surface waters of tropical and subtropical origin northward and deep waters of arctic and subarctic origin southward. The related {open_quotes}overturning{close_quotes} is driven by the sinking of water masses at high latitudes. The overturning rate and thus the intensity of the meridional transports of mass, heat, and salt, is an important control parameter for the modeling of the ocean`s role in climate. The Research Vessel (R/V) Meteor Cruise 18/1 was one in a series of cruises in the North Atlantic that started in March 1991 and continued until 1995. This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured during the RIV Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (Section A1E). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the German North Atlantic Overturning Rate Determination expedition, the cruise began in Reykjavik, Iceland, on September 2, 1991, and ended after 24 days at sea in Hamburg, Germany, on September 25, 1991. WOCE Zonal Section AlE began at 60{degrees}N and 42{degrees}30{prime} W (southeast of Greenland) and continued southeast with a closely spaced series of hydrocasts to 52{degrees}20{prime} N and 14{degrees}15{prime} W (Porcupine Shelves). Measurements made along WOCE Section AlE included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and underway pCO{sub 2}. A total of 61 CTD casts were made, including 59 bottle casts and 2 calibration stations.

  11. Observational and Model Estimates of Decadal-scale Changes in Anthropogenic Carbon in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, S. C.; Levine, N. M.; Wanninkof, R.; Sabine, C.; Feely, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the upper ocean is increasing over time due to the invasion of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. The CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program is attempting to quantifying these trends by reoccupying on approximately decadal time-scales ocean sections that were first sampled during the WOCE/JGOFS era in the late 1980s and 1990s. Direct point to point comparisons are strongly aliased by interannual variability, and we use multiple linear regression techniques to isolate the anthropogenic carbon signal. We show field-based estimates of decadal changes in DIC for meridional sections (about 60°N to 60°S) in the Atlantic and Pacific basins (A16 and P16). The field estimates are also compared with historical hindcast simulation results from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) ocean biogeochemical model.

  12. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  13. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  14. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  15. Paleoceanography of the tropical eastern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Grigg, R W; Hey, R

    1992-01-10

    The East Pacific Barrier (EPB) is the most effective marine barrier to dispersal of tropical shallow-water fauna in the world today. The fossil record of corals in the eastern Pacific suggests this has been true throughout the Cenozoic. In the Cretaceous, the EPB was apparently less effective in limiting dispersal. Equatorial circulation in the Pacific then appears to have been primarily east to west and the existence of oceanic atolls (now drowned guyots) in the eastern Pacific probably aided dispersal. Similarly, in the middle and early Mesozoic and late Paleozoic, terranes in the central tropical Pacific likely served as stepping stones to dispersal of tropical shelf faunas, reducing the isolating effect of an otherwise wider Pacific Ocean (Panthalassa).

  16. Apollo XIII Spacecraft - Splashdown - South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-17

    S70-35652 (17 April 1970) --- The Apollo 13 spacecraft heads toward a splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean. The Apollo 13 Command Module splashed down in the South Pacific at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970. Note the capsule and its parachutes just visible against a gap in the dark clouds.

  17. Decadal Changes in Hydrography of the Southern Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, L. D.; Carter, B.; Warner, M. J.; Swift, J. H.; Orsi, A. H.; Sloyan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-decadal hydrographic sections of the GO-SHIP program cross the world's oceans with the highest accuracy measurements, documenting temporal variability in physical and chemical properties. The central southern Pacific and Ross Sea have been surveyed regularly along GO-SHIP sections P16S (150W) and S4P (67S) since the first occupation in WOCE in 1992. Observed changes are consistent with anthropogenic forcing. The central Ross Sea gyre's bottom 1000 m is nearly adiabatic (well mixed), and well-ventilated based on chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and sulfur hexafluoride observations (see Figure), and can be easily compared from one survey to the next. This Ross Sea bottom layer observed in March, 2014, on P16S continued to warm, with a monotonic increase over the 4 WOCE/GO-SHIP surveys thus far: 1992, 2005, 2011, and now 2014 (see Figure). Deep temperature has increased by 0.1°C since 1992, continuing the trend of enhanced global ocean deep warming in the Southern Ocean documented by Purkey/Johnson (2010) and IPCC AR5 WG1. The abyssal central Ross Sea waters also continued to freshen slightly. The upper ocean in the Ross Sea warmed, became more stratified, had higher nutrients and total carbon, and was less ventilated in terms of apparent oxygen utilization than in 2005. North of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current along 150W, the upper ocean's Subantarctic Mode Water became saltier, also continuing the subtropical trend of the past several decades (Durack/Wijffels 2010), with an apparently stronger incursion of saline subtropical waters that render it more salt and temperature stratified, ruling out a local deep mixed layer formation mechanism, with an increasing tendency towards double diffusive processes. The Antarctic Intermediate Water salinity minimum continued to freshen. The arrival in 2014 of CFC's at the ocean bottom between 32S and 40S indicates that the Antarctic Bottom Water there is about 40-50 years old. CFCs in the ocean's surface layer decreased, in

  18. Christmas Island, Line Island Group, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Christmas Island (2.0N,158.0W), mid central Pacific Ocean, is considered to be the largest atoll in the world, about 25 km in diameter, and is part of the Line Island Group, a northwest-southeast trending chain of volcanic islands on some of the oldest ocean crust in the Pacific. The lagoon is nearly filled with reef growth leaving only a narrow entrance from the sea and large cocoanut groves are found along the fringes of the lagoon.

  19. Decadal Changes in DIC Along P16 in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, T.

    2008-12-01

    As a result of CLIVAR CO2 Repeat Hydrographic program, P16S was reoccupied in 2005, and P16N in 2006. The P16 is a WOCE cruise line along longitude 150°W in the Pacific Ocean. The section selected for this analysis in the North Pacific includes data collected between Hawaii and Kodiak Island. In the South Pacific, only stations along 150°W occupied during 1991 as P16S and during 1992 as P16A are selected. These are stations that were reoccupied in 2005 as Repeat Hydro P16S. The DIC values are normalized to salinity of 35 after correction for AOU. Comparisons of these DIC values are made along isopycnal surfaces. The DIC increases vary in each isopycnal horizon, with 2.4 µmol/kg along 27.2 isopycnal, and 18.0 µmol/kg along 26.4 isopycnal. With the estimated thickness of isopycnal horizons between 15°N and 45°N, we obtained a mean DIC inventory change of 0.58 µmol/kg/yr in the North Pacifc between 1991 and 2006 (or 0.50 mol/m2/yr). For the South Pacific, DIC increase is apparently faster than that in the North Pacific. We have seen significant DIC increases along each isopycnal horizons, on the order of 20 µmol/kg for isopycnals 26.0 to 27.2. Based on the estimated thickness of isopycnal layers between 15°S and 40°S, the mean DIC inventory change is estimated to be 1.61 µmol/kg/yr from 1991 to 2005, which is equivalent to 1.57 mol/m2/yr.

  20. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  1. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992-January 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, A.

    1998-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on December 27, 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa, on January 31, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section A10 included pressure, temperature, and salinity [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-1 1 , CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and underway pCO{sub 2}. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by using two Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzers (SOMMAs) for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples that were coupled to a coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by infrared photometry with a precision of {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. The work aboard the R/V Meteor was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CHOO016, and the Bundesministerium fir Forschung und Technologies through grants 03F0545A and MPG 099/1.

  2. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  3. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  4. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m(3). In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  5. Upper Ocean Heat Content Variability in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, L. K.; Brewster, J.; Maturi, E.; Lillibridge, J. L., III

    2016-02-01

    Upper ocean heat has considerable importance in air-sea exchanges in areas such as tropical cyclone interactions and El Niño events in the Pacific Ocean that have global consequences. That is, the sea surface temperatures (SST) dominate the surface buoyancy flux by a factor of four compared to salinity effects as part of the air-sea exchange processes. However, the SST is only one component of the upper ocean heat content (OHC), and the tropical oceans can often mask the underlying warm structures associated with fronts and eddies. Combining SST with sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) measurements exploits the sources and sinks of OHC in the basins when combined with background climatologies and in situ measurements from multiple platforms. OHC, integrated thermal structure from the surface layer to a particular isotherm level, is important for tropical cyclone forecasting, assessing seasonal to annual climate variability, and tracking El Niño events in the equatorial Pacific. Here we discuss one approach in understanding OHC and its linkage to short and long term weather events. Combining ocean climatology with SSHA and SST, OHC variability was estimated for the Pacific basin within the construct of a 2.5 layer model. Mean isotherm depths of 20°C and 26°C, reduced gravities, and mixed layer depth were estimated from blended temperature and salinity fields from the World Ocean Atlas and the Generalized Digital Environmental Model. Together with the blended climatology, SST from geostationary and polar orbiting radiometers and daily tracks of SSHA from polar orbiting radar altimeters were used to estimate OHC. Monthly, seasonal, and yearly time scales are investigated for the nearly two decades of SST and evaluated OHC estimates from space. Identifying variability and trends in upper ocean heat and their relationship to oceanic circulation features and weather is crucial to understand their impacts on short and long-term climate variations.

  6. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  7. Long waves in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, George; Halpern, David; Hansen, Donald; Legeckis, Richard; Miller, Laury; Watts, Randolph; Wimbush, Mark; Paul, Carl; Watts, Randolph; Weisberg, Robert

    Westward traveling waves, with a period of 3 weeks and a wavelength of ˜1000 km, are observed intermittently in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (see cover). The waves were first detected in 1975 in satellite measurements of the sea surface temperature [Legeckis, 1977]. Since then, additional measurements (under the auspices of the NOAA program Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS)) with a variety of instruments—drifting buoys, current meters and temperature sensors on moorings, and inverted echo sounders—have provided considerable information about these waves and have confirmed the hypothesis that they are caused by instabilities associated primarily with the latitudinal shear of the surface currents near the equator [Philander, 1978a; Cox, 1980].

  8. Sunglint in South Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-24

    AST-19-1555 (24 July 1975) --- A sunglint in the South Western Pacific Ocean, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. The island is Bougainville of the Solomon Islands group. The horizon of Earth is in the background. The picture was taken at an altitude of 231 kilometers (143 statute miles), with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using medium-speed Ektachrome QX-807 type film.

  9. SUPPORT FOR THE CONFERENCE ''WOCE & BEYOND'' TO BE HELD NOVEMBER 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlin, Worth, D., Jr., Distinguished Professor, Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University

    2003-02-05

    of Technology ''An Eddy-resolving State Estimate of the Ocean Circulation during the Subduction Experiment Using a North Atlantic Regional Model (ECCO)'' Mr Hiroki Uehara, Tohoku University ''The role of Mesoscale Eddies on Formation and Transport of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water Demonstrated with Argo Floats'' Mr Josh Willis, Scripps Institution of Oceanography ''Combining Altimetric Height with Broadside Profile Data: A Technique for Estimating Subsurface Variability''

  10. Wind Forcing of the Pacific Ocean Using Scatterometer Wind Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research was an understanding of the wind-forced ocean circulation, particularly for the Pacific Ocean. To determine the ocean's response to the winds, we first needed to generate accurate maps of wind stress. For the ocean's response to wind stress we examined the sea surface height (SSH) both from altimeters and from numerical models for the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Seamount statistics in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Deborah K.; Jordan, Thomas H.

    1988-04-01

    We apply the wide-beam sampling technique of Jordan et al. (1983) to approximately 157,000 km of wide-beam profiles to obtain seamount population statistics for eight regions in the eastern and southern Pacific Ocean. Population statistics derived from wide-beam echograms are compared with seamount counts from Sea Beam swaths and with counts from bathymetric maps. We find that the average number of seamounts with summit heights h ≥ H is well-approximated by the exponential frequency-size distribution: ν(H)=νoe-βH. The exponential model for seamount sizes, characterized by the single scale parameter β-1, is found to be superior to a power-law (self-similar) model, which has no intrinsic scale, in describing the average distribution of Pacific seamounts, and it appears to be valid over a size spectrum spanning 5 orders of magnitude in abundance. Large-scale regional variations in seamount populations are documented. We observe significant differences in seamount densities across the Murray fracture zone in the North Pacific and the Eltanin fracture zone system in the South Pacific. The Eltanin discontinuity is equally evident on both sides of the Pacific-Antarctic ridge. In the South Pacific, regions symmetrically disposed about the ridge axis have very similar seamount densities, despite the large difference between Pacific plate and Antarctic plate absolute velocities; evidently, any differences in the shear flows at the base of the Pacific and Antarctic plates do not affect seamount emplacement. Systematic variations in νo and β are observed as a function of lithospheric age, with the number of large seamounts increasing more rapidly than small seamounts. These observations have been used to develop a simple model for seamount production under the assumptions that (1) an exponential size-frequency distribution is maintained, (2) production is steady state, and (3) most small seamounts are formed on or near the ridge axis. The limited data available from

  12. Atmosphere-ocean interactions in the Pacific Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, F.; Gersonde, R.; Purcell, C.; Winckler, G.; Tiedemann, R.; Knorr, G.

    2014-12-01

    Atmosphere-ocean interactions play an important role for understanding processes and feedbacks in the Southern Ocean (SO) that play a key role for explaining the variability in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The most important atmospheric forcing at high and mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere is the westerly wind belt which strongly impacts the strength and extension of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), upwelling of deep-water masses, and also controls the back-flow of intermediate waters to the tropics. We combine sea surface temperature, current strength, and mineral dust proxy data from the Pacific SO including Drake Passage with climate model results. Our data show that Drake Passage throughflow was reduced and the ACC generally weakened during the last glacial. The reduced Drake Passage throughflow was accompanied by a pronounced northward extension of the Antarctic cold-water sphere in the Southeast Pacific sector and stronger export of surface and intermediate water into the South Pacific gyre. These oceanographic changes are consistent with reduced westerly winds within the modern maximum wind strength zone over the subantarctic ACC and reduced wind forcing due to extended sea-ice further south. Despite of reduced winds in the core of the westerlies, we observe 3-fold higher dust deposition during glacial periods in the Pacific SO. This observation may be explained by a combination of factors including more expanded arid dust source areas in Australia and a northward extent or enhancement of the westerlies over Southeast Australia during glacials that would plausibly increase the dust uptake and export into the Pacific SO. Such scenario would imply stronger westerlies at the present northernmost margin of the wind belt coeval with weaker core westerlies and reduced ACC strength including Drake Passage throughflow during glacials. These results have strong implications for the global meridional overturning circulation and the interbasin

  13. Decadal changes in the CaCO3 saturation state along 179°E in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Akihiko; Saito, Shu

    2012-06-01

    To assess degrees of ocean acidification, we mainly investigated decadal changes in the saturation state of seawater with respect to aragonite (Ωarg), which is a more vulnerable mineral form of CaCO3, along the 179°E meridian (WOCE P14N) in the Pacific Ocean. We found a maximum decrease of Ωarg of -0.48 (-0.034 a-1) at 200-300 dbar (isopycnal surfaces of 24.0-25.8 kg m-3) at 20°N. Between 1993 and 2007, the saturation horizon rose by 17 dbar (1.2 dbar a-1) at latitudes 10°N-50°N. Although ΔΩarg mostly reflected changes in normalized dissolved inorganic carbon (ΔnCT), it was larger than could be explained by anthropogenic CO2 storage alone. Decomposition of ΔnCT revealed that ΔΩarg was enhanced by approximately 50% by a non-anthropogenic CO2 contribution represented by changes in apparent oxygen utilization. Our results suggest that ocean acidification can be temporarily accelerated by temporal changes in oceanic conditions.

  14. Ocean noise in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sirović, Ana; Wiggins, Sean M; Oleson, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    Ocean ambient noise is well studied in the North Pacific and North Atlantic but is poorly described for most of the worlds' oceans. Calibrated passive acoustic recordings were collected during 2009-2010 at seven locations in the central and western tropical and subtropical Pacific. Monthly and hourly mean power spectra (15-1000 Hz) were calculated in addition to their skewness, kurtosis, and percentile distributions. Overall, ambient noise at these seven sites was 10-20 dB lower than reported recently for most other locations in the North Pacific. At frequencies <100 Hz, spectrum levels were equivalent to those predicted for remote or light shipping. Noise levels in the 40 Hz band were compared to the presence of nearby and distant ships as reported to the World Meteorological Organization Voluntary Observing Ship Scheme (VOS) project. There was a positive, but nonsignificant correlation between distant shipping and low frequency noise (at 40 Hz). There was a seasonal variation in ambient noise at frequencies >200 Hz with higher levels recorded in the winter than in the summer. Several species of baleen whales, humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and fin (B. physalus) whales, also contributed seasonally to ambient noise in characteristic frequency bands.

  15. Distal transport of hydrothermal iron in the deep Eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Jenkins, W. J.; Lee, J.; Kayser, R. A.; Boyle, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    While dust deposition and transport from continental margin sediments are usually thought to be the main inputs of iron to the surface ocean dissolved Fe (dFe) pool, Fe input to the deep ocean has been attributed mostly to remineralization of sinking biogenic particles. Hydrothermal vents are known to emit large amounts of Fe to the deep ocean, but most of this Fe precipitates near the ridge crest, so it is not clear that vents supply a significant amount of dFe to the deep ocean. Several recent studies have seen dFe maxima in the deep ocean near ridge crests and attributed this dFe to hydrothermal activity (Boyle & Jenkins, 2008; Klunder et al. 2011; Wu et al. 2011; Klunder et al. 2012; Noble et al. 2012). Hydrothermally-derived Fe is believed to be maintained in the dissolved phase by a combination of binding by organic ligands (Bennett et al. 2008; Sander & Koschinsky, 2012) and a nanoparticle/colloidal contribution to the dFe class (Yucel et al. 2011). Modeling efforts using the distribution of excess He-3 in deep waters arising from hydrothermal activity have predicted that deep ocean dFe may be much higher than currently believed, especially in the southern hemisphere (Tagliabue et al. 2010). In this presentation, we show the first deep ocean dFe data from two stations in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean (Station 7 at 26.3degS, 104degW and Station 4 at 23.5degS, 88.8degW). He-3 and dissolved manganese (dMn) distributions at these stations imply that hydrothermal activity is a significant source of dFe to the deep ocean in this region. Maximum deep dFe concentrations at 2250m reach 1.5 nmol/kg at Station 7 and are still 0.86 nmol/kg at Station 4, thousands of kilometers from presumed East Pacific Rise hydrothermal sources. Excess He-3 and dFe are correlated in the plume maximum by comparison of the measured dFe with nearby WOCE He-3 stations spatially interpolated on isopycnals. We observe a slope of 1.1-2.0 x 10^6 mol Fe/mol He-3, similar to but somewhat

  16. SKYLAB (SL)-2 - RECOVERY OPERATIONS - PACIFIC OCEAN

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-26

    S73-29147 (22 June 1973) --- The Skylab 2 Command Module, with astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., Joseph P. Kerwin and Paul J. Weitz still inside, floats in the Pacific Ocean following successful splashdown about 835 miles southwest of San Diego, California. The prime recovery ship, USS Ticonderoga, approaches from the left background. A recovery helicopter hovers in the foreground. The three Skylab 2 crewmen had just completed a 28-day stay with the Skylab 1 space station in Earth orbit conducting numerous medical, scientific and technological experiments. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Basalts Dredged from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Engel, C G; Engel, A E

    1963-06-21

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. In addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic theoleiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. The distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

  18. Basalts dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, C.G.; Engel, A.E.J.

    1963-01-01

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

  19. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. 334.1340 Section 334.1340 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean...

  4. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrograohic, and Chemical Parameters During the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 3 May - 4 July, 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2006-03-31

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at hydrographic stations during the cruise of research vessel (R/V) Nathaniel B. Palmer in the Southern Indian Ocean on the S04I Section as a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)/World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The carbon-related measurements were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The expedition started in Cape Town, South Africa, on May 3, 1996, and ended in Hobart, Australia, on July 4, 1996. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. The TCO2 was measured in discrete water samples using the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) coulomteric system with an overall precision of ±1.7 μmol/kg. TALK was determined by potentiometric titration with an overall precision of ±1.7 μmol/kg. During the S04I cruise pCO2 was also measured using the LDEO equilibrator-gas chromatograph system with a precision of 0.5% (including the station-to-station reproducibility) at a constant temperature of 4.0ºC. The R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer S04I data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  5. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  6. Flexure and rheology of Pacific oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Johnny; Watts, Tony

    2016-04-01

    The idea of a rigid lithosphere that supports loads through flexural isostasy was first postulated in the late 19th century. Since then, there has been much effort to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of the lithosphere's flexural rigidity, and to understand how these variations are linked to its rheology. We have used flexural modelling to first re-assess the variation in the rigidity of oceanic lithosphere with its age at the time of loading, and then to constrain mantle rheology by testing the predictions of laboratory-derived flow laws. A broken elastic plate model was used to model trench-normal, ensemble-averaged profiles of satellite-derived gravity at the trench-outer rise system of circum-Pacific subduction zones, where an inverse procedure was used to find the best-fit Te and loading conditions. The results show a first-order increase in Te with plate age, which is best fit by the depth to the 400 ± 35°C plate-cooling isotherm. Fits to the observed gravity are significantly improved by an elastic plate that weakens landward of the outer rise, which suggests that bending-induced plate weakening is a ubiquitous feature of circum-Pacific subduction zones. Two methods were used to constrain mantle rheology. In the first, the Te derived by modelling flexural observations was compared to the Te predicted by laboratory-derived yield strength envelopes. In the second, flexural observations were modelled using elastic-plastic plates with laboratory-derived, depth-dependent yield strength. The results show that flow laws for low-temperature plasticity of dry olivine provide a good fit to the observations at circum-Pacific subduction zones, but are much too strong to fit observations of flexure in the Hawaiian Islands region. We suggest that this discrepancy can be explained by differences in the timescale of loading combined with moderate thermal rejuvenation of the Hawaiian lithosphere.

  7. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992--January 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Schneider, B.; Mintrop, L.

    1997-04-01

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity at Hydrographic stations as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise M22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on 27 December 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa on 31 January 1993. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. TCO{sub 2} was measured using tow automated sample processors for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples which were coupled to a Coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for total alkalinity were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-} 2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by Infra Red (IR) Photometry; precision was {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. From these cruises the large-scale three-dimensional distribution of temperature, salinity, and chemical constituents, including the carbonate system parameters will be mapped. Knowledge of these parameters and their initial conditions will allow determination of heat and water transports as well as carbon transport. An understanding of these transports will contribute to the understanding of processes which are relevant for climate change. This section in the South Atlantic subtropical Gyre is especially relevant for CO{sub 2} transport because it crosses both the Brazil and the Benguela Boundary Currents.

  8. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, March 29 - May 12, 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, A.

    2002-05-09

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and the fugacity of CO{sub 2} (fCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations during the R/V Meteor oceanographic cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A8). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Recife, Brazil, on March 29, 1994, and ended after 35 days at sea in Walvis Bay, Namibia, on May 12, 1994. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. TCO{sub 2} was measured using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMA) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}1.17 {micro}mol/kg. For the second carbonate system parameter, the fCO{sub 2} was measured in discrete samples by equilibrating a known volume of liquid phase (seawater) with a known volume of a gas phase containing a known mixture of CO{sub 2} in gaseous nitrogen (N{sub 2}). After equilibration, the gas phase CO{sub 2} concentration was determined by flame ionization detection following the catalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methane (CH{sub 4}). The precision of these measurements was less than or equal to 1.0%. The R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data retrieval routine files, a readme file, and this printed documentation that describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  9. Ocean Circulation and Mixing: New Insights From the Global Distribution of 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Winckler, G.

    2007-05-01

    Since the discovery of mantle 3He in the ocean in the 1960's by Clarke and others this isotope has been used in numerous studies of ocean circulation and mixing. Recently, a global helium isotope data set has been collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). We combined the WOCE helium isotope data with similar, but smaller, data sets from previous global and regional studies such as GEOCSECS or TTO to study features of the global ocean circulation, as well as ventilation and mixing. In this contribution we describe the global data set and discuss the first results obtained on global ocean ventilation and deep ocean mixing. A simple model is used to estimate vertical turbulent exchange coefficients for the deep ocean in the South Pacific and the results are compared to mixing coefficients obtained from fine structure measurements and tracer release experiments.

  10. Multi-Decadal Indian Ocean Variability Linked to the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, C.; Biastoch, A.; Boning, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    The Indian Ocean has sustained robust surface warming in recent decades, with warming rates exceeding those of other tropical ocean basins. However, it remains unclear how multi-decadal variability in upper-ocean thermal characteristics has contributed to these Indian Ocean trends. Using high-resolution ocean model hindcasts building on the ocean/sea-ice numerical Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) framework forced with atmospheric forcing fields of the Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiments, the characteristics of Indian Ocean temperature changes are explored. Sensitivity experiments, where interannual atmospheric variability is restricted to thermal or wind-stress forcing only, support the interpretation of forcing mechanisms for the evolution of temperature characteristics across the Indian Ocean, focusing on the top 700m. Simulated temperature changes across the Indian Ocean in the hindcasts are consistent with those recorded in observational products and ocean reanalyses. Temperatures and heat content exhibit extensive subsurface cooling for much of the tropical Indian Ocean since the 1950s, associated with a shoaling thermocline. Here, we link upper-ocean temperature trends in the Indian Ocean to multi-decadal remote Pacific wind changes associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation/Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We find that low-frequency variations in the depth of the eastern Indian Ocean thermocline pre-condition Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events: the frequency of positive (negative) IOD events was significantly enhanced during decades with a shallower (deeper) thermocline background state. Multi-decadal Pacific wind forcing has also masked increases in Indian Ocean heat content due to thermal forcing since the 1960s. However, wind and thermal forcing both contribute positively to Indian Ocean heat content since the turn of the century. Drastic increases in the heat content in coming decades are therefore likely; in fact, they have

  11. Understanding the Changing Global Distribution of Radiocarbon: What are we learning from the WOCE and CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNichol, A. P.; Key, R. M.; Elder, K. L.; Von Reden, K. F.; Gagnon, A. R.; Burton, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Radiocarbon (DI14C) is an important tracer for studies of ocean processes. It has been used to study mixing, ventilation rates, production rates, and residence times in the deep ocean, deep ocean biogeochemistry and oxygen utilization rates, air-sea gas exchange, thermocline ventilation rates, as a proxy for anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean, to estimate deep water mass ages for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and carbon studies, and to evaluate ocean general circulation model (OGCM) performance. DI14C has been used to study the aging of the water masses and calculate pre-bomb surface water values. DI14C has also been used with CFCs and anthropogenic CO2 to investigate the influence of eddies on mixing/ventilation in moderately high resolution ocean. More recently, it has been used to demonstrate the evolving applications of radiocarbon as the shock of the initial bomb-produced radiocarbon spike has passed through the surface ocean and upper thermocline. The radiocarbon distribution is now illuminating mechanisms, pathways and rates of 14C transfer into the lower thermocline and deeper levels. 14C results from over 28,000 samples taken as part of the WOCE and CLIVAR programs have been reported. Significant changes, well above the analytical uncertainty, are seen in all three major ocean basins. Simply mapping the distribution measured during the WOCE program provided new insights. In the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic coast, DI14C values in the western-most Pacific transect are much lower than those observed in the eastern transects. If this is a real feature (rather than a gridding artifact), it has important implications for understanding the role of the Southern Ocean in global climate change. Another extremely interesting feature is a break observed in the southward pointing tongue (NPDW) along the P16 line just west of the islands near 20-25S. It seems quite likely that this unexpected distribution is related to or controlled by proximity to the extreme topography in

  12. INTELSAT 4. [to be positioned over equator of Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A news release on the launching of Intelsat 4 commercial communication satellite is presented. This satellite will be positioned on the equator over the Pacific Ocean. The Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle is considered, along with the launch windows.

  13. Warm Ocean Temperatures Blanket the Far-Western Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-28

    Data taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending March 9, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temp. red and white areas still blanket the far-western tropical Pacific and much of the north and south mid-Pacific.

  14. Effects of Indo-Pacific throughflow on the upper tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschell, M. A.; Kindle, J. C.; O'Brien, James J.

    1995-09-01

    The dynamics and influence of the connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the Indonesian Archipelago (PACIO) on the upper tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans are investigated using a reduced gravity global model. Two different model geometries are used; the first has an open PACIO region (open case) that permits normal transport, the second has a closed PACIO region (closed case) that allows no transport. The model is forced by either monthly 1980-1989 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind stresses or by an imposed Rossby wave pulse. The average upper layer thickness of the Indian Ocean is significantly greater and more variable because of the influence of PACIO transport. The effect in the Pacific Ocean is much smaller, and there appears to be no appreciable effect of PACIO transport on interannual variability in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. RMS differences between the open and closed cases show areas of low-frequency (> ½ year) variability over most of the southern Indian Ocean, the western boundary of the Indian Ocean, the region of the Mindanao Eddy, and the eastern equatorial Pacific waveguide. Areas of significant high-frequency variability are the East African Coastal Current, the Mindanao Eddy region, the Coral Sea Basin, and in the eastern equatorial Pacific waveguide. The large effect on the southern Indian Ocean is linked to off-equatorial Rossby waves generated by transport through the PACIO region.

  15. Pacific Water in the Arctic Ocean and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Blaesterdalen, Torgeir; Karcher, Michael; Stedmon, Colin

    2017-04-01

    The volume, characteristics and sources of freshwater circulating in the Arctic Ocean vary in time and are expected to change under a declining sea ice cover, influencing the physical environment and Arctic ecosystem. Here we focus on relatively fresh (S = 32) Pacific Water, which enters the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait and makes up a significant part of the freshwater exiting the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait. More than 30 repeated sections of nutrient measurements were collected across Fram Strait between 1980 and 2015. The fraction of Pacific Water along these repeated sections can be estimated from the ratio of nitrate to phosphate together with salinity. The time-series of repeated Fram Strait sections indicates that the fraction of Pacific Water passing out of the Arctic Ocean has changed significantly over the last 30 years. Pacific water fractions remained high from 1980 to 1998, but in 1999 Pacific water almost disappeared from Fram Strait, reappearing only briefly from 2011 to 2012. Several hypotheses suggest how variations in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the Arctic Ocean may influence the transport and pathways of Pacific Water. Here we test those hypotheses by comparing established atmospheric indices with the long time series of repeated sections across Fram Strait. Repeated sections across Fram Strait are also compared with a simulated Pacific Water tracer in the NAOSIM numerical model to further investigate the upstream drivers of changes observed in Fram Strait. The principle aim of this work is to identify the processes causing variability in freshwater fluxes out of the Arctic Ocean so that we may better distinguish inter-annual variability from longer-term changes to the Arctic freshwater budget. However, the volume of fresh, silicate-rich Pacific water exported from the Arctic Ocean may also have implications for the ecosystem in the Nordic Seas.

  16. "Midget typhoon" in the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    It’s usually the big, sprawling storms that attract the attention of meteorologists, but occasionally tiny storms can make news as well. The most recent example is a suspected mini-typhoon that drifted across the western Pacific Ocean in mid-July 2013. The storm system emerged on July 16 and dissipated by July 19 without making landfall or causing any significant damage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of the storm on July 17, 2013. It had the spiral shape of a tropical cyclone, but the cloud field was less than 100 kilometers (60 miles) across. For comparison, Super Typhoon Jelawat, the most intense storm of the 2012 season, had a cloud field that stretched nearly 1,000 kilometers (600 miles). Jelawat’s eye alone—with a diameter of 64 kilometers (40 miles)—was two-thirds the size of the entire July 2013 storm. Despite their small size, mini-cyclones are driven by the same forces that drive larger storms. Both small and large cyclonic storms are simply organized convection feeding off warm water in areas with low wind shear. According to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, the low-pressure areas for these mini-typhoons must span less than two degrees of latitude (about 140 miles) and have sustained winds of 65 knots (74 miles per hour). The 2013 storm in the Pacific certainly meets the first criteria, but it is unlikely that the storm achieved typhoon-force winds. It’s also unlikely that the system had a “warm core,” which all true tropical cyclones have. While this storm did not cause damage, other mini storms certainly have. In 1974, the miniature cyclone Tracy hit Darwin, Australia, killing 71 people and destroying more than 70 percent of the city’s buildings. According to the National Hurricane Center, tropical cyclone Marco unseated Tracy as the smallest tropical cyclone on record in 2008. Marco had gale force winds that extended just 19 kilometers (12 miles

  17. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (p<0.01) with the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). In the North Central Pacific, MEI and chlorophyll were significantly (p<0.01) correlated along with two of the phytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  18. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C.; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  19. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100.

  20. Dynamic compensation in the central Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinojosa, Juan Homero; Marsh, Bruce D.

    1988-01-01

    The intermediate-wavelength geoid (lambda similar to 2000 km) and sea-floor topography fields in the central Pacific Ocean were studied in terms of static and dynamic compensation models. Topographic features on the sea-floor with lambda less than 1000 km were found to be compensated both regionally, by the elastic strength of the lithosphere, and locally, by displacing mantle material to reach isostatic adjustment. The larger-scale sea-floor topography and the corresponding geoid anomalies with lambda similar to 2000 km cannot be explained by either local or regional compensation. The topography and the resulting geoid anomaly at this wavelength were modeled by considering the dynamic effects arising from viscous stresses in a layer of fluid with a highly temperature-dependent viscosity for the cases of: (1) surface cooling, and (2) basal heating. In this model, the mechanical properties of the elastic part of the lithosphere were taken into account by considering an activation energy of about 520 kJ/mol in the Arrhenius law for the viscosity. Numerical predictions of the topography, total geoid anomaly, and admittance were obtained, and the results show that the thermal perturbation in the layer, which accounts for the mass deficit, must be located close to the surface to compensate the gravitational effect of the surface deformation. For the case of basal heating, the temperature dependence of viscosity results in a separation of the upper, quasi-rigid lid from the lower mobile fluid, hence inhibiting the development of a compensating thermal perturbation at shallow depths. The results clearly rule out small-scale, upper-mantle convection as the source of these anomalies. Instead, the geophysical observables can be well explained by a shallow, transient thermal perturbation.

  1. Episodic Dust Passage and Phytoplankton Blooms in North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Chameides, W. L.; Nenes, A.

    2003-12-01

    Bioavailability of iron (Fe) has been hypothesized to play a key role in limiting phytoplankton productivity in much of the world's ocean, particularly in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions such as the subarctic North Pacific. The transport and deposition of mineral dust from arid and semi-arid continental regions is believed to be a major mechanism by which Fe is delivered to the surface waters of the remote ocean. This source of oceanic Fe is particularly vital for HNLC waters of subarctic North Pacific; therefore, it is an appropriate region for examining the effects of episodic dust deposition from the Asian continent on phytoplankton blooms. In this work, satellite imagery is used to identify specific mineral dust events from East Asia, track their trajectories across the Pacific Ocean and determine if the passage of these dust plumes across the North Pacific Ocean can be correlated with the occurrence of a chlorophyll a pulse. Lagrangian box model calculations are also used to estimate the likely input of bioavailable Fe to the surface waters of the North Pacific Ocean during these dust events.

  2. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... the overall EPO tuna catch. The number of purse seine vessels that have landed tuna in California...; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine... rule. SUMMARY: NMFS is issuing regulations under the Tuna Conventions Act of 1950 to...

  3. Modelling the distribution of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masanao; Povinec, Pavel P

    2003-01-01

    An Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) including a plutonium scavenging model as well as an advection-diffusion model has been developed for modelling the distribution of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean. Calculated 239, 240Pu water profile concentrations and 239, 240Pu inventories in water and sediment of the Pacific Ocean have showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The presence of local fallout plutonium in central North Pacific waters has been confirmed. The observed 240Pu/239Pu mass ratios confirm that plutonium originating from local fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls is more rapidly removed from surface waters to deeper waters than plutonium originating from global fallout. The developed OGCM can be used for modelling the dispersion of other non-conservative tracers in the ocean as well.

  4. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Horner, Tristan J; Williams, Helen M; Hein, James R; Saito, Mak A; Burton, Kevin W; Halliday, Alex N; Nielsen, Sune G

    2015-02-03

    Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe-Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface.

  5. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Tristan J.; Williams, Helen M.; Hein, James R.; Saito, Mak A.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Nielsen, Sune G.

    2015-01-01

    Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe−Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface. PMID:25605900

  6. Observations of decadal time scale salinity changes in the subtropical thermocline of the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Li; Riser, Stephen C.

    2010-07-01

    Data from Argo floats indicate that significant salinity changes have occurred in the North Pacific thermocline relative to data collected in the previous two decades, including observations obtained as part of the WOCE hydrographic program. Such a salinity decrease on both isopyncals and isobars implies a freshening scenario in the near-surface source region of this water mass. The frequently repeated meridional section P16 supports this inference. The subsurface salinity freshening likely began in the early 1990s, strengthened through 1997, and continued into the 2000s; the surface salinity freshening had commenced by 1984 and continued through the first decade of the 21st century. The spatial distribution of salinity change on the density surface σ θ=25.5 is examined through comparisons of Argo and most of the North Pacific WOCE sections (1985-1994) and between Argo and the Hydrobase climatology, largely composed of data from the late 1970s through the mid-1980s. Both comparisons show a large-scale, basin-wide decrease in subsurface salinity through the Argo time period used in this analysis (2003-2006). The salinity difference is maximum in the northeast area and spreads southward and westward, approximately following geostrophic streamlines.

  7. Bottom water warming in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Masao; Freeland, Howard; Perkin, Ron; Watanabe, Tomowo; Uchida, Hiroshi; Nishina, Ayako

    2004-02-26

    Observations of changes in the properties of ocean waters have been restricted to surface or intermediate-depth waters, because the detection of change in bottom water is extremely difficult owing to the small magnitude of the expected signals. Nevertheless, temporal changes in the properties of such deep waters across an ocean basin are of particular interest, as they can be used to constrain the transport of water at the bottom of the ocean and to detect changes in the global thermohaline circulation. Here we present a comparison of a trans-Pacific survey completed in 1985 (refs 4, 5) and its repetition in 1999 (ref. 6). We find that the deepest waters of the North Pacific Ocean have warmed significantly across the entire width of the ocean basin. Our observations imply that changes in water properties are now detectable in water masses that have long been insulated from heat exchange with the atmosphere.

  8. Down Through the Eye of Hurricane Fefa, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean below can be seen looking down through the eye of Hurricane Fefa (exact location unknown). Fefa was a very strong Pacific Hurricane with a superb tightly formed eye. The tighter the eye in a circular storm, the stronger the winds within the gyre. At the time of this exposure, Fefa was located about midway between the California coast and Hawaii. Fefa dissipated at sea, failing to make landfall, and did no property damage

  9. Morbillivirus infection in stranded common dolphins from the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Reidarson, T H; McBain, J; House, C; King, D P; Stott, J L; Krafft, A; Taubenberger, J K; Heyning, J; Lipscomb, T P

    1998-10-01

    From August 1995 to August 1997, six of 18 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) that stranded along beaches of southern California (USA) tested antibody positive for dolphin morbillivirus (DMV). Titers ascertained by virus neutralization ranged from 1:50 to 1:910 while those determined by ELISA ranged from 1:80 to 1:195. The first individual to strand survived and was released back into the Pacific Ocean 14 mo later. Histopathologic examination of tissues from the other five dolphins did not reveal lesions characteristic of morbilliviral disease; however, morbilliviral RNA was detected in three of the five by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing. This is the first report of morbilliviral infection in any marine mammal species in the northern hemisphere of the Pacific Ocean. These data indicate that DMV, or a closely related morbillivirus, is present in the Pacific Ocean and infection of common dolphins may not be associated with morbillivirus disease.

  10. Air-sea interaction in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Steranka, J.; Holub, R. J.; Hansen, J.; Godshall, F. A.; Prabhakara, C.

    1972-01-01

    Charts of 3-month sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean were produced for the period 1949 to 1970. The anomalies along the United States and South American west coasts and in the eastern tropical Pacific appeared to be oscillating in phase during this period. Similarly, the satellite-derived cloudiness for each of four quadrants of the Pacific Ocean (130 deg E to 100 deg W, 30 deg N to 25 deg S) appeared to be oscillating in phase. In addition, a global tropical cloudiness oscillation from 30 deg N to 30 deg S was noted from 1965 to 1970, by using monthly satellite television nephanalyses. The SST anomalies were found to have a good degree of correlation both positive and negative with the following monthly geophysical parameters: (1) satellite-derived cloudiness, (2) strength of the North and South Pacific semipermanent anticyclones, (3) tropical Pacific island rainfall, and (4) Darwin surface pressure. Several strong direct local and crossequatorial relationships were noted. In particular, the high degree of correlation between the tropical island rainfall and the SST anomalies (r = +0.93) permitted the derivation of SST's for the tropical Pacific back to 1905. The close occurrence of cold tropical SST and North Pacific 700-mb positive height anomalies with central United States drought conditions was noted.

  11. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  12. The East Pacific Rise current: Topographic enhancement of the interior flow in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilberman, N. V.; Roemmich, D. H.; Gille, S. T.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of absolute velocity based on Argo float profiles and trajectories in the ocean interior show evidence for an equatorward current, the East Pacific Rise current, between 42°S and 30°S, along the western flank of the East Pacific Rise. The East Pacific Rise current carries predominantly intermediate water masses, including Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water, and deeper waters, from the southern edge of the subtropical gyre toward the Equator. The 2004 to 2014 mean East Pacific Rise current transport extrapolated through the 0-2600 m depth range is 8.1 ± 1.6 sverdrup (Sv) (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), consistent with a wind-driven interior transport influenced by the East Pacific Rise topography. While deep ocean mixing and geothermal heating can both create pressure gradients that support geostrophic flows in the deep ocean, this study indicates that about half of the East Pacific Rise current transport is associated with topographic steering of the deep flow over the East Pacific Rise.

  13. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A.; Cravatte, S.; Melet, A.; Schiller, A.; Holbrook, N. J.; Sloyan, B. M.; Widlansky, M. J.; Bowen, M.; Verron, J.; Wiles, P.; Ridgway, K.; Sutton, P.; Sprintall, J.; Steinberg, C.; Brassington, G.; Cai, W.; Davis, R.; Gasparin, F.; Gourdeau, L.; Hasegawa, T.; Kessler, W.; Maes, C.; Takahashi, K.; Richards, K. J.; Send, U.

    2014-11-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR. The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. South Pacific thermocline waters are transported in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC) toward Australia and Papua-New Guinea. On its way, the SEC encounters the numerous islands and straits of the Southwest Pacific and forms boundary currents and jets that eventually redistribute water to the equator and high latitudes. The transit in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas is of great importance to the climate system because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, while the southward transports influence the climate and biodiversity in the Tasman Sea. After 7 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. This paper provides a review of recent advancements and discusses our current knowledge gaps and important emerging research directions.

  14. Protozoa in the diets of Neocalanus spp. in the oceanic subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Dian J.

    Copepod species of the genus Neocalanus dominate the zooplankton biomass of the oceanic subarctic Pacific Ocean. Neocalanus spp. populations in the subarctic Pacific environment are successful: they feed, accumulate lipid, and persist from year to year. Prior experimental observations derived from a variety of methods indicated that, although their functional morphology is such that they clear the small phytoplankton cells characteristic of the oceanic subarctic Pacific environment efficiently, Neocalanus spp. do not consume sufficient phytoplankton to meet even basic metabolic requirements in that environment. Hence, their success in the subarctic Pacific must depend on their ability to obtain nutrition from other sources. As part of the SUPER ( SUbarctic Pacific Ecosystem Research) program, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that N. plumchrus and N. cristatus obtain a significant portion of their nutrition from planktonic Protozoa. The experiments demonstrate that Protozoa alone do not provide sufficient nutrition for N. cristatus to meet its basic metabolic needs. Protozoa constitute the major dietary component of N. plumchrus however, in agreement with the predictions of FROST'S (1987) model of the subarctic Pacific ecosystem. At a minimum this diet permits N. plumchrus to meet basic metabolic requirements. Copepod grazing activities appear to be sufficient to control protozoan stocks in the oceanic subarctic Pacific during late spring and early summer when Neocalanus spp. inhabit the upper water column.

  15. Apollo 12 Command Module nears splashdown in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-24

    S69-22728 (24 Nov. 1969) --- The Apollo 12 Command Module, with astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., Richard F. Gordon Jr., and Alan L. Bean aboard, nears splashdown in the Pacific Ocean to conclude the second lunar landing mission. The Apollo 12 splashdown occurred at 2:58 p.m., Nov. 24, 1969, near American Samoa.

  16. Skylab 4 Command Module in Pacific Ocean following splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An early morning sun casts a reflection across the Skylab 4 Command Module in Pacific Ocean some 176 miles southwest of San Diego, California, following splashdown at 8:17 a.m., February 8, 1974. Swimmers from the U.S.S. New Orleans, prime recovery ship, are taking part in recovery operations, here.

  17. Apollo 13 spacecraft splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo 13 Command Module splashed down in the South Pacific at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970. In this view the capsule is in the water and its three parachutes are crumpling into the ocean in a row.

  18. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point, basically...

  19. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as follows...

  20. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as follows...

  1. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  2. 33 CFR 334.905 - Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp... REGULATIONS § 334.905 Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Gulf of Santa Catalina, offshore of Camp Pendleton in the Pacific Ocean...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point, basically...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point, basically...

  5. 33 CFR 334.905 - Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp... REGULATIONS § 334.905 Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Gulf of Santa Catalina, offshore of Camp Pendleton in the Pacific Ocean...

  6. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  7. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  8. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as follows...

  9. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  10. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  11. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, around San... REGULATIONS § 334.980 Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area—(1) Perimeter (restricted). The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicholas Island, Calif...

  12. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  13. 33 CFR 334.905 - Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp... REGULATIONS § 334.905 Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Gulf of Santa Catalina, offshore of Camp Pendleton in the Pacific Ocean...

  14. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  15. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as follows...

  16. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  17. 33 CFR 334.905 - Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp... REGULATIONS § 334.905 Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Gulf of Santa Catalina, offshore of Camp Pendleton in the Pacific Ocean...

  18. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as follows...

  19. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  20. 33 CFR 334.905 - Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp... REGULATIONS § 334.905 Pacific Ocean, offshore of Camp Pendleton, California; Fallbrook restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Gulf of Santa Catalina, offshore of Camp Pendleton in the Pacific Ocean...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point, basically...

  2. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Korr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; December 1, 1994-January 19, 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, A.V.

    2003-09-15

    This document describes the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations taken during the R/V Knorr Indian Ocean cruises (Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2) in 1994-1996. The measurements were conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The expedition began in Fremantle, Australia, on December 1, 1994, and ended in Mombasa, Kenya, on January 22, 1996. During the nine cruises, 12 WOCE sections were occupied. Total carbon dioxide was extracted from water samples and measured using single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMAs) coupled to coulometers. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.20 {micro}mol/kg. The second carbonate system parameter, TALK, was determined by potentiometric titration. The precision of the measurements determined from 962 analyses of certified reference material was {+-} 4.2 {micro}mol/kg (REFERENCE). This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Department of Energy, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. The R/V Knorr Indian Ocean data set is available as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of 18 oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a readme file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  3. Anatomizing the Ocean's role in maintaining the pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The role of ocean dynamics in maintaining the Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) was investigated based on simulation results from the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean general circulation model developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A long-term control simulation of the LANL-POP model forced by a reconstructed coupled wind stress field over the period 1949-2001 showed that the ocean model not only simulates a reasonable climatology, but also produces a climate variability pattern very similar to observed PDV. In the Equatorial Pacific (EP) region, the decadal warming is confined in the thin surface layer. Beneath the surface, a strong compensating cooling, accompanied by a basin-wide-scale overturning circulation in opposition to the mean flow, occurs in the thermocline layer. In the North Pacific (NP) region, the decadal variability nonetheless exhibits a relatively monotonous pattern, characterized by the dominance of anomalous cooling and eastward flows. A term balance analysis of the perturbation heat budget equation was conducted to highlight the ocean's role in maintaining the PDV-like variability over the EP and NP regions. The analyses showed that strong oceanic adjustment must occur in the equatorial thermocline in association with the anomalous overturning circulation in order to maintain the PDV-like variability, including a flattening of the equatorial thermocline slpoe and an enhancement of the upper ocean's stratification (stability), as the climate shifts from a colder regime toward a warmer one. On the other hand, the oceanic response in the extratropical region seems to be confined to the surface layer, without much participation from the subsurface oceanic dynamics.

  4. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  5. Vertical distribution of (236)U in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Eigl, R; Steier, P; Sakata, K; Sakaguchi, A

    2017-04-01

    The first extensive study on (236)U in the North Pacific Ocean has been conducted. The vertical distribution of (236)U/(238)U isotopic ratios and the (236)U concentrations were analysed on seven depth profiles, and large variations with depth were found. The range of (236)U/(238)U isotopic ratios was from (0.09 ± 0.03) × 10(-10) to (14.1 ± 2.2) × 10(-10), which corresponds to (236)U concentrations of (0.69 ± 0.24) × 10(5) atoms/kg and (119 ± 21) × 10(5) atoms/kg, respectively. The variations in (236)U concentrations could mainly be attributed to the different water masses in the North Pacific Ocean and their formation processes. Uranium-236 inventories on the water column of each sampling station were calculated and varied between (3.89 ± 0.08) × 10(12) atoms/m(2) and (7.03 ± 0.50) × 10(12) atoms/m(2), which is lower than in former studies on comparable latitudes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Sea of Japan. The low inventories of (236)U found for the North Pacific Ocean in this study can be explained by the lack of additional input sources of artificial radionuclides, apart from global and regional/local fallout. This study expands the use of (236)U as oceanographic circulation tracer to yet another ocean basin and shows that this isotope can be used for tracing circulation patterns of water masses in the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental impact of artificial harbors in tropic pacific oceanic islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chunting; Howorth, Russell; He, Chaoxiong

    2004-04-01

    For loading and unloading of boats or ships round the clock, the access channel and its expanded part — a port are excavated on the lagoon and ocean reef flats in the tropic Pacific oceanic islands. Without moles, the access channel-port traps sediment and further transports it to the ocean or lagoon, resulting in coastal erosion. The wide uneven reef flat with a large catchment area tends to cause the formation of tide currents in the channel-port, while strong waves on the narrow even reef flat can give rise to rip currents. An access channel-port with a mole on one side or two moles on both sides results in less erosion. A model is recommended as an artificial harbor on the ocean coast, which is an excavated port surrounded by a mole, connected with the ocean by an access channel and with the shore by a bridge-shaped pier.

  7. Hurricane Dolores in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-12

    S94-E-5027 (9 July 1997)--- Hurricane Dolores located about 20 degrees southwest of the tip of the Baja Peninsula in the eastern Pacific supported winds of 90 knots with gust of 100 knots on July 9, 1997. The photograph was taken through overhead windows on the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Notice the thunderstorms in the bands leading into the eye at lower levels and the lighter cirrus clouds coming from the outflow out of the eye at higher levels.

  8. Oceanic transports of mass, heat, and salt in the western North Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taira, K.; Mori, T.; Saiki, M.; Nishida, H.; Matsumura, S.

    1991-01-01

    An optimum orbit of the satellite will be presented for confirmation of estimates of tides and interpolation errors. Hydrographic surveys complementary to the routine surveys will be planned in Phase 1 by using research vessels belonging to Japanese universities. Direction measurements of oceanic transports with moored current meters and shipborne acoustic Doppler velocimeters will be planned for selected sections as an activity of the Japan-WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) Project. In the operational phase of TOPEX/POSEIDON, the delivered altimeter data will be used for the computation of surface geostrophic velocities to be applied in the hydrographic sections of the Japan Meteorological Agency, Hydrographic Department, Japan Fisheries Agency, and the universities. The estimates of transports are made by the co-investigators of each agency. The composite of the transports in the circulations will be made at the Japan Oceanographic Data Center. The direct measurements of current velocity and transports will be made mainly by the principal investigator.

  9. Oceanic transports of mass, heat, and salt in the western North Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taira, K.; Mori, T.; Saiki, M.; Nishida, H.; Matsumura, S.

    1991-01-01

    An optimum orbit of the satellite will be presented for confirmation of estimates of tides and interpolation errors. Hydrographic surveys complementary to the routine surveys will be planned in Phase 1 by using research vessels belonging to Japanese universities. Direction measurements of oceanic transports with moored current meters and shipborne acoustic Doppler velocimeters will be planned for selected sections as an activity of the Japan-WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) Project. In the operational phase of TOPEX/POSEIDON, the delivered altimeter data will be used for the computation of surface geostrophic velocities to be applied in the hydrographic sections of the Japan Meteorological Agency, Hydrographic Department, Japan Fisheries Agency, and the universities. The estimates of transports are made by the co-investigators of each agency. The composite of the transports in the circulations will be made at the Japan Oceanographic Data Center. The direct measurements of current velocity and transports will be made mainly by the principal investigator.

  10. Oceanic Channel of the IOD-ENSO teleconnection over the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Tengfei; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    The lag correlations of observations and model simulated data that participate the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5) are used to study the precursory teleconnection between the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the Pacific ENSO one year later through the Indonesian seas. The results suggest that Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) play an important role in the IOD-ENSO teleconnection. Numerical simulations using a hierarchy of ocean models and climate coupled models have shown that the interannual sea level depressions in the southeastern Indian Ocean during IOD force enhanced ITF to transport warm water of the Pacific warm pool to the Indian Ocean, producing cold subsurface temperature anomalies, which propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific and induce significant coupled ocean-atmosphere evolution. The teleconnection is found to have decadal variability. Similar decadal variability has also been identified in the historical simulations of the CMIP5 models. The dynamics of the inter-basin teleconnection during the positive phases of the decadal variability are diagnosed to be the interannual variations of the ITF associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). During the negative phases, the thermocline in the eastern equatorial Pacific is anomalously deeper so that the sea surface temperature anomalies in the cold tongue are not sensitive to the thermocline depth changes. The IOD-ENSO teleconnection is found not affected significantly by the anthropogenic forcing.

  11. Wind-driven zonal jets in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, William S.; Gourdeau, Lionel

    2006-02-01

    Zonal jets west of the large islands of the South Pacific Ocean are predicted by theory, commonly seen in ocean models with sufficiently high resolution, and are beginning to be observed. These jets are often taken to reflect the blocking effect of the islands in the South Equatorial Current through ``Island Rule'' dynamics. Here it is shown that quasi-permanent structures of the basin-wide wind field imply the existence of jets formed independently of the islands. Evidence for the existence of the wind-driven jets is found in climatological geostrophic currents. The hydrographic structures that produce the jets occur well below the thermocline.

  12. Indicators of Marine Pollution in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Takada, Hideshige

    2017-08-01

    The complex nature of ocean pollution underscores the utility in identifying and characterizing a limited number of "indicators" that enables scientists and managers to track trends over space and time. This paper introduces a special issue on indicators of marine pollution in the North Pacific Ocean and builds on a scientific session that was held at the North Pacific Marine Science Organization. The special issue highlights studies using a variety of indicators to provide insight into the identification of legacy and emerging contaminants, the ranking of priority pollutants from various sources, and the effects of contaminants on ecosystem health in the North Pacific Ocean. Examples include the use of mussels to illustrate spatial and temporal trends of a number of contaminants following the 2011 tsunami in Japan, the use of molecular marker (linear alkylbenzenes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) profiles to identify pollution sources, and the use of plastic resin pellets to illustrate spatial trends of petroleum pollution around the world. Stable isotopes were used to strengthen the utility of the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) as an indicator of marine pollution. Examples also demonstrate the development and application of biomarker approaches, including gene transcripts, oxidative stress, estradiol, hatchability, and respiration and swimming behavior abnormalities, as a function of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, sulfur-diesel, Pinghu crude oil, galaxolide and antifouling biocides. We provide a brief review of indicators of marine pollution, identify research gaps, and summarize key findings from the articles published within the issue. This special issue represents the first compilation of research pertaining to marine pollution indicators in the North Pacific Ocean and provides guidance to inform mitigation and monitoring efforts of contaminants in the region.

  13. Pattern of downstream eddies in stratocumulus clouds over Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-01

    SL3-121-2371 (July-September 1973) --- A pattern of downstream eddies in the stratocumulus clouds over the Pacific Ocean west of Baja California, as photographed by the crewmen of the second Skylab manned mission (Skylab 3) from the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The clouds, produced by the cold California current running to the south and southwest, are prevented from rising by warm air above them. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Heat and salt transport throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    Absolute geostrophic currents in the North Pacific Ocean are calculated using the P-vector method and gridded Argo profiling data from January 2004 to December 2012. Three-dimensional structures and seasonal variability of meridional heat transport (MHT) and meridional salt transport (MST) are analyzed. The results show that geostrophic and Ekman components are generally opposite in sign, with the southward geostrophic component dominating in the subtropics and the northward Ekman component dominating in the tropics. In combination with the net surface heat flux and the MST through the Bering Strait, the MHT and MST of the western boundary currents (WBCs) are estimated for the first time. The results suggest that the WBCs are of great importance in maintaining the heat and salt balance of the North Pacific. The total interior MHT and MST in the tropics show nearly the same seasonal variability as that of the Ekman components, consistent with the variability of zonal wind stress. The geostrophic MHT in the tropics is mainly concentrated in the upper layers, while MST with large amplitude and annual variation can extend much deeper. This suggests that shallow processes dominate MHT in the North Pacific, while MST can be affected by deep ocean circulation. In the extratropical ocean, both MHT and MST are weak. However, there is relatively large and irregular seasonal variability of geostrophic MST, suggesting the importance of the geostrophic circulation in the MST of that area.

  15. Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) scientific advances and future west pacific coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Sprintall, J.; Lin, X.; Ando, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. It was designed to measure and monitor the ocean circulation, and to validate and improve numerical models. South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. Water transit through the Coral and Solomon Seas is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the SPCZ position and intensity. The circulation is complex, with the SEC splitting into zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos, before joining either the East Australian Current or the New Guinea Costal UnderCurrent towards the equator. SPICE included large, coordinated in situ measurement programs and high resolution numerical simulations of the area. After 8 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. We will review the recent advancements and discuss

  16. Warm Ocean Temperatures Blanket the Far-Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These data, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending March 9, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temperatures(indicated by the red and white areas) still blanket the far-western tropical Pacific and much of the north (and south) mid-Pacific. Red areas are about 10centimeters (4 inches) above normal; white areas show the sea-surface height is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal.

    This build-up of heat dominating the Western Pacific was first noted by TOPEX/Poseidon oceanographers more than two years ago and has outlasted the El Nino and La Nina events of the past few years. See: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino/990127.html . This warmth contrasts with the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and tropical Pacific where lower-than-normal sea levels and cool ocean temperatures continue (indicated by blue areas). The blue areas are between 5 and 13centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, whereas the purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. Actually, the near-equatorial ocean cooled through the fall of 2000 and into mid-winter and continues almost La Nina-like.

    Looking at the entire Pacific basin, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation's warm horseshoe and cool wedge pattern still dominates this sea-level height image. Most recent National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) sea-surface temperature data also clearly illustrate the persistence of this basin-wide pattern. They are available at http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/climo.html

    The U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. For more information on the TOPEX/Poseidon project, see: http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov

  17. Warm Ocean Temperatures Blanket the Far-Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These data, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending March 9, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temperatures(indicated by the red and white areas) still blanket the far-western tropical Pacific and much of the north (and south) mid-Pacific. Red areas are about 10centimeters (4 inches) above normal; white areas show the sea-surface height is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal.

    This build-up of heat dominating the Western Pacific was first noted by TOPEX/Poseidon oceanographers more than two years ago and has outlasted the El Nino and La Nina events of the past few years. See: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino/990127.html . This warmth contrasts with the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and tropical Pacific where lower-than-normal sea levels and cool ocean temperatures continue (indicated by blue areas). The blue areas are between 5 and 13centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, whereas the purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. Actually, the near-equatorial ocean cooled through the fall of 2000 and into mid-winter and continues almost La Nina-like.

    Looking at the entire Pacific basin, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation's warm horseshoe and cool wedge pattern still dominates this sea-level height image. Most recent National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) sea-surface temperature data also clearly illustrate the persistence of this basin-wide pattern. They are available at http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/climo.html

    The U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. For more information on the TOPEX/Poseidon project, see: http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov

  18. Biogeochemical modelling of the tropical Pacific Ocean. II: Iron biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, J. R.; Verschell, M. A.; Murtugudde, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; McClain, C. R.

    A coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the tropical Pacific Ocean with simultaneous iron and nitrogen limitation was developed to study questions of iron biogeochemistry, its effects on upper ocean production, and ultimately the biogeochemical cycles of the other elements. The model results suggest that iron limitation is ubiquitous in the equatorial Pacific, and extends further west than is generally believed unless there are significant inputs of geothermal iron at quite shallow depths. Most model parameters (e.g., iron solubility, scavenging rates, Fe : N ratios) must be near the limit of their generally accepted range of values in order to prevent elevated surface nitrate concentrations from spreading further into the warm pool than is observed. Transport of geothermal iron in the equatorial undercurrent (EUC) provides a possible mechanism for limiting surface nitrate in the warm pool, but the source must be near the upper boundary of the EUC to provide iron to the surface west of the dateline. Accumulations of ammonium in the western Pacific appear to result from the exhaustion of iron in upwelled water before nitrogen. The realism of the simulation is limited primarily by lack of information about the abundance and distribution of dissolved iron; the assumption of constant Fe : N ratios and the magnitude, distribution and solubility of the aeolian iron flux are also important sources of uncertainty. The sensitivity of the simulation to the way that iron is initialized in the western Pacific thermocline emphasizes the importance of the equatorial undercurrent throughout the tropical Pacific and the need for iron observations in this region.

  19. A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), including Glochidion

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Lorence, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular phylogenetic studies and reevaluation of morphological characters have led to the inclusion of Glochidion within a broader delimitation of Phyllanthus. It is necessary for preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands to make new combinations for the Marquesan species. We also provide the relevant combinations and listing of all of the currently accepted species of Phyllanthus on Pacific oceanic islands for a total of 69 native species in oceanic Pacific islands. Glochidion tooviianum J. Florenceis here placed into synonymy of Phyllanthus marchionicus (F. Br.) W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new assessment of recently collected specimens from Nuku Hiva. Glochidion excorticans Fosberg var. calvum Fosberg is placed into synonomy of Phyllanthus ponapense (Hosokawa) W. L. Wagner & Lorenceand Glochidion puberulum Hosokawa and Glochidion excorticans Fosberg are placed in synonymy of Phyllanthus senyavinianus (Glassman)W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new study of all Micronesian specimens available to us. No infraspecific taxa are recognized within Phyllanthus pacificus of the Marquesas Islands. Species already with valid names in Phyllanthus are also listed for completeness and convenience. Brief distributional comments are given for each species. We propose new names for species for which a new combination is not possible: Phyllanthus florencei W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus mariannensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus otobedii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus raiateaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus st-johnii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., and Phyllanthus vitilevuensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov. We provide information for four additional naturalized species within the region (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus tenellus, and Phyllanthus urinaria). The name Glochidion ramiflorum widely applied to Pacific island populations is here considered to be a species further

  20. A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), including Glochidion.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Warren L; Lorence, David H

    2011-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies and reevaluation of morphological characters have led to the inclusion of Glochidion within a broader delimitation of Phyllanthus. It is necessary for preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands to make new combinations for the Marquesan species. We also provide the relevant combinations and listing of all of the currently accepted species of Phyllanthus on Pacific oceanic islands for a total of 69 native species in oceanic Pacific islands. Glochidion tooviianum J. Florenceis here placed into synonymy of Phyllanthus marchionicus (F. Br.) W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new assessment of recently collected specimens from Nuku Hiva. Glochidion excorticans Fosberg var. calvum Fosberg is placed into synonomy of Phyllanthus ponapense (Hosokawa) W. L. Wagner & Lorenceand Glochidion puberulum Hosokawa and Glochidion excorticans Fosberg are placed in synonymy of Phyllanthus senyavinianus (Glassman)W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new study of all Micronesian specimens available to us. No infraspecific taxa are recognized within Phyllanthus pacificus of the Marquesas Islands. Species already with valid names in Phyllanthus are also listed for completeness and convenience. Brief distributional comments are given for each species. We propose new names for species for which a new combination is not possible: Phyllanthus florencei W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus mariannensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus otobedii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus raiateaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus st-johnii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., and Phyllanthus vitilevuensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov. We provide information for four additional naturalized species within the region (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus tenellus, and Phyllanthus urinaria). The name Glochidion ramiflorum widely applied to Pacific island populations is here considered to be a species further west in

  1. Microbial Life of North Pacific Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, G.; Koos, R.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.

    2003-12-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Drilling into 45-Ma oceanic basaltic crust in a deepwater environment during ODP Leg 200 provided a promising opportunity to explore the abundance, diversity and activity of micro-organisms. The combined use of culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses and enrichment culture techniques is an advantageous approach in investigating subsurface microbial ecosystems. Enrichment culture methods allow the evaluation of potential activities and functions. Microbiological investigations revealed few aerobic cultivable, in part hitherto unknown, micro-organisms in deep submarine sediments and basaltic lava flows. 16S rDNA sequencing of isolates from sediment revealed the next relatives to be members of the genera Halomonas, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Within the Pseudomonadaceae the closest relative is Acinetobacter sp., which was isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The next phylogenetical relatives within the Halomonadaceae are bacteria typically isolated from Soda lakes, which are considered as model of early life conditions. Interestingly, not only sediment bacteria could be obtained in pure culture. Aerobic strains could also be successfully isolated from the massive tholeiitic basalt layer at a depth of 76.16 mbsf (46 m below the sediment/basement contact). These particular isolates are gram-positive with low G+C content of DNA, phylogenetically affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The closest neighbors are e.g. a marine Bacillus isolated from the Gulf of Mexico and a low G+C gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the microbial flora in the deepest sea mud of the Mariana Trench, isolated from a depth of 10,897 m. Based on the similarity values, the isolates represent hitherto undescribed species of the deep

  2. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  3. Gravity, Bathymetry and Submarine Volcanism in the Mesozoic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. B.; Kalnins, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Submarine volcano loading studies suggest that the effective elastic thickness, Te, of oceanic lithosphere increases with age at the time of loading. Therefore, a seamount formed on a ridge crest will be characterised by a lower Te than a similar size feature that formed off-ridge. Compilations of data where both crustal and sample ages are known show that Te is given approximately by the depth to the 450° oceanic isotherm, based on plate cooling models. By comparing observed bathymetry and gravity anomalies to predictions based on simple elastic plate models it is possible to estimate Te and hence the age of oceanic lithosphere at the time of loading at bathymetric features of unknown tectonic setting. Early results based on ~100 features suggested that Hess Rise, Necker ridge, Line Islands, and Manihiki Plateaus formed on-ridge and, hence, that there was a major period of volcanism in the central Pacific ~90- 120 Ma. This 'event' appears to have been accompanied by deep-water volcanism, as shown by the pioneering work of Roger L. Larson in the Nauru Basin. Recently, Watts et al. (2006) used a bathymetric prediction technique to estimate the Te at >9000 seamounts in the Wessel (2001) database. Plots of Te Vs. age at features of known age, however, revealed considerable scatter with many lower values at old ages than expected. Te maps show that these low values form a broad swath from East Pacific Rise crest in the SE, through the Tuamotu Plateau region, to the Line and Marshall Islands and Mid-Pacific Mountains in the NW. The SE end of the swath includes the region dubbed the South Pacific Isotopic and Thermal Anomaly (SOPITA) and some features (e.g. Marcus Wake Guyots, Lines Islands) at the NW end backtrack into the SOPITA. Therefore, some of the scatter maybe caused by a regional shallowing of the controlling isotherm. This has been verified using a moving window admittance technique which suggest controlling isotherms of <~350° as the SOPITA region is

  4. Taxonomy of the common dolphins of the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.; Brownell, R.

    1969-01-01

    Delphinus bairdii Dall is a species of dolphin distinct from D. delphis Linnaeus, with which it has usually been synonymized. D. bairdii has a longer rostrum relative to the zygomatic width of the skull; the ratio of these measurements falls at 1.55 or above for bairdii and 1.53 and below for delphis. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, D. bairdii is found in the Gulf of California and along the west coast of Baja California, Mexico; D. delphis is presently found in the waters off California. Until approximately the beginning of the present century, bairdii occurred farther north in the eastern Pacific Ocean, at least to the Monterey Bay area of California. Restriction of bairdii to more southerly waters, probably as an indirect result of a change in water temperature, may have permitted delphis to move into inshore Californian waters. The Pacific population of D. delphis has a somewhat shorter rostrum than the Atlantic population, and is perhaps subspecifically different. A thorough analysis of the entire genus Delphinus is needed before the relationship of all the populations can be understood and names properly applied.

  5. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

    2008-02-01

    Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  6. Characteristics of Oceanic Eddies in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Cheng, Y.; Kuo, N.; Lo, Y.; Tsao, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, oceanic eddies in the north Pacific derived from satellite altimetry are statistically analyzed. An integration filtering algorithm based on connected component labeling and the Okubo-Weiss parameter is developed. The originated area, translation speed, and propagation pathway of all identified eddies are all determined by the integration filtering algorithm. Only eddies that have longer life span more than 12 weeks are considered. The results indicate that there are quantities of eddies with tens to hundreds of kilometers in spatial scales, and tens to hundreds of days in temporal scales. The 83% of eddies are generated between 15 degree North and 40 degree North and average translation speed is 4.5±1.9 km/day. The average life span is 20±11weeks, but warm eddies have longer life span than cold eddies. There are about 300 eddies generated in this ocean per year, but numbers of eddy keeps gaining more and more with a trend of 1.7±0.4 numbers per year. More interesting thing is that cold eddies with a trend of 1.1±0.5 numbers per year are growing more than warm eddies with a trend of 0.6±0.4 numbers per year. Referring to the pathway, most eddies propagate westward with slightly equatorward and poleward deflection of cold and warm eddies, respectively in the western North Pacific but not in the eastern North Pacific.

  7. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

    2007-08-01

    Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. The synthesis of one class of membrane lipids, the phospholipids, also creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- incorporation were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  8. A regional ocean model for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region to assess the risk of storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natoo, N.; Paul, A.; Hadfield, M.; Jendersie, S.; Bornman, J.; de Lange, W.; Ye, W.; Schulz, M.

    2012-04-01

    New Zealand's coasts are not only affected by mid-latitude storms, but infrequently also by storms that originate from the tropics. Projections for the southern hemisphere's southwest Pacific island countries for the 21st century show a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks, which consequently might result in changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns. Furthermore, an increase in frequency of intense storms is expected for the New Zealand region, which will very likely increase the risk of storm surges and flooding of coastal and low-lying regions. We employ the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to assess the changes in the storm climate of the New Zealand region. The model set-up uses a resolution of ~50 km for the Southwest Pacific Ocean "parent domain" and ~10 km for the New Zealand "child domain", to well represent the major eddies that influence the climate of North Island. With the aim to later utilize this nested ocean model set-up as part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region, results for the 20th century will be presented. The simulated circulation is shown to be largely consistent with the observed regional oceanography.

  9. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kenneth L.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Kahru, Mati; Huffard, Christine L.; Sherman, Alana D.

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean, covering a vast expanse of the globe, relies almost exclusively on a food supply originating from primary production in surface waters. With well-documented warming of oceanic surface waters and conflicting reports of increasing and decreasing primary production trends, questions persist about how such changes impact deep ocean communities. A 24-y time-series study of sinking particulate organic carbon (food) supply and its utilization by the benthic community was conducted in the abyssal northeast Pacific (∼4,000-m depth). Here we show that previous findings of food deficits are now punctuated by large episodic surpluses of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor, which meet utilization. Changing surface ocean conditions are translated to the deep ocean, where decadal peaks in supply, remineralization, and sequestration of organic carbon have broad implications for global carbon budget projections. PMID:24218565

  10. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth L; Ruhl, Henry A; Kahru, Mati; Huffard, Christine L; Sherman, Alana D

    2013-12-03

    The deep ocean, covering a vast expanse of the globe, relies almost exclusively on a food supply originating from primary production in surface waters. With well-documented warming of oceanic surface waters and conflicting reports of increasing and decreasing primary production trends, questions persist about how such changes impact deep ocean communities. A 24-y time-series study of sinking particulate organic carbon (food) supply and its utilization by the benthic community was conducted in the abyssal northeast Pacific (~4,000-m depth). Here we show that previous findings of food deficits are now punctuated by large episodic surpluses of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor, which meet utilization. Changing surface ocean conditions are translated to the deep ocean, where decadal peaks in supply, remineralization, and sequestration of organic carbon have broad implications for global carbon budget projections.

  11. FERROMANGANESE CRUST RESOURCES IN THE PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC OCEANS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, R.F.; Clark, A.; Johnson, Chad; Manheim, F. T.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Lane, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts on raised areas of the ocean floor have joined abyssal manganese nodules and hydrothermal sulfides as potential marine resources. Significant volumes of cobalt-rich (about 1% Co) crusts have been identified to date within the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the Central Pacific: in the NW Hawaiian Ridge and Seamount region and in the seamounts in the Johnston Island and Palmyra Island regions. Large volumes of lower grade crusts, slabs, and nodules are also present in shallow ( greater than 1000 m) waters on the Blake plateau, off Florida-South Carolina in the Atlantic Ocean. Data on ferromanganese crusts have been increased by recent German and USGS cruises, but are still sparse, and other regions having crust potential are under current investigation. The authors discuss economic potentials for cobalt-rich crusts in the Central Pacific and Western North Atlantic oceans, with special reference to US EEZ areas. Additional research is needed before more quantitative resource estimates can be made.

  12. Oceanic upwelling and productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, P.C.; Philbrick, V. ); Chavez, F.P. )

    1991-12-01

    An oceanographic survey of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in August-November 1990 found a productive, nutrient-rich, moderately high-chlorophyll surface layer in two oceanic upwelling regions: the equatorial divergence, especially east of the Galapagos, and the countercurrent divergence out to 105{degree}W, > 1,000 km west of the Costa Rica Dome. Although NO{sub 3} is not depleted in upwelling regions, relationships among nutrient concentrations and temperature in 1986-1988 data from the same area show that NO{sub 3} is the first macronutrient to be depleted in adjacent, less-productive regions. A three-dimensional, two-layer box model of NO{sub 3} flux within and into the euphotic zone gives estimated rates of new production that are {approximately}29% of measured rates of {sup 14}C phytoplankton production. Persistence of excess NO{sub 3} in the euphotic zone exceeds 1 yr under high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll conditions off the equator where weak upwelling, or downwelling, occurs. These results indicate substantial control or limitation of NO{sub 3} utilization and productivity in nutrient-rich oceanic regions of the eastern tropical Pacific.

  13. A Pacific Ocean general circulation model for satellite data assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Y.; Halpern, D.; Mechoso, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    A tropical Pacific Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) to be used in satellite data assimilation studies is described. The transfer of the OGCM from a CYBER-205 at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory to a CRAY-2 at NASA's Ames Research Center is documented. Two 3-year model integrations from identical initial conditions but performed on those two computers are compared. The model simulations are very similar to each other, as expected, but the simulations performed with the higher-precision CRAY-2 is smoother than that with the lower-precision CYBER-205. The CYBER-205 and CRAY-2 use 32 and 64-bit mantissa arithmetic, respectively. The major features of the oceanic circulation in the tropical Pacific, namely the North Equatorial Current, the North Equatorial Countercurrent, the South Equatorial Current, and the Equatorial Undercurrent, are realistically produced and their seasonal cycles are described. The OGCM provides a powerful tool for study of tropical oceans and for the assimilation of satellite altimetry data.

  14. Droughts and fertility, Pacific Ocean echos from the past Millenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herguera, J. C.

    2010-03-01

    An outstanding issue in our understanding of future evolution of climate and coastal ocean dynamics in México and is how the increasing anthropogenic CO2 injection into the atmosphere will change rainfall patterns on land and biological fertility patterns in the coastal oceans. The discovery, barely two decades ago, of a large biological regime shifts in the Pacific spawned the search for the underlying physical variability to explain them. Climate and oceanographic observations soon discovered fluctuations in air temperatures, atmospheric circulation, and ocean temperatures that were remarkably similar in timing and duration to the biological records. Recent modeling work has shown how complex coastal food webs can undergo substantial changes in response to subtle physical forcing. Here we will review some physical and biological fluctuations in the Pacific preserved in high resolution records from the California Current to show their variability patterns for the past millennium, the period prior to the present atmospheric carbon forcing, to explore and evaluate their links with climate forcings known to operate during this period. Hemispheric temperature and pressure gradients are linked to surface circulation patterns on the ocean, thermal structure, and depth of the thermocline separating nutrient depleted surface waters from nutrient rich at depth through the strength of the trade winds. These basin scale gradients oscillate between extremes influenced by large scale events like El Niño or its counterpart La Niña or by basin wide multidecadal fluctuations with similar effects on sea surface temperatures, rainfall variability on land and fertility patterns in the coastal ocean. Our knowledge of these large scale, long period recurring variations becomes critical especially when considering adaptative and sustainable strategies to human-induced climate change.

  15. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T; Platov, Gennady A; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C; Nurser, A J George

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.

  16. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments

    PubMed Central

    Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T.; Platov, Gennady A.; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C.; Nurser, A. J. George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state‐of‐the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. PMID:27818853

  17. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T.; Platov, Gennady A.; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C.; Nurser, A. J. George

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.

  18. Distribution of ferromanganese nodules in the Pacific Ocean.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Swint-Iki, T.R.; McCoy, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of deep-ocean ferromanganese nodules are related to the lithology of pelagic surface-sediment, sediment accumulation rates, sea-floor bathymetry, and benthic circulation. Nodules often occur in association with both biosiliceous and pelagic clay, and less often with calcareous sediment. Factors which influence the rather complex patterns of sediment lithology and accumulation rates include the supply of material to the sea-floor and secondary processes in the deep ocean which alter or redistribute that supply. The supply is largely controlled by: 1) proximity to a source of alumino-silicate material and 2) primary biological productivity in the photic zone of the ocean. Primary productivity controls the 'rain' to the sea-floor of biogenic detritus, which consists mostly of siliceous and calcareous tests of planktonic organisms but also contains smaller proportions of phosphatic material and organic matter. The high accumulation rate (5 mm/1000 yr) of sediment along the equator is a direct result of high productivity in this region of the Pacific. Secondary processes include the dissolution of particulate organic matter at depth in the ocean, notably CaCO3, and the redistribution of sedimentary particles by deep-ocean currents. -J.M.H.

  19. Apollo 16 spacecraft touches down in the central Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-04-27

    S72-36293 (27 April 1972) --- The Apollo 16 Command Module (CM), with astronauts John W. Young, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Charles M. Duke Jr. aboard, splashed down in the central Pacific Ocean to successfully conclude their lunar landing mission. The splashdown occurred at 290:37:06 ground elapsed time, 1:45:06 p.m. (CST) Thursday, April 27, 1972, at coordinates of 00:43.2 degrees south latitude and 156:11.4 degrees west longitude. A point approximately 215 miles southeast of Christmas Island. Later the three crewmen were picked up by a helicopter from the prime recovery ship USS Ticonderoga.

  20. Thunderstorms over the Pacific Ocean as seen from STS-64

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Multiple thunderstorm cells leading to Earth's atmosphere were photographed on 70mm by the astronauts of STS-64, orbiting aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery 130 nautical miles away. These thunderstorms are located about 16 degrees southeast of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. Every stage of a developing thunderstorm is documented in this photo: from the building cauliflower tops to the mature anvil phase. The anvil or the tops of the clouds being blown off are at about 50,000 feet. The light line in the blue atmosphere is either clouds in the distance or an atmospheric layer which is defined but different particle sizes.

  1. Apollo 14 Command Module approaches touchdown in South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-09

    S71-18753 (9 Feb. 1971) --- The Apollo 14 Command Module (CM), with astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, aboard, approaches touchdown in the South Pacific Ocean to successfully end a 10-day lunar landing mission. The splashdown occurred at 3:04:39 p.m. (CST), Feb. 9, 1971, approximately 765 nautical miles south of American Samoa. The three crew men were flown by helicopter to the USS New Orleans prime recovery ship.

  2. Oblique view of cloud patterns over Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-16

    AST-01-042 (16 July 1975) --- An oblique view of unique cloud patterns over the Pacific Ocean caused by aircraft contrail shadows altering cumulus clouds and forming straight line clouds, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. This area is southwest of Los Angeles, California. This photograph was taken at an altitude of 177 kilometers (110 statute miles) with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using medium-speed Ektachrome QX-807 type film.

  3. Apollo 13 spacecraft splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-17

    S70-35644 (17 April 1970) --- The Apollo 13 Command Module (CM) splashes down and its three main parachutes collapse, as the week-long problem-plagued Apollo 13 mission comes to a premature, but safe end. The spacecraft, with astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., commander; John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot; and Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m. (CST) April 17, 1970, in the South Pacific Ocean, only about four miles from the USS Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship.

  4. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment of the Southern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methane, ethane, ethene, propane, and propene are common hydrocarbon gases in near-surface sediment from offshore areas in the southern Pacific Ocean near Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Tonga, New Zealand, and Antarctica. Sea floor sites for sampling of sediment were selected on the basis of anomalies in marine seismic records, and the samples were intentionally biased toward finding possible thermogenic hydrocarbon gases. In none of the areas, however, were thermogenic hydrocarbons clearly identified. The hydrocarbon gases that were found appear to be mainly the products of in situ microbial processes. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  5. Migratory shearwaters integrate oceanic resources across the Pacific Ocean in an endless summer.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott A; Tremblay, Yann; Weimerskirch, Henri; Scott, Darren; Thompson, David R; Sagar, Paul M; Moller, Henrik; Taylor, Graeme A; Foley, David G; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P

    2006-08-22

    Electronic tracking tags have revolutionized our understanding of broad-scale movements and habitat use of highly mobile marine animals, but a large gap in our knowledge still remains for a wide range of small species. Here, we report the extraordinary transequatorial postbreeding migrations of a small seabird, the sooty shearwater, obtained with miniature archival tags that log data for estimating position, dive depth, and ambient temperature. Tracks (262+/-23 days) reveal that shearwaters fly across the entire Pacific Ocean in a figure-eight pattern while traveling 64,037+/-9,779 km roundtrip, the longest animal migration ever recorded electronically. Each shearwater made a prolonged stopover in one of three discrete regions off Japan, Alaska, or California before returning to New Zealand through a relatively narrow corridor in the central Pacific Ocean. Transit rates as high as 910+/-186 km.day-1 were recorded, and shearwaters accessed prey resources in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere's most productive waters from the surface to 68.2 m depth. Our results indicate that sooty shearwaters integrate oceanic resources throughout the Pacific Basin on a yearly scale. Sooty shearwater populations today are declining, and because they operate on a global scale, they may serve as an important indicator of climate change and ocean health.

  6. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  7. Chemical oceanography. Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Nam; Lee, Kitack; Gruber, Nicolas; Karl, David M; Bullister, John L; Yang, Simon; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-11-28

    The recent increase in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen from northeastern Asia and the subsequent enhanced deposition over the extensive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) have led to a detectable increase in the nitrate (N) concentration of the upper ocean. The rate of increase of excess N relative to phosphate (P) was found to be highest (~0.24 micromoles per kilogram per year) in the vicinity of the Asian source continent, with rates decreasing eastward across the NPO, consistent with the magnitude and distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. This anthropogenically driven increase in the N content of the upper NPO may enhance primary production in this N-limited region, potentially leading to a long-term change of the NPO from being N-limited to P-limited. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Saturation anomalies of alkyl nitrates in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Elizabeth E.; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Saltzman, Eric S.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the first measurements of the saturation state of low molecular weight alkyl nitrates (methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl nitrate) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. These compounds were supersaturated with saturation anomalies as high as 2000%. Air/sea flux estimates based on these measurements suggest that surface ocean emissions are sufficient to account for observed levels of tropospheric alkyl nitrates in this region. Model calculations suggest that atmospheric loss rates are faster than can be explained by photolysis and reaction with OH alone. The implication is that removal via transport is important, and there must be a net export of alkyl nitrates from the tropics to other regions of the atmosphere.

  9. Nitrous oxide measurements in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, D.; Rasmussen, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers nitrous oxide measurements in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The concentration of N2O in the marine air showed a direct relationship to the N2O in the surface sea water, with the highest N2O mixing ratios over highly supersaturated regions; water samples were also collected down to depths of 300 m at seven hydrocast stations. The stations showed two distribution patterns for N2O concentration vs depth for the region between the surface and 300 m; two stations in the oxygen deficient region off the coast of Peru showed considerable N2O super-saturation at all depths, and results indicate that the role of N2O in the nitrogen cycle of the ocean may be more complex than previously suggested.

  10. Biogeochemistry of arsenic and antimony in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.

    2006-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of the metalloid elements arsenic and antimony were examined along a 15,000 km surface water transect and at 9 vertical profile stations in the western North Pacific Ocean as part of the 2002 IOC Contaminant Baseline Survey. Results show that the speciation of dissolved arsenic (As III, As V, and methylated As) was subtly controlled by the arsenate (AsV)/phosphate ratio. An additional fraction of presumed organic arsenic previously reported in coastal waters was also present (˜15% of the total As) in oceanic surface waters. Dissolved inorganic antimony displayed mildly scavenged behavior that was confirmed by correlations with aluminum, but atmospheric inputs that may be anthropogenic in origin also affected its concentrations. Monomethyl antimony, the predominant organic form of the element, behaved almost conservatively throughout the water column, radically changing the known biogeochemical cycle of antimony.

  11. Nitrous oxide measurements in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, D.; Rasmussen, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers nitrous oxide measurements in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The concentration of N2O in the marine air showed a direct relationship to the N2O in the surface sea water, with the highest N2O mixing ratios over highly supersaturated regions; water samples were also collected down to depths of 300 m at seven hydrocast stations. The stations showed two distribution patterns for N2O concentration vs depth for the region between the surface and 300 m; two stations in the oxygen deficient region off the coast of Peru showed considerable N2O super-saturation at all depths, and results indicate that the role of N2O in the nitrogen cycle of the ocean may be more complex than previously suggested.

  12. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Space-time variability of oceanic fronts and currents in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergey; Kostianoy, Andrey; Sirota, Alexander

    The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 altimetry data (sea level anomalies (SLA) charts) for 1992- 2006, as well as corresponding charts of sea surface dynamic heights, constructed by the superposition of SLA distributions over the climatic dynamic topography, calculated from mean temperature and salinity data of WOA-1998 Atlas relative to 1000 m depth and combined mean dynamic topography RIO-03, were used to study main oceanic currents and fronts in the region 50-10° S, 160-70° W. Spatial, seasonal and interannual variability of the South Pacific Current has been investigated basing on the charts of dynamic heights gradients. The analysis allowed to distinguish zones with different degree of the South Pacific Current position variability, being minimal at 99° W, where the current was the most intense. Westward of 105° W the South Pacific Current may have bimodal structure and r.m.s. of its position may reach 3° of latitude. Frequency analysis showed that this is accompanied by a pronounced 350 days peak in its temporal variability. Eastward of 105° W there is no predominance in temporal variability of the current. Sea surface temperature (SST) and SST gradient maps were used to study thermal regime and main oceanic fronts (Subtropical Front and coastal upwelling front) in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean. The analysis of the SST spatial and temporal variability was based on the daily and monthly satellite Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) Highresolution SST Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP) data for 1992-2006. A comparison of the satellite altimetry and radiometry data with field measurements onboard R/V "Atlantida" (AtlantNIRO, Russia) during the expedition in November-December 2002 showed a good correspondence. The combined analysis of the pelagic fish distribution patterns in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean, based on the in-situ acoustic surveys, and of mesoscale structure of the South Pacific Current revealed a clear correlation of the location of the most

  14. [Transport processes of Fukushima derived radioactivity in the Pacific Ocean].

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Before the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 1 (FNPP1) accident, environmental (137)Cs was already detectable originating from nuclear weapon tests conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In the western North Pacific Ocean, (90)Sr and (137)Cs activities in surface water were 10-100 Bqm(-3) in the late 1950s and early 1960s, then this parameter decreased gradually; (137)Cs activity in surface water subsequently decreased to around a few Bq m(-3). After the FNPP1 accident, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were released into the North Pacific Ocean by two pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima NPP1 accident site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northeast of the site. High-density observations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs in the surface water were carried out by 17 VOS cruises and several research vessel cruises between April 2011 and March 2012. The main body of radioactive surface plume of which activity exceeded 10 Bqm(-3) traveled along 40°N, and reached the International Date Line in March 2012, 1 year after the accident. The radioactive plume was confined along 40°N when the plume reached the International Date Line. Zonal speed of the radioactive plume was estimated to be about 8 cm s(-1), which is consistent with zonal speeds derived by Argo floats at the region.

  15. Iron limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Barber, Richard T.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Fitzwateri, Steve E.; Greene, Richard M.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Lindley, Steven; Falkowski, Paul G.

    1994-09-01

    THE surface waters of the equatorial Pacific have unusually high nitrate and phosphate concentrations, but relatively low phyto-plankton biomass1-3. This 'high nitrate, low chlorophyll' (HNLC)4 phenomenon has been ascribed to 'top-down' grazing pressure by herbivores, which prevent the phytoplankton from fully utilizing the available nutrients5. In the late 1980s, however, Martin and co-workers proposed that iron, which is delivered to the remote open ocean in aeolean dust6, is the key factor limiting the standing crop of phytoplankton in HNLC areas7,8. Using a sensitive fluor-escence method9, we have followed changes in photochemical energy conversion efficiency9-10 of the natural phytoplankton com-munity both before and after artificial enrichment with iron of a small area (7.5 x 7.5 km) of the equatorial Pacific Ocean11. Our results show that iron limits phytoplankton photosynthesis in all size classes in this region by impairing intrinsic photochemical energy conversion, thereby supporting the hypothesis of physiologi-cal ('bottom up') limitation by this element.

  16. Fin whale vocalizations observed with ocean bottom seismometers of cabled observatories off east Japan Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Fin whale vocalizations were found in the archived waveform data from both hydrophones and ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) of a cabled observatory off Kushiro-Tokachi in Hokkaido. A fin whale was localized on the basis of the incident orientation estimated with a single OBS and the time difference of multipath arrival of sound pressure data from a hydrophone. Furthermore, several fin whale vocalizations were found in the archived OBS waveform data from other cabled observatories off east Japan Pacific Ocean. These findings suggest that the cabled OBSs would be significant apparatuses for real-time monitoring of the presence of baleen whales around Japan.

  17. Dissolved iron and iron isotopes in the southeastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Conway, Tim M.; Lee, Jong-Mi; Kayser, Richard; Thyng, Kristen M.; John, Seth G.; Boyle, Edward A.

    2016-10-01

    The Southeast Pacific Ocean is a severely understudied yet dynamic region for trace metals such as iron, since it experiences steep redox and productivity gradients in upper waters and strong hydrothermal iron inputs to deep waters. In this study, we report the dissolved iron (dFe) distribution from seven stations and Fe isotope ratios (δ56Fe) from three of these stations across a near-zonal transect from 20 to 27°S. We found elevated dFe concentrations associated with the oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ), with light δ56Fe implicating porewater fluxes of reduced Fe. However, temporal dFe variability and rapid δ56Fe shifts with depth suggest gradients in ODZ Fe source and/or redox processes vary over short-depth/spatial scales. The dFe concentrations decreased rapidly offshore, and in the upper ocean dFe was controlled by biological processes, resulting in an Fe:C ratio of 4.2 µmol/mol. Calculated vertical diffusive Fe fluxes were greater than published dust inputs to surface waters, but both were orders of magnitude lower than horizontal diffusive fluxes, which dominate dFe delivery to the gyre. The δ56Fe data in the deep sea showed evidence for a -0.2‰ Antarctic Intermediate Water end-member and a heavy δ56Fe of +0.55‰ for distally transported hydrothermal dissolved Fe from the East Pacific Rise. These heavy δ56Fe values were contrasted with the near-crustal δ56Fe recorded in the hydrothermal plume reaching Station ALOHA in the North Pacific. The heavy hydrothermal δ56Fe precludes a nanopyrite composition of hydrothermal dFe and instead suggests the presence of oxides or, more likely, binding of hydrothermal dFe by organic ligands in the distal plume.

  18. Tidal triggering of earthquakes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, William S. D.

    2009-11-01

    There have been many searches for evidence of tidal triggering in earthquake catalogues. With the exception of volcanically active regions, the more rigorous studies in continental settings tend to find no correlation or only a very weak correlation. In the oceans, the effect of loading by the ocean tides can increase tidal stresses by about an order of magnitude over continental settings. In recent years, several studies have reported evidence of tidal triggering in oceanic regions and such observations can represent a useful constraint on models of earthquake rupture. In this paper, I systematically search for a link between ocean tide height and the incidence of earthquakes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, a region of high-amplitude open ocean tides. The focal mechanisms of most of the earthquakes in these catalogues are unknown but it can be shown that tidal stresses will in most instances promote failure at low tides. I investigate three declustered data sets comprising (1) earthquakes from 1980 to 2007 on the Juan de Fuca plate and in the Queen Charlotte Fault region from land based catalogues; (2) earthquakes from 1992 to 2001 on the Juan de Fuca plate located with the US Navy's Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) hydrophone array and (3) earthquakes from 1980 to 2001 south of Alaska and the Aleutians located with land based networks. I look at the distributions of earthquakes with ocean tide phase, height, and tidal range and apply Schuster and binomial tests and Monte Carlo simulations to determine if they deviate significantly from random. The results show no evidence of triggering during intervals of increased tidal range but all three data sets show a significant increase in earthquake incidence at low tides. The signal is particularly strong in the land-based catalogue for the Juan de Fuca Plate and Queen Charlotte Fault regions where there is a 15 per cent increase in the rate of seismicity within 15° of the lowest tides. The signal is weakest in the

  19. Megafauna associated with bathyal seamounts in the central North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Raymond R.; Smith, Kenneth L.; Rosenblatt, Richard H.

    1985-10-01

    Sixteen fish species and 31 invertebrate species were identified on Horizon Guyot and five other bathyal seamounts in the central North Pacific Ocean from trawl and baited-trap collections augmented with video camera recordings. The seamount fauna shows zoogeographic affinities with fauna of the Indo-West Pacific as does the marine shore fauna of central Pacific Islands.

  20. CO sub 2 measurements along the WOCE P-16 and 19 sections in the South Pacific Ocean: A joint LDGO/WHOI program

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro.

    1991-07-18

    This report summarizes the progress made between October 15, 1990 through July 16, 1991, during the second year of the research grant and is submitted in support of the application of the third year continuation of the grant. Due to substantial delays in the refitting of the R/V KNORR, the field work which was originally scheduled to begin in October, 1990, had to be delayed by seven months and modified. In late May, 1991, our analytical equipment and personnel were loaded on the R/V THOMAS WASHINGTON, departing from San Diego, CA to Tahiti on May 31, 1991. During the 40-day first leg of the expedition, the CO{sub 2} analyses were carried out. Approximately 1500 seawater samples were analyzed for the total CO{sub 2} concentration and about one-third as many for alkalinity. Additional water samples were collected for land-based manometric measurements of total CO{sub 2} concentration. The second leg of this expedition is in progress. The data obtained during the expedition will be analyzed and interpreted during the third year of this grant. During the 7-month delay period, we have further improved and tested the coulometer and gas-chromatograph. The nature of improvements achieved and the results of tests conducted during this period is described. 2 figs.

  1. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathy A.; Hammond, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals. PMID:19523293

  2. Phocine distemper virus in northern sea otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Burek, Kathy A; Hammond, John A

    2009-06-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals.

  3. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  4. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  5. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  6. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning area...

  8. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning area...

  10. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around San...

  12. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  13. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  14. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The waters...

  16. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  17. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at Waimea...

  18. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at Waimea...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  20. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  1. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  2. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The waters...

  4. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at Waimea...

  5. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  6. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  7. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  8. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  9. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around San...

  11. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area. All...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around San...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  14. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning area...

  16. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at Waimea...

  17. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at Waimea...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning area...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around San...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around San...

  1. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning area...

  3. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The waters...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The waters...

  6. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  7. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.216 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  9. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  10. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  11. 78 FR 67300 - Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; Restricted Anchorage Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas... follows: Sec. 110.220 Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The...

  12. Description of a new species of Microstoma (Pisces, Microstomatidae) from the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gon, Ofer; Stewart, Andrew L

    2014-11-12

    A new species of the microstomatid genus Microstoma is described from specimens collected in the SW Pacific Ocean off New Zealand and Australia. Microstoma australis n. sp. differs from M. microsotma of the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean in having a higher number of gill rakers and vertebrae. Both species are compared with available data for NE Pacific specimens.

  13. 33 CFR 165.T11-577 - Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA. 165.T11-577 Section 165.T11-577 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T11-577 Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA. (a) Location. The limits...

  14. Characteristics of regional aerosols: Southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Gouri

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the quality of our life in many direct and indirect ways. Inhalation of aerosols can have harmful effects on human health. Aerosols also have climatic impacts by absorbing or scattering solar radiation, or more indirectly through their interactions with clouds. Despite a better understanding of several relevant aerosol properties and processes in the past years, they remain the largest uncertainty in the estimate of global radiative forcing. The uncertainties arise because although aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere they are highly variable in space, time and their physicochemical properties. This makes in-situ measurements of aerosols vital in our effort towards reducing uncertainties in the estimate of global radiative forcing due to aerosols. This study is an effort to characterize atmospheric aerosols at a regional scale, in southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean, based on ground and airborne observations of aerosols. Metals and metalloids in particles with aerodynamic diameter (Dp) smaller than 2.5 μm are found to be ubiquitous in southern Arizona. The major sources of the elements considered in the study are identified to be crustal dust, smelting/mining activities and fuel combustion. The spatial and temporal variability in the mass concentrations of these elements depend both on the source strength and meteorological conditions. Aircraft measurements of aerosol and cloud properties collected during various field campaigns over the eastern Pacific Ocean are used to study the sources of nitrate in stratocumulus cloud water and the relevant processes. The major sources of nitrate in cloud water in the region are emissions from ships and wildfires. Different pathways for nitrate to enter cloud water and the role of meteorology in these processes are examined. Observations of microphysical properties of ambient aerosols in ship plumes are examined. The study shows that there is an enhancement in the number

  15. An immense shield volcano within the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, William W.; Zhang, Jinchang; Korenaga, Jun; Sano, Takashi; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Widdowson, Mike; Mahoney, John J.

    2013-11-01

    Most oceanic plateaux are massive basaltic volcanoes. However, the structure of these volcanoes, and how they erupt and evolve, is unclear, because they are remote and submerged beneath the oceans. Here we use multichannel seismic profiles and rock samples taken from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program core sites to analyse the structure of the Tamu Massif, the oldest and largest edifice of the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau in the north-western Pacific Ocean. We show that the Tamu Massif is a single, immense volcano, constructed from massive lava flows that emanated from the volcano centre to form a broad, shield-like shape. The volcano has anomalously low slopes, probably due to the high effusion rates of the erupting lavas. We suggest that the Tamu Massif could be the largest single volcano on Earth and that it is comparable in size to the largest volcano in the Solar System, Olympus Mons on Mars. Our data document a class of oceanic volcanoes that is distinguished by its size and morphology from the thousands of seamounts found throughout the oceans.

  16. Combined effects of recent Pacific cooling and Indian Ocean warming on the Asian monsoon.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Kamae, Youichi; Hayasaki, Masamitsu; Kitoh, Akio; Watanabe, Shigeru; Miki, Yurisa; Kumai, Atsuki

    2015-11-13

    Recent research indicates that the cooling trend in the tropical Pacific Ocean over the past 15 years underlies the contemporaneous hiatus in global mean temperature increase. During the hiatus, the tropical Pacific Ocean displays a La Niña-like cooling pattern while sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean has continued to increase. This SST pattern differs from the well-known La Niña-induced basin-wide cooling across the Indian Ocean on the interannual timescale. Here, based on model experiments, we show that the SST pattern during the hiatus explains pronounced regional anomalies of rainfall in the Asian monsoon region and thermodynamic effects due to specific humidity change are secondary. Specifically, Indo-Pacific SST anomalies cause convection to intensify over the tropical western Pacific, which in turn suppresses rainfall in mid-latitude East Asia through atmospheric teleconnection. Overall, the tropical Pacific SST effect opposes and is greater than the Indian Ocean SST effect.

  17. On the decade-long deep-ocean warming in the subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Denis; Lee, Sang-Ki; Landerer, Felix; Lumpkin, Rick

    2017-04-01

    The persistent energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, inferred from satellite measurements, indicates that the Earth climate system continues to accumulate excess heat. As only sparse and irregular measurements of ocean heat below 2000-m depth exist, one of the most challenging questions in global climate change studies is whether the excess heat has already penetrated into the deep-ocean. The deep-ocean warming can initiate and advance in the regions where the air-sea interactions and ocean internal dynamics favor transfer of heat from the surface to the deeper waters. It is important to identify such regions, preferably using as many independent observing systems as possible, and to understand the associated dynamics. Combination of the present-day satellite and in situ observing systems has a potential to provide a more complete view on the horizontal and vertical distribution of heat in the ocean. While the uncertainties associated with the observing systems are decreasing, the combined use of satellite altimetry, GRACE, and Argo measurements may theoretically become an ideal method to indirectly infer deep-ocean temperature changes below 2000-m depth. The difference between the total sea level (observed by altimetry) and the mass-related sea level (observed by GRACE) gives the steric (due to changes in seawater density) sea level variability, which is mostly a function of the full-depth heat content. The deep-ocean (below 2000-m) contribution can be inferred indirectly, as the difference between the satellite-based (altimetry minus GRACE) and Argo-based steric sea level. Carrying out a comprehensive analysis of satellite and in situ measurements, and atmospheric re-analyses, here we report on deep-ocean warming signatures observed in the subtropical South Pacific during the past decade of 2005-2014. We show that the local accumulation of heat accounted for up to a quarter of the global ocean heat increase, with directly and indirectly inferred deep

  18. Sulfur dioxide distribution over the Pacific Ocean 1991-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Blomquist, B. W.; Driedger, A. R.; Wade, T. P.

    1999-03-01

    In this study we combined the sulfur dioxide (SO2) data from the NASA Pacific Exploratory Missions (PEM) and the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) to create a data set containing 4679 observations of SO2 in the troposphere of the Pacific Ocean during the period 1991-1996. These data have exceptionally high precision due to the use of isotopically labeled SO2 as an internal standard in each sample. The lower limit of detection was less than 2 pptv. The spatial extent of the data ranged from 60°N to 72°S, 110°E to 80°W, and from 50 m to 12 km above the ocean surface. A significant zonal gradient was observed between the northern and southern hemispheres. The western North Pacific was particularly well characterized during the NASA PEM-West A and B missions that focused on that region. Our data show that anthropogenic sources in eastern Asia dominated the sulfur chemistry in the lower troposphere of the western North Pacific eastward from the Asian continent for more than 1500 km and substantially farther in the mid and upper troposphere. The impact of Asian sources far from the continent was due primarily to transported SO2 with a substantially smaller impact from transported sulfate. Dimethyl sulfide was a significant source of SO2 only in the tropical boundary layer. In the southern hemisphere, anthropogenic sources had much less impact with very little SO2 detected in biomass burning plumes. Sulfur dioxide in the middle and upper troposphere of both hemispheres was strongly influenced by volcanic sources. Sulfur dioxide from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo dominated the SO2 distribution in the upper troposphere in the northern hemisphere in the second half of 1991. A significant fraction of the SO2 in the upper free troposphere in the northern hemisphere was attributed to SO2 transported from the stratosphere to the upper troposphere. Evidence for the transport of SO2 from the stratosphere to troposphere existed as far south as 30°N, but it was

  19. Tectonic evolution of the Pacific Phoenix Farallon triple junction in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, Richard F.; Larson, Roger L.; Pockalny, Robert A.

    2005-04-01

    Analysis of multibeam and gravity data reveals the tectonic history of the mid-Cretaceous (119-107 Ma) Penrhyn basin in the equatorial south Pacific Ocean. The basin formed during a period of heightened geodynamic activity and cessation of magnetic reversals. Similarities in the geometry of the Tongareva triple junction and the Rodriguez triple junction in the Indian Ocean make this study an interesting comparison between modern and ancient tectonics. Changes in abyssal hill trends during the formation of the basin suggest either a change in the location of the Euler pole describing the relative motion between the Pacific and Farallon plates, or a significant period of oblique spreading. Interaction between the local stress field associated with the break-up of the Manihiki plateau and the regional stress field controlling major plate motions complicated the tectonic evolution of the Penrhyn basin. Construction of velocity triangles from abyssal hill trends and measurements of the triple junction trace suggests that the triple junction oscillated between ridge-ridge-ridge and ridge-ridge-fault configurations. At least two reorganizations in the geometry of the triple junction occurred within 10 Ma of the initial rifting of the Manihiki plateau. Both changes in triple junction geometry coincide with discontinuities in the triple junction trace and result in right-lateral displacements of the triple junction trace. Changes in the bathymetric expression of the triple junction trace suggest a period of triple junction propagation controlled by rift propagation shortly after the change in Euler pole location.

  20. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a...

  1. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of San...

  2. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a...

  4. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of San...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... southerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a point on the beach north of Point Mugu, California, as...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... southerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a point on the beach north of Point Mugu, California, as...

  7. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of San...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending seaward...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending seaward...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending seaward...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... southerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a point on the beach north of Point Mugu, California, as...

  12. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a...

  14. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  15. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of San...

  16. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a...

  18. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a...

  20. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San Clemente...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... southerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a point on the beach north of Point Mugu, California, as...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... southerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a point on the beach north of Point Mugu, California, as...

  3. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of San...

  4. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Western Space and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. (a) The Area. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area extending seaward...

  6. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  7. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  8. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  9. 75 FR 69598 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80 limited...

  10. 75 FR 69599 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the Eastern...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels participating in.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80 limited...

  11. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to vessels...

  12. 75 FR 69599 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80 limited...

  13. 75 FR 69600 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to vessels...

  14. 75 FR 42338 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific ocean perch in the... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA has been reached...

  15. 77 FR 39649 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA...

  16. 75 FR 53608 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the GOA...

  17. 76 FR 39791 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA...

  18. 77 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific ocean perch in the... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA has been reached...

  19. 76 FR 39793 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish for Catcher... northern rockfish, Pacific ocean perch, and pelagic shelf rockfish for catcher vessels participating in the... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of northern rockfish, Pacific ocean...

  20. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area...

  1. 75 FR 38938 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish for Catcher... northern rockfish, Pacific ocean perch, and pelagic shelf rockfish for catcher vessels participating in the... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of northern rockfish, Pacific ocean...

  2. 77 FR 42439 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the GOA...

  3. 75 FR 42337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors...). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean...

  4. 76 FR 45709 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the... for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West...

  5. 75 FR 39183 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA...

  6. 76 FR 43934 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors...). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean...

  7. 78 FR 42718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  8. 76 FR 65972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  9. 77 FR 39440 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  10. 77 FR 65838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean...

  11. 75 FR 68726 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2010 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean...

  12. 77 FR 34262 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  13. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and... Pacific ocean perch specified for the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  14. 33 CFR 334.866 - Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Naval Base... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.866 Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of... westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from a point on the beach of Naval Base Coronado,...

  15. Apollo XVII Command Module (CM) - Splashdown - South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-19

    S72-55834 (19 Dec. 1972) --- The Apollo 17 Command Module (CM), with astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt aboard, nears splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean to successfully concludes the final lunar landing mission in NASA's Apollo program. This overhead view was taken from a recovery aircraft seconds before the spacecraft hit the water. The splashdown occurred at 304:31:59 ground elapsed time, 1:24:59 p.m. (CST) Dec. 19, 1972, at coordinates of 166 degrees 8 minutes west longitude and 27 degrees 53 minutes south latitude, about 350 nautical miles southeast of the Samoan Islands. The splashdown was only .8 miles from the target point. Later, the three crewmen were picked up by a helicopter from the prime recovery ship, USS Ticonderoga.

  16. APOLLO COMMAND MODULE (CM) - SAFE TOUCHDOWN - PACIFIC OCEAN

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-07

    S71-41999 (7 Aug. 1971) --- The Apollo 15 Command Module (CM), with astronauts David R. Scott, commander; Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot; and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, aboard, nears a safe touchdown in the mid-Pacific Ocean to conclude a highly successful lunar landing mission. Although causing no harm to the crewmen, one of the three main parachutes failed to function properly. The splashdown occurred at 3:45:53 p.m. (CDT), Aug. 7, 1971, some 330 miles north of Honolulu, Hawaii. The three astronauts were picked up by helicopter and flown to the prime recovery ship USS Okinawa, which was only 6 1/2 miles away.

  17. APOLLO 13 - COMMAND MODULE - RECOVERY - SPLASHDOWN - SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-17

    S70-35632 (17 April 1970) --- Crewmen aboard the USS Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission, guide the Command Module (CM) atop a dolly onboard the ship. The CM is connected by strong cable to a hoist on the vessel. The Apollo 13 crewmembers, astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., commander; John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot; and Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot, were already aboard the USS Iwo Jima when this photograph was made. The CM, with the three tired crewmen aboard, splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m. (CST), April 17, 1970, only about four miles from the recovery vessel in the South Pacific Ocean.

  18. Thunderstorms over the Pacific Ocean as seen from STS-64

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-18

    STS064-83-099 (9-20 Sept. 1994) --- Multiple thunderstorm cells leading to Earth's atmosphere were photographed on 70mm by the astronauts, orbiting aboard the space shuttle Discovery 130 nautical miles away. These thunderstorms are located about 16 degrees southeast of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. Every stage of a developing thunderstorm is documented in this photo; from the building cauliflower tops to the mature anvil phase. The anvil or the tops of the clouds being blown off are at about 50,000 feet. The light line in the blue atmosphere is either clouds in the distance or an atmospheric layer which is defined but different particle sizes. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  19. Surface enrichment of inorganic nutrients in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haury, Loren R.; Fey, Connie L.; Shulenberger, Eric

    1994-08-01

    Vertical profiles of the inorganic nutrients phosphate, silicate and nitrate show frequent surface enrichment (i.e. a sub-surface minimum) throughout the historical California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) data set and in hydrographic sections across the North Pacific Ocean. Although present in the open ocean, it is especially pronounced in the offshore California Current and near the Hawaiian Islands. Its consistent occurrence over time, space, and methods argues that it is a real feature of the upper ocean ecosystem, rather than a result of some methodological problem. In the California Current, surface enrichment is spatially and temporally rare at nearshore stations. When nearshore enrichment does occur, minimum values are shallow (10-30 m). The subsurface minima become more frequent and deeper (eventually occurring at >100 m) the farther offshore one goes. A similar trend exists alongshore: the minima are deeper and more frequent towards the south. In all data, the enrichment is usually clearest and most frequent in silicate, weakest and least frequent in nitrate. Surface enrichment can contribute up to 100% of a specific inorganic nutrient available above the nutricline. The cause of surface enrichment is unknown: possible explanations include (1) nutrient scavenging and vertical transportation by rising particles or bubbles; (2) Langmuir circulations; (3) nutrient transport by vertically migrating organisms; (4) atmospheric inputs; (5) remineralization related to distributions of organisms with depth; or (6) photochemical processes. Because the three nutrients remineralize at different rates, this feature might be useful as a potential tracer of past or ongoing physical and biological processes in the mixed layer.

  20. Supertyphoon Boosters in the Western North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.; Wu, C.; Pun, I.

    2006-12-01

    The role ocean features played in the intensification of 30 western North Pacific category-5 typhoons in the past 13 years is studied. We found that passing over the commonly-emphasized warm ocean features for intensification to category-5 is not always necessary. In a background with an existing thick, warm upper ocean layer, for example in the lower-latitude (10-20∘N) gyre region where the depth of the 26∘C isotherm (D26) ~ 110m, typhoons can intensify without encountering any features or even on cold features. However, in a shallower background, for example in the higher-latitude (20-26∘N) South Eddy Zone region where D26 is around 50m, it becomes necessary to pass over warm features to boost up the intensity to category-5 because the background can not sufficiently suppress the self-induced cooling negative feedback. The observed shallowest warm layer (in D26) which a typhoon could intensify to category-5 is 70m, but over such shallow water typhoons need to move fast (?#8224; 6m/s). Over thicker layer (D26~110-150m), typhoon is allowed to transverse as slow as 1-2 m/s. Strong geographical dependence is found that all 90 category-5 typhoons occurred in the typhoon season since 1960 intensified only in a well-confined region covering the South Eddy Zone and the gyre. We suggest that the chance for occurring outside this region is very slim because even if other conditions (e.g., atmospheric or typhoon structure) are met, it is hard to meet the necessary ocean condition in limiting self-cooling in the thin (D26~30m) outside water.

  1. Volcanic rocks cored on hess rise, Western Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, T.L.; Windom, K.E.; Seifert, K.E.; Thiede, Jorn

    1980-01-01

    Large aseismic rises and plateaus in the western Pacific include the Ontong-Java Plateau, Magellan Rise, Shatsky Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountains, and Hess Rise. These are relatively old features that rise above surrounding sea floors as bathymetric highs. Thick sequences of carbonate sediments overlie, what are believed to be, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous volcanic pedestals. We discuss here petrological and tectonic implications of data from volcanic rocks cored on Hess Rise. The data suggest that Hess Rise originated at a spreading centre in the late early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian stages). Subsequent off-ridge volcanism in the late Albian-early Cenomanian stages built a large archipelago of oceanic islands and seamounts composed, at least in part, of alkalic rocks. The volcanic platform subsided during its northward passage through the mid-Cretaceousequatorial zone. Faulting and uplift, and possibly volcanism, occurred in the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian stages). Since then, Hess Rise continued its northward movement and subsidence. Volcanic rocks from holes drilled on Hess Rise during IPOD Leg 62 (Fig. 1) are briefly described here and we relate the petrological data to the origin and evolution of that rise. These are the first volcanic rocks reported from Hess Rise. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  3. North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Praetorius, S K; Mix, A C; Walczak, M H; Wolhowe, M D; Addison, J A; Prahl, F G

    2015-11-19

    Marine sediments from the North Pacific document two episodes of expansion and strengthening of the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) accompanied by seafloor hypoxia during the last deglacial transition. The mechanisms driving this hypoxia remain under debate. We present a new high-resolution alkenone palaeotemperature reconstruction from the Gulf of Alaska that reveals two abrupt warming events of 4-5 degrees Celsius at the onset of the Bølling and Holocene intervals that coincide with sudden shifts to hypoxia at intermediate depths. The presence of diatomaceous laminations and hypoxia-tolerant benthic foraminiferal species, peaks in redox-sensitive trace metals, and enhanced (15)N/(14)N ratio of organic matter, collectively suggest association with high export production. A decrease in (18)O/(16)O values of benthic foraminifera accompanying the most severe deoxygenation event indicates subsurface warming of up to about 2 degrees Celsius. We infer that abrupt warming triggered expansion of the North Pacific OMZ through reduced oxygen solubility and increased marine productivity via physiological effects; following initiation of hypoxia, remobilization of iron from hypoxic sediments could have provided a positive feedback on ocean deoxygenation through increased nutrient utilization and carbon export. Such a biogeochemical amplification process implies high sensitivity of OMZ expansion to warming.

  4. Ocean-Scale Patterns in Community Respiration Rates along Continuous Transects across the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jesse M.; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m−3 d−1±8.0 mmol m−3 d−1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m−3 d−1±7.32 mmol m−3 d−1 between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m−3 d−1±45.6 mmol m−3 d−1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m−3 d−1±13.9 mmol m−3 d−1 between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements. PMID:25048960

  5. Connection of sea level height between Western Pacific and South Indian Ocean in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DU, Y.; Wang, T.; Zhuang, W.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Based on merged altimetry data and in site observations from tide gauges, we analyzed the fast increasing trend of sea surface height (SSH) in the recent two decades in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean. The results of analysis indicated a dynamic connection of SSH between the tropical western Pacific and the southeastern Indian Ocean. The low-frequency variations of SSH propagate westward in the tropical Pacific, enter the Indonesian Seas through the waveguide, and influence the southeastern India Ocean with the Kelvin-Rossby wave transformation. The thermal structure of upper ocean reveals the above adjustment mainly occur in the thermocline. However, the impacts from the Pacific are limited in the southeast Indian Ocean. In the central and west of the south Indian Ocean, local wind dominates the SSH changes in the last two decades. By lead-lag statistic analyses, we identified the cause of interdecadal from the interannual SSH variations. The interannual SSH variations is dominated by ENSO, forced by the anomalous wind along the equatorial Pacific. Whereas, the interdecadal SSH variations results from the off-equatorial wind stress curl, which is closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The dynamic connections between the western Pacific and the south Indian Ocean were tested in the baroclinic Rossby wave solution and the numerical experiments based on the nonlinear reduced-gravity dynamics model.

  6. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  7. Widespread Anthropogenic Nitrogen in Northwestern Pacific Ocean Sediment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haryun; Lee, Kitack; Lim, Dhong-Il; Nam, Seung-Il; Kim, Tae-Wook; Yang, Jin-Yu T; Ko, Young Ho; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Eunil

    2017-06-06

    Sediment samples from the East China and Yellow seas collected adjacent to continental China were found to have lower δ(15)N values (expressed as δ(15)N = [(15)N:(14)Nsample/(15)N:(14)Nair - 1] × 1000‰; the sediment (15)N:(14)N ratio relative to the air nitrogen (15)N:(14)N ratio). In contrast, the Arctic sediments from the Chukchi Sea, the sampling region furthest from China, showed higher δ(15)N values (2-3‰ higher than those representing the East China and the Yellow sea sediments). Across the sites sampled, the levels of sediment δ(15)N increased with increasing distance from China, which is broadly consistent with the decreasing influence of anthropogenic nitrogen (N(ANTH)) resulting from fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer use. We concluded that, of several processes, the input of N(ANTH) appears to be emerging as a new driver of change in the sediment δ(15)N value in marginal seas adjacent to China. The present results indicate that the effect of N(ANTH) has extended beyond the ocean water column into the deep sedimentary environment, presumably via biological assimilation of N(ANTH) followed by deposition. Further, the findings indicate that N(ANTH) is taking over from the conventional paradigm of nitrate flux from nitrate-rich deep water as the primary driver of biological export production in this region of the Pacific Ocean.

  8. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  9. SEA Semester Undergraduates Research the Ocean's Role in Climate Systems in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, A. W.; Becker, M. K.; Grabb, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sea Education Association (SEA)'s fully accredited Oceans & Climate SEA Semester program provides upper-level science undergraduates a unique opportunity to explore the ocean's role in the global climate system as they conduct real-world oceanographic research and gain first-hand understanding of and appreciation for the collaborative nature of the scientific research process. Oceans & Climate is an interdisciplinary science and policy semester in which students also explore public policy perspectives to learn how scientific knowledge is used in making climate-related policy. Working first at SEA's shore campus, students collaborate with SEA faculty and other researchers in the local Woods Hole scientific community to design and develop an original research project to be completed at sea. Students then participate as full, working members of the scientific team and sailing crew aboard the 134-foot brigantine SSV Robert C. Seamans; they conduct extensive oceanographic sampling, manage shipboard operations, and complete and present the independent research project they designed onshore. Oceans & Climate SEA Semester Cruise S-250 sailed from San Diego to Tahiti on a 7-week, >4000nm voyage last fall (November-December 2013). This remote open-ocean cruise track traversed subtropical and equatorial regions of the Pacific particularly well suited for a diverse range of climate-focused studies. Furthermore, as SEA has regularly collected scientific data along similar Pacific cruise tracks for more than a decade, students often undertake projects that require time-series analyses. 18 undergraduates from 15 different colleges and universities participated in the S-250 program. Two examples of the many projects completed by S-250 students include a study of the possible relationship between tropical cyclone intensification, driven by warm sea surface temperatures, and the presence of barrier layers; and a study of nutrient cycling in the eastern Pacific, focusing on primary

  10. An intimate coupling of ocean-atmospheric interaction over the extratropical North Atlantic and Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Wu, Lixin; Wang, Qi; Qu, Liwei; Zhang, Liping

    2009-05-01

    The inter-basin teleconnection between the North Atlantic and the North Pacific ocean-atmosphere interaction is studied using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. In the model, an idealized oceanic temperature anomaly is initiated over the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream extension region to track the coupled evolution of ocean and atmosphere interaction, respectively. The experiments explicitly demonstrate that both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions are intimately coupled through an inter-basin atmospheric teleconnection. This fast inter-basin communication can transmit oceanic variability between the North Atlantic and the North Pacific through local ocean-to-atmosphere feedbacks. The leading mode of the extratropical atmospheric internal variability plays a dominant role in shaping the hemispheric-scale response forced by oceanic variability over the North Atlantic and Pacific. Modeling results also suggest that a century (two centuries) long observations are necessary for the detection of Pacific response to Atlantic forcings (Atlantic response to Pacific forcing).

  11. WOCE 1991 chlorofluorocarbon standard intercomparison report. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Bullister, J.L.; Menzia, F.; Wisegarver, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) standard intercomparison study was done among ten laboratories involved in measurements of dissolved and atmospheric CFCs as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and other programs. The goal of the study was to compare CFC calibration scales and to allow CFC data sets collected by the participating groups to be merged together more easily. One cyclinder was distributed to each participating laboratory for analysis and return to PMEL. Within the precision of the analytical techniques used at PMEL, the CFC-11 and CFC-12 concentrations in the cylinders remained uniform throughout the intercomparison exercise. The CFC-113 and carbon tetrachloride content of the cylinders remained relatively uniform in all but one of the cylinders analyzed. The CFC-11 concentrations reported by participating laboratories ranged from 258.8 to 275.6 parts-per-trillion (PPT). The reported CFC-12 concentrations ranged from 487.4 to 503.5 PPT. Two laboratories reported values for CFC-113, and only one laboratory reported a value for carbon tetrachloride. Details of the calibration techniques used by the ten participating laboratories are given in the Appendices of the report.

  12. Boundary scavenging in the Pacific Ocean - A comparison of Be-10 and Pa-231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. F.; Lao, Y.; Broecker, W. S.; Trumbore, S. E.; Hofmann, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of U, Th, Pa-231, and Be-10 concentrations were conducted in Holocene sediments from several sites representing open-ocean and ocean-margin environments in the Pacific Ocean. The results show that boundary scavenging plays a major role in the removal of Be-10 from the Pacific. Deposition of Be-10 is more than an order of magnitude greater at margin sites than at deep central Pacific sites, while Pa-231 is 4- to 5-fold greater at margin sites. The factors controling boundary scavenging of Pa and Be are discussed.

  13. Tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction, the Pacific cold tongue, and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, F.F.

    1996-10-04

    The tropical Pacific basin allows strong feedbacks among the trade winds, equatorial zonal sea surface temperature contrast, and upper ocean heat content. Coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics produce both the strong Pacific cold tongue climate state and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon. A simple paradigm of the tropical climate system is presented, capturing the basic physics of these two important aspects of the tropic Pacific and basic features of the climate states of the Atlantic and Indian ocean basins. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    We have been conducting long-term seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observations at two sites in the northwest Pacific since 2001. The older site was established at the deep seafloor (~5600m) on the northwest Pacific basin (Site NWP), while the new one was installed on the west Philippine basin (Site WPB) in 2006 at the slightly deeper (~5700m) seafloor. The ages of the oceanic basins at those sites are approximately 129 Ma for Site NWP (Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191, 2000) and 49 Ma for Site WPB (Salisbury et al., 2006), respectively. The EM instruments deployed at those sites are seafloor EM stations (SFEMS; Toh et al., 2004 and 2006) and capable of measuring vector EM fields at the seafloor for as long as one year or more with other physical quantities such as the instruments' attitude, orientation and temperature. One of the objectives of the seafloor long-term EM observations by SFEMSs is to make a comparative study of the oceanic mantle with and without influence of the so-called 'stagnant slabs' in terms of their electrical conductivity. It is anticipated that the mantle transition zone under the influence of the stagnant slab has a higher electrical conductivity because the transition zone there could be wetter than that in the absence of the stagnant slab. In this context, the mantle transition zone beneath Site WPB can be said to have influence by the stagnant slab, while that beneath Site NWP does not. It, therefore, is basically possible to estimate how much water is present in each transition zone by comparison of the electrical conductivity profiles of the two. The one-dimensional electrical profile beneath Site NWP has been derived so far using the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) methods with significant jumps in the electrical property at 410 and 660km discontinuities. The jumps are approximately factors of 10 and 2, respectively (Ichiki et al., 2009). Here we show a profile beneath Site WPB using both MT and GDS

  15. Dynamic Validation of Envisat ASAR Derived Ocean Swell Against Directional Buoy Measurements in Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Mouche, Alexis; Husson, Romain; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) in wave mode aboard Envisat satellite from ESA provides the unique 10-years swell spectra dataset on a continuous and global basis for scientific community. In this paper, a method of a dynamical validation approach for SAR swell spectra is developed, in which the in situ buoy spectra are reconstructed, partitioned, and retro- propagated to the vicinity of satellite observation along the great circle based upon the linear wave theory. More than 40,000 ASAR-buoy swell partitions are dynamically collocated for the full mission of Envisat, making this study the first to provide detailed quality assessment for ASAR derived ocean swell spectra. Comparison results show a general statistics of 0.40 m, 44.99 m and 16.89 ̊ for swell height, peak wavelength and direction RMSE, indicating a good agreement with buoy in-situ in Pacific Ocean.

  16. Ocean Color and the Equatorial Annual Cycle in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, A. C.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and other scatterers in ocean surface waters affect the flux divergence of solar radiation and thus the vertical distribution of radiant heating of the ocean. While this may directly alter the local mixed-layer depth and temperature (Martin 1985; Strutton & Chavez 2004), non-local changes are propagated through advection (Manizza et al. 2005; Murtugudde et al. 2002; Nakamoto et al. 2001; Sweeny et al. 2005). In and coupled feedbacks (Lengaigne et al. 2007; Marzeion & Timmermann 2005). Anderson et al. (2007), Anderson et al. (2009) and Gnanadesikan & Anderson (2009) have performed a series of experiments with a fully coupled climate model which parameterizes the e-folding depth of solar irradiance in terms of surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The results have so far been discussed with respect to the climatic mean state and ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific. We extend the discussion here to the Pacific equatorial annual cycle. The focus of the coupled experiments has been the sensitivity of the coupled system to regional differences in chlorophyll concentration. While runs have been completed with realistic SeaWiFS-derived monthly composite chlorophyll ('green') and with a globally chlorophyll-free ocean ('blue'), the concentrations in two additional runs have been selectively set to zero in specific regions: the oligotrophic subtropical gyres ('gyre') in one case and the mesotrophic gyre margins ('margin') in the other. The annual cycle of ocean temperatures exhibits distinctly reduced amplitudes in the 'blue' and 'margin' experiments, and a slight reduction in 'gyre' (while ENSO variability almost vanishes in 'blue' and 'gyre', but amplifies in 'margin' - thus the frequently quoted inverse correlation between ENSO and annual amplitudes holds only for the 'green' / 'margin' comparison). It is well-known that on annual time scales, the anomalous divergence of surface currents and vertical

  17. Wind waves climatology of the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Catalina; Rutllant, José; Falvey, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The Southeast Pacific coast still lacks a high-resolution wave hindcast and a detailed description of its wave climatology. Since buoy wave measurements are particularly scarce along the coast of South America, a model hindcast forced with wind information derived from atmospheric Reanalysis seems an attractive way to generate a wave climatology in this poorly studied region, providing far better spatial and temporal coverage than can be achieved using observational data alone. Here, the climatology of wind waves over the Southeast Pacific is analyzed using a 32-year hindcast from the WaveWatch III model, complemented by satellite-derived Significant Wave Height (SWH) and buoy measurements for validation. Using partitioned spectral data, a regional climatology of wind sea and swell parameters was constructed. In general, the simulated SWH shows a good agreement with satellite and in-situ SWH measurements. The spatial pattern of SWH is clearly influenced by the meridional variation of mean surface wind speed, where the stronger winds over the Southern Ocean play a significant role generating higher waves at higher latitudes. Nevertheless, regional features are observed in the annual variability of SWH, which are associated with the existence of atmospheric coastal low-level jets off the coast of Peru and central Chile. In particular, the seasonal variation of these synoptic scale jets shows a direct relationship with the annual variability of SWH. Off the coast of Peru at 15°S the coastal low-level jet is strongest during austral winter, increasing the wind sea SWH. In contrast, off central Chile, there is an important increase of wind sea SWH during summer. The seasonal variation of the wind sea component leads to a contrasting seasonal variation of the total SWH at these locations: off Peru the coastal jet amplifies the annual variability of SWH, while off Central Chile the annual variability of SWH is suppressed by the presence of the coastal jet.

  18. Interbasin effects of the Indian Ocean on Pacific decadal climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kimoto, Masahide; Watanabe, Masahiro; Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Ishii, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the significant impact of the Indian Ocean on the Pacific climate on decadal timescales by comparing two sets of data assimilation experiments (pacemaker experiments) conducted over recent decades. For the Indian Ocean of an atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate model, we assimilate ocean temperature and salinity anomalies defined as deviations from climatology or as anomalies with the area-averaged changes for the Indian Ocean subtracted. When decadal sea surface temperature (SST) trends are observed to be strong over the Indian Ocean, the equatorial thermocline uniformly deepens, and the model simulates the eastward tendencies of surface wind aloft. Surface winds strongly converge around the maritime continent, and the associated strengthening of the Walker circulation suppresses an increasing trend in the equatorial Pacific SST through ocean thermocline shoaling, similar to common changes associated with seasonal Indian Ocean warming.

  19. Helium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, S.; Stuart, F.M.; Klemm, V.; Korschinek, G.; Knie, K.; Hein, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Helium isotopes have been measured in samples of two ferromanganese crusts (VA13/2 and CD29-2) from the central Pacific Ocean. With the exception of the deepest part of crust CD29-2 the data can be explained by a mixture of implanted solar- and galactic cosmic ray-produced (GCR) He, in extraterrestrial grains, and radiogenic He in wind-borne continental dust grains. 4He concentrations are invariant and require retention of less than 12% of the in situ He produced since crust formation. Loss has occurred by recoil and diffusion. High 4He in CD29-2 samples older than 42 Ma are correlated with phosphatization and can be explained by retention of up to 12% of the in situ-produced 4He. 3He/4He of VA13/2 samples varies from 18.5 to 1852 Ra due almost entirely to variation in the extraterrestrial He contribution. The highest 3He/4He is comparable to the highest values measured in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and micrometeorites (MMs). Helium concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than in oceanic sediments reflecting the low trapping efficiency for in-falling terrestrial and extraterrestrial grains of Fe-Mn crusts. The extraterrestrial 3He concentration of the crusts rules out whole, undegassed 4–40 μm diameter IDPs as the host. Instead it requires that the extraterrestrial He inventory is carried by numerous particles with significantly lower He concentrations, and occasional high concentration GCR-He-bearing particles.

  20. Photochemical Production of Alkyl Nitrates in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2005-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates are important to the tropospheric NOx/ozone cycle because they represent a significant fraction of the reactive nitrogen (NOy). Previous work has shown that there is an oceanic source of alkyl nitrates. A photochemical mechanism for the formation of alkyl nitrates in seawater has been proposed. This mechanism involves the reaction of ROO and NO, where ROO is an alkyl peroxy radical. ROO and NO radicals in seawater are derived from the photolysis of DOM and nitrite, respectively. In this study, the photochemical production of low molecular weight alkyl nitrates (C1-C3) was observed in shipboard incubation experiments in the tropical Pacific during the PHASE 1 cruise. Seawater samples from several regions, including high and low-chlorophyll areas, were collected and incubated. Alkyl nitrate production rates as high as 2 nM/hour were observed. The production rate of alkyl nitrates was clearly dependent upon the initial concentration of nitrite, most likely as the source for NO radicals. While the magnitude of production varied between sample locations, the ratios of the production rates of the various alkyl nitrates remained relatively constant. The observed production ratios of methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl nitrate were 5.9:1.0:0.1:0.2. These ratios presumably reflect the speciation of peroxy radicals formed in seawater, and the yield of alkyl nitrates from the ROO+NO reaction. The observed production rate ratios are similar to the concentration ratios of alkyl nitrates observed in ambient seawater and the overlying atmosphere during the study. A comparison of the measured production rates and the observed concentrations, suggests that photochemically produced alkyl nitrates are a major source of atmospheric alkyl nitrates in the surface ocean and marine atmosphere.

  1. Concentration and toxic potential of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in migratory oceanic birds from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Guruge, K S; Tanaka, H; Tanabe, S

    2001-09-01

    Concentrations of PCBs and their toxic potential were examined in subcutaneous fat of eight albatross and one petrel species collected from the North Pacific and the Southern Oceans. Among all the species analyzed, high PCB levels were found in adult male blackfooted albatross from the North Pacific with the mean value of 92 microg/g wet weight. No significant gender difference in PCB accumulation was observed (P>0.1). The mean PCB levels in Southern Oceanic birds were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than those from the North Pacific albatrosses. A regional-specific accumulation of non-ortho coplanar congeners were observed, most birds from the Southern Ocean had higher IUPAC 169 levels while IUPAC 126 concentrations were higher in those from the North Pacific. The estimated toxic equivalents for black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific were in the same range of some fish-eating birds, which were highly contaminated by PCBs. The correlation between ratio of IUPAC 169/126 concentration and total PCBs concentration indicated the possibility of induction in cytochrome P450 activities in North Pacific albatrosses (P<0.01). The calculated hazard indices indicated that black-footed and Laysan albatrosses inhabiting in the North Pacific had similar threshold levels which were known to cause toxic effects in some populations of fish-eating birds.

  2. Apollo 13 spacecraft heads toward a splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo 13 spacecraft heads toward a splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean. The Apollo 13 Command Module splashed down in the South Pacific at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970. Note the capsule and its parachutes just visible against a gap in the dark clouds.

  3. The role of Pacific Trade Wind trends in driving ocean heat uptake and global hiatuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Nicola; England, Matthew; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Spence, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous work has noted the importance of the tropical Pacific in modulating global temperatures and in offsetting anthropogenic surface warming over decadal periods. This project investigates the role of Pacific Trade Wind changes in modulating the exchange of heat into and out of the sub-surface tropical Pacific Ocean. In particular, the trade wind acceleration observed since the early 1990's is examined, with a focus on ocean heat uptake dynamics associated with phase changes of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). A number of simulations are performed in an eddy-permitting global ocean model (MOM5) coupled to a sea ice model (SIS). To examine the recent period, the ocean model is forced with atmospheric CORE normal year forcing, with the observed Pacific wind trend from 1992-2013 superimposed linearly over the tropical Pacific region. The role of seasonally varying wind trends is further investigated by running a second experiment with seasonally varying wind anomalies added in the Pacific. To investigate how and when the subducted heat might re-surfaces from the ocean interior in the future, additional experiments are performed that include a ramp down of the trade winds under a variety of scenarios to mimic a future phase change in the IPO. This work has implications for decadal predictions of future global climate change.

  4. Geochemistry of manganese in the northeast Pacific Ocean off Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.J.; Murray, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Water collected along a transect normal to the coast of Washington was analyzed for dissolved and total dissolvable manganese (TDM). The vertical profiles exhibit the same general features observed elsewhere in the Pacific, but a horizontal section of the transect shows that concentrations increase markedly toward the continental margin. A surface maximum is probably due to fluvial inputs, especially from the Columbia River. Another possible source is the upwelling of manganese-enriched bottom water over the shelf. Horizontal gradients are also observed in the oxygen minimum as manganese concentrations decrease from the continental slope to open ocean water. Porewater and solid phase data suggest that manganese is being actively remobilized under reducing conditions in the slope sediments and is diffusing into the overlying seawater at a rate sufficient to balance losses by vertical mixing and particulate scavenging. Two stations on opposite sides of the Juan de Fuca Ridge have deep concentration maxima that are almost certainly due to injections of hydrothermal vent fluid along the ridge.

  5. Wind-driven interannual variability over the northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.

    2004-12-01

    Interannual variability of the sea surface height (SSH) over the northeast Pacific Ocean is hindcast with a reduced-gravity, quasi-geostrophic model that includes linear damping. The model is forced with monthly Ekman pumping fields derived from the NCEP reanalysis wind stresses. The numerical solution is compared with SSH observations derived from satellite altimeter data and gridded at a lateral resolution of 1 degree. Provided that the reduced gravity parameter is chosen appropriately, the results demonstrate that the model has significant hindcast skill over interior regions of the basin, away from continental boundaries. A damping time scale of 2 to 3 years is close to optimal, although the hindcast skill is not strongly dependent on this parameter. A simplification of the quasi-geostrophic model is considered in which Rossby waves are eliminated, yielding a Markov model driven by local Ekman pumping. The results approximately reproduce the hindcast skill of the more complete quasi-geostrophic model and indicate that the interannual SSH variability is dominated by the local response to wind forcing. There is a close correspondence the two leading empirical orthogonal modes of the local model and those of the observed SSH anomalies. The latter account for over half of the variance of the interannual signal over the region.

  6. Early Palaeogene temperature evolution of the southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bijl, Peter K; Schouten, Stefan; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Zachos, James C; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2009-10-08

    Relative to the present day, meridional temperature gradients in the Early Eocene age ( approximately 56-53 Myr ago) were unusually low, with slightly warmer equatorial regions but with much warmer subtropical Arctic and mid-latitude climates. By the end of the Eocene epoch ( approximately 34 Myr ago), the first major Antarctic ice sheets had appeared, suggesting that major cooling had taken place. Yet the global transition into this icehouse climate remains poorly constrained, as only a few temperature records are available portraying the Cenozoic climatic evolution of the high southern latitudes. Here we present a uniquely continuous and chronostratigraphically well-calibrated TEX(86) record of sea surface temperature (SST) from an ocean sediment core in the East Tasman Plateau (palaeolatitude approximately 65 degrees S). We show that southwest Pacific SSTs rose above present-day tropical values (to approximately 34 degrees C) during the Early Eocene age ( approximately 53 Myr ago) and had gradually decreased to about 21 degrees C by the early Late Eocene age ( approximately 36 Myr ago). Our results imply that there was almost no latitudinal SST gradient between subequatorial and subpolar regions during the Early Eocene age (55-50 Myr ago). Thereafter, the latitudinal gradient markedly increased. In theory, if Eocene cooling was largely driven by a decrease in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, additional processes are required to explain the relative stability of tropical SSTs given that there was more significant cooling at higher latitudes.

  7. Ocean color variability in the southern Atlantic and southeastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudorff, Natalia M.; Frouin, Robert J.; Kampel, Milton

    2012-10-01

    The chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) of surface waters is commonly retrieved from space using an empirical polynomial function of the maximum band ratio (MBR), i.e., the maximum ratio of remote sensing reflectance in selected spectral bands in the visible. Recent studies have revealed significant deviations in the relation between MBR and Chla across the oceans. The present work aims at accessing the main sources of MBR variability across the Southern Atlantic and South-east Pacific, using in situ data. The data was collected at 19 bio-optical CTD stations and 40 flowthrough stations during a cruise onboard the R/V Melville, from South Africa to Chile (February-March, 2011). The MBR was derived from modeled remote sensing reflectance using absorption and backscattering measurements. The second order MBR variations (MBR*) were obtained after subtraction of a global polynomial fit for CChla and Chla biases. Multivariate analyses were used to explain the variations with bio-optical properties and phytoplankton pigments. Chla overestimations were associated to high specific phytoplankton absorption (0.73), specific particle backscattering coefficient (0.42) and colored dissolved and particle organic matter (CDM) absorption normalized by non-water absorption (0.38), and vice-versa. The overestimations occurred at stations with dominance of small picoplankton, high concentration of bacteria, and high CDM, while underestimations were in microplankton dominated waters and low CDM. The results reveal important relations of the MBR* with the specific coefficient and associated phytoplankton community structure.

  8. Evidence for transoceanic migrations by loggerhead sea turtles in the southern Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, M.C.; FitzSimmons, N.N.; Limpus, C.J.; Kelez, S.; Velez-Zuazo, X.; Waycott, M.

    2009-01-01

    Post-hatchling loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the northern Pacific and northern Atlantic Oceans undertake transoceanic developmental migrations. Similar migratory behaviour is hypothesized in the South Pacific Ocean as post-hatchling loggerhead turtles are observed in Peruvian fisheries, yet no loggerhead rookeries occur along the coast of South America. This hypothesis was supported by analyses of the size-class distribution of 123 post-hatchling turtles in the South Pacific and genetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes of 103 nesting females in the southwest Pacific, 19 post-hatchlings stranded on the southeastern Australian beaches and 22 post-hatchlings caught by Peruvian longline fisheries. Only two haplotypes (CCP1 93% and CCP5 7%) were observed across all samples, and there were no significant differences in haplotype frequencies between the southwest Pacific rookeries and the post-hatchlings. By contrast, the predominant CCP1 haplotype is rarely observed in North Pacific rookeries and haplotype frequencies were strongly differentiated between the two regions (Fst=0.82; p=<0.00001). These results suggest that post-hatchling loggerhead turtles emerging from the southwest Pacific rookeries are undertaking transoceanic migrations to the southeastern Pacific Ocean, thus emphasizing the need for a broader focus on juvenile mortality throughout the South Pacific to develop effective conservation strategies. PMID:19324768

  9. Ancient Fungal Life in North Pacific Eocene Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, G.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.; Lustrino, M.

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the manifold life forms of the deep biosphere although there is increasing scientific evidence that an extensive biosphere does exist in extreme environments such as the rocks below the seafloor. The ODP Leg 200 was devoted to the study of Eocene oceanic crust of the North Pacific Ocean. Within a massive tholeiitic lava flow unit, at depth of 51 mbsf underneath a water column of about 5000 m, we found unique filamentous structures. Based on morphological traits like branching, septa and central pores the filaments are interpreted as fungi. These filaments were found within carbonate-filled vesicles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3 mm in diameter. The net of fungal hyphae completely fills the whole pore space from the basalt-carbonate boundary towards the center of the pores. The cross section dimension of these filaments is about 5-10 micrometer and the length differ from 50 to several hundreds micrometer. Thereby the cell septa of the hyphae are clearly visible. The number of hyphae ranges from some tenth to some hundreds per particular pore. The presence of pyrite within the carbonate cements points out anaerobic conditions in this habitat. After removing the carbonate by etching the vesicles with diluted formic acid, the 3-dimensional structure of the fungus could be clearly visualized. Fine structure analysis of the hyphae obtained by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed a network of tiny small fibers coating the surface of the hyphae. Semi-quantitative chemical analyses of the etched hyphae were conducted with an energy dispersive spectrometer system (EDS) coupled with the FE-SEM. The results evidence a chemical composition of the hyphae different from the surrounding carbonate matrix. Undisturbed filamentous growth through different calcite crystals within the vesicles and small open space between the fungi and matrix indicate endolithic fungal growth after the calcium carbonate filling of the vesicles. To the best

  10. The seismic Moho structure of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau, northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinchang; Sager, William W.; Korenaga, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus are large igneous provinces formed by extraordinary eruptions that create thick oceanic crust, whose structure is poorly known owing to the lack of deep-penetration seismic data. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and wide-angle refraction data allow us to show Moho structure beneath a large part of the Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Moho reflectors in the two data sets can be connected to trace the interface from the adjacent abyssal plain across much of the interior. The reflectors display varied character in continuity, shape, and amplitude, similar to characteristics reported in other locations. Beneath normal crust, the Moho is observed at ∼13 km depth (∼7 km below the seafloor) in MCS data and disappears at ∼20 km depth (∼17 km below the seafloor) beneath the high plateau. Moho at the distal flanks dips downward towards the center with slopes of ∼0.5°-1°, increasing to 3°-5° at the middle flanks. Seismic Moho topography is consistent with Airy isostasy, confirming this widely-applied assumption. Data from this study show that crustal thickness between the massifs in the interior of the plateau is nearly twice normal crustal thickness, despite the fact that this crust records apparently normal seafloor spreading magnetic lineations. The Moho model allows improved estimates of plateau area (5.33 ×105 km2) and volume (6.90 ×106 km3), the latter assuming that the entire crust was formed by Shatsky Rise volcanism because the massifs formed at spreading ridges. This study is unique in showing Moho depth and structure over an extraordinarily large area beneath an oceanic plateau, giving insight to plateau structure and formation.

  11. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  12. Oxygen gradients across the Pacific Ocean: Resolving an apparent discrepancy between atmospheric and ocean observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Steinkamp, K.; Stephens, B. B.; Tohjima, Y.; Gruber, N.

    2015-12-01

    We use oceanic and atmospheric model simulations to investigate and resolve a disagreement between observations of atmospheric O2/N2 and CO2 data and air-sea fluxes estimated from an ocean inversion. Atmospheric observations of O2/N2 and CO2 can be combined to calculate atmospheric potential oxygen (APO=O2/N2+1.1CO2), a powerful atmospheric tracer for ocean biogeochemical processes that is not influenced by terrestrial photosynthesis or respiration. A recent study identified a deep APO minimum in the Northwest Pacific from measurements collected on a repeat transect between New Zealand and Japan. This minimum could not be reproduced in atmospheric model simulations forced with air-sea fluxes estimated from ocean data, suggesting that oxygen uptake in the Northwest Pacific must be under-estimated by a factor of two. We use an updated ocean inverse method to estimate new air-sea fluxes from the ocean interior measurements at a higher spatial resolution than previous work using a suite of ten ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). These new air-sea flux estimates are able to match the atmospheric APO data when used as boundary conditions for an atmospheric transport model. The relative roles of thermal and biological processses in contributing to oxygen absorption by the North Pacific and other ocean regions is investigated.

  13. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We measured radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived (134)Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of (134)Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived (134)Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methylmercury Mass Budgets and Distribution Characteristics in the Western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Soerensen, Anne L; Hur, Jin; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Hahm, Doshik; Rhee, Tae Siek; Noh, Seam; Han, Seunghee

    2017-02-07

    Methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in marine organisms poses serious ecosystem and human health risk, yet the sources of MeHg in the surface and subsurface ocean remain uncertain. Here, we report the first MeHg mass budgets for the Western Pacific Ocean estimated based on cruise observations. We found the major net source of MeHg in surface water to be vertical diffusion from the subsurface layer (1.8-12 nmol m(-2) yr(-1)). A higher upward diffusion in the North Pacific (12 nmol m(-2) yr(-1)) than in the Equatorial Pacific (1.8-5.7 nmol m(-2) yr(-1)) caused elevated surface MeHg concentrations observed in the North Pacific. We furthermore found that the slope of the linear regression line for MeHg versus apparent oxygen utilization in the Equatorial Pacific was about 2-fold higher than that in the North Pacific. We suggest this could be explained by redistribution of surface water in the tropical convergence-divergence zone, supporting active organic carbon decomposition in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. On the basis of this study, we predict oceanic regions with high organic carbon remineralization to have enhanced MeHg concentrations in both surface and subsurface waters.

  15. Evolution of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in the Pacific Ocean: the origin of a supertramp clade.

    PubMed

    Cronk, Quentin C B; Kiehn, Michael; Wagner, Warren L; Smith, James F

    2005-06-01

    Cyrtandra comprises at least 600 species distributed throughout Malesia, where it is known for many local endemics and in Polynesia and Micronesia, where it is present on most island groups, and is among the most successfully dispersing genera of the Pacific. To ascertain the origin of the oceanic Pacific island species of Cyrtandra, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA of samples from throughout its geographical range. Because all oceanic Pacific island species form a well-supported clade, these species apparently result from a single initial colonization into the Pacific, possibly by a species from the eastern rim of SE Asia via a NW-to-SE stepping stone migration. Hawaiian species form a monophyletic group, probably as a result of a single colonization. The Pacific island clade of Cyrtandra dispersed across huge distances, in contrast to the apparent localization of the SE Asian clades. Although highly vagile, the Pacific clade is restricted to oceanic islands. Individual species are often endemic to a single island, characteristic of the "supertramp" life form sensu Diamond (1974, Science 184: 803-806). The evolution of fleshy fruit within Cyrtandra provided an adaptation for colonization throughout the oceanic Pacific via bird dispersal from a single common ancestor.

  16. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (November 2-December 5, 1996) and A24, A20, and A22 (May 30-September 3, 1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.M.

    2003-10-23

    This documentation describes the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) total alkalinity (TALK), and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations on the North Atlantic Ocean sections AR24, A24, A20, and A22 during the R/V Knorr Cruises 147-2, 151-2, 151-3, and 151-4 in 1996 and 1997. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the expeditions began at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on October 24, 1996, and ended at Woods Hole on September 3, 1997. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. A total of 5,614 water samples were analyzed for discrete TCO{sub 2} using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMAs) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2}. The overall accuracy of the TCO{sub 2} determination was {+-} 1.59 {micro}mol/kg. The TALK was determined in a total of 6,088 discrete samples on all sections by potentiometric titration using an automated titration system developed at the University of Miami. The accuracy of the TALK determination was {+-} 3 {micro}mol/kg. A total of 2,465 discrete water samples were collected for determination of pCO{sub 2} in seawater on sections A24, A20, and A22. The pCO{sub 2} was measured by means of an equilibrator-IR system by scientists from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. The precision of the measurements was estimated to be about {+-} 0.15%, based on the reproducibility of the replicate equilibrations on a single hydrographic station. The North Atlantic data set is available as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of 12 ASCII data files, one Ocean Data View-formatted data file, a NDP-082 ASCII text file, a NDP-082 PDF file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files, as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  17. Pervasive reactive melt migration through fast-spreading lower oceanic crust (Hess Deep, equatorial Pacific Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenberg, C. Johan; MacLeod, Christopher J.; Howard, Kerry A.; Godard, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is the most abundant magma on Earth, and provides a geochemical window into the mantle. Deriving mantle composition and melting processes from the erupted lavas requires correction to be made for their evolution as they pass through and generate the oceanic crust. This is typically done by assuming that modification of melts in crustal magma chambers occurs exclusively by fractional crystallisation. However, extensive mineral major- and trace element data from a full section of fast-spread lower crustal rocks exposed in Hess Deep (equatorial Pacific Ocean) demonstrate that their evolution is instead controlled by reactive porous flow. These reactions lead to a strong enrichment in, and fractionation of, incompatible trace elements in the melt (as recorded by clinopyroxene compositions), leading to melt compositions far outside of the compositional realm of MORB both in terms of trace element abundances and ratios. The reactive signature increases in strength up section, peaking in varitextured gabbros interpreted to represent the fossilised axial melt lens, indicating that reactive porous flow occurred on the scale of the entire lower crust. The enrichment of the melt is coupled with a strong trace element depletion of plagioclase, olivine, and, to a lesser extent, clinopyroxene cores, suggesting that these phases represent the residues of the reactions from which trace elements have been removed. The dominant role of reactive porous flow, and the resulting deviations from fractional crystallisation predictions, suggest that the lower oceanic crust plays a much more complex and significant role in modifying the compositions of MORB than previously expected, with consequent implications for models of mantle processes.

  18. The Effect of ENSO on Phytoplankton Composition in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (p less than 0.01) with the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). In the North Central Pacific, MEI and chlorophyll were significantly (p<0.01) correlated along with two of the phytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Ni a events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  19. Aerosol iron solubility: Observations from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Clifton Stryker

    Large portions of the world ocean are less productive than they should be based on their nutrient concentrations. Dubbed high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, primary productivity in these areas may be limited by any number of factors including high zooplankton grazing rates as well as light and silicon limitation but, in general, iron (Fe) appears to most often be the factor limiting production. With approximately 30% of the world ocean comprised of Fe-limited HNLC waters, it is clear that the input of Fe to these waters, and its subsequent bioavailability, has an important role in stimulating primary productivity and lowering pCO2 possibly moderating the rise of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and therefore could influence the planet's climate. The work described in this dissertation represents an effort to characterize the elemental solubility, including Fe, of marine aerosols. The research was conducted on four oceanographic research cruises in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In total, over 170 aerosol samples were collected in both total and size-fractionated samples. Precipitation events were sampled when possible to characterize the wet deposition of marine aerosols. The data will constrain estimates of aerosol Fe deposition to HNLC regions and improve models of the global carbon cycle. Elemental solubilities were measured using both seawater and ultrapure deionized water leaching methods under trace metal clean conditions. Leaching of the aerosol samples was conducted using a rapid exposure, small volume technique. Ultrapure deionized water leaches were analyzed directly by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), a relatively simple analysis technique. Soluble Fe in seawater leaches was analyzed by HR-ICP-MS following column extraction. Additionally, soluble aerosol Fe(II) was measured on four of the cruises. The sampling and analytical methods will be discussed in this dissertation and the results compared

  20. Dynamical excitation of the tropical Pacific Ocean and ENSO variability by Little Ice Age cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustic, Gerald T.; Koutavas, Athanasios; Marchitto, Thomas M.; Linsley, Braddock K.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to a lack of evidence from the eastern equatorial Pacific. We reconstructed sea surface temperature, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity, and the tropical Pacific zonal gradient for the past millennium from Galápagos ocean sediments. We document a mid-millennium shift (MMS) in ocean-atmosphere circulation around 1500-1650 CE, from a state with dampened ENSO and strong zonal gradient to one with amplified ENSO and weak gradient. The MMS coincided with the deepest LIA cooling and was probably caused by a southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone. The peak of the MCA (900-1150 CE) was a warm period in the eastern Pacific, contradicting the paradigm of a persistent La Niña pattern.

  1. Changing El Niño could reshape Pacific Ocean biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Over the past few decades, scientific understanding of El Niño has grown increasingly complex. Traditionally viewed as a periodic warming focused largely in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, El Niño is associated with reduced productivity in South American fisheries and changing temperature, pressure, and rainfall patterns around the world. In the 1990s, however, researchers started to notice a new kind of El Niño, one where anomalous ocean temperatures were concentrated mainly in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. This previously unknown mode of variability, now termed the Central Pacific (CP) El Niño, in contrast to the classical Eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño, has increased in frequency and intensity over the past 30 years. Some scientists expect CP El Niños to become the dominant El Niño variant in response to global warming, so understanding their differing effects is a pressing concern.

  2. Dynamical excitation of the tropical Pacific Ocean and ENSO variability by Little Ice Age cooling.

    PubMed

    Rustic, Gerald T; Koutavas, Athanasios; Marchitto, Thomas M; Linsley, Braddock K

    2015-12-18

    Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to a lack of evidence from the eastern equatorial Pacific. We reconstructed sea surface temperature, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity, and the tropical Pacific zonal gradient for the past millennium from Galápagos ocean sediments. We document a mid-millennium shift (MMS) in ocean-atmosphere circulation around 1500-1650 CE, from a state with dampened ENSO and strong zonal gradient to one with amplified ENSO and weak gradient. The MMS coincided with the deepest LIA cooling and was probably caused by a southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone. The peak of the MCA (900-1150 CE) was a warm period in the eastern Pacific, contradicting the paradigm of a persistent La Niña pattern.

  3. Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years: Initial results of the Sino-German Pacific Ocean Experiment (SiGePax)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerrit; Lembke-Jene, Lester; Scholz, Patrick; Gong, Xun; Max, Lars; Tiedemann, Ralf; Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Liu, Yanguang; Wu, Yonghua; Ge, Shulan

    2016-04-01

    Arctic and Subarctic Regions are most sensitive to climate change, and reversely provide dramatic feedbacks to the global climate. Paleoclimate studies in these regions are of vital importance for a better understanding of the natural processes in the climate system prior to the influences of human activities. With a focus on discovering paleoceanographic evolutions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during the last 20,000 years, we show first results of the German-Sino cooperation programme SiGePax. We present a collection of sediment cores covering climatical key regions in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Our climate simulations provide the first step towards 'Data-Model Syntheses', which are crucial for exploring the underlying mechanisms of observed changes in proxy records. Analyses of Holocene sea surface temperature records on a basin-wide scale show a spatially heterogenous, but no simple warming or cooling pattern, indicating that extratropical atmospheric dynamics is involved. The temperature data are compared to model scenarios. We use the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a global configuration, with a regional focus on the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean to provide the underlying dynamics. We find that the Okhotsk Sea is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice cover, where due to brine release, the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water is formed, contributing to North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  4. Deep circulation in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, W. Brechner; Warren, Bruce A.

    2001-04-01

    We deployed for two years a line of nine current-meter moorings bearing instruments at depths of 2, 3, and 4 km running southeast of Hokkaido, to measure currents above the continental slope, Kuril Trench, and Hokkaido Rise. The mean flow was directed southwestward above the continental slope, northeastward above the trench and upper rise (except at one mooring), and westward onto the lower rise. The mean currents were highly barotropic, except above the continental slope, and unexpectedly swift (8 cm s -1 in the trench). The velocity pattern above the Hokkaido Rise is like that observed earlier above the Aleutian Rise at Long. 175°W, and may be due, as suggested for the latter, to varying topographic beta associated with the curvature of the bottom profile of the rise. Thermal-wind fields from three CTD sections along the mooring line, while consistent among themselves, were unlike the observed mean shear, and therefore useless for estimating mean transports. Estimates based on the direct current measurements alone, for depths greater than 2000 m, are 4×10 6 m3 s-1 southwestward above the continental slope and 20×10 6 m3 s-1 northeastward in the trench; but the former might be too small, the latter too large, by as much as 10×10 6 m3 s-1 because of the relatively broad mooring spacing. These measurements, in combination with many others reported earlier, unequivocally describe swift deep southward flow along the inshore sides of the Izu-Ogasawara, Japan, and Kuril Trenches, and opposed flow along their offshore sides, as well as above their axes (except in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench). The southward flow may be, at least in part, the recirculation western-boundary current predicted for the northern North Pacific, although the oceanic geometry is different from, and more complicated than, that of the classic analytical predictive models. Reasons for the strong opposed flow are obscure. Water properties reveal that deep water spreads into the Izu-Ogasawara Trench

  5. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at Kaena...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at Kaena...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at Kaena...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at Kaena...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at Kaena...

  10. Metal quotas of plankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Benjamin S.; Baines, Stephen B.; Bozard, James B.; Vogt, Stefan; Walker, Elyse A.; Nelson, David M.

    2011-03-01

    The micronutrient metals Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn are required for phytoplankton growth, and their availability influences ocean productivity and biogeochemistry. Here we report the first direct measurements of these metals in phytoplankton and protozoa from the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Cells representing 4 functional groups (diatoms, autotrophic flagellates, heterotrophic flagellates and autotrophic picoplankton) were collected from the surface mixed layer using trace-metal clean techniques during transects across the equator at 110°W and along the equator between 110°W and 140°W. Metal quotas were determined for individual cells with synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy, and cellular stoichiometries were calculated relative to measured P and S, as well as to C calculated from biovolume. Bulk particulate (>3 μm) metal concentrations were also determined at 3 stations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for comparison to single-cell stoichiometries. Phosphorus-normalized Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn ratios were significantly higher in diatoms than other cell types, while Co stoichiometries were highest in autotrophic flagellates. The magnitude of these effects ranged from approximately 2-fold for Mn in diatoms and autotrophic flagellates to nearly an order of magnitude for Fe in diatoms and picoplankton. Variations in S-normalized metal stoichiometries were also significant but of lower magnitude (1.4 to 6-fold). Cobalt and Mn quotas were 1.6 and 3-fold higher in autotrophic than heterotrophic flagellates. Autotrophic picoplankton were relatively enriched in Ni but depleted in Zn, matching expectations based on known uses of these metals in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Significant spatial variability in metal stoichiometries was also observed. At two stations deviations in Fe stoichiometries reflected features in the dissolved Fe distribution. At these same stations, high Ni stoichiometries in autotrophic flagellates were correlated with elevated ammonium

  11. Diet Composition and Trophic Ecology of Northeast Pacific Ocean Sharks.

    PubMed

    Bizzarro, Joseph J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Smith, Wade D; Cortés, Enric

    2017-01-01

    Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids. Several large, pelagic apex predator species occur in the ENP, but the largest species (i.e., Basking Shark, Whale Shark) consume zooplankton or small nekton. Size-based dietary variability is substantial for many species, and segregation of juvenile and adult foraging habitats also is common (e.g., Horn Shark, Shortfin Mako). Temporal dietary differences are most pronounced for temperate, nearshore species with wide size ranges, and least pronounced for smaller species in extreme latitudes and deep-water regions. Sympatric sharks often occupy various trophic positions, with resource overlap differing by space and time and some sharks serving as prey to other species. Most coastal species remain in the same general region over time and feed opportunistically on variable prey inputs (e.g., season migrations, spawning, or recruitment events), whereas pelagic, oceanic species actively seek hot spots of prey abundance that are spatiotemporally variable. The influence of sharks on ecosystem structure and regulation has been downplayed compared to that of large teleosts species with higher per capita consumption rates (e.g., tunas, billfishes). However, sharks also exert indirect influences on prey populations by causing behavioural changes that may result in restricted ranges and reduced fitness. Except for food web modelling

  12. Release of CO2 from the subarctic Pacific Ocean over the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, W. R.; Rae, J. W. B.; Shevenell, A.; Lear, C. H.; Foster, G. L.; Wilson, K. E.; Sarnthein, M.

    2014-12-01

    The ~90 ppmv increase in atmospheric CO2 over the last deglaciation was most likely driven by changes in the way the high latitude oceans regulate the exchange of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) between the ocean and atmosphere, however the mechanisms involved in this repartitioning remain unclear. The subarctic Pacific Ocean is currently a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere due to mixing of DIC-rich intermediate waters into the surface ocean and incomplete nutrient utilisation. It is hypothesised that during the last glacial period, greater stratification in the high latitudes, including the subarctic Pacific, reduced CO2 outgassing and increased DIC storage within the deep ocean. During deglaciation, a breakdown in ocean stratification returned the deeply sequestered DIC back to the surface ocean and atmosphere. We present a new deglacial record of carbonate ion concentration [CO32-] and bottom water temperature from the intermediate to deep subarctic Pacific Ocean based on paired Li/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in benthic foraminifera Uvigerina senticosa from marine sediment core MD01-2416 (51.268°N, 167.725°E, 2317 m water depth). The data indicate a decrease in [CO32-] within the intermediate-deep waters of ~40 µmol/kg during glacial times, equivalent to a ~150 µmol/kg increase in DIC using modern alkalinity. At ~16 ka, an increase in [CO32-], coeval with warmer bottom waters and an increase in benthic ∆14C, denotes a transfer of DIC out of the intermediate-deep subarctic Pacific Ocean. Boron isotopes measured on planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s) in the same core show surface waters in the subarctic Pacific had a higher pH during glacial times, and a reduction in pH over deglaciation. This trend supports the hypothesis that CO2 outgassing from the subarctic Pacific was reduced during the last glacial and increased during deglaciation.

  13. Marine Photochemistry of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Shiller, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    A systematical study of hydrogen peroxide in seawater, rainwater, and marine air in the Northwest Pacific Ocean was conducted during a transect from Osaka, Japan, to Hawaii, USA, in May and June of 2002. During the transect, surface seawater samples were analyzed continuously for peroxide which showed the effects of photochemical production, wet deposition, and terrestrial impact. In the surface waters, hydrogen peroxide decreased with latitude from a little over 25 nM in the north (50°N) to more than 150 nM in the south (22°N). This latitudinal variation of hydrogen peroxide followed a trend similar to shipboard measurement of ultraviolet radiation. Diel variations of surface hydrogen peroxide were observed at several locations, with surface water concentrations increasing during the day and decreasing at night. The concentration of surface water peroxide increased to over 200 nM following rain events. Higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>150 nM) were also observed near Asia. The profiles of hydrogen peroxide were obtained at 10 stations that exhibited surface maxima of 24 to 120 nM. The rate constant of dark decay varied from 0.08 d-1 to 0.22 d-1. Rate of photo-production decreased from 10 nM hr-1 at noon to 0 at night. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide varied from 16 μM to 526 μM in rainwater. The data set permits a systematical analysis and modeling of factors regulating the dynamics of hydrogen peroxide in marine environment.

  14. Meiofauna hotspot in the Atacama Trench, eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danovaro, R.; Gambi, C.; Della Croce, N.

    2002-05-01

    Meiofaunal assemblages were investigated (in terms of abundance, biomass, individual size and community structure) at bathyal and hadal depths (from 1050 to 7800 m) in the Atacama Trench in the upwelling sector of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, in relation to the distribution and availability of potential food sources (phytopigments, biochemical compounds and bacterial biomass) in this highly productive region. Meiofaunal density and biomass in the Atacama Trench were one to two orders of magnitude higher than values reported in other "oligotrophic" hadal systems. The Atacama Trench presented very high concentrations of nutritionally rich organic matter at 7800-m depth and displayed characteristics typical of eutrophic systems. Surprisingly, despite a decrease in chlorophyll- a and organic matter concentrations of about 50% from bathyal to hadal depths, meiofaunal abundance in hadal sediments was 10-fold higher than at bathyal depths. As indicated by the higher protein to carbohydrate ratio observed in trench sediments, the extraordinarily high meiofaunal density reported in the Atacama Trench was more dependent upon organic matter quality than on its quantity. The trophic richness of the system was reflected by a shift of the size structure of the benthic organisms. In contrast with typical trends of deep-sea systems, the ratio of bacterial to meiofaunal biomass decreased with increasing depth and, in the Atacama Trench, meiofaunal biomass largely dominated total benthic biomass. Nematodes at 7800-m depth accounted for more than 80% of total density and about 50% of total meiofaunal biomass. In hadal sediments a clear meiofaunal dwarfism was observed: the individual body size of nematodes and other taxa was reduced by 30-40% compared to individuals collected at bathyal depths. The peculiarity of this trophic-rich system allows rejection of previous hypotheses, which explained deep-sea dwarfism by the extremely oligotrophic conditions typical of deep-sea regions.

  15. Biomineralisation of the ferromanganese crusts in the Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Guan, Yao; Gong, Jun-Li; Lu, Yang; Lu, Rong-Fei; Wang, Chi

    2017-04-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts are deep-sea sedimentary polymetallic minerals that are explored for their economic potential, particularly for Mn, Cu, Co, Ni and rare earth elements (REEs). The precipitation mechanism of the metallic elements in crusts has remained controversial between chemical oxidation (abiotic origin) and microbial enzymatic processes (biomineralization). In this study, the microbial mineralization in ferromanganese crusts from the Western Pacific Ocean was explored. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses showed abundant micron-scale spherical aggregates of Mn-oxide filaments (20-80 nm), which are closely associated with filamentous cells within the biofilm (biofilm mineralization) exist within the stromatolitic structure. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis suggests that biofilms are dominated by three Mn-oxidizing bacterial species from the families Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas. In addition, Mn concentration in the biofilms is approximately 108 times that of the associated seawater (2.3 ppb Mn). Iron (16.2 wt%), Cu (0.11 wt%), Co (0.719 wt%) and Ni (0.459 wt%) were found in the biofilms via X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). We suggest that biomineralization provides a new perspective for understanding Fe-Mn crustal-related mineral deposits, and the ultra-high microbial trace element enrichment ability is noteworthy. Utilization of microbial activities in accumulating precious metals from seawater may offer a viable alternative for the world's metal production in the future.

  16. Tropical Storm Yagi in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    In early June, Tropical storm Yagi developed from Tropical Depression 03W in the Western North Pacific Ocean. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image on June 10 at 1:55 UTC (9:55 P.M.) as the storm was spinning near 25.0 north and 135.2 east, or about 396 miles (637 km) west of Iwo Jima, Japan. At that time, the storm had maximum sustained winds 51.7 mph (83.3 km/h). The image shows a tightly-wrapped circulation, a clouded eye and storm bands reached furthest out in the northeast quadrant. The tropical depression first formed on June 6 east of the Philippines, and intensified on the weekend of June 8-9, when it was given the name of Yagi. Also known as Dante, the storm reached the maximum wind speeds on June 10 and 11, after which it began to weaken as it moved into cooler waters. On June 14, Yagi’s remnants passed about 200 miles south of Tokyo, and brought soaking rains to the coastline of Japan’s Honshu Island. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Ross, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults.

  18. Can Indian Ocean SST variability impact TC activity in the South Pacific? A Spatial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.

    2015-04-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) represent a significant natural hazard to the 15 island nations and 2.7 million inhabitants of the South Pacific, accounting for 76% of reported disasters in the region since 1950. This vast area, dominated by the coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions of the South Pacific fuels the highly variable nature of TCs (both spatially and temporally), leading to difficulties in planning for and responding to these extreme events. While it is well known that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays a significant role in modulating the background state on which TCs form, there are other large-scale climate drivers operating on annual timescales or longer within the South Pacific (e.g. ENSO Modoki and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation) and outside the Pacific Basin (e.g. the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode) that may also influence TC formation. In response to this issue, the impact of these large-scale climate drivers upon the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis is assessed for the South Pacific region (5o-35oS, 145oE-130oW) over a 67-year period (1945-2011). It is shown, that in addition to the impact of 'Pacific-centric' climate drivers, eastern Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures significantly impact the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific. In particular, warming (cooling) in the eastern Indian Ocean is found to result in an eastward (westward) shift in the average location of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific (up to 712km between extreme phases). One mechanism that may account for this east/west modulation of TC activity in the South Pacific is the propagation of warmer water from the Timor Sea through the Coral Sea to the Pacific, resulting in a strengthening of the Pacific Warm Pool and associated meteorological characteristics connected with tropical cyclogenesis. Understanding how other large-scale climate modes interact with Indian Ocean processes is important

  19. Deglacial Millennial-scale Calcium Carbonate Spikes in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, M. O.; Timmermann, A.; Harada, N.; Okazaki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous paleoproxy records from the subarctic Pacific Ocean show two very pronounced deglacial peaks in calcium carbonate content for the Heinrich 1/ Bolling-Allerod (H1-BA) transition (at 14 ka) and for the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition (at 11 ka). Focusing on the H1-BA transition, some model simulations capture the North Pacific shift from ventilated to stratified conditions and from cooling to warming conditions via oceanic and atmospheric connections between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. To test the impact of these physical scenarios (variations in ocean stratification and temperature during the H1-BA transition) on calcite production or preservation, we conduct a series of idealized experiments using the Earth System Model Intermediate Complexity LOVECLIM. The variations in North Pacific Ocean stratification by anomalous freshwater forcing show low calcite productivity in associated with the subsurface nutrient decline. On the other hand, the rapid H1-BA warming of the North Pacific Ocean induced by anomalous heat forcing in turn increases calcite productivity due to the temperature-dependent growth rate of phytoplankton. These results suggest the possibility that the millennial-scale calcium carbonate peaks are the result of surface biogeochemical responses to the climate transition, not by the deep circulation response.

  20. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Cerovecki, Ivana; McClean, Julie; Koracin, Darko

    2014-11-14

    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  1. Mercury cycling over the North Pacific Ocean: Influence of South East Asia dust depostion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalin, L.; Laurier, F. J.

    2002-12-01

    Mercury in the marine environment was investigated as part of a comprehensive study of its biogeochemical cycle in the North Pacific Ocean on the 2002 IOC cruise. The impact of dust deposition on the concentration of mercury in surface water was assessed using measurements in the water column (total and gaseous dissolved species) as well as in the marine boundary layer. Incubation experiments were performed in order to investigate the role of photochemistry in the air-sea exchange of mercury. In addition we will present a comparative study of mercury cycling between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. The effect of ENSO to the variability of sea surface height in western Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean and its connectivity to the Indonesia Throughflow (ITF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejeki, H. A.; Munasik; Kunarso

    2017-02-01

    The differences of altimetry in the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean causes the Indonesia Throughflow or commonly called ITF. The altimerty will have variation when the ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscilation) occur. The altimetry data from AVISO is used to find out how much the influence of ENSO to variations of that indicator in particular the altimetry difference between the western Pacific Ocean to the eastern Indian Ocean. When El Nino occured, the altimetry in the western Pacific Ocean will be lower than the altimetry of eastern Indian Ocean while the opposite condition occurs when the La Nina happened that the differences of altimetry in western Pacific Ocean higher than the altimetry in eastern Indian Ocean. These differences will affect the transport of ITF.

  3. A new species of Nezumia (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) from Fieberling Guyot, eastern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R R

    2001-07-01

    A new species of the macrourine genus Nezumia is described from specimens collected from the crest of Fieberling Guyot in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The new species is distinguishable from all other Nezumia species chiefly on the basis of a high number of pelvic fin rays, a relatively high number of first dorsal fin soft rays, a steep blunt snout lacking scales ventrally, a relatively weak suborbital ridge, and a moderately long, thin barbel. Although possibly endemic to the Baja California Seamount Province, the new species appears to lack close relatives among the other Nezumia species of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. It might have arrived there either from a disjunct Tethyan distribution, thus retaining close relatives among the Atlantic Ocean species of Nezumia, or by way of stepping-stone dispersal from the Indo-west Pacific Ocean.

  4. Tropical Cyclone Footprint in the Ocean Mixed Layer Observed by Argo in the Northwest Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-25

    RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2014JC010316 Tropical cyclone footprint in the ocean mixed layer observed by Argo in the Northwest Pacific HongLi Fu1...Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA Abstract This study systematically investigated the ocean mixed layer responses to tropical cyclone (TC...5 m, with IL cooling up to 0.4C. 1. Introduction Oceanic response to tropical cyclones (TCs) has been a hot topic due to its importance for climate

  5. A deeper respired carbon pool in the glacial equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradtmiller, L. I.; Anderson, R. F.; Sachs, J. P.; Fleisher, M. Q.

    2010-11-01

    Atmospheric pCO 2 was approximately 80 ppm lower during the last glacial period than during pre-industrial times. Identifying the fate of that carbon has been one of the great challenges in paleoceanography. We present evidence from ten equatorial Pacific Ocean sediment cores to show that the deep Pacific Ocean likely stored more carbon during the last glacial period than the Holocene. The concentration of the redox-sensitive metal uranium (U) in sediments was systematically greater during the last glacial period than during the Holocene, indicating more reducing conditions in glacial-age sediments. Reconstructions of biogenic opal flux indicate that changes in U distribution were not the result of changes in biological productivity and the ensuing rain of organic carbon to the sea floor, which also affects the redox conditions of the sediments. Together, these results lead to the interpretation that bottom water in the equatorial Pacific during the glacial period had significantly lower oxygen concentration than during the Holocene, and a correspondingly greater level of respired CO 2. This conclusion is supported by evidence for greater preservation of brassicasterol, a biomarker produced by diatoms, in glacial-age sediments of the eastern equatorial Pacific. The presence of additional respired CO 2 in the glacial deep ocean would have lowered atmospheric pCO 2 by 1) increasing the total storage of CO 2 in the glacial ocean and 2) increasing ocean alkalinity following a transient carbonate dissolution event. Our results are consistent with recently published data from the North Pacific Ocean; this suggests that increased carbon storage in the glacial deep Pacific Ocean was a basin-wide phenomenon, consistent with a large-scale transfer of carbon to the deep ocean during glacial periods.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxin; Halsall, Crispin J; Xie, Zhiyong; Koetke, Danijela; Mi, Wenying; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gao, Guoping

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surficial sediments along a marine transect from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The highest average Σ18PAHs concentrations were observed along the continental slope of the Canada Basin in the Arctic (68.3 ± 8.5 ng g(-1) dw), followed by sediments in the Chukchi Sea shelf (49.7 ± 21.2 ng g(-1) dw) and Bering Sea (39.5 ± 11.3 ng g(-1) dw), while the Bering Strait (16.8 ± 7.1 ng g(-1) dw) and Central Arctic Ocean sediments (13.1 ± 9.6 ng g(-1) dw) had relatively lower average concentrations. The use of principal components analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR) indicated that on average oil related or petrogenic sources contributed ∼42% of the measured PAHs in the sediments and marked by higher concentrations of two methylnaphthalenes over the non-alkylated parent PAH, naphthalene. Wood and coal combustion contributed ∼32%, and high temperature pyrogenic sources contributing ∼26%. Petrogenic sources, such as oil seeps, allochthonous coal and coastally eroded material such as terrigenous sediments particularly affected the Chukchi Sea shelf and slope of the Canada Basin, while biomass and coal combustion sources appeared to have greater influence in the central Arctic Ocean, possibly due to the effects of episodic summertime forest fires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the cloud activation potential of open ocean and coastal aerosol in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidaurre, G.; Brooks, S. D.; Thornton, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Continuous measurements of aerosol concentration, particle size distribution, and cloud activation potential between 0.15 and 1.2% supersaturation were performed for open ocean and coastal air during the Halocarbon Air Sea Transect - Pacific (HalocAST) campaign. The nearly 7000 mile transect, aboard the R/V Thomas G. Thompson, started in Punta Arenas, Chile and ended in Seattle, Washington. Air mass source regions were identified on the basis of air mass back trajectories. For air masses in the southern hemisphere, aerosols sampled over the open ocean acted as cloud condensation nuclei at supersaturations between 0.5 and 1%, while coastal aerosols required higher supersaturations. In the pristine open ocean, observed aerosol concentrations were very low, typically below 200 cm-3, with an average particle diameter of approximately 0.4 μm. On the other hand, coastal aerosol concentrations were above 1000 cm-3 with an average particle diameter of 0.7 μm. Air masses originating in the northern hemisphere had much higher aerosol loads, between 500 and 2000 cm-3 over the ocean and above 4000 cm-3 at the coast. In both cases, the average particle diameters were approximately 0.5 μm. Measurements suggest that the northern hemisphere, substantially more polluted than the southern hemisphere, is characterized by alternating regions of high and medium aerosol number concentration. In addition, measurements of microorganism and organic matter concentration in the surface layer of the ocean water were conducted along the cruise track, to test the hypothesis that biogenic aerosol containing marine organic matter contribute to cloud activation potential. There was a significant correlation between mean aerosol diameter and prokaryote concentration in surface waters (r = 0.585, p < 0.01, n = 24), and between critical supersaturation and prokaryote concentration in surface waters (r = 0.538, p < 0.01, n = 24). This correlation indicates that larger aerosols occurred over water

  8. Reviewing the circulation and mixing of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Pacific using evidence from geochemical tracers and Argo float trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, Helen C.; Sutton, Phil J.; Williams, Michael J. M.; Opdyke, Bradley N.

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from physical and geochemical tracers measured during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) shows that there are four sub-types of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) in the South Pacific. The main formation region of AAIW is the southeast Pacific, where fresh, cold, high oxygen, low nutrient, intermediate waters are created. This AAIW is transported north and mixes with Equatorial Pacific Intermediate Waters (EqPIW), themselves a combination of AAIW and nutrient rich, old North Pacific deep waters. 'Tasman' AAIW found in the Coral and Tasman Seas is more saline and warmer than the main subtropical gyre, and appears to have formed from mixing of AAIW with thermocline waters in the Tasman Gyre. Tasman AAIW leaks out of the Tasman basin to the north of New Zealand and along Chatham Rise, and also in the South Tasman Sea via the Tasman Leakage. Another source of relatively fresh, high oxygen, low nutrient, young AAIW comes directly from the Southern Ocean, flowing into the southwest and central South Pacific Basin, west of the East Pacific Rise. This 'Southern Ocean' (SO) AAIW is most likely a mixture of AAIW formed locally at the Subantarctic Front (SAF), and AAIW formed along the SAF in the southeast Pacific or Indian oceans and transported by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Interpreting physical and geochemical tracers, combined with velocity estimates from Argo floats, and previous research, has allowed us to refine the detailed circulation pattern of AAIW in the South Pacific, especially in the topographically complex southwest Pacific.

  9. On the Enigmatic Birth of the Pacific Plate within the Panthalassa Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschman, L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The oceanic Pacific Plate started forming in Early Jurassic time within the vast Panthalassa Ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangea and contains the oldest lithosphere that can directly constrain the geodynamic history of the circum-Pangean Earth. Here, we show that the geometry of the oldest marine magnetic anomalies of the Pacific Plate attests of a unique plate kinematic event that sparked the plate's birth in virtually a point location, surrounded by the Izanagi, Farallon and Phoenix Plates. We reconstruct the unstable triple junction that caused the plate reorganization leading to the birth of the Pacific Plate and present a model of the plate tectonic configuration that preconditioned this event. We show that a stable, but migrating triple junction involving the gradual cessation of intra-oceanic Panthalassa subduction culminated in the formation of an unstable transform-transform-transform triple junction. The consequent plate boundary reorganization resulted in the formation of a stable triangular three-ridge system from which the nascent Pacific Plate expanded. We link the birth of the Pacific Plate to the regional termination of intra-Panthalassa subduction. Remnants thereof have been identified in the deep lower mantle of which the locations may provide paleolongitudinal control on the absolute location of the early Pacific Plate. Our results constitute an essential step in unraveling the plate tectonic evolution of `Thalassa Incognita' comprising the comprehensive Panthalassa Ocean surrounding Pangea.

  10. Deformation-related volcanism in the Pacific Ocean linked to the Hawaiian-Emperor bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, John M.; Hoernle, Kaj; Müller, R. Dietmar; Morgan, Jason P.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Hauff, Folkmar; Sandwell, David T.; Jokat, Wilfried; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Stoffers, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ocean islands, seamounts and volcanic ridges are thought to form above mantle plumes. Yet, this mechanism cannot explain many volcanic features on the Pacific Ocean floor and some might instead be caused by cracks in the oceanic crust linked to the reorganization of plate motions. A distinctive bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain has been linked to changes in the direction of motion of the Pacific Plate, movement of the Hawaiian plume, or a combination of both. However, these links are uncertain because there is no independent record that precisely dates tectonic events that affected the Pacific Plate. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of lava samples collected from the Musicians Ridges, lines of volcanic seamounts formed close to the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. We find that the geochemical signature of these lavas is unlike typical ocean island basalts and instead resembles mid-ocean ridge basalts. We infer that the seamounts are unrelated to mantle plume activity and instead formed in an extensional setting, due to deformation of the Pacific Plate. 40Ar/39Ar dating reveals that the Musicians Ridges formed during two time windows that bracket the time of formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, 53-52 and 48-47 million years ago. We conclude that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend was formed by plate-mantle reorganization, potentially triggered by a series of subduction events at the Pacific Plate margins.

  11. Robustness of observation-based decadal sea level variability in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidheesh, A. G.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Meyssignac, B.; Hamlington, B.; de Boyer Montegut, C.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the consistency of Indo-Pacific decadal sea level variability in 10 gridded, observation-based sea level products for the 1960-2010 period. Decadal sea level variations are robust in the Pacific, with more than 50% of variance explained by decadal modulation of two flavors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (classical ENSO and Modoki). Amplitude of decadal sea level variability is weaker in the Indian Ocean than in the Pacific. All data sets indicate a transmission of decadal sea level signals from the western Pacific to the northwest Australian coast through the Indonesian throughflow. The southern tropical Indian Ocean sea level variability is associated with decadal modulations of ENSO in reconstructions but not in reanalyses or in situ data set. The Pacific-independent Indian Ocean decadal sea level variability is not robust but tends to be maximum in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The inconsistency of Indian Ocean decadal variability across the sea level products calls for caution in making definitive conclusions on decadal sea level variability in this basin.

  12. Aerosol transport along the Andes from Amazonia to the remote Pacific Ocean: A multiyear CALIOP assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Quentin; Ekman, Annica; Krejci, Radovan

    2015-04-01

    The free troposphere over South America and the Pacific Ocean is a particularly interesting region to study due to the prevailing easterly wind direction, forcing air over Amazonia towards the Pacific Ocean but encountering a natural barrier - the Andes - in between which might play a significant role. In addition, the strong contrast between the wet, relatively clean season and the dry, relatively polluted season as well as the difference between day and night meteorological conditions may influence the vertical distribution of aerosols in the free troposphere. Six years (2007-2012) of CALIOP observations at both day and night were used to investigate the vertical distribution, transport and removal processes of aerosols over South America and the Pacific Ocean. The multiyear assessment shows that aerosols, mainly biomass burning particles emitted during the dry season in Amazonia, may be lifted along the Andes. During their lifting, aerosols remain in the boundary layer which makes them subject to scavenging and deposition processes. The removal aerosol extinction rate was quantified. After reaching the top of the Andes, free tropospheric aerosols are likely pushed by the large-scale subsidence towards the marine boundary layer (MBL) during their transport over the Pacific Ocean. CALIOP observations may indicate that aerosols are transported over thousands of kilometers in the free troposphere over the Pacific Ocean. During their long range transport, aerosols could be entrained into the MBL and may further act as cloud condensation nuclei, and influence climate and the radiative budget of the Earth.

  13. Is a Cretaceous Superplume in Pacific Ocean Necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, J.; King, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Cretaceous was a time when large igneous provinces (LIPs) including Manihiki, Hikurangi and Ontong-Java plateaus were produced. These LIPs can be jointed back together by plate reconstruction at ˜120sim120 Ma, suggesting that a dramatic volcanic event occurred at that time. The debate over whether the volcanism was caused by a superplume, plate reorganizations, or other tectonic controlled events is still going on. We address the necessity of a superplume in Pacific Ocean with mantle convection simulations. We use time-dependent convection calculations using the finite element code CitcomS with a temperature-dependent Newtonian rheology and a layered viscosity structure. In order to couple the interplay of plate tectonics and mantle convection, we introduce plate velocities from 170 Ma to ``present day'' generated using GPlates as a time-dependent surface boundary condition. In calculations with a thermal superplume rising from core mantle boundary (CMB), we introduce tracers in the initial thermal perturbations just above the CMB to track the location of plume material. Applying the plate reconstruction model of Seton (2012), the initial large melt region formed at ˜120sim120 Ma in our mantle convection simulations is broken up into pieces, which end up close to the ``present day'' locations of Manihiki, Hukurangi, Ontong-Java and Caribbean plateaus. We get similar results using different initial-perturbations at the CMB located within 500 km of the projection of the triple junction at the surface onto the CMB, which implies that the location of initial thermal perturbations is somewhat flexible. We repeat the simulation with no initial thermal perturbation at the CMB to see if the plate evolution alone will allow for a large pulse of magma at the triple junction. While the simulation with plume rising from CMB produce significant melt in the upper mantle, the non-plume simulation controlled by plate tectonics alone does not generate melt in the upper

  14. Ash Emissions and Risk Management in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, T. S.; Webley, P. W.; Stuefer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Located in the 'Ring of Fire', regions and communities around the Pacific Ocean often face volcanic eruptions and subsequent ash emissions. Volcanic ash clouds pose a significant risk to aviation, especially in the highly-frequented flight corridors around active volcano zones like Indonesia or Eastern Russia and the Alaskan Aleutian Islands. To mitigate and manage such events, a detailed quantitative analysis using a range of scientific measurements, including satellite data and Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion (VATD) model results, needs to be conducted in real-time. For the case study of the Sarychev Peak eruption in Russia's Kurile Islands during 2009, we compare ash loading and dispersion from Weather Research and Forecast model with online Chemistry (WRF-Chem) results with satellite data of the eruption. These parameters are needed for the real-time management of volcanic crises to outline no-fly zones and to predict the areas that the ash is most likely to reach in the near future. In the early stages after the eruption, an international group with representatives from the Kamchatkan and Sachalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams (KVERT, SVERT), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) published early research on the geological and geophysical characteristics of the eruption and the behavior of the resulting ash clouds. The study presented here is a follow-up project aimed to implement VATD model results and satellite data retrospectively to demonstrate the possibilities to develop this approach in real-time for future eruptions. Our research finds that, although meteorological cloud coverage is high in those geographical regions and, consequently, these clouds can cover most of the ash clouds and as such prevent satellites from detecting it, both approaches compare well and supplement each other to reduce the risk of volcanic eruptions. We carry out spatial extent and absolute quantitative

  15. Near-ridge seamount chains in the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, David A.; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Davis, Alicé S.

    2000-07-01

    High-resolution bathymetry and side-scan data of the Vance, President Jackson, and Taney near-ridge seamount chains in the northeast Pacific were collected with a hull-mounted 30-kHz sonar. The central volcanoes in each chain consist of truncated cone-shaped volcanoes with steep sides and nearly flat tops. Several areas are characterized by frequent small eruptions that result in disorganized volcanic regions with numerous small cones and volcanic ridges but no organized truncated conical structure. Several volcanoes are crosscut by ridge-parallel faults, showing that they formed within 30-40 km of the ridge axis where ridge-parallel faulting is still active. Magmas that built the volcanoes were probably transported through the crust along active ridge-parallel faults. The volcanoes range in volume from 11 to 187 km3, and most have one or more multiple craters and calderas that modify their summits and flanks. The craters (<1 km diameter) and calderas (>1 km diameter) range from small pit craters to calderas as large as 6.5×8.5 km, although most are 2-4 km across. Crosscutting relationships commonly show a sequence of calderas stepping toward the ridge axis. The calderas overlie crustal magma chambers at least as large as those that underlie Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes in Hawaii, perhaps 4-5 km in diameter and ˜1-3 km below the surface. The nearly flat tops of many of the volcanoes have remnants of centrally located summit shields, suggesting that their flat tops did not form from eruptions along circumferential ring faults but instead form by filling and overflowing of earlier large calderas. The lavas retain their primitive character by residing in such chambers for only short time periods prior to eruption. Stored magmas are withdrawn, probably as dikes intruded into the adjacent ocean crust along active ridge-parallel faults, triggering caldera collapse, or solidified before the next batch of magma is intruded into the volcano, probably 1000-10,000 years

  16. Phylogenetic and Pigment Phenotypical Diversification of Synechococcus Community in the Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Xia, X.

    2016-02-01

    Synechococcus, a group of phylogenetically and phenotypically (pigment) diverse unicellular cyanobacteria, are important primary producers in marine environments. Here we reported the abundance, pigmentation genetic diversity, and taxonomic diversity of Synechococcus in the western Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. The abundance of Synechococcus was low in the subarctic ocean and the South China Sea, slightly higher in the western subtropical Pacific and the Tokara Strait, and the highest in the Japan Sea and the East China Sea. Synechococcus with different phycobiliprotein composition co-occurred in the western Pacific Ocean, but their abundance showed apparent geographic differentiation. Two types of CA4 gene island which involved in chromatic acclimation (CA) process were detected in the western Pacific Ocean with geographic segregation; type CA4-A mainly occurred in the subarctic ocean, while type CA4-B dominated in mid-latitude. The distribution of lineages clades I and II in the western Pacific Ocean followed the global distribution pattern that the former dominated in temperate cold waters, while the latter dominated in tropical/subtropical warm waters. Clade IV Synechococcus, which often co-occur with clade I according to previous reports, were rarely found in this study. Clades III, VI, VII, WPC1 and subcluster 5.3 were also the major Synechococcus lineages in the western Pacific Ocean warm waters, but with relatively narrower niche than that of clade II. Our results show that Synechococcus communities with similar phylogenetic composition could contain phenotypes with different pigment composition, and vice versa, suggesting that phylogenetic and pigmentation phenotypic diversity of Synechococcus are raised independently.

  17. Diversity of culturable filamentous Ascomycetes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile.

    PubMed

    Vera, Jeanett; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Palfner, Götz; Pantoja, Silvio

    2017-08-01

    Our study reports the diversity of culturable mycoplankton in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile to contribute with novel knowledge on taxonomy of filamentous fungi isolated from distinct physicochemical and biological marine environments. We characterized spatial distribution of isolates, evaluated their viability and assessed the influence of organic substrate availability on fungal development. Thirty-nine Operational Taxonomic Units were identified from 99 fungal strains isolated from coastal and oceanic waters by using Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery. All Operational Taxonomic Units belonged to phylum Ascomycota and orders Eurotiales, Dothideales, Sordariales and Hypocreales, mainly Penicillium sp. (82%); 11 sequences did not match existing species in GenBank, suggesting occurrence of novel fungal taxa. Our results suggest that fungal communities in the South Pacific Ocean off Chile appear to thrive in a wide range of environmental conditions in the ocean and that substrate availability may be a factor influencing fungal viability in the ocean.

  18. Upper Ocean Heat Content Variability in East Pacific Hurricane Genesis and Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, V.; Walker, N.

    2016-02-01

    Upper ocean heat content is emerging as an increasingly important observation in tropical cyclogenesis and intensification literature. Upon comparison to typical neutral-El Niño conditions in the Northeast Pacific, the 2014 hurricane season has been identified as strongly atypical in both tropical cyclone frequency and intensity. This study utilizes satellite microwave sea surface temperature, upper ocean heat content, and altimetry measurements to identify upper ocean thermal structure, features, and anomalies in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Detailed animations of upper ocean heat content and sea surface temperature fluctuations were developed for the 2014 tropical cyclone season. Preliminary results indicate that the northern and western extent of higher sea surface temperatures allowed for more intense and longer tropical cyclone durations. Such favorable conditions in the Central Pacific led to three tropical cyclones in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands, one of which made a rare landfall on the Big Island. It is hypothesized that such an occurrence would not take place under typical upper ocean heat content and sea surface temperature conditions as seen in the East and Central Pacific.

  19. First Lanuginellinae (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Rossellidae) from the NE Pacific and first species of Doconesthes from the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M

    2015-02-24

    A new sac-shaped hexactinellid collected from western Canada bearing long lateral prostal spicules was first thought to be a typical Rossellinae.  Subsequent examination of its spiculation proved it to have distinctive strobiloplumicomes, typical of the subfamily Lanuginellinae.  Other spicules showed it to be a member of the monospecific genus Doconesthes, known previously only from the North Atlantic Ocean.  The new species described here as Doconesthes dustinchiversi is only the second known species of the genus and the first to be found in the Pacific Ocean.

  20. The variability of the surface wind field in the equatorial Pacific Ocean: Criteria for satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.

    1984-01-01

    The natural variability of the equatorial Pacific surface wind field is described from long period surface wind measurements made at three sites along the equator (95 deg W, 109 deg 30 W, 152 deg 30 W). The data were obtained from surface buoys moored in the deep ocean far from islands or land, and provide criteria to adequately sample the tropical Pacific winds from satellites.

  1. Multiple nutrient stresses at intersecting Pacific Ocean biomes detected by protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mak A; McIlvin, Matthew R; Moran, Dawn M; Goepfert, Tyler J; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Post, Anton F; Lamborg, Carl H

    2014-09-05

    Marine primary productivity is strongly influenced by the scarcity of required nutrients, yet our understanding of these nutrient limitations is informed by experimental observations with sparse geographical coverage and methodological limitations. We developed a quantitative proteomic method to directly assess nutrient stress in high-light ecotypes of the abundant cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus across a meridional transect in the central Pacific Ocean. Multiple peptide biomarkers detected widespread and overlapping regions of nutritional stress for nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and iron in the equatorial Pacific. Quantitative protein analyses demonstrated simultaneous stress for these nutrients at biome interfaces. This application of proteomic biomarkers to diagnose ocean metabolism demonstrated Prochlorococcus actively and simultaneously deploying multiple biochemical strategies for low-nutrient conditions in the oceans.

  2. The Pacific and Indian Ocean Exchange: Analysis of the Imos Timor Passage and Ombai Strait Moorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloyan, B.; Wijffels, S. A.; Cowley, R.

    2014-12-01

    A fundamental aspect of observing, describing, understanding and modeling the global climate and particularly the Maritime Continent, is a better knowledge of the fluxes of momentum, heat and freshwater in the ocean. The Indonesian seas are the only major low-latitude connection in the global oceans. This connection permits the transfer of Pacific waters into the Indian Ocean, known as the Indonesian Throughflow. The interaction of the Pacific and Indian basins and their modes of variability (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)), both through atmospheric teleconnections and the ocean link via the Indonesian Throughflow, is now being hotly pursued in the research community. We will present some initial findings from the 3-year time series (2011-2014) of the Timor Passage and Ombai Strait moorings. This mooring array is a component of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), and builds on the earlier results of the INSTANT (2003-2006) observational program. The moorings comprise of velocity, temperature and salinity instruments. Observations from these moorings provide the required spatial and temporal coverage to understand ocean dynamics, the ocean's role in climate variability and change, investigate forcing of the atmosphere and ocean and assess the realism of data-assimilative ocean models and coupled ocean-atmosphere models.

  3. Mesozoic oceanic terranes - key to our understanding of Meso-Pacific History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    Along the eastern Pacific margin of Asia Mesozoic oceanic complexes are widely distributed. The structure and geometry of these accreted oceanic complexes vary from: (1) dismembered ophiolite nappes; (2) blocks in serpentinite melange and olistostromes; (3) offscraped fragments of the oceanic crust in a sheared argillite matrix which is interpreted to represent an accretionary prism sequence. The sedimentary strata associated with the oceanic complexes are mostly various types of siliceous sediments: radiolaria chert and jasper, grey cherts and siliceouc argillite and in lesser quantities, limestones. In many ophiolitic sections, sediments form the cover sequences of the various MORB-type lavas. The following sedimentary sequences have been mapped and described in the Koryak Mountains: The Pekul'ney Ridge, Mainitz, Alkatvaam, Ekonay, Kuyul (Penzhina) Ukelayat and Olutor terranes. Similar sequences are known from Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Taigonos and Elistratov Peninsulas, in Udskaya Guba, Priamurie, and in Sikhote-Alin. The composition and character of microfauna in these mostly pelagic sequences indicate accumulation of siliceous strata at lower latitudes than their present localities (Bragin, 1991; Vishnevskaya, 1990). Paleomagnetic data available on the oceanic complexes tend to support their allochthoneity, and indicate significant northward motion. As such, these oceanic complexes are particularly important for paleotectonic reconstructions of the Paleo Pacific ocean floor. Analysis of all data and paleomagnetic results from Late Jurassic - to Cretaceous accreted oceanic units allow one to conclude that the kinematics of the Koryak and Kamchatka oceanic terranes and their accretion is defined by the presence and interactions of four oceanic plates, the Izanagi, Farallon, Kula and Pacific plates with the continental margins of North American and Siberian continents. The older, Triassic - to Middle Jurassic complexes are the main source of information on the

  4. Polychaeta Orbiniidae from Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, the Abyssal Pacific Ocean, and off South America.

    PubMed

    Blake, James A

    2017-01-12

    The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann‑Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.

  5. Seasonal variation of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an important zonal flow in the upper circulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean, which plays a vital role in the heat budget of the western Pacific warm pool. Using satellite-derived data of ocean surface currents and sea surface heights (SSHs) from 1992 to 2011, the seasonal variation of the surface NECC in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was investigated. It was found that the intensity (INT) and axis position (Y CM ) of the surface NECC exhibit strikingly different seasonal fluctuations in the upstream (128°-136°E) and downstream (145°-160°E) regions. Of the two regions, the seasonal cycle of the upstream NECC shows the greater interannual variability. Its INT and YCM are greatly influenced by variations of the Mindanao Eddy, Mindanao Dome (MD), and equatorial Rossby waves to its south. Both INT and Y CM also show semiannual signals induced by the combined effects of equatorial Rossby waves from the Central Pacific and local wind forcing in the western Pacific Ocean. In the downstream region, the variability of the NECC is affected by SSH anomalies in the MD and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Those in the MD region are especially important in modulating the YCM of the downstream NECC. In addition to the SSH-related geostrophic flow, zonal Ekman flow driven by meridional wind stress also plays a role, having considerable impact on INT variability of the surface NECC. The contrasting features of the variability of the NECC in the upstream and downstream regions reflect the high complexity of regional ocean dynamics.

  6. Biogeochemical linkage between atmosphere and ocean in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: Results from the EqPOS research cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, H.; Inai, Y.; Aoki, S.; Honda, H.; Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Iwata, T.; Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean is a unique oceanic region from several biogeochemical points of view. It is a remote open ocean with relatively high marine biological activity, which would result in limited influence of human activity but enhanced effect of marine natural processes on atmospheric composition. It is also characterized as high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean, in which availability of trace metals such as iron and zinc limits marine primary production and thus atmospheric deposition of these trace elements to the ocean surface is expected to play an important role in regulating marine primary production and defining unique microbial community. High sea surface temperature in the region generates strong vertical air convection which efficiently brings tropospheric atmospheric composition into stratosphere. In this unique eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, EqPOS (Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Stratospheric/Tropospheric Atmospheric Study) research cruise was organized as a part of SOLAS Japan activity to understand biogeochemical ocean-atmospheric interaction in the region. Coordinated atmospheric, oceanic, and marine biological observations including sampling/characterization of thin air-sea interfacial layer (sea surface microlayer: SML) and launching large stratospheric air sampling balloons were carried out on-board R/V Hakuho Maru starting from 29 January for 39 days. Biogeochemically important trace/long-lived gases such as CO2, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and some volatile organic carbons (VOCs) both in the atmosphere and seawater were continuously monitored and their air-sea fluxes were also observed using gradient and eddy-covariance techniques. Atmospheric gas measurement of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, H2, Ar and isotopic composition of selected gases were further extended to stratospheric air by balloon-born sampling in addition to a vertical profiling of O3, CO2, and H2O with sounding sondes. Physical and chemical properties of marine

  7. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Bonnie J; Williams, Samuel M; Otway, Nicholas M; Nielsen, Einar E; Maher, Safia L; Bennett, Mike B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2017-07-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p < 0.001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need for cross-jurisdictional efforts to manage the sustainable exploitation of large migratory sharks like G. cuvier.

  8. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-09-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  9. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years.

    PubMed

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F; Jaccard, Samuel L; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-31

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  10. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  11. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity. PMID:27185933

  12. Influence of the Halmahera and Mindanao Eddies on the Watermass Pathways of the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajsowicz, R.

    2003-04-01

    As well as providing a pathway for watermass transport between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, the existence of a low-latitude connection between the Oceans permits interhemispheric transport in the Pacific Ocean. A simple dynamical model of watermass transport shows that the properties of the interhemispheric transport, and the composition of the water masses entering the equatorial Pacific thermocline, may be controlled by the location and magnitude of the Halmahera and Mindanao Eddies, and broader Mindanao Dome. Indeed, these Eddies appear necessary to obtain the robust North Pacific watermass composition of the Indonesian throughflow, and interhemispheric watermass transport this implies, in the presence of large interannual, and longer timescale variability, in the tropical Pacific windstress. However, during eight cruises from Septermber 1987 and June 1990 along 8^oN, evidence of the Mindanao Eddy was found on only two. Further, the Mindanao Undercurrent, thought to transport Antarctic Intermediate Water northwards, as part of the global conveyer belt, was also found to be absent. An almost-global ocean GCM hindcast from 1979 to 1999, in which subsurface temperature data are assimilated, shows considerable interannual variability in these features. Using simple dynamical models and the hindcast, causes for the variability and impact on the watermass pathways, are described.

  13. PacNET: Pacific Lightning Detection Network to Continuously Monitor Convective Storms Over the Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    support investigations at the University of Hawaii of tropical and subtropical cyclogenesis, cyclone track forecasting, and forecasting flash - flood events... flash - flood events over the Pacific. TRANSITIONS Data from the Pacific lightning detection NETwork (PacNET) will be streamed via the Internet

  14. Interactions Between the North Pacific Ocean and the Northern Hemisphere Atmosphere during EL Nino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Michael Adam

    1990-01-01

    Model simulations are used to examine sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific during the fall and winter of El Nino episodes and the extent to which these anomalies influence the atmospheric circulation. A mixed layer ocean model of the North Pacific is forced by Community Climate Model (CCM) fields containing the El Nino signal (prescribed warm SSTs in the tropical Pacific). The ocean model generally reproduces the features of the observed midlatitude SST anomaly pattern: warm water in the northeast Pacific and an elliptically shaped cold pool in the central Pacific. In these regions, a large fraction of the temperature anomalies are significant as indicated by the t-statistic. The model SST anomalies are primarily caused by changes in the sensible and latent heat flux and to a lesser extent the longwave radiation flux. Entrainment of water into the mixed layer has a complex spatial structure, but usually acts to damp SST anomalies; Ekman pumping has a negligible effect on the ocean anomalies. Air-sea interaction in the North Pacific is examined using coupled CCM/North Pacific Ocean model simulations. Air -sea interaction reduces the El Nino induced North Pacific SST anomalies by 25% to 50%, but does not substantially alter the anomaly pattern. In general, low (high) pressure and cyclonic (anticyclonic) winds are located above the warm (cold) SST anomalies. Air temperature and precipitation fields are influenced by both advection and local adjustment to the SST field. The North Pacific SST anomalies are linked to geopotential height anomalies which resemble the West Pacific, East Atlantic, and Pacific North America patterns. The height anomalies are essentially equivalent barotropic and increase with altitude in the troposphere. The anomalies, which range between 30 and 70 m in magnitude at the 200 mb level, are about 25% to 45% smaller and generally opposite in sign to those connected with El Nino. There is a high degree of variability in the

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry of Halogen Oxides and Oxygenated VOCs over the Tropical Pacific Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent indirect evidence from some satellites suggests the presence of iodine oxide (IO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) over the open tropical Pacific Ocean, but different satellites disagree as to the presence of iodine oxide (IO), and the abundance of glyoxal (CHOCHO) over the oceans. Both gases absorb light in the blue spectral range, where also phytoplankton absorbs light and induces a change in ocean color. It is not clear whether IO and CHOCHO as seen from space indicate missing marine sources for halogens and hydrocarbons in current models, or could be an artifact in the satellite retrievals caused by a spectral interference of light absorbing phytoplankton. A novel Ship Multi AXis DOAS (CU SMAX-DOAS) instrument was developed at CU Boulder’s Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Laboratory (AMTOSpeclab) and first deployed from October 2008 to January 2009 on board NOAA’s RV Ronald H. Brown over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean to probe directly the column abundance of iodine oxide (IO), iodine dioxide (OIO), bromine oxide (BrO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), and formaldehyde (HCHO), water vapor (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4, an indicator for aerosol optical depth); the instrument also measures directly the vertical distribution of gases in the atmosphere, i.e., it can distinguish atmospheric absorbers from ocean color effects. This talk presents data from two field campaigns over the open tropical Pacific Ocean. Our measurements give first direct spectral proof for the presence of IO and CHOCHO in elevated concentrations over the open oceans, and locate IO and CHOCHO inside the marine boundary layer. The atmospheric chemistry of both gases is briefly reviewed. It is argued that the tropical Pacific Ocean is a large scale chemical reactor that destroys tropospheric ozone, and our observations might help explain past observations of Aitken mode sized particles over the open ocean.

  16. Intraseasonal to interannual Sea Surface Salinity Variations in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Audrey; Boutin, Jacqueline; Puy, Martin; Reverdin, Gilles; Supply, Alexandre; Morrow, Rosemarry; Lee, Tony; Bingham, Frederick; Farrar, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is one of the key factors influencing the ocean circulation but is also an important indicator of the hydrologic cycle. Understanding processes associated with various SSS regimes is thus crucial to the knowledge of ocean dynamics and of the connection between the ocean and the water cycle. SSS variability is studied between 2010 and mid-2016 in the tropical Pacific Ocean using various datasets such as observations from the satellite missions Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Aquarius SAC/D and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); in situ measurements from Argo, voluntary ships and dedicated campaigns; and a forced simulation of the Nemo ocean model. This study focuses mainly on variability north of the Equator, around 10°N. The interannual signal of SSS is particularly intense in this region in 2015, with a very strong and wide freshening and enhanced precipitations. The SSS signature associated with El Niño is however rather centered at the equator. The mechanisms behind the observed freshening and the link to Pacific Ocean state are evaluated by computing each term of the mixed layer salinity budget using the numerical simulation. At the intraseasonal time scale, we underline two processes: the rain events signature on SSS of the order of -.2 pss/mm/hr in SMOS surface measurements and the motion of eddies formed by the Central American coast propagating at a speed of about 17 cm/s within the tropical current system. Understanding the dominant temporal and spatial scales of SSS in the tropical Pacific Ocean is primordial as a support for the NASA's second Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS-2) which first campaign will take place in August-September 2016 in the northeastern equatorial Pacific. SSS datasets presented in this study provide a large-scale context to understand salinity processes that will be observed by the in-situ data collected during field experiments.

  17. The effects of a climate change on the sardine habitat dimensions in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auad, G.; Baumgartner, T.; Miller, A.

    2001-12-01

    The known dependency of the sardine habitat on water temperature is used in an ocean model to estimate the habitat dimension changes due to a known climate shift in the Pacific Ocean after the winter of 1976-1977. The results, consonant with findings from other dynamical studies of the 1976-77 shift, are in line with observed changes in the sardine population off the coasts of Mexico and the US. A warming condition of the eastern Pacific led to increased habitat dimensions. This change was accompanied by an increased onshore transport which also contributed to the sardine population decrease observed after the shift.

  18. Fifty Years of Ocean Observations in the Pacific Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Frank; Tortell, Philippe

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Station Papa, at 50°N, 145°W in the Alaska Gyre (Figure 1), started as a weather station in the 1940s. In 1956, oceanographers began collecting a suite of standard measurements from the cool subarctic waters at Ocean Station Papa (OSP), including temperature, salinity, oxygen, and plankton. Three years later, a series of sampling stations was added along the 1400-kilometer `Line P' from the Canadian coast to OSP, to aid in understanding ocean variability.

  19. Plutonium and 137Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Aoyama, M; Fukasawa, M; Kim, C S; Komura, K; Povinec, P P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and 137Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 degrees S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. 239,240Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m(-3), whereas 137Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m(-3). The observed 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface 239,240Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than 137Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The 239,240Pu/137Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The 239,240Pu/137Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The 137Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the 137Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific.

  20. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  1. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2017-02-01

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2, this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: (1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; (2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; (3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and (4) heat budget analysis shows that the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  2. Decline of surface temperature and salinity in the western tropical Pacific Ocean in the Holocene epoch.

    PubMed

    Stott, Lowell; Cannariato, Kevin; Thunell, Robert; Haug, Gerald H; Koutavas, Athanasios; Lund, Steve

    2004-09-02

    In the present-day climate, surface water salinities are low in the western tropical Pacific Ocean and increase towards the eastern part of the basin. The salinity of surface waters in the tropical Pacific Ocean is thought to be controlled by a combination of atmospheric convection, precipitation, evaporation and ocean dynamics, and on interannual timescales significant variability is associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation cycles. However, little is known about the variability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on timescales of centuries to millennia. Here we combine oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca data from foraminifers retrieved from three sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific Ocean to reconstruct Holocene sea surface temperatures and salinities in the region. We find a decrease in sea surface temperatures of approximately 0.5 degrees C over the past 10,000 yr, whereas sea surface salinities decreased by approximately 1.5 practical salinity units. Our data imply either that the Pacific basin as a whole has become progressively less salty or that the present salinity gradient along the Equator has developed relatively recently.

  3. The East Asian Sea: A vanished Cenozoic ocean between the Pacific and Indian oceans revealed by subducted slab constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jonny; Lu, Renqi; Suppe, John; Kanda, Ravi V. S.

    2014-05-01

    We have mapped an extensive 2500 km by 7500 km swath of sub-horizontal slabs at 600 to 1200 km depths that we call the 'East Asian Sea'. The northern margin of the East Asian Sea slabs begin at Taiwan and Japan, and extend south to SE Australia near New Zealand, underlying the Philippine Sea, the Caroline Sea, New Guinea, and northern to eastern Australia. When restored with other mapped slabs under Asia-Oceania, the mapped slabs reveal a vanished ocean that existed between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Cenozoic. The subduction of the Asian Sea fills a crucial gap in plate tectonic reconstructions of East Asia by accounting for a significant proportion of fast Pacific and Indo-Australian convergence towards Eurasia since 43 Ma, during which time the Pacific moved ~3000 km WNW and Australia moved ~2500 km northward in a near-orthogonal direction relative to a mantle reference. In addition, the Australian plate expanded up to 2000 km at its northern and eastern margins. Slabs were primarily mapped from the MITP08 global P-wave mantle tomographic model (Li et al., 2008) and compared to other global P- and S-wave global tomography. Reconstructed slab lengths were assessed by quantitative flexural slip unfolding of mid-slab surfaces to a spherical Earth surface model. Seismic tomographic volumes were also calculated for selected serial cross-sections. We present a plate tectonic reconstruction with the slab constraints, with the implication that the East Asian Sea was progressively overrun and subducted beneath the Philippine Sea, the Caroline Sea and the expanding Melanesian arcs. Reconstructions to earlier periods indicate the East Asian Sea was originally Pacific or proto-Pacific mantle lithosphere, and was fragmented from the Pacific plate during the major ~45 Ma Eocene motion change. This implies that the East Asian Sea was initially the upper plate of the Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec Western Pacific subduction zones.

  4. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a...

  5. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  6. 33 CFR 334.910 - Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.910 Section 334.910... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.910 Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a...

  8. 33 CFR 334.910 - Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.910 Section 334.910... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.910 Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps...

  9. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal...

  10. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a...

  12. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii...

  14. 33 CFR 334.900 - Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.900 Section 334.900 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.900 Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. (a) The...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  19. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  1. 33 CFR 334.900 - Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.900 Section 334.900 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.900 Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. (a) The...

  2. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii...

  5. 33 CFR 334.900 - Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.900 Section 334.900 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.900 Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. (a) The...

  6. 33 CFR 334.910 - Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.910 Section 334.910... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.910 Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps...

  7. 33 CFR 334.910 - Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.910 Section 334.910... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.910 Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a...

  9. 33 CFR 334.900 - Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.900 Section 334.900 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.900 Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal...

  11. 33 CFR 334.910 - Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.910 Section 334.910... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.910 Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps...

  12. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  13. 33 CFR 334.900 - Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.900 Section 334.900 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.900 Pacific Ocean, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. (a) The...

  14. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii...

  16. 76 FR 40838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level... vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of... Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in...

  17. 76 FR 46207 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level... vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of... Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in...

  18. Estimate of radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs (radiocaesium) were released to the North Pacific Ocean by direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. After the FNPP1 accident, measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs were conducted by many researches. However, those results are only snapshots in order to interpret the distribution and transport of the released radiocaesium on a basin scale. It is recognized that estimation of the total amount of released 134Cs and 137Cs is necessary to assess the radioecological impacts of their release on the environment. It was reported that the inventory of 134Cs or 137Cs on the North Pacific Ocean after the FNPP1 accident was 15.2-18.3 PBq based on the observations (Aoyama et al., 2016a), 15.3±1.6 PBq by OI analysis (Inomata et al., 2016), 16.1±1.64 PBq by global ocean model (Tsubono et al., 2016). These suggest that more than 75 % of the atmospheric-released radiocaesium (15.2-20.4 PBq; Aoyama et al., 2016a) were deposited on the North Pacific Ocean. The radiocaesium from the atmospheric fallout and direct discharge were expected to mixing as well as diluting near the coastal region and transported eastward across the North Pacific Ocean in the surface layer. Furthermore, radicaesium were rapidly mixed and penetrated into the subsurface water in the North Pacific Ocean in winter. It was revealed that these radiocaesium existed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b; Kaeriyama et al., 2016) and Central Mode Water (CMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b), suggesting that mode water formation and subduction are efficient pathway for the transport of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium into the ocean interior within 1-year timescale. Kaeriyama et al. (2016) estimated the total amount of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium in the STMW was 4.2 ± 1.1 PBq in October-November 2012. However, there is no estimation of the amount of radiocaesium in the CMW. Therefore, it is impossible to discuss

  19. TOPEX/El Niño Watch - Pacific Ocean Conditions are Split: Cold in East, Hot in West, July 27, 1999

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-08-23

    The North Pacific Ocean continues to run hot and cold, with abnormally low sea levels and cool waters in the northeastern Pacific contrasting with unusually high sea levels and warm waters in the northwestern Pacific.

  20. A Southern Ocean trigger for Northwest Pacific ventilation during the Holocene?

    PubMed Central

    Rella, S. F.; Uchida, M.

    2014-01-01

    Holocene ocean circulation is poorly understood due to sparsity of dateable marine archives with submillennial-scale resolution. Here we present a record of mid-depth water radiocarbon contents in the Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean over the last 12.000 years, which shows remarkable millennial-scale variations relative to changes in atmospheric radiocarbon inventory. Apparent decoupling of these variations from regional ventilation and mixing processes leads us to the suggestion that the mid-depth NW Pacific may have responded to changes in Southern Ocean overturning forced by latitudinal displacements of the southern westerly winds. By inference, a tendency of in-phase related North Atlantic and Southern Ocean overturning would argue against the development of a steady bipolar seesaw regime during the Holocene. PMID:24509792

  1. A Southern Ocean trigger for Northwest Pacific ventilation during the Holocene?

    PubMed

    Rella, S F; Uchida, M

    2014-02-17

    Holocene ocean circulation is poorly understood due to sparsity of dateable marine archives with submillennial-scale resolution. Here we present a record of mid-depth water radiocarbon contents in the Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean over the last 12.000 years, which shows remarkable millennial-scale variations relative to changes in atmospheric radiocarbon inventory. Apparent decoupling of these variations from regional ventilation and mixing processes leads us to the suggestion that the mid-depth NW Pacific may have responded to changes in Southern Ocean overturning forced by latitudinal displacements of the southern westerly winds. By inference, a tendency of in-phase related North Atlantic and Southern Ocean overturning would argue against the development of a steady bipolar seesaw regime during the Holocene.

  2. Impact of effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific subtropical cell: a CGCM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Ishizaki, H.; Nakano, H.; Hirabara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The choice of ocean radiant scheme is important for modeling the upper ocean. According to the ocean-only simulation (Yamanaka et al., 2012), introduction of the chlorophyll-a dependent ocean radiant scheme results in the decreased mixed layer depth (MLD), the enhanced subtropical cell (STC), and the cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST). They also found that the enhanced STC results from the velocity profile change associated with the decreased Ekman boundary layer. However, the impact is not well understood when the air-sea feedback process is at work. This study examines the impact of the effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific mean fields, especially focusing on the STC, using a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The CGCM we employed is the Meteorological Research Institute Earth System Model (MRI-ESM1). The atmospheric model is TL159L48, and the ocean model has a horizontal resolution of 1 x 0.5 deg. with 51 levels in vertical. Experimental design basically follows the CMIP5 protocol. Two experiments (CTL and SLR runs) are performed to investigate the impact of the effective ocean optical properties. In the CTL run, a conventional ocean radiant heating scheme (Paul and Simpson, 1977) is used, whereas a new ocean radiant heating scheme is used in the SLR run, where the satellite-derived chlorophyll-a distribution is taken into consideration based on Morel and Antoine (1994) as well as the effect of the varying solar angle (Ishizaki and Yamanaka, 2010). Each experiment is integrated during the period from 1985 to 2005. It is found that introduction of the new ocean radiant scheme (SLR run) changes the long-term mean wind pattern in the Pacific: easterly winds are strengthened in the equatorial Pacific, but weakened in the off-equatorial region. In the tropical Pacific, the enhanced equatorial upwelling cools the equatorial SST and the MLD becomes shallower. This is similar to the ocean-only simulation, but is more

  3. A Case Study of Explosive Cyclogenesis in the Eastern Pacific Ocean 14- 17 December 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    when a pre-existing upper trough, with strong vorticity advection on its forward side, spreads over a low-level area of warm or neutral advection in a...Arctic air mass outbreaks over warm water appear to be responsible for the high frequency of explosive events in western oceans. Examination of satellite...eastern Pacific Ocean cyclone with strong warm advection to the east of the cyclone center. The amplification of the upstream thermal pattern is now

  4. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Resing, Joseph A; Sedwick, Peter N; German, Christopher R; Jenkins, William J; Moffett, James W; Sohst, Bettina M; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2015-07-09

    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production.

  5. Structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiabei; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2016-09-01

    The structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system are examined in this study, using the NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, HadISST SST and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation data for 1960-2010. The midlatitude decadal anomalies associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are identified, being characterized by an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low (high) pressure over a cold (warm) oceanic surface. Such a unique configuration of decadal anomalies can be maintained by an unstable ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the midlatitudes, which is hypothesized as follows. Associated with a warm PDO phase, an initial midlatitude surface westerly anomaly accompanied with intensified Aleutian low tends to force a negative SST anomaly by increasing upward surface heat fluxes and driving southward Ekman current anomaly. The SST cooling tends to increase the meridional SST gradient, thus enhancing the subtropical oceanic front. As an adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer to the enhanced oceanic front, the low-level atmospheric meridional temperature gradient and thus the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity tend to be strengthened, inducing more active transient eddy activities that increase transient eddy vorticity forcing. The vorticity forcing that dominates the total atmospheric forcing tends to produce an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low pressure north of the initial westerly anomaly, intensifying the initial anomalies of the midlatitude surface westerly and Aleutian low. Therefore, it is suggested that the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction can provide a positive feedback mechanism for the development of initial anomaly, in which the oceanic front and the atmospheric transient eddy are the indispensable ingredients. Such a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism is fundamentally responsible for the observed decadal anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific ocean

  6. Structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiabei; Yang, Xiu-qun

    2017-04-01

    The structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system are examined in this study, using the NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, HadISST SST and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation data for 1960-2010. The midlatitude decadal anomalies associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are identified, being characterized by an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low (high) pressure over a cold (warm) oceanic surface. Such a unique configuration of decadal anomalies can be maintained by an unstable ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the midlatitudes, which is hypothesized as follows. Associated with a warm PDO phase, an initial midlatitude surface westerly anomaly accompanied with intensified Aleutian low tends to force a negative SST anomaly by increasing upward surface heat fluxes and driving southward Ekman current anomaly. The SST cooling tends to increase the meridional SST gradient, thus enhancing the subtropical oceanic front. As an adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer to the enhanced oceanic front, the low-level atmospheric meridional temperature gradient and thus the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity tend to be strengthened, inducing more active transient eddy activities that increase transient eddy vorticity forcing. The vorticity forcing that dominates the total atmospheric forcing tends to produce an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low pressure north of the initial westerly anomaly, intensifying the initial anomalies of the midlatitude surface westerly and Aleutian low. Therefore, it is suggested that the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction can provide a positive feedback mechanism for the development of initial anomaly, in which the oceanic front and the atmospheric transient eddy are the indispensable ingredients. Such a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism is fundamentally responsible for the observed decadal anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific ocean

  7. Evaluations of SST Climatologies in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-27

    Pacific SST . , • , .. .. . . r . , .. / ,. . * . K .. . . * ’ * ucts which provide high temporal ...boundaries Casey and Cornillon, 1999]. An observation-based clima - r 1 -ru 1 r.u- • . .r e...along with SSTs from AVHRR satellite retrievals. The NOAA SST product was built from two intermediate climatologies: a 2° SST clima - tology developed

  8. North Pacific Gyre Oscillation links ocean climate and ecosystem change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, E.; Schneider, N.; Cobb, K. M.; Franks, P. J. S.; Chhak, K.; Miller, A. J.; McWilliams, J. C.; Bograd, S. J.; Arango, H.; Curchitser, E.; Powell, T. M.; Rivière, P.

    2008-04-01

    Decadal fluctuations in salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll, a variety of zooplankton taxa, and fish stocks in the Northeast Pacific are often poorly correlated with the most widely-used index of large-scale climate variability in the region - the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). We define a new pattern of climate change, the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) and show that its variability is significantly correlated with previously unexplained fluctuations of salinity, nutrients and chlorophyll. Fluctuations in the NPGO are driven by regional and basin-scale variations in wind-driven upwelling and horizontal advection - the fundamental processes controlling salinity and nutrient concentrations. Nutrient fluctuations drive concomitant changes in phytoplankton concentrations, and may force similar variability in higher trophic levels. The NPGO thus provides a strong indicator of fluctuations in the mechanisms driving planktonic ecosystem dynamics. The NPGO pattern extends beyond the North Pacific and is part of a global-scale mode of climate variability that is evident in global sea level trends and sea surface temperature. Therefore the amplification of the NPGO variance found in observations and in global warming simulations implies that the NPGO may play an increasingly important role in forcing global-scale decadal changes in marine ecosystems.

  9. Oceanic Control of Northeast Pacific Hurricane Activity at Interannual Timescales

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-10-16

    Despite the strong dependence of the Power Dissipation Index (PDI), which is a measure of the intensity of Tropical Cyclone (TC) activity, on tropical sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), the variations in PDI are not completely explained by SST. Here we show, using an analysis of a string of observational data sets, that the variability of the thermocline depth (TD) in the east Pacific exerts a significant degree of control on the variability of PDI in that region. On average, a deep thermocline with a larger reservoir of heat favors TC intensification by reducing SST cooling while a shallow thermocline with a smaller heat reservoir promotes enhanced SST cooling that contributes to TC decay. At interannual time scales, the variability of basin-mean TD accounts for nearly 30% of the variability in the PDI during the TC season. Also, about 20% of the interannual variability in the east Pacific basin-mean TD is due to the El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a dominant climate signal in this region. This study suggests that a better understanding of the factors governing the interannual variability of the TD conditions in the east Pacific and how they may change over time, may lead to an improved projection of future east Pacific TC activity.

  10. Variability within the ocean-atmospheric system over the North Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Ciesielski, P E

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of the oceanic mixed layer over the North Pacific were examined utilizing a number of statistical methods. Based on the analyses of twelve years of data, a quasi-meridional differentiation (QMD) in sea surface temperature (SST) spectra across the North Pacific was observed. The SST spectra became increasingly red as an increasing function of latitude. A strong 21 to 26 day cycle in SST anomalies is discussed which may be a reflection of heat fluxes. These fluxes also vacillate significantly on this time-scale in conjunction with cycles observed in the atmospheric energy modes of available potential and kinetic energy. Examination of an oceanic heat budget on a spatial and temporal basis suggest that the impact of latent and sensible heat fluxes upon ..delta..SST is partially a function of the magnitude of the heat fluxes as well as of the depth to which their effects are mixed. The heat budget analyses and the fitting of power spectra of SST anomalies over the North Pacific to a two-parameter oceanic model, suggest that SST behavior over the mid-oceanic regions of the North Pacific is dominated by the influence of latent and sensible heat fluxes. On the other hand, over the remainder of the North Pacific one could surmise that other processes, such as advection of heat within the ocean, the entrainment heat flux at the base of the mixed layer, and radiation are at least as important in determining the behavior of SST's. By analyzing anomalous patterns of atmospheric thickness and SST's, it appears that the modification of air masses as they are advected over oceanic waters, as well as the stability of the lower atmosphere, are instrumental factors in determining the nature of large-scale air-sea heat exchange processes.

  11. Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat.

    PubMed

    Jin, F-F; Boucharel, J; Lin, I-I

    2014-12-04

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) creates strong variations in sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific, leading to major climatic and societal impacts. In particular, ENSO influences the yearly variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activities in both the Pacific and Atlantic basins through atmospheric dynamical factors such as vertical wind shear and stability. Until recently, however, the direct ocean thermal control of ENSO on TCs has not been taken into consideration because of an apparent mismatch in both timing and location: ENSO peaks in winter and its surface warming occurs mostly along the Equator, a region without TC activity. Here we show that El Niño--the warm phase of an ENSO cycle--effectively discharges heat into the eastern North Pacific basin two to three seasons after its wintertime peak, leading to intensified TCs. This basin is characterized by abundant TC activity and is the second most active TC region in the world. As a result of the time involved in ocean transport, El Niño's equatorial subsurface 'heat reservoir', built up in boreal winter, appears in the eastern North Pacific several months later during peak TC season (boreal summer and autumn). By means of this delayed ocean transport mechanism, ENSO provides an additional heat supply favourable for the formation of strong hurricanes. This thermal control on intense TC variability has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of TC activity over the eastern North Pacific.

  12. Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, F.-F.; Boucharel, J.; Lin, I.-I.

    2014-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) creates strong variations in sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific, leading to major climatic and societal impacts. In particular, ENSO influences the yearly variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activities in both the Pacific and Atlantic basins through atmospheric dynamical factors such as vertical wind shear and stability. Until recently, however, the direct ocean thermal control of ENSO on TCs has not been taken into consideration because of an apparent mismatch in both timing and location: ENSO peaks in winter and its surface warming occurs mostly along the Equator, a region without TC activity. Here we show that El Niño--the warm phase of an ENSO cycle--effectively discharges heat into the eastern North Pacific basin two to three seasons after its wintertime peak, leading to intensified TCs. This basin is characterized by abundant TC activity and is the second most active TC region in the world. As a result of the time involved in ocean transport, El Niño's equatorial subsurface `heat reservoir', built up in boreal winter, appears in the eastern North Pacific several months later during peak TC season (boreal summer and autumn). By means of this delayed ocean transport mechanism, ENSO provides an additional heat supply favourable for the formation of strong hurricanes. This thermal control on intense TC variability has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of TC activity over the eastern North Pacific.

  13. Dynamical response of the North Pacific Ocean to the tropical variability and its decadal modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, M.; Taguchi, B.; Schneider, N.

    2015-12-01

    While teleconnections from the tropical Pacific to the North Pacific sea surface temperature are well known, the dynamical response of the North Pacific Ocean to the tropical atmosphere-ocean variability is not well investigated. Based on observed and reanalysis data, we investigate this link through a correlation analysis using the indices of Nino3, Nino3.4, and El Nino Modoki Index (EMI). The simultaneous correlation maps of the wind-stress curl indicate that the signal associated with EMI in the eastern North Pacific is stronger than the counterparts with Nino3 and Nino3.4. Responding to these signals in wind-stress curl, sea surface height (SSH) anomalies develop following EMI, but almost no SSH responses are found to Nino3 and Nino3.4. As El Nino Modoki lasts for a longer period than canonical El Nino, the stronger wind-stress curl signal to EMI drives the ocean more persistently, and induces substantial SSH signals. The induced SSH signals propagate westward to the western boundary region around 35N, affecting variability in the Kuroshio Extension, which might further exert feedback on the atmosphere aloft. The teleconnection from EMI to the North Pacific, however, was not found before the 1990s, indicating its clear decadal modulation.

  14. Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju

    2016-06-01

    Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, periodicity, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical ocean basin, as well as pairs of ocean basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian Ocean variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and Atlantic Ocean variability, and conversely they each promote Indian Ocean variability. The connection between the Pacific and the Atlantic is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian Ocean variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by Atlantic variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on Atlantic variability.

  15. Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju

    2017-04-01

    Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, periodicity, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical ocean basin, as well as pairs of ocean basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian Ocean variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and Atlantic Ocean variability, and conversely they each promote Indian Ocean variability. The connection between the Pacific and the Atlantic is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian Ocean variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by Atlantic variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on Atlantic variability.

  16. Arctic climate sensitivity to changes in North Pacific and North Atlantic ocean heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praetorius, S. K.; Rugenstein, M.; Caldeira, K.

    2016-12-01

    Paleoclimate records indicate abrupt swings in Arctic temperature that were coeval with abrupt changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in both the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans throughout the late Pleistocene, suggesting a strong coupling between extratropical ocean heat flux and Arctic climate. While the processes that contribute to Arctic amplification, including surface-albedo, cloud, and temperature feedbacks, are generally well-established, the relative impacts of changes in ocean heat flux sourced from different ocean basins on poleward heat transfer and Arctic climate feedbacks are not well understood. We employ simulations with the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.4 using a slab ocean configuration with modified ocean-to-atmosphere heat fluxes sourced from the North Pacific and North Atlantic (30-60°N) to determine the sensitivity of Arctic amplification processes to zonal heterogeneities in northern hemisphere SST patterns. We find that a local heat flux magnitude equivalent to a globally averaged +1 W/m2 sourced from the North Pacific results in greater Arctic surface warming/cooling and sea ice decline/advance than the equivalent heat flux perturbation originating from the North Atlantic. We attribute this response primarily to greater net moisture transfer between the North Pacific and Arctic (relative to the North Atlantic simulations) in response to changes in surface ocean heat flux, with accompanying impacts on cloud, sea ice, and temperature feedbacks that amplify the Arctic surface temperature response. In the case of a positive ocean-to-atmosphere heat flux anomaly from the North Pacific, greater moisture transport into the Arctic results in: 1) enhanced sensible and latent heat transfer to the Arctic 2) enhanced low cloud formation and attendant surface infrared radiation in the Arctic, and 3) enhanced area of sea ice decline, which is promoted by the first two processes and further amplifies surface warming through the ice

  17. Interaction between Coastal and Oceanic Ecosystems of the Western and Central Pacific Ocean through Predator-Prey Relationship Studies

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Valerie; Fernandez, Emilie; Hoyle, Simon D.; Caillot, Sylvain; Jurado-Molina, Jesus; Andréfouët, Serge; Nicol, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    The Western and Central Pacific Ocean sustains the highest tuna production in the world. This province is also characterized by many islands and a complex bathymetry that induces specific current circulation patterns with the potential to create a high degree of interaction between coastal and oceanic ecosystems. Based on a large dataset of oceanic predator stomach contents, our study used generalized linear models to explore the coastal-oceanic system interaction by analyzing predator-prey relationship. We show that reef organisms are a frequent prey of oceanic predators. Predator species such as albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) frequently consume reef prey with higher probability of consumption closer to land and in the western part of the Pacific Ocean. For surface-caught-predators consuming reef prey, this prey type represents about one third of the diet of predators smaller than 50 cm. The proportion decreases with increasing fish size. For predators caught at depth and consuming reef prey, the proportion varies with predator species but generally represents less than 10%. The annual consumption of reef prey by the yellowfin tuna population was estimated at 0.8±0.40CV million tonnes or 2.17×1012±0.40CV individuals. This represents 6.1%±0.17CV in weight of their diet. Our analyses identify some of the patterns of coastal-oceanic ecosystem interactions at a large scale and provides an estimate of annual consumption of reef prey by oceanic predators. PMID:22615796

  18. Unprecedented recent warming of surface temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Jessica L.; Restrepo, Alejandra; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Steinitz-Kannan, Miriam; Cole, Julia E.; Bush, Mark B.; Colinvaux, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Through its intimate connection with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation system, climate variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean influences climate across much of the planet. But the history of temperature change in the tropical Pacific Ocean during recent millennia is poorly known: the available annually resolved records are discontinuous and rarely span more than a few centuries. Longer records at coarser temporal resolution suggest that significant oceanographic changes, observed at multi-year to multi-century resolution, have had important effects on global climate. Here we use a diatom record from El Junco Lake, Galápagos, to produce a calibrated, continuous record of sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean at subdecadal resolution, spanning the past 1,200years. Our reconstruction reveals that the most recent 50years are the warmest 50-year period within the record. Because our diatom-based sea surface temperature index resembles Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstructions, we suggest that with continued anthropogenic warming, the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean may continue to warm.

  19. The dependence of aerosol light-scattering on RH over the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegg, D. A.; Covert, D. S.; Crahan, K.; Jonssen, H.

    2002-04-01

    Measurements of the relative humidity dependence of aerosol light scattering are reported from three experimental venues over the Pacific Ocean. The measurement platform utilized was the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft. Results are compared with previous measurements at other locales and with theoretical models. The relatively low values of hygroscopicity obtained in marine air are consistent with a substantial organic component to the aerosol.

  20. Mercury-Atlas (MA)-9 - "Faith 7" Spacecraft Splashdown - Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-03-26

    S71-24944 (16 May 1963) --- The Mercury-Atlas 9 "Faith 7" spacecraft, with astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. aboard, splashes down in the Pacific Ocean to conclude a 22-orbit mission lasting 34 hours and 20.5 minutes. The capsule's parachute is fully deployed in this view. A rescue helicopter hovers overhead. Photo credit: NASA

  1. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The... shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Air Station, Barber's Point, Hawaii, 96862, and such...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. 334.1400 Section 334.1400 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area... the Officer in Charge, Fleet Area Control and Surveillance Facility, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 96860-7625...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The waters... Officer, Explosive Ordnance Disposal Training and Evaluation Unit One, Barbers Point, Hawaii 96862-5600. ...

  4. Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S variations with El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, O.; Fukumori, I.; Lee, T.; Johnson, G. C.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature-Salinity (T-S) relationship variability in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5 degrees S ??degrees N, 150 degrees W ?? degrees W) over the last two decades is investigated using observational data and model simulation.

  5. Further study of the variability in the frequency of typhoon formation over the West Pacific ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.H.; Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the variability in the frequency of typhoon formation over the West Pacific ocean, emphasizing the effects of the large-scale sea-air system on the activity of typhoons. Some important relationships between typhoon formation and the climatological aspect of air-sea interaction are pointed out.

  6. Fish-eye view of Hurricane Kenneth in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    One of the STS-51 astronauts used a 'fish-eye' lens on a 35mm cmaera to photograph this view of Hurricane Kenneth in the Pacific Ocean. The Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer/Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS/SPAS) is still in the cargo bay. The Remote Manipulator System (RMS) is extended towards the open payload bay.

  7. Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S variations with El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, O.; Fukumori, I.; Lee, T.; Johnson, G. C.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature-Salinity (T-S) relationship variability in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5 degrees S ??degrees N, 150 degrees W ?? degrees W) over the last two decades is investigated using observational data and model simulation.

  8. Fish-eye view of Hurricane Kenneth in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-09-13

    One of the STS-51 astronauts used a "fish-eye" lens on a 35mm cmaera to photograph this view of Hurricane Kenneth in the Pacific Ocean. The Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer/Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS/SPAS) is still in the cargo bay. The Remote Manipulator System (RMS) is extended towards the open payload bay.

  9. Miocene stable isotope record: a detailed deep Pacific Ocean study and its paleoclimatic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, F.; Savin, S.M.; Douglas, R.G.

    1981-05-08

    Deep Sea Drilling Project site 289 in the western equatorial Pacific has yielded an extremely detailed record of the carbon and oxygen isotopic changes in the Miocene deep ocean. The isotopic record reflects major changes in paleoclimate and paleoceanography, probably dominated by a major phase of Antarctic ice-cap growth.

  10. Shallow scattering layer in the subarctic pacific ocean: detection by high-frequency echo sounder.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, W E; Lebrasseur, R J; Kennedy, O D

    1969-10-31

    Shallow scattering layers consisting mainly of Calanus cristatus were detected on a trans-Pacific crossing to depths of 60 meters with a high-frequency echo sounder. Biomass estimates of these layers indicate concentrations of zoo-plankton that are greater and more extensive than previously reported in the open ocean.

  11. 78 FR 37971 - Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado... speed zone from an anchored naval high value unit vessel during a Naval exercise, which will be... this rule because an NPRM would have been impracticable. Logistical details surrounding this...

  12. 75 FR 53873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level Fishery... entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary... participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES:...

  13. Thermodynamic Air/Ocean Feedback Mechanisms in the Equatorial Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    statistical interpolation scheme, Monthly Weather Review, 109, 701-721, 1981. McCreary , Julian P. Jr., A model of tropical ocean-atmospheric interaction...Monthly Weather Review, 111, 370-387. McCreary , Julian P. Jr., and Anderson, David L. T., An overview of coupled ocean-atmosphere models of El Nino and...background section, but for now, it is sufficient to say that they are interchangeable. Numerous published theories (Wyrtki, 1975; McCreary , 1983

  14. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zinke, J; Hoell, A; Lough, J M; Feng, M; Kuret, A J; Clarke, H; Ricca, V; Rankenburg, K; McCulloch, M T

    2015-10-23

    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795-2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia.

  15. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, J.; Hoell, A.; Lough, J. M.; Feng, M.; Kuret, A. J.; Clarke, H.; Ricca, V.; Rankenburg, K.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795-2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia.

  16. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl compounds in surface waters from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cai, Minghong; Zhao, Zhen; Yin, Zhigao; Ahrens, Lutz; Huang, Peng; Cai, Minggang; Yang, Haizhen; He, Jianfeng; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong

    2012-01-17

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in 22 surface water samples (39-76°N) and three sea ice core and snow samples (77-87°N) collected from North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean during the fourth Chinese Arctic Expedition in 2010. Geographically, the average concentration of ∑PFC in surface water samples were 560 ± 170 pg L(-1) for the Northwest Pacific Ocean, 500 ± 170 pg L(-1) for the Arctic Ocean, and 340 ± 130 pg L(-1) for the Bering Sea, respectively. The perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were the dominant PFC class in the water samples, however, the spatial pattern of PFCs varied. The C(5), C(7) and C(8) PFCAs (i.e., perfluoropentanoate (PFPA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)) were the dominant PFCs in the Northwest Pacific Ocean while in the Bering Sea the PFPA dominated. The changing in the pattern and concentrations in Pacific Ocean indicate that the PFCs in surface water were influenced by sources from the East-Asian (such as Japan and China) and North American coast, and dilution effect during their transport to the Arctic. The presence of PFCs in the snow and ice core samples indicates an atmospheric deposition of PFCs in the Arctic. The elevated PFC concentration in the Arctic Ocean shows that the ice melting had an impact on the PFC levels and distribution. In addition, the C(4) and C(5) PFCAs (i.e., perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), PFPA) became the dominant PFCs in the Arctic Ocean indicating that PFBA is a marker for sea ice melting as the source of exposure.

  17. Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Karner, M B; DeLong, E F; Karl, D M

    2001-01-25

    The ocean's interior is Earth's largest biome. Recently, cultivation-independent ribosomal RNA gene surveys have indicated a potential importance for archaea in the subsurface ocean. But quantitative data on the abundance of specific microbial groups in the deep sea are lacking. Here we report a year-long study of the abundance of two specific archaeal groups (pelagic euryarchaeota and pelagic crenarchaeota) in one of the ocean's largest habitats. Monthly sampling was conducted throughout the water column (surface to 4,750 m) at the Hawai'i Ocean Time-series station. Below the euphotic zone (> 150 m), pelagic crenarchaeota comprised a large fraction of total marine picoplankton, equivalent in cell numbers to bacteria at depths greater than 1,000 m. The fraction of crenarchaeota increased with depth, reaching 39% of total DNA-containing picoplankton detected. The average sum of archaea plus bacteria detected by rRNA-targeted fluorescent probes ranged from 63 to 90% of total cell numbers at all depths throughout our survey. The high proportion of cells containing significant amounts of rRNA suggests that most pelagic deep-sea microorganisms are metabolically active. Furthermore, our results suggest that the global oceans harbour approximately 1.3 x 10(28) archaeal cells, and 3.1 x 10(28) bacterial cells. Our data suggest that pelagic crenarchaeota represent one of the ocean's single most abundant cell types.

  18. Evidence for hydrothermal venting in Fe isotope compositions of the deep Pacific Ocean through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, N.-C.; Johnson, C. M.; Beard, B. L.; German, C. R.; Nesbitt, R. W.; Frank, M.; Bohn, Marcel; Kubik, P. W.; Usui, A.; Graham, I.

    2006-05-01

    Temporal variations in Fe isotope compositions at three locations in the Pacific Ocean over the last 10 Ma are inferred from high-resolution analyses of three hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts. Iron pathways to the central deep Pacific Ocean appear to have remained constant over the past 10 Ma, reflected by a remarkably constant Fe isotope composition, despite large changes in the Fe delivery rates to the surface ocean via dust. These results suggest that the Fe cycle in the deep ocean is decoupled from that in surface waters. By contrast, one ferromanganese crust from the Izu-Bonin (IB) back-arc/marginal basin of the W. Pacific exhibits large δ 56Fe variations. In that crust, decreases in δ 56Fe values correlate with increases in Mn, Mg, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and V contents, and consistent with periods of intense hydrothermal input and increased growth rates. A second crust located within 100 km of the first IB sample does not record any of these periods of enhanced hydrothermal input. This probably reflects the isolated pathways by which hydrothermally sourced Fe may have migrated in the back arc, highlighting the high degree of provinciality that Fe isotopes may have in the modern (oxic) oceans. Our results demonstrate that despite efficient removal at the source, hydrothermal Fe injected into the deep ocean could account for a significant fraction of the dissolved Fe pool in the deep ocean, and that hydrothermally sourced Fe fluxes to the open ocean may have lower δ 56Fe values than those measured so far in situ at hydrothermal vents. Correlation between δ 56Fe values and elements enriched in hydrothermal fluids may provide a means for distinguishing hydrothermal Fe from other low-δ 56Fe sources to the oceans such as dissolved riverine Fe or porewaters in continental shelf sediments.

  19. A Paleo Perspective on the Role of Pacific Water in the Arctic Ocean System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyak, L. V.; Best, K. M.; Gray, R.; Haley, B. A.; Council, E. A.; Ortiz, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent data indicate a critical role of the Pacific water influx for warming the western Arctic Ocean, where sea-ice retreat is most pronounced. In a warming world this influx is expected to increase due to intensified atmospheric moisture transport, both zonal (Atlantic-Pacific) and meridional (poleward), and is likely to accelerate the Arctic change. Understanding the long-term behavior of Pacific water advection is critical for evaluating the rates and spatial pattern of Arctic ice retreat and related changes on local and global scales. Zooming in on the warm climates of the past is especially needed to help understand interactions between various climatic and oceanic processes and their effects on the environment and biota during these warm periods. We focus on selected sediment-core records from the western Arctic Ocean with enhanced preservation of paleobiological proxies such as foraminifers over an extended stratigraphic interval, as compared to typical Arctic sedimentary records. The older part of this stratigraphy, estimated as Early Pleistocene, contains extinct benthic species, which are being replaced by Arctic endemics around the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. This faunal turnover is accompanied by a change in sedimentation patterns indicative of a growth of sea-ice cover as well as increase in glacial inputs from North American ice sheets. We suggest that low-ice conditions and anomalous benthic biota in the Early Pleistocene are related to enhanced Pacific water inputs. This inference is consistent with an attendant neodymium-isotope record that differs from the Atlantic-controlled Quaternary isotopic compositions from the central Arctic Ocean. Understanding the causes and mechanisms of this elevated Pacific influx will help clarify the future of Arctic-Pacific interactions and related changes in the Arctic system.

  20. Tracing radioactivity from Fukushima in the Northern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, M; Hult, M; Hamajima, Y; Lutter, G; Marissens, G; Stroh, H; Tzika, F

    2016-03-01

    Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, a campaign of sampling and measuring anthropogenic radionuclides in North Pacific seawater was set up. The main aim was to study natural processes using these radionuclides as tracers. Because of dilution, the activities of anthropogenic radionuclides at long range were very low and their measurement required advanced pre-concentration techniques and underground gamma-ray spectrometry. Data and metrological aspects of the measurements using HPGe-detectors are presented and discussed.