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Sample records for pacific sardine sardinops

  1. Population structure of three species of Anisakis nematodes recovered from Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax) distributed throughout the California Current system.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Rebecca E; Rew, Mary Beth; Johansson, Mattias L; Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, Kym C

    2011-08-01

    Members of the Anisakidae are known to infect over 200 pelagic fish species and have been frequently used as biological tags to identify fish populations. Despite information on the global distribution of Anisakis species, there is little information on the genetic diversity and population structure of this genus, which could be useful in assessing the stock structure of their fish hosts. From 2005 through 2008, 148 larval anisakids were recovered from Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) in the California Current upwelling zone and were genetically sequenced. Sardines were captured off Vancouver Island, British Columbia in the north to San Diego, California in the south. Three species, Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex 'C', and Anisakis simplex s.s., were identified with the use of sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8s subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The degree of nematode population structure was assessed with the use of the cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2) mitochondrial DNA gene. All 3 Anisakis species were distributed throughout the study region from 32°N to 50°N latitude. There was no association between sardine length and either nematode infection intensity or Anisakis species recovered. Larval Anisakis species and mitochondrial haplotype distributions from both parsimony networks and analyses of molecular variance revealed a panmictic distribution of these parasites, which infect sardines throughout the California Current ecosystem. Panmictic distribution of the larval Anisakis spp. populations may be a result of the presumed migratory pathways of the intermediate host (the Pacific sardine), moving into the northern portion of the California Current in summer and returning to the southern portion to overwinter and spawn in spring. However, the wider geographic range of paratenic (large piscine predators), and final hosts (cetaceans) can also explain the observed distribution pattern. As a result, the recovery of 3

  2. Transport patterns of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax eggs and larvae in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Edward D.; Chao, Yi; Chai, Fei; McClatchie, Sam

    2015-06-01

    We simulated transport of Pacific sardine eggs captured offshore of California in spring of 2001-2012 using a regional ocean circulation model. Eggs were assumed to have developed into larvae within a few days and were modeled using five behavioral patterns: passive transport, diel vertical migration, diel vertical migration combined with swimming against the current, diel migration combined with migration toward shore, and diel migration combined with migration toward the best habitat. Simulated larvae with no swimming behavior were advected far offshore to poor habitat where they were unlikely to survive. Diel vertical migration resulted in less offshore transport because larvae were less affected by surface currents during the day. However, in half the years simulated nearly all juveniles were also located in poor habitat by late summer in this scenario. Swimming against the current combined with diel vertical migration resulted in similar transport patterns to the diel-vertical-migration scenario because currents dominated the transport of eggs and small larvae during the spring and early summer. Migration toward shore resulted in a large fraction of juveniles being located in appropriate habitat during late summer in all years. Migration toward the best habitat was the best strategy modeled. This strategy resulted in a slightly greater proportion of larvae being located in appropriate habitat at the end of summer than the swimming-toward-shore scenario, despite the fact that most larvae were located farther offshore. These results suggest that larval sardine might use directed horizontal swimming behavior to remain in suitable habitat conditions. A large fraction of larvae were transported south into Mexican waters by late summer in all five scenarios. Surveying juvenile sardines in fall near the border of the U.S. and Mexico may be an efficient means of estimating recruitment because the advection pattern of eggs and larvae to the south is opposite the adult

  3. Evidence that the Migration of the Northern Subpopulation of Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) off the West Coast of the United States Is Age-Based

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of fish movements has been an important area of study for fisheries ecology and population dynamics for decades. Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax, along the west coast of the United States exhibit a well-defined large-scale seasonal migration. Larger and older fish are found in the northern reaches of their range during summer and contract to southerly offshore areas for spawning during spring. Because of the close correlation between fish size and age it has not yet been determined if movements are size- or age-based. Measuring spatial changes in the age structure conditioned on individual lengths was used to determine the roles of age versus length in the seasonal migration. S. sagax have a pattern of increasing age-at-length with seasonal northward movements and offshore movements for spawning. The pattern of increasing age-at-length with distance from the origin eliminates a solely length-based process of movement and supports age-based movement. Patterns in the size and age when fish first show migratory behaviors, coupled with the patterns observed during the spawning season, support a hypothesis that migratory behaviors are linked to age-based ontogenetic changes associated with maturation. PMID:27851805

  4. Incorporating parasite data in population structure studies of South African sardine Sardinops sagax.

    PubMed

    Van Der Lingen, Carl David; Weston, Laura Frances; Ssempa, Nurudean Norman; Reed, Cecile Catharine

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has been applied to examine the population structure of sardine Sardinops sagax off South Africa, where this species supports significant fisheries and is also of ecological and eco-tourism importance. Observations of discontinuous sardine distribution patterns, discrete spawning grounds and significant spatial differences in a variety of phenotypic characteristics have suggested the existence of discrete western, southern and eastern sardine sub-populations or stocks. The use of parasites as biological tags to elucidate sardine population structure has recently been investigated, and strong spatial gradients around South Africa in the prevalence, mean infection intensity and mean abundance of a digenean 'tetracotyle' type metacercarial endoparasite considered to be of the genus Cardiocephaloides and found in the humours of fish eyes support and have proved particularly convincing evidence for the sardine multiple stock hypothesis. A discontinuous distribution in the occurrence of another parasite, the coccidean Eimeria sardinae found in fish testes, has provided additional but weaker evidence of discrete stocks. These results have contributed to a changed understanding of the population structure of South African sardine and have significant implications for management of the fisheries for this species.

  5. Changes in fatty acid composition in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) with cooking and refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Imose, K

    1989-02-01

    The influence of cooking and later storage in a refrigerator for 7 days on the fatty acid composition of lipids in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) was studied. The total lipid and triacylglycerol (TG) levels did not change and the phospholipid (PL) level decreased somewhat with cooking or during storage. The fatty acid composition of the total lipids and TG fractions was little changed and that in the PL fractions was somewhat changed by the cooking. The composition of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in lipids of sardine precooked at 100 or 170 degrees C for 30 min changed from 42.7 to 38.3 or 33.5%, respectively, for total lipids and from 51.5 to 38.4 or 37.6%, respectively, for PL fractions during storage. The fatty acids in lipids from the ordinary meat of sardine was stable and those in the dark meat were extremely unstable during storage after cooking. We concluded that the PUFA in the lipids of sardines were stable to cooking, but unstable to oxidation during storage in a refrigerator. The PUFA of lipids in the dark meat of sardine were extremely unstable to oxidation.

  6. Relating sardine Sardinops sagax abundance to environmental indices in northern Benguela [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalov, G. M.; Boyer, D. C.; Roux, J. P.

    2003-10-01

    Most attempts to define relationships between the environment and Sardinops sagax recruitment success in the northern Benguela have focused on regional indices. This study used a large-scale perspective and proposed two new indices: one based on the sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic, and the other on coastal wind stress. The proposed indices were not only consistent with empirical evidence but were also based on current understanding of the processes underlying environmental variability and pelagic fish recruitment dynamics. Prior to the mid-1980s, sardine recruitment strength was positively correlated with SST and negatively with wind. Subsequently, these relationships reversed, recruitment being negatively correlated with SST and positively correlated with wind. GAM models incorporating recruitment, spawning stock biomass and environmental indices were built and compared, and two hypotheses were formulated to explain the reversal of the environment-fish relationships. The first addressed a switch between two environmental regimes: the first (prior to the mid-1980s) characterised by weak stratification and strong enrichment, and the second (late 1980s and the 1990s) characterised by frequent warm events, stronger stratification, and reduced enrichment and productivity. The second hypothesis suggested that the reversal can be attributed to changed population structure, distribution and migration behaviour of the severely overfished sardine stock resulting in a shift from the optimal spawning area in the vicinity of Walvis Bay to the a less favourable spawning habitat in the north. The present depressed state of the stock does not allow firm conclusions to be drawn about the effect of the environment on its population dynamics, nor to consider the implications for management. However, it is argued that an appreciation of how such relationships may change through time is important in further understanding and modelling oceanic and fisheries systems in

  7. Diet of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) in the northern Humboldt Current system and comparison with the diets of clupeoids in this and other eastern boundary upwelling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, Pepe; Bertrand, Arnaud; van der Lingen, Carl D.; Garrido, Susana; Rojas de Mendiola, Blanca

    2009-12-01

    Sardines are one of the main small pelagic fish resources in eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) where they play an important ecological role both as a predator of plankton and as prey of top predators. Sardine trophodynamics have been relatively well studied in three of the EBUS (the Benguela, California and Canary upwelling systems) but not in the Humboldt Current system. In this paper we describe the diet of sardine Sardinops sagax in the northern Humboldt Current system (NHCS) off Peru, using an analytical method which assesses relative dietary importance in terms of estimated prey carbon content. We assessed sardine diet by examining a total of 555 stomachs collected during six surveys conducted off Peru during the period 1996-1998, and compare our results with the diet of anchoveta Engraulis ringens off Peru and with the diets of sardines from the southern Benguela (also S. sagax) and the northern Canary ( Sardina pilchardus) upwelling systems. The diet of sardine off Peru is based primarily on zooplankton, similar to that observed for anchoveta but with several important differences. Firstly, sardine feed on smaller zooplankton than do anchoveta, with sardine diet consisting of smaller copepods and fewer euphausiids than anchoveta diet. Secondly, whilst phytoplankton represents <2% of sardine dietary carbon, this fraction is dominated by dinoflagellates, whereas diatoms are the dominant phytoplankton consumed by anchoveta. Hence, trophic competition between sardine and anchovy in the northern Humboldt Current system is minimized by their partitioning of the zooplankton food resource based on prey size, as has been reported in other systems. Whereas sardine in the NHCS feed on smaller zooplankton than do anchovy in that system, sardine in the NHCS forage on larger prey and obtain a substantial portion of their dietary carbon from euphausiids compared to sardine from the northern Canary and southern Benguela Current systems.

  8. Sequence and localization of an ultraviolet (sws1) opsin in the retina of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, T; Kondrashev, S L; Kasagi, S; Mizusawa, K; Takahashi, A

    2017-03-01

    A full-length complementary (c)DNA encoding ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive opsin (sws1) was isolated from the retina of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus. The sws1 phylogenetic tree showed a sister group relationship with the Cypriniformes, following the ray-finned fish phylogeny. By expressing reconstituted opsin in vitro, it was determined that the maximum absorbance spectrum (λmax ) of sws1 is around 382 nm, being intermediate in position between two subtypes of sws1 pigment that are UV sensitive (λmax  = 355-380 nm) and violet sensitive (λmax  = 388-455 nm), which have been reported to date. The ocular media transmitted >20% transmittance of light in the range of 360-600 nm. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that sws1 messenger (m)RNA is localized in a central single cone surrounded by four double cones in a square mosaic. The square mosaic occupies the ventro-temporal quadrant of the retina and the in situ hybridization signals were dominant in this area suggesting that the fish may use UV vision when looking upward. Based on these results, considerable significances of potential UV sensitivity, in relation to characteristic habits of S. melanostictus, are discussed. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Ikehata, Hiroki; Tada, Chihiro; Ogino, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Mana; Fukushima, Hideto; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2016-01-20

    Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1) and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2), in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa) and SmeChiB (56 kDa), were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2) are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α)₈-fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases.

  10. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Ikehata, Hiroki; Tada, Chihiro; Ogino, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Mana; Fukushima, Hideto; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1) and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2), in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa) and SmeChiB (56 kDa), were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2) are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α)8–fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases. PMID:26805857

  11. Predicting climate effects on Pacific sardine.

    PubMed

    Deyle, Ethan R; Fogarty, Michael; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Kaufman, Les; MacCall, Alec D; Munch, Stephan B; Perretti, Charles T; Ye, Hao; Sugihara, George

    2013-04-16

    For many marine species and habitats, climate change and overfishing present a double threat. To manage marine resources effectively, it is necessary to adapt management to changes in the physical environment. Simple relationships between environmental conditions and fish abundance have long been used in both fisheries and fishery management. In many cases, however, physical, biological, and human variables feed back on each other. For these systems, associations between variables can change as the system evolves in time. This can obscure relationships between population dynamics and environmental variability, undermining our ability to forecast changes in populations tied to physical processes. Here we present a methodology for identifying physical forcing variables based on nonlinear forecasting and show how the method provides a predictive understanding of the influence of physical forcing on Pacific sardine.

  12. Predicting climate effects on Pacific sardine

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, Ethan R.; Fogarty, Michael; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Kaufman, Les; MacCall, Alec D.; Munch, Stephan B.; Perretti, Charles T.; Ye, Hao; Sugihara, George

    2013-01-01

    For many marine species and habitats, climate change and overfishing present a double threat. To manage marine resources effectively, it is necessary to adapt management to changes in the physical environment. Simple relationships between environmental conditions and fish abundance have long been used in both fisheries and fishery management. In many cases, however, physical, biological, and human variables feed back on each other. For these systems, associations between variables can change as the system evolves in time. This can obscure relationships between population dynamics and environmental variability, undermining our ability to forecast changes in populations tied to physical processes. Here we present a methodology for identifying physical forcing variables based on nonlinear forecasting and show how the method provides a predictive understanding of the influence of physical forcing on Pacific sardine. PMID:23536299

  13. Distribution of Pacific Sardine Spawning Habitat within Waters of the Mexican and U.S. EEZs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia Gasti, J. A.; Baumgartner, T. R.; Durazo, R.

    2016-02-01

    Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) eggs were collected by CUFES (Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler) systems on joint cruises in Mexico and the U.S during the months of April and May from years 2000 through 2013. The objective was to estimate the distribution of the spring spawning habitat between the two Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs). We employed a random forest model to interpolate the distribution of eggs obtained over the regional sampling grid. The model employed variables of 1) chlorophyll, 2) line and station numbers in Mexico (by IMECOCAL program) and the U.S. (by CalCOFI program), 3) date and year of sampling, and 4) pumping time of CUFES for collection of the egg samples. Given the results for the area of spawning, then SST ≤16.4ᵒC was used to distinguish the proportion of the northern sardine stock within the CalCOFI region compared to that in the IMECOCAL region. Results from that the habitat probability model indicate: 1. The optimal spawning conditions are found in the CalCOFI region. 2. 4.1% of the northern stock was found in the IMECOCAL region during April, 2002, while only 1.1% was found there in April, 2003. 3. The results also suggest that there exists a mixture of the northern and southern stocks as defined by the SST threshold of 16.4ᵒC, with the southern stock, inferring that it extends northward into U.S. water during the Summer-Fall period with a different spawning schedule than the north stock, whereas the northern stock extends southward during Spring during its spawning season.

  14. The effects of a climate change on the sardine habitat dimensions in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auad, G.; Baumgartner, T.; Miller, A.

    2001-12-01

    The known dependency of the sardine habitat on water temperature is used in an ocean model to estimate the habitat dimension changes due to a known climate shift in the Pacific Ocean after the winter of 1976-1977. The results, consonant with findings from other dynamical studies of the 1976-77 shift, are in line with observed changes in the sardine population off the coasts of Mexico and the US. A warming condition of the eastern Pacific led to increased habitat dimensions. This change was accompanied by an increased onshore transport which also contributed to the sardine population decrease observed after the shift.

  15. Seabird diet predicts following-season commercial catch of Gulf of California Pacific Sardine and Northern Anchovy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Anderson, Daniel W.

    2015-06-01

    The highly productive Gulf of California exhibits high biodiversity and an abundance of small pelagic, schooling fishes, important both to the ecosystem and to fisheries. These fishes show wide fluctuations in abundance due to oceanographic-atmospheric phenomena such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation, constituting a problem for effective fisheries management. In this work we propose several parameters in the diet of three seabird species as useful predictors of the eventual commercial catch per unit effort (CPUE) of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) in the Midriff Island Region of the Gulf of California. We found that seabirds are sensitive to fluctuations in the abundances of these fishes, their proportions in the diet becoming suitable predictors of future commercial CPUE. The precision of our prediction is high because the birds feed on pre-recruit fish, and the time between the sampling of the diets and the initiation of the fishing season is short, minimizing stochastic effects on recruitment and subsequent abundance due to environmental fluctuations.

  16. Modelling the effects of physical biological interactions and spatial variability in spawning and nursery areas on transport and retention of sardine Sardinops sagax eggs and larvae in the southern Benguela ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C. M.; Moloney, Coleen L.; van der Lingen, Carl D.; Lett, Christophe; Mullon, Christian; Field, John G.

    2006-07-01

    A particle-tracking individual-based model (IBM) coupled with a 3-D hydrodynamic model was used to investigate how spatial variability in spawning and nursery grounds may influence transport and retention of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) eggs and larvae in the southern Benguela ecosystem. A temperature-dependent Bělehrádek development model based on laboratory growth data was used to determine the duration of one egg and two larval stages. Successful transport/retention depended on each particle's stage of development rather than its age. Results show that recruitment could occur in two distinct nursery areas on the west and south coasts of South Africa. Three viable recruitment 'systems' were identified: two are retention-based (spawned and retained on the west coast (WC-WC) or the south coast (SC-SC)) and one is transport-based (spawned on the south coast and transported to the west coast (SC-WC)). In the WC-WC system, the vertical distribution of eggs influenced retention; at intermediate depths of spawning (25-50 m) eggs avoided both offshore Ekman drift and deep cold water. In the SC-SC system, the area of spawning was important; > 50% of eggs from the eastern Agulhas Bank (EAB) were retained in the south coast nursery grounds, whereas very few eggs were transported there from west of Cape Agulhas. In the SC-WC system, area of spawning was also important; 40% of the eggs spawned on the western Agulhas Bank (WAB) were transported to the west coast nursery ground. Sardine life history strategy could be divided between two main systems: the west coast system (spawning on the WAB and WC, and recruiting to the WC) and the Agulhas Bank system (spawning on the central and eastern Agulhas Bank, and recruiting to the SC).

  17. Iron fertilisation by Asian dust influences North Pacific sardine regime shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yongsong

    2015-05-01

    Forcing factors and mechanisms underlying multidecadal variability in the production of the world's major fish stocks are one of the great mysteries of the oceans. The Japanese and California sardine are species that exhibit the regime shifts. It is shown in the present work that during two periods of frequent Asian dust events over the last 100 years, sardines on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean only flourished under a dust-active regime. The earlier such regime that peaked in the 1930s was strong, and it brought synchronous changes in the two species that were linked to the frequency of Asian dust events. However, there is an apparent mismatch in the rise and fall of abundance between the two species in the current dust-active regime. The massive increase in Japanese sardine stock in the 1970s was related to high levels of ocean precipitation and strong winter mixing, whereas the stock collapse since 1988 has been attributed to diminished winter mixing. High levels of ocean precipitation in the western North Pacific effectively cause wet deposition of Asian dust and enhance Japanese sardine stock, whereas it reduces dust flux that can be transported to the eastern North Pacific, delaying the increase of California sardine stock. Analysis further indicates that productivity of Japanese sardine stock is jointly controlled by wet deposition of Asian dust and winter mixing, which supplies macronutrients from depth. California sardine productivity is inversely related to precipitation in the western North Pacific and is positively affected by precipitation off western North America. This indicates that Asian dust influx dominates productivity of the species because of iron-limited ocean productivity in the California sardine ranges. The analysis suggests that dust regime shifts influence shifts in sardine productivity regimes and that iron input from Asian dust during trans-Pacific transport is directly responsible. It appears that in addition to enhancing

  18. [Fatty acids in sardine canned in tomato sauce from different fishing areas of the Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Castro Gónzalez, M I; Montaño Benavides, S; Pérez-Gil Romo, F

    2001-12-01

    Numerous investigations have pointed out the importance that the fatty acids have in the process health-illness, and that the marine resources are excellent sources of the series omega 3 and omega 6. In Mexico, the sardine is a product of marine origin of wide consumption due to its high readiness and low cost. The objective of the present study was to determine the fatty acids profile (FA) in sardine canned in tomato sauce coming from different fishing areas (A) of the Mexican Pacific. There were randomly obtained 8 commercial mark (5 cans of each mark) of sardine canned in tomato sauce; they were classified in sardine of South Baja California Sur (A1), Sonora (A2) and Sinaloa (A3). The samples without draining were liquified and thereafter were obtained the methyl esters of fatty acids that were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. In all the areas they were identified and quantified as 3 FA omega 3 (linolenic, EPA and DHA) and 2 AG omega 6 (linoleic and arachidonic); this source is rich in FA monounsaturated and also presents a considerable quantity of trans FA (18:1n9t and 18:2n6t). The DHA was the most abundant AG in all the areas (3064-4704 mg/100 g); finally, the relationships omega 3/omega 6 were from 3.5 (A1) up to 8.9 (A3). In conclusion, sardine canned in tomato sauce of the mexican Pacific is a rich food in omega-3 and omega-6 FA, independently of the processing area.

  19. Pacific Sardine Characteristics Affecting the Conduct of an Acoustic Clutter Experiment off the West Coast of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-15

    Pelagic Species include Pacific sardine, Pacific herring, northern anchovy, chub mackerel , jack mackerel , and bonito. Highly Migratory Species include...Chub Mackerel —Jack Mackerel —Bonito 2000 2005 Figure 1 - US catches of Coastal Pelagic Species —Tunas —Swordfish 1980 1985

  20. [Vitamins and minerals from sardine in tomato sauce, from the Mexican Pacific fish zones].

    PubMed

    Castro González, M I; Pérez-Gil Romo, F; Carranco Jaúregui, M E; Montaño Benavides, S; Silencio Barrita, J L

    1999-12-01

    Sardine is a sea food widely consumed in Mexico due to it's abundance and very low price. Its content in vitamins, minerals and chemical composition were evaluated in its canned presentation in tomato sauce. Samples proceeded from 3 fishery areas of the Mexican Pacific: (L1) Baja California Sur, (L2) Sonora and (L3) Sinaloa. The proximal chemical analysis was carried out by the AOAC methods; mineral content (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb) was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and vitamins A, B1, B2 and niacin were quantified by HPLC. Results showed a high moisture content from 69 to 82%, ether extract ranged between 7.8% (L2) and 10.2% (L3) and crude protein content between 10.6% (L3) and 14.6% (L1). Vitamin A (IU/100 g) was similar for all samples: L1 (63-66); thiamin (mg/100 g) was high in L1 (0.13) and low in L3 (0.09); riboflavin was high in L1 (0.15) and showed values of 0.13 for both L2 and L3; niacin content was high in all samples: L1 (2.24), L2 (1.48) and L3 (1.75). Minerals were abundant (mg/100 g) in Na, K, and P; L1 showed a great variation for Na (363-636) compared with L2 and L3 (250); K was very variable among the samples: L1 (597), L2 (100) and L3 (57). Phosphorous and magnesium had small variations: P (229, 243 and 212) and Mg (28, 23 and 23) for L1, L2 and L3. Iron was more abundant in L1 (5.5) and L3 (4.3); Zn was higher in L2 (3.4) and similar in L1 (2.5) and L3 (2.2). Copper showed a great variation in L2 (0.21-0.48) but the averages were similar (0.37, 0.35, 0.33, for L1, L2 and L3 respectively). Finally, heavy metal content was lower than 0.002 mg/100 g. In conclusion, there are some variation in Ca, Na, K, thiamin and niacin content in canned sardine with tomato sauce, depending upon the fishing area.

  1. Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the ecosystems of the major eastern and western boundary currents. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the California Current over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the California Current system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern California and Baja California. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern California that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman

  2. Linkages between coastal and open-ocean habitats and dynamics of Japanese stocks of chum salmon and Japanese sardine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsu, Akihiko; Kaeriyama, Masahide

    2005-03-01

    Coastal-ocean-open-ocean migrations, prey-predator relations and long-term population dynamics of chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) and Japanese sardine ( Sardinops melanostictus), associated with large-scale climate and oceanographic conditions, are reviewed. After early marine life in coastal waters in northern Japan, chum salmon of Japanese origin spend their first summer in the Okhotsk Sea, then move to the Western Subarctic Gyre for the first winter at sea. Thereafter, they migrate between summer feeding grounds in the Bering Sea and wintering grounds in the Alaskan Gyre for a period of usually up to four years, and finally return to their natal rivers to spawn. Carrying capacity ( K) for chum salmon at an unfished equilibrium level was estimated from a Ricker spawner-recruitment curve, and the residual carrying capacity ( RCC=(K-abundance)K-1). was positively correlated with body size at age 4, and negatively correlated with age at maturity. Marine survival of Hokkaido chum populations was affected by body size at release, but neither by Aleutian low pressure activity nor sea-surface temperature (SST) around coastal Hokkaido in spring, although there is some correlation between survival rate and coastal SST. Juveniles of the Pacific stock of Japanese sardine become broadly distributed in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) as far east as 180° longitude during spring. Adults disperse as far as the central Pacific and the southern areas of the Okhotsk Sea and Western Subarctic Gyre in years of high abundance. Somatic growth and age at maturation of sardine are density-dependent. We used catch, biomass and residuals of observed recruitment numbers from a Ricker curve (LNRR) as a measure of sardine population dynamics. LNRR was highly correlated with SST of KE in winter, which shifted in 1970 and 1988. Recent biomass and catch remain at extremely low levels due to a combination of adverse environmental conditions and intensive fishing. We suggest that Japanese

  3. Long-term trends and variability in the larvae of Pacific sardine and associated fish species of the California Current region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul E.; Moser, H. Geoffrey

    2003-08-01

    Fifty-year ichthyoplankton and oceanographic time series of the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations were used to describe changes in larval fish abundance and associated habitat features in the Southern California Bight region, extending seaward to the limits of the California Current. The ichthyoplankton data set for this analysis was based on single tows taken at all CalCOFI survey stations occupied within the current sampling pattern from 1951 to 2000 and consisted of a total of 11,917 samples from which 1,365,988 fish larvae were identified. The analysis included data on habitat temperature, macrozooplankton volumes, and 14 taxa of larval fishes, some of commercial interest (Pacific sardine, Pacific hake, Pacific and jack mackerel, and rockfishes), and a group of important mesopelagic species that represent specific habitats in the California Current region. Data are presented in a series of graphs showing changes in average abundance, triennial abundance ratios, and normalized quarterly abundance (1988-2000 only). Larval data clearly track the decline and recovery of the Pacific sardine population. Mesopelagic larvae of southern offshore species had the greatest response to the regime shift of 1976-77, increasing markedly in the Southern California Bight region after 1977. Likewise, this group of species showed the greatest response to the 1957-59 El Niño. There was no consistent response in larval abundance of Subarctic-Transitional mesopelagic species and nearshore taxa to the 1976-77 regime shift. Most of the species showed a negative shift in triennial larval abundance ratios in relation to hypothesized 1989-90 and 1998-99 regime shifts. These changes are discussed in relation to changes in temperature and macrozooplankton volumes.

  4. Risk of introducing viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) to the Chilean South Pacific via sardine imports from Europe.

    PubMed

    Hervé-Claude, Luis Pablo; Carpenter, Tim E; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2008-01-24

    Chile imports from Spain 100s of metric tons of frozen sardine Sardina pilchardus fished in European oceans, which, with several other clupeids, are presumed susceptible to infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The frozen sardines are directly introduced into the sea as bait to catch southern hake Merluccius australis in the same areas where wild and pen-raised salmonids are present. A simulation model was therefore developed to evaluate the potential risk of infection of wild Chilean southern hake with VHSV from imported bait. The model indicated that VHSV-susceptible fish species present in Chilean waters, like southern hake, are not at immediate risk of infection. However, sensitivity analyses showed that infectious doses at lower concentrations of VHSV combined with higher VHSV-prevalence import scenarios could likely result in VHSV infections of a moderate number of indigenous southern hake (> or =54 fish yr(-1)).

  5. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Coryphaena hippurus), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), blue...

  6. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Coryphaena hippurus), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), blue...

  7. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Coryphaena hippurus), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), blue...

  8. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Coryphaena hippurus), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), blue...

  9. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Coryphaena hippurus), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), blue...

  10. Climate, Anchovy, and Sardine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checkley, David M.; Asch, Rebecca G.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.

    2017-01-01

    Anchovy and sardine populated productive ocean regions over hundreds of thousands of years under a naturally varying climate, and are now subject to climate change of equal or greater magnitude occurring over decades to centuries. We hypothesize that anchovy and sardine populations are limited in size by the supply of nitrogen from outside their habitats originating from upwelling, mixing, and rivers. Projections of the responses of anchovy and sardine to climate change rely on a range of model types and consideration of the effects of climate on lower trophic levels, the effects of fishing on higher trophic levels, and the traits of these two types of fish. Distribution, phenology, nutrient supply, plankton composition and production, habitat compression, fishing, and acclimation and adaptation may be affected by ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and altered hydrology. Observations of populations and evaluation of model skill are essential to resolve the effects of climate change on these fish.

  11. Climate, Anchovy, and Sardine.

    PubMed

    Checkley, David M; Asch, Rebecca G; Rykaczewski, Ryan R

    2017-01-03

    Anchovy and sardine populated productive ocean regions over hundreds of thousands of years under a naturally varying climate, and are now subject to climate change of equal or greater magnitude occurring over decades to centuries. We hypothesize that anchovy and sardine populations are limited in size by the supply of nitrogen from outside their habitats originating from upwelling, mixing, and rivers. Projections of the responses of anchovy and sardine to climate change rely on a range of model types and consideration of the effects of climate on lower trophic levels, the effects of fishing on higher trophic levels, and the traits of these two types of fish. Distribution, phenology, nutrient supply, plankton composition and production, habitat compression, fishing, and acclimation and adaptation may be affected by ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and altered hydrology. Observations of populations and evaluation of model skill are essential to resolve the effects of climate change on these fish.

  12. Effects of Storage Temperatures on the Quality of Frozen Sardine, Mackerel, and Saury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohataka, Tateo

    The three Japanese coastal fish species, sardine (Sardinops melanosticta), mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and saury (Cololabis saira) was frozen under commercial condition and stored at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. During frozen storage the quality was measured by determining the K value (freshness index), peroxide value (POV) of fat, a mount of free drip, water-holding capacity of muscle, weight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of frozen and thawed muscle, and organoleptic test at regular intervals (each 2 months). Storage life of frozen sardine was 6 months at -18°C and 12 months at below -23°C. On frozen mackerel it was 6 months at -18°C. 8 months at -23°C and 12 months at below -30°C. On saury it was 6 months at 18°C and 12 months at below -23°C.

  13. Oxygen: A Fundamental Property Regulating Pelagic Ecosystem Structure in the Coastal Southeastern Tropical Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Chaigneau, Alexis; Peraltilla, Salvador; Ledesma, Jesus; Graco, Michelle; Monetti, Florian; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2011-01-01

    Background In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. Methodology/Principal Findings A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. Conclusions/Significance For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems. PMID:22216315

  14. Histamine content in sardine and its products.

    PubMed

    Samaha, I A; Elgazzar, M M; El-Atabany, A I

    1997-01-01

    A total of 80 random samples of fresh sardines, salted sardines, locally canned sardines and imported canned sardines (20 from each) were collected from fish markets and shops in Alexandria governorate. The collected samples were analyzed for determination of histamine level by Thin Layer Chromatography. The results revealed that the highest histamine content was observed in locally canned sardines and decreased gradually in salted sardines, imported canned sardines and fresh sardines. The percentages of the examined sardine samples having a higher histamine content than the permissible limit were 5%, 10%, 10% and 5% for fresh, salted, locally canned and imported canned sardines, respectively. The health hazard as well as the suggestive measures for controlling the histamine content in sardine and its products are discussed.

  15. Phenological and distributional shifts in ichthyoplankton associated with recent warming in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Auth, Toby D; Daly, Elizabeth A; Brodeur, Richard D; Fisher, Jennifer L

    2017-09-26

    Understanding changes in the migratory and reproductive phenology of fish stocks in relation to climate change is critical for accurate ecosystem-based fisheries management. Relocation and changes in timing of reproduction can have dramatic effects upon the success of fish populations and throughout the food web. During anomalously warm conditions (1-4°C above normal) in the northeast Pacific Ocean during 2015-2016, we documented shifts in timing and spawning location of several pelagic fish stocks based on larval fish samples. Total larval concentrations in the northern California Current (NCC) during winter (January-March) 2015 and 2016 were the highest observed since annual collections first occurred in 1998, primarily due to increased abundances of Engraulis mordax (northern anchovy) and Sardinops sagax (Pacific sardine) larvae, which are normally summer spawning species in this region. Sardinops sagax and Merluccius productus (Pacific hake) exhibited an unprecedented early and northward spawning expansion during 2015-16. In addition, spawning duration was greatly increased for E. mordax, as the presence of larvae was observed throughout the majority of 2015-16, indicating prolonged and nearly continuous spawning of adults throughout the warm period. Larvae from all three of these species have never before been collected in the NCC as early in the year. In addition, other southern species were collected in the NCC during this period. This suggests that the spawning phenology and distribution of several ecologically and commercially important fish species dramatically and rapidly changed in response to the warming conditions occurring in 2014-2016, and could be an indication of future conditions under projected climate change. Changes in spawning timing and poleward migration of fish populations due to warmer ocean conditions or global climate change will negatively impact areas that were historically dependent on these fish, and change the food web structure

  16. Mixed layer depth variations in the Kuroshio Extension in relation to Japanese sardine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, I.; Nishikawa, H.; Itoh, S.

    2008-12-01

    Mixed layer depths in and south of the Kuroshio Extension changed from deep to shallow states in the late- 1980s and early-1990s. This change corresponded to the collapse of Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus). This mixed layer shoaling was accompanied by lower temperature in 200-400m depths and higher temperature near the surface. Wintertime field survey in 2006 (Hakuho-maru KH06-1 cruise) demonstrated that late winter maximum mixed layer depth reach deeper with the greater isothermal depth of 14-15degC and higher temperature in 300-400m depth. High-resolution ocean model hindcast data suggests that the accelerated near-surface Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension associated with the elevated sea-surface height anomaly enhanced the heat transport near the surface. This greater heat advection near the surface overrides the cooler subtropical mode water that was created in the previous years possibly causes the shallower winter mixed layer and collapse of the Japanese sardine.

  17. Seabird diets provide early warning of sardine fishery declines in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Anderson, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Small pelagic fisheries show wide fluctuations, generally attributed to oceanographic anomalies. Most data on these fisheries come from landings, often reporting sustained catches-per-unit-effort (CPUEs) until a decline occurs. Fishery-independent data are important as management tools. In this study we show that the proportions of Pacific Sardine and Northern Anchovy in the diet of three seabird species (California Brown Pelicans, Heermann's Gulls, and Elegant Terns) nesting in spring in the Gulf of California show significant relationships with CPUEs during the following season in gulls and terns, or during the same season in pelicans. As sardine availability for seabirds declines, CPUEs remain high until the fishery falls, one or two seasons later. A declining proportion of sardines in the seabirds' diet, combined with the status of the Pacific warm-phase anomaly (El Niño), give a reliable forecast of diminishing CPUEs and signals the need to reduce fishing efforts in the ensuing season.

  18. Seabird diets provide early warning of sardine fishery declines in the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Anderson, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Small pelagic fisheries show wide fluctuations, generally attributed to oceanographic anomalies. Most data on these fisheries come from landings, often reporting sustained catches-per-unit-effort (CPUEs) until a decline occurs. Fishery-independent data are important as management tools. In this study we show that the proportions of Pacific Sardine and Northern Anchovy in the diet of three seabird species (California Brown Pelicans, Heermann's Gulls, and Elegant Terns) nesting in spring in the Gulf of California show significant relationships with CPUEs during the following season in gulls and terns, or during the same season in pelicans. As sardine availability for seabirds declines, CPUEs remain high until the fishery falls, one or two seasons later. A declining proportion of sardines in the seabirds' diet, combined with the status of the Pacific warm-phase anomaly (El Niño), give a reliable forecast of diminishing CPUEs and signals the need to reduce fishing efforts in the ensuing season. PMID:23434761

  19. Direct sequencing method for species identification of canned sardine and sardine-type products.

    PubMed

    Jérôme, Marc; Lemaire, Christophe; Verrez-Bagnis, Véronique; Etienne, Monique

    2003-12-03

    A direct sequencing method based on a 103 bp diagnostic sequence derived from a species-specific mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequence of 150 bp obtained by Polymerase Chain Reaction was tested for the identification of 47 commercial canned sardine and sardine-type products from various countries. Multiple alignment of 14 analyzed reference samples belonging to Clupeomorpha species was performed versus the canned samples. Low intraspecific variability was observed for canned sardine (sardines analyzed were grouped in the same clade as the Sardina pilchardus reference and identified unequivocally. These assignments were confirmed by the high BP value of 99%.

  20. 78 FR 61840 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Methodology Review Process and Preliminary Topic Selection 5. Pacific Sardine Stock Assessment and Management... 0648-XC914 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meetings AGENCY: National... Pacific Council will meet as late as necessary each day to complete its scheduled business....

  1. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    PubMed

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  2. Furan in canned sardines and other fish.

    PubMed

    Pye, Celine; Crews, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-seven different samples of canned sardines and other fish sold in the United Kingdom were analysed for their furan content using a validated automated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure. All 37 samples contained detectable furan, with an average level of 26 μg kg(-1). The maximum furan content was in canned fish containing tomato sauce, which had an average of 49 μg kg(-1) and in canned fish packed with lemon which had an average of 55 μg kg(-1). All fish in brine or in oil contained less than 20 μg kg(-1) furan. Furan levels recorded in fish packed in extra virgin olive oil were low with an average of 2 μg kg(-1).

  3. Understanding mechanisms that control fish spawning and larval recruitment: Parameter optimization of an Eulerian model (SEAPODYM-SP) with Peruvian anchovy and sardine eggs and larvae data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Olga; Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Echevin, Vincent; Ayón, Patricia; Bertrand, Arnaud; Gaspar, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    The Spatial Ecosystem And Populations Dynamics Model "SEAPODYM", based on a system of Eulerian equations and initially developed for large pelagic fish (e.g., tuna), was modified to describe spawning habitat and eggs and larvae dynamics of small pelagic fish. The spawning habitat is critical since it controls the initial recruitment of larvae and the subsequent spatio-temporal variability of natural mortality during their drift with currents. A robust statistical approach based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation is presented to optimize the model parameters defining the spawning habitat and the eggs and larvae dynamics. To improve parameterization, eggs and larvae density observations are assimilated in the model. The model and its associated optimization approach allow investigating the significance of the mechanisms proposed to control fish spawning habitat and larval recruitment: temperature, prey abundance, trade-off between prey and predators, and retention and dispersion processes. An application to the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the main features of spatial dynamics of these two species in the Humboldt Current System. For both species, in climatological conditions, the main observed spatial patterns are well reproduced and are explained by the impact of prey and predator abundance and by physical retention with currents, while temperature has a lower impact. In agreement with observations, sardine larvae are mainly predicted in the northern part of the Peruvian shelf (5-10°S), while anchovy larvae extend further south. Deoxygenation, which can potentially limit the accessibility of adult fish to spawning areas, does not appear to have an impact in our model setting. Conversely, the observed seasonality in spawning activity, especially the spawning rest period in austral autumn, is not well simulated. It is proposed that this seasonal cycle is more likely driven by the

  4. The relative importance of environmental stochasticity, interspecific interactions, and observation error: Insights from sardine and anchovy landings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosack, Geoffrey R.; Trenkel, Verena M.; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.

    2013-09-01

    Long-term time series of sardine and anchovy landings often suggest negative dependence between these species, and an array of mechanisms have been proposed as explanations. We reduce these propositions to four basic hypotheses of (1) independence, (2) correlated process noise, (3) interspecific interactions, and (4) correlated observational error. We use a Bayesian approach to develop priors for parsimonious state space models with both process noise and observation error that represent each of these hypotheses, and apply this approach to five long-term time series of landings collected from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Model comparison criteria suggest that the hypothesis of correlated process noise has the broadest support, where the temporal dependence of anchovy and sardines may be caused in part by either direct environmental influence on their physiology, or indirect bottom-up effects on their prey. However, all hypotheses find some degree of support within the five time series, and in general, the sardine and anchovy landings suggest weak intraspecific density dependence and susceptibility to both environmental and anthropogenic perturbation. Results additionally suggest that the best fitting hypothesis depends on the choice of geographic scale, temporal scale, and stock definition of the recorded landings.

  5. Protein quality of anchovy, mackerel and canned sardine samples.

    PubMed

    Babji, A S; Aidilla, M; Gugapreya, C; Lai, C J; Nur Bazlina, B; Cahyana, C; Nor Hayati, C P; Suriati, Z

    2007-09-01

    The protein nutritive value of anchovy, mackerel and canned sardine samples together with casein as a reference formulation were evaluated. Proximate composition, protein quality and protein digestibility were determined. Procedures for evaluation included Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) using the rat bioassay and in vivo Apparent Digestibility (AD). Rats fed with canned sardine diet had the highest mean body weight (154.8±12.28g) while rats fed with anchovy diet had the lowest mean body weight (145.27±15.89g) with significant differences between all the groups. Mean body weight of rats fed with selected fish diet was higher compared to rats fed with casein diet. For PER value, canned sardine has the highest value (2.48), followed by anchovy (2.46) and mackerel (2.34). PER value for all selected fish is lower than that for casein (3.14). Mackerel had the highest value of in vivo AD (96.99%), followed by casein (96.96%), canned sardine (96.88%) and anchovy (91.29%). In conclusion, among the types of fish compared, sardine had the highest protein quality while mackerel showed the highest digestibility.

  6. Latitudinal variation in the recruitment dynamics of small pelagic fishes in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiro

    2007-07-01

    The subarctic Oyashio Current flows south-westward and the subtropical Kuroshio Current flows north-eastward in the western North Pacific, converging in the waters off northern Japan to form the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region. Some small pelagic fishes inhabit the subarctic or subtropical waters, and others seasonally migrate north and south across the major ocean fronts. Environmental conditions in the subarctic and transition waters are variable, whereas in the subtropical Kuroshio waters conditions are relatively stable. Latitudinally different environmental conditions may affect vital parameters and recruitment variability of small pelagic fishes inhabiting the various waters. Pacific saury Cololabis saira migrate seasonally from the Kuroshio to Oyashio waters and spawn in the transition waters in autumn and spring and in the Kuroshio waters in winter. During 1990-1999, the coefficients of variation (CVs) of daily growth rates (G) and instantaneous mortality coefficients (M) were large for larvae and juveniles spawned in the northern transition waters, but relatively small for those from the southern Kuroshio waters. The Pacific stock of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus spawns in the Kuroshio waters in spring and early summer and migrates to the subarctic Oyashio waters in summer for feeding, whereas the Tsushima Warm Current stock spawns in the East China Sea in spring and fish remain in the subtropical warm waters throughout their lifetime. The Pacific stock had CVs > 100% for the fish aged 0-5 during 1970-2002. In contrast, the Tsushima Warm Current stock had CVs of 34-40% during 1973-2002. Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, which inhabits subarctic waters, had CVs of 118-178% for the fish aged 3-8 y during 1910-1954. Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, which spawn in the subtropical Kuroshio waters and migrate to the subarctic Oyashio waters in summer for feeding, had CVs > 120% for the fish aged 0-4 during 1976-2003. Contrasting with these subarctic

  7. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds.

  8. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  9. Effect of maternal fat reserves on the fatty acid composition of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Susana; Rosa, Rui; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Cunha, Maria Emilia; Chícharo, Maria Alexandra; van der Lingen, Carl D

    2007-12-01

    We compared the fatty acid (FA) composition of the muscle and gonads of female Iberian sardines with hydrated oocytes collected during the 2002/03 spawning season off southern Portugal (November and February) and off western Portugal (February). Sardine condition and total FA concentration in the muscle decreased between the two sampling dates, while the gonadosomatic index was similar between samples. Total monounsaturated FA concentrations in sardine gonads were different for the three samples while saturated and polyunsaturated FA concentrations were similar. Significant linear relations were found between FA concentrations in female muscle and oocytes, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6), both being essential for normal larval development. The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in oocytes was independent on muscle concentration, probably resulting from its selective transfer to the oocytes. The EPA/DHA ratio was highly conserved in sardine tissues, while DHA/AA and EPA/AA ratios varied significantly between samples. These results indicate that the FA content of eggs produced by sardines varies throughout the spawning season, egg FA concentrations decreasing as females lose condition, and FA composition also shows spatial variability. Both types of variability may have a significant impact on egg quality, particularly on the amount of reserves available to larvae affecting their resistance to starvation, and the appropriate FA composition required for normal growth.

  10. Do the Brazilian sardine commercial landings respond to local ocean circulation?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Mainara B; Gherardi, Douglas F M; Lentini, Carlos A D; Dias, Daniela F; Campos, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, flow intensity and mesoscale ocean processes, all affect sardine production, both in eastern and western boundary current systems. Here we tested the hypothesis whether extreme high and low commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine fisheries in the South Brazil Bight (SBB) are sensitive to different oceanic conditions. An ocean model (ROMS) and an individual based model (Ichthyop) were used to assess the relationship between oceanic conditions during the spawning season and commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine one year later. Model output was compared with remote sensing and analysis data showing good consistency. Simulations indicate that mortality of eggs and larvae by low temperature prior to maximum and minimum landings are significantly higher than mortality caused by offshore advection. However, when periods of maximum and minimum sardine landings are compared with respect to these causes of mortality no significant differences were detected. Results indicate that mortality caused by prevailing oceanic conditions at early life stages alone can not be invoked to explain the observed extreme commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine. Likely influencing factors include starvation and predation interacting with the strategy of spawning "at the right place and at the right time".

  11. Do the Brazilian sardine commercial landings respond to local ocean circulation?

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, Douglas F. M.; Lentini, Carlos A. D.; Dias, Daniela F.; Campos, Paula C.

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, flow intensity and mesoscale ocean processes, all affect sardine production, both in eastern and western boundary current systems. Here we tested the hypothesis whether extreme high and low commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine fisheries in the South Brazil Bight (SBB) are sensitive to different oceanic conditions. An ocean model (ROMS) and an individual based model (Ichthyop) were used to assess the relationship between oceanic conditions during the spawning season and commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine one year later. Model output was compared with remote sensing and analysis data showing good consistency. Simulations indicate that mortality of eggs and larvae by low temperature prior to maximum and minimum landings are significantly higher than mortality caused by offshore advection. However, when periods of maximum and minimum sardine landings are compared with respect to these causes of mortality no significant differences were detected. Results indicate that mortality caused by prevailing oceanic conditions at early life stages alone can not be invoked to explain the observed extreme commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine. Likely influencing factors include starvation and predation interacting with the strategy of spawning “at the right place and at the right time”. PMID:28489925

  12. Modeling the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Daniela Faggiani; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino; Camargo, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    An Individual Based Model (IBM), coupled with a hydrodynamic model (ROMS), was used to investigate the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian Sardine in the South Brazil Bight (SBB). ROMS solutions were compared with satellite and field data to assess their representation of the physical environment. Two spawning experiments were performed for the summer along six years, coincident with ichthyoplankton survey cruises. In the first one, eggs were released in spawning habitats inferred from a spatial model. The second experiment simulated a random spawning to test the null hypothesis that there are no preferred spawning sites. Releasing eggs in the predefined spawning habitats increases larval survival, suggesting that the central-southern part of the SBB is more suitable for larvae development because of its thermodynamic characteristics. The Brazilian sardine is also capable of exploring suitable areas for spawning, according to the interannual variability of the SBB. The influence of water temperature, the presence of Cape Frio upwelling, and surface circulation on the spawning process was tested. The Cape Frio upwelling plays an important role in the modulation of Brazilian sardine spawning zones over SBB because of its lower than average water temperature. This has a direct influence on larval survival and on the interannual variability of the Brazilian sardine spawning process. The hydrodynamic condition is crucial in determining the central-southern part of SBB as the most suitable place for spawning because it enhances simulated coastal retention of larvae.

  13. Monitoring the Freshness of Moroccan Sardines with a Neural-Network Based Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Aziz; Barbri, Noureddine El; Llobet, Eduard; Bari, Nezha El; Correig, Xavier; Bouchikhi, Benachir

    2006-01-01

    An electronic nose was developed and used as a rapid technique to classify the freshness of sardine samples according to the number of days spent under cold storage (4 ± 1°C, in air). The volatile compounds present in the headspace of weighted sardine samples were introduced into a sensor chamber and the response signals of the sensors were recorded as a function of time. Commercially available gas sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors were used and both static and dynamic features from the sensor conductance response were input to the pattern recognition engine. Data analysis was performed by three different pattern recognition methods such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks (FANN) and support vector machines (SVM). The objective of this study was to find, among these three pattern recognition methods, the most suitable one for accurately identifying the days of cold storage undergone by sardine samples. The results show that the electronic nose can monitor the freshness of sardine samples stored at 4°C, and that the best classification and prediction are obtained with SVM neural network. The SVM approach shows improved classification performances, reducing the amount of misclassified samples down to 3.75 %.

  14. Climate variability drives anchovies and sardines into the North and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alheit, Jürgen; Pohlmann, Thomas; Casini, Michele; Greve, Wulf; Hinrichs, Rosemarie; Mathis, Moritz; O'Driscoll, Kieran; Vorberg, Ralf; Wagner, Carola

    2012-04-01

    European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) are southern, warm water species that prefer temperatures warmer than those found in boreal waters. After about 40 years of absence, they were again observed in the 1990s in increasing quantities in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Whereas global warming probably played a role in these northward migrations, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the contraction of the subpolar gyre were important influences. Sardine re-invaded the North Sea around 1990, probably mainly as a response to warmer temperatures associated with the strengthening of the NAO in the late 1980s. However, increasing numbers of anchovy eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults have been recorded only since the mid-1990s, when, particularly, summer temperatures started to increase. This is probably a result of the complex dynamics of ocean-atmosphere coupling involving changes in North Atlantic current structures, such as the contraction of the subpolar gyre, and dynamics of AMO. Apparently, climate variability drives anchovies and sardines into the North and Baltic Seas. Here, we elucidate the climatic background of the return of anchovies and sardines to the northern European shelf seas and the changes in the North Sea fish community in the mid-1990s in response to climate variability.

  15. Heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in barbecued sardines (Sardina pilchardus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Costa, Mariana; Viegas, Olga; Melo, Armindo; Petisca, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2009-04-22

    The formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) during barbecuing of sardines ( Sardina pilchardus ) and Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) to various degrees of doneness and grilling conditions was evaluated by HPLC-diode array (DAD)/fluorescence (FLD) detection. Additionally, the influences of charcoal and electric heat sources on formation of HAs in grilled salmon were compared. With regard to sardine samples barbecued at 280-300 degrees C, "rare" samples produced nondetectable amounts of HAs, "medium" sardines presented IQ, MeIQx, PhIP, and AalphaC at levels of 1.9, 4.4, 3.3, and 2.0 ng/g, respectively, and "well done" sardines presented IQ, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AalphaC, and MeAalphaC at levels of 0.9, 2.2, 1.8, 8.2, 6.5, 17.7, and 10.6 ng/g, respectively. Different qualitative and quantitative profiles of HAs were observed in sardine and salmon samples cooked under similar conditions of temperature and doneness. Levels of 13.3, 3.5, 1.13, and 3.18 ng/g were obtained, respectively, for PhIP, AalphaC, MeAalphaC, and Glu-P-1 in salmon samples barbecued at 280-300 degrees C. The contents of HAs were significantly higher in these samples than in salmon samples barbecued at 180-200 degrees C or in the electric device. However, MeIQx content (0.5 ng/g) was lower in salmon samples barbecued at 280-300 degrees C than in the other samples.

  16. Keeping quality of vacuum-packed smoked sardine fillets: microbiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, A; Peláez, C; Moral, A

    1989-03-01

    The effect of mixed smoking (2 h at 30 degrees C and 45 min at 75 degrees C was studied on the keeping quality of lean and fatty sardine fillets from fish caught in the Mediterranean Sea in March and June, respectively. Raw material for smoking included both fresh and frozen sardine fillets. Microbiological and sensory analyses were performed over the storage period, which lasted for 120 days at 0 +/- 1 degrees C. Smoking reduced the viable microbial flora values from 3-5 x 10(4) cfu/g to 2 x 10(2) cfu/g. The antimicrobial action of smoking, combined with that of vacuum packaging, had the effect of producing a gram-positive flora made up mainly of lactic acid bacteria. A practical consequence of this was to extend the shelf life of the smoked sardines for a period of 4 months. Frozen storage of samples at -18 degrees C for 6 months prior to smoking affected the behaviour of the microbial flora during cold storage at 0 degrees C, but did not affect the behaviour of the flora over a period of 3 months frozen storage, since the initial numbers of bacteria decreased and microbial growth was retarded. Furthermore, at the end of the storage period, the number of bacteria in the samples of frozen fatty sardines were higher than in the samples of frozen lean sardine. Physical conditions, therefore appear to exert an influence on bacterial growth. Sulphite-reducing Clostridia were not detected during the storage period.

  17. Seasonal comparison of the diets of juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Lions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costalago, David; Palomera, Isabel; Tirelli, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Anchovy and sardine in the Mediterranean are known to share the same habitat and, consequently, to interact with one another. These two sympatric pelagic species are planktivorous and consume a wide range of planktonic prey items during all their developmental stages, potentially overlapping their ecological niches, although the feeding interactions between these species have been poorly investigated. Here we compare the dietary habits of the juvenile phases of anchovy and sardine during different seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, through analysis of their stomach contents and of their feeding-related anatomical characteristics. In this study we show that juveniles of anchovy and sardine do not compete for food, and we describe significant dietary differences between anchovy and sardine due to their different alimentary tract morphology.

  18. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding.

  19. Geoarchaeological Evidence for Multi-decadal Pacific Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandweiss, D. H.; Maasch, K. A.; Chai, F.; Andrus, C. F.; Reitz, E. J.

    2003-12-01

    Anchoveta- versus sardine-dominated fisheries correlate with 20th century climate change in the Pacific Basin. Such fish regime changes are linked to multi-decadal climate variability. The "anchovy regime" is characterized by cooler conditions and lower frequency El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, while the "sardine regime" is associated with warmer conditions and higher frequency ENSO. Excavations at Lo Demás, an Inca-period (ca. A.D. 1480-1540) fishing site at 13 o25'S on the Peruvian coast, contained evidence of a shift from an anchoveta- to a sardine-dominated fishery at about A.D. 1500. This shift correlates with records of increased ENSO frequency at the same time and demonstrates that changes in the fish regime can result from natural variability. Middle and Late Holocene sites have archaeofish assemblages that also suggest regime changes, supporting the potential role of archaeological assemblages in tracking multi-decadal climate change in the Pacific Basin during the Holocene.

  20. Changes in the Spawning Environment of Sardinops caeruleus in the Gulf of California during El Niño 1997?1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Velasco, L.; Valdez-Holguín, J. E.; Shirasago, B.; Cisneros-Mata, M. A.; Zarate, A.

    2002-02-01

    The Sardinops caeruleus fishery decreased drastically in the Gulf of California during the seawater heating generated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the spawning environment of this species and their relation with the larval abundance in the Gulf of California during the ENSO 1997-1998 are analysed. Plankton and water samples and CTD data were obtained from cruises made during (November 1997 and March 1998) and after the ENSO (November 1998 and March 1999), coinciding with the spawning period of the species. Higher values of sea surface temperature (SST) and lower values of the stratification parameter φ (water column stratification), zooplankton biomass, copepod nauplii, and integrated chl a were recorded in November 1997 (ENSO) than in November 1998. Higher values of SST and copepod nauplii were recorded in March 1998 (ENSO) than in March 1999. The differences in zooplankton biomass and chl a were not significant. Principal component analysis recognized two large zones during and after the ENSO; the big island zone (BIZ) and the central Gulf. Low SST values and high of plankton levels were at the BIZ in both Novembers, whereas in the March cruises they were in the central Gulf. Sardinops caeruleus larvae were almost absent during the ENSO, whereas in November 1998 high larval abundance concentrated in the BIZ was recorded. In March 1999 the larval abundance decreased again. The results showed changes in the spawning environment of the species during the cruises influenced by the ENSO, which coincided with low abundance of S. caeruleus larvae. But these environmental changes were buffered more in March than in November, maintaining in the first similar levels of some plankton fractions during and after the event. In November 1998 at the BIZ, the interaction of a SST optimal range for the spawning species (from 18 to 21 °C) and availability of food indicated by the plankton abundance coincided with high abundance of S. caeruleus larvae. In

  1. Development of an up-grading process to produce MLM structured lipids from sardine discards.

    PubMed

    Morales-Medina, R; Munio, M; Guadix, A; Guadix, E M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the work was to produce MLM structured lipids with caprylic acid (M) as medium chain fatty acid located at the external bonds of the glycerol backbone and concentrated polyunsaturated fatty acids (L) from sardine discards (Sardine pilchardus) in the central bond of the glycerol. To that end, the following steps were conducted: (i) fish oil extraction, (ii) Omega-3 free fatty acids (FFA) concentration (low temperature winterization), (iii) two-steps enzymatic esterification and (iv) triacylglycerols (TAG) purification (liquid column chromatography). The resultant purified triacylglycerols accomplished with the oxidative state (peroxide and anisidine value, PV and AV) required for refined oils. As enzymatic treatment, Omega-3 concentrate FFA (Omega-3>600mg Omega-3 per g oil) were esterified with dicaprylic glycerol employing Novozyme 435. This process presented high regioselectivity, with ∼80mol% of concentrated fatty acids esterified at the sn-2 position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Signature of an early genetic bottleneck in a population of Moroccan sardines (Sardina pilchardus).

    PubMed

    Atarhouch, Touriya; Rüber, Lukas; Gonzalez, Elena G; Albert, Eva M; Rami, Mohamed; Dakkak, Allal; Zardoya, Rafael

    2006-05-01

    Fishery assessment models meant to determine sustainability of commercial marine fish failed to predict recent stock collapses due to overexploitation. One flaw of assessment models is that they strongly rely on catch and age-composition statistics, but largely ignore the genetic background of the studied populations. We examined population genetic structure of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) in the centraleastern and northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea to aid fishery management of this heavily fished small pelagic species. We found that sardine has a striking mitochondrial control region, and sequenced a fragment of 387 bp of its 5'-end in 261 individuals collected off the coasts of Morocco (Dakhla, Tantan, Safi, Larache, and Nador), Portugal (Quarteira), Spain (Pasajes, Barcelona), and Greece (Kavala). High levels of haplotypic diversity rendered a rather unresolved NJ phylogeny. The recovered tree had no phylogeographic structuring except for the clustering of 13 individuals of Safi. In contrast, individuals grouped together according to the presence or absence of a 13-bp insertion in the sequence. Phi(ST) pairwise comparisons and molecular variance analyses supported genetic differentiation between the population of Pasajes (Bay of Biscay), and those of the Mediterranean Sea and Moroccan coast, with a contact zone around the Strait of Gibraltar. This result confirms the existence of two subspecies, S. pilchardus pilchardus and S. pilchardus sardina that were previously identified based on meristics and morphometry. Mismatch distribution analysis showed that sardine populations are expanding since the Pleistocene. Surprisingly, the population of Safi showed strong and statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation that could be related with isolation and genetic drift. Comparative analysis of the Safi population versus the rest including mismatch distributions, and a Bayesian skyline plot suggest that the Safi population likely underwent

  3. Climate, fishing, and fluctuations of sardine and anchovy in the California Current.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Martin; Checkley, David M; Rouyer, Tristan; MacCall, Alec D; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2013-08-13

    Since the days of Elton, population cycles have challenged ecologists and resource managers. Although the underlying mechanisms remain debated, theory holds that both density-dependent and density-independent processes shape the dynamics. One striking example is the large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy observed across the major upwelling areas of the world. Despite a long history of research, the causes of these fluctuations remain unresolved and heavily debated, with significant implications for fisheries management. We here model the underlying causes of these fluctuations, using the California Current Ecosystem as a case study, and show that the dynamics, accurately reproduced since A.D. 1661 onward, are explained by interacting density-dependent processes (i.e., through species-specific life-history traits) and climate forcing. Furthermore, we demonstrate how fishing modifies the dynamics and show that the sardine collapse of the 1950s was largely unavoidable given poor recruitment conditions. Our approach provides unique insight into the origin of sardine-anchovy fluctuations and a knowledge base for sustainable fisheries management in the California Current Ecosystem and beyond.

  4. Application of melanin-free ink as a new antioxidative gel enhancer in sardine surimi gel.

    PubMed

    Vate, Naveen Kumar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Agustini, Tri Winarni

    2015-08-30

    The squid ink that is discarded as waste during processing can be effectively utilised as a gel enhancer in surimi gels, especially those prepared from dark-fleshed fish which have poor gel properties. It also acts as an antioxidant, inhibiting lipid oxidation. This investigation aimed to study the effect of melanin-free ink (MFI) from splendid squid (Loligo formosana) on properties and oxidative stability of surimi gel from sardine (Sardinella albella). MFI (0-0.1 g kg(-1) surimi) increased the breaking force and deformation of sardine surimi gel in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The addition of MFI had no effect on whiteness of surimi gels (P > 0.05). The expressible moisture content of gels decreased as the levels of MFI increased (P < 0.05). Based on a microstructure study, gel added with MFI at a level of 0.08 g kg(-1) surimi was denser and finer than that of the control (without MFI). Surimi gels with MFI had lower peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nonanal and 2-decenal. MFI could improve the properties of sardine surimi gel. Additionally, it was able to prevent lipid oxidation in surimi gels during refrigerated storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. [Design of a HACCP plan for the industrial process of frozen sardines].

    PubMed

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2009-09-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system to identify, assess and control the hazards related with production, processing, distribution and consumption in order to get safe food. The aim of this study was to design a HACCP plan for implementing in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The methodology was based in the evaluation of the accomplishment of the pre-requisite programs (GMP/SSOP in a previous study), the application of the principles of the HACCP and the sequence of stages settles down by the COVENIN Venezuelan standard No 3802. Time-temperature was recorded in each processing step. Histamine was determined by VERATOX NEOGEN. Results showed that some sardine batches arrived to the plant with high time-temperature records, finding up to 5 ppm of histamine due to the abuse of temperature during transportation. A HACCP plan is proposed with the scope, the selection of the team, the description of the product and the intended use, the flow diagram of the process, hazard analysis and identification of CCP, monitoring system, corrective actions and records. The potential hazards were identified as pathogen growth, presence of histamine and physical objects in the sardines. The control measures of PCC are referred as control of time-temperature during transportation and processing, monitoring of ice supplies and sanitary conditions in the process.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in canned tuna and sardines on the Serbian market.

    PubMed

    Kartalović, Brankica; Novakov, Nikolina J; Mihaljev, Željko; Petrović, Jelena; Prica, Nadežda; Babić, Jelena; Ćirković, Miroslav A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in 57 samples of canned tuna and 31 samples of canned sardines in vegetable oil, collected from supermarkets in Serbia. OC pesticides α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), DDE, DDD, dielderin, endosulfane I, endosulfane II, endosulan sulfate, endrin, endrin ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, aldrin, metoxichlor, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane were determined using a GS-MS method. The highest concentrations (µg kg(-1), arithmetic means) in canned tuna were for δ-HCH (60.6 ± 97.0) and p, p´-DDT (55.0 ± 25.1), while the corresponding values in canned sardines were for δ-HCH (90.7 ± 102.7) and endosulfane II (78.0 ± 145.9). Mean level for the sum of endosulfans was above the maximum limit in canned sardines (85.0 µg kg(-1)). Also, dieldrin (39.7 µg kg(-1)) was measured above the ML.

  7. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-04

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis.

  8. Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to warming

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S.; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future environmental warming (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. Warming reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. Warming did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the warm conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. Warming did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of warming on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764

  9. A multi-model approach to evaluate the role of environmental variability and fishing pressure in sardine fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, F.; Alms, V.; Erzini, K.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the fluctuations in population abundance is a central question in fisheries. Sardine fisheries is of great importance to Portugal and is data-rich and of primary concern to fisheries managers. In Portugal, sub-stocks of Sardina pilchardus (sardine) are found in different regions: the Northwest (IXaCN), Southwest (IXaCS) and the South coast (IXaS-Algarve). Each of these sardine sub-stocks is affected differently by a unique set of climate and ocean conditions, mainly during larval development and recruitment, which will consequently affect sardine fisheries in the short term. Taking this hypothesis into consideration we examined the effects of hydrographic (river discharge), sea surface temperature, wind driven phenomena, upwelling, climatic (North Atlantic Oscillation) and fisheries variables (fishing effort) on S. pilchardus catch rates (landings per unit effort, LPUE, as a proxy for sardine biomass). A 20-year time series (1989-2009) was used, for the different subdivisions of the Portuguese coast (sardine sub-stocks). For the purpose of this analysis a multi-model approach was used, applying different time series models for data fitting (Dynamic Factor Analysis, Generalised Least Squares), forecasting (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average), as well as Surplus Production stock assessment models. The different models were evaluated, compared and the most important variables explaining changes in LPUE were identified. The type of relationship between catch rates of sardine and environmental variables varied across regional scales due to region-specific recruitment responses. Seasonality plays an important role in sardine variability within the three study regions. In IXaCN autumn (season with minimum spawning activity, larvae and egg concentrations) SST, northerly wind and wind magnitude were negatively related with LPUE. In IXaCS none of the explanatory variables tested was clearly related with LPUE. In IXaS-Algarve (South Portugal) both spring

  10. Influence of smoking and packaging methods on lipid stability and microbial quality of Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Sardine (Sardinella gibossa)

    PubMed Central

    Cyprian, Odoli O; Van Nguyen, Minh; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Jonsson, Asbjorn; Tomasson, Tumi; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Arason, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    Lipid and microbial quality of smoked capelin (two groups differing in lipid content) and sardine was studied, with the aim of introducing capelin in the smoked sardine markets. Lipid hydrolysis (phospholipid and free fatty acids) and oxidation index (hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), fatty acid composition, and total viable count were measured in raw and packaged smoked fish during chilled storage (day 2, 10, 16, 22, 28). Lipid hydrolysis was more pronounced in low lipid capelin, whereas accelerated lipid oxidation occurred in high lipid capelin. Muscle lipid was less stable in sardine than capelin. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) constituted 12% of fatty acids in capelin and 19% in sardine. Vacuum packaging as well as hot smoking retarded bacterial growth, recording counts of ≤log 5 CFU/g compared to ≥log 7CFU/g in cold smoked air packaged. Smoked low lipid capelin was considered an alternative for introduction in smoked sardine markets. PMID:26405526

  11. Amino acid composition in eyes from zebrafish (Danio rerio) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) at the larval stage.

    PubMed

    Falco, Francesca; Barra, Marco; Cammarata, Matteo; Cuttitta, Angela; Jia, Sichao; Bonanno, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to identify differences in the amino acid composition of the eyes from zebrafish (Danio rerio) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) larvae and their link to the environmental adaption of the species. Amino acids in the acidic hydrolysates of eyes from 11 zebrafish and 12 sardine were determined with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography involving precolumn derivatization with ortho-phthalaldehyde. Differences in the content of most amino acids were detected between zebrafish and sardine. These amino acids were aspartate, glutamate, serine, glycine, threonine, arginine, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine. Of particular note, the percentage of methionine in zebrafish eyes was much higher than that in sardine, whereas the opposite was observed for glutamate and glycine. These results indicate that zebrafish and sardine likely have experienced differences in adaptation to environmental changes. We suggest that the amino acid composition of eyes represents a powerful tool to discriminate between species characterized by different lifestyle and inhabiting different environments.

  12. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  13. Fishing area and fish size as risk factors of Anisakis infection in sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from Iberian waters, southwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Molina-Fernández, Dolores; Malagón, David; Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Benítez, Rocío; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina; Adroher, Francisco Javier

    2015-06-16

    The sardine (Sardina pilchardus) is a fish commonly consumed and appreciated in many countries, although they are more likely to be eaten fresh in western Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Portugal, France or Italy. A molecular epidemiological survey of sardines from 5 fishing areas of the Spanish Mediterranean (Málaga, southern Spain) and Atlantic coasts (southern: Cádiz and Isla Cristina; northern: A Coruña and Ondarroa) was carried out to determine the presence of Anisakis spp. larvae. The highest prevalence of these larvae was observed in fish from A Coruña (28.3%), followed by Ondarroa (5%) and Cádiz (2.5%). No Anisakis larvae were found in fish from Málaga and Isla Cristina. Three Anisakis genotypes were identified: Anisakis simplex sensu stricto, Anisakis pegreffii and a hybrid genotype between these two species. A. pegreffii was the most prevalent species in A Coruña (71% of larvae). Only three Anisakis larvae (9% collected larvae) were located in the musculature of sardines: two were identified as A. pegreffii while the other was a hybrid genotype. Sardine infection was associated with fishing area and fish length/weight (length and weight were strongly correlated; Pearson's correlation 0.82; p<0.001). Risk factor multivariate analysis showed that the risk of infection increases 1.6 times for every additional cm in the length of the sardines from the same fishing area. Comparison of fish of equal length showed that in sardines from A Coruña the risk of parasitization is 11.5 times higher than in those from other fishing areas. Although the risk of infection by Anisakis through consumption of sardines is generally low due to the low epidemiological parameter values (prevalence 10%, mean intensity 1.7 (range 1-5) and mean abundance 0.17), as larger fish are more heavily parasitized, there is an increased risk of infection by Anisakis through consumption of large sardines which are raw or have undergone insufficient treatment (undercooked, smoked

  14. Levels of heavy metals in canned bonito, sardines, and mackerel produced in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mol, Suhendan

    2011-11-01

    Concentrations of selected metals were determined using ICP-MS in canned bonito, sardines and mackerel commercialized in Turkey. Thirty samples and two different brands were sampled for each fish species. The minimum and maximum concentrations of trace metals in canned bonito, sardines and mackerel were found as 0.000-34.742, 0.000-89.015, 0.000-28.725 mg/kg for iron, 2.388-26.620, 10.930-41.340, 4.778-29.270 mg/kg for zinc, 0.331-1.548, 0.599-2.242, 0.336-2.884 mg/kg for copper, 0.000-0.065, 0.000-0.113, 0.000-0.115 mg/kg for cadmium, 0.000-0.190, 0.000-0.158, 0.000-0.385 mg/kg for tin, 0.000-0.111, 0.000-0.223, 0.000-0.208 mg/kg for mercury and 0.000-3.046, 0.000-2.875, 0.000-3.529 mg/kg for lead, respectively. These levels are similar those found in other studies. Although the samples have concentrations within permissible limits for Zn, Cu, Sn and Hg, some of them contained Fe, Cd and Pb above these limits. Periodical controls of metals in canned fish are essential both to protect human health and to provide data on this subject.

  15. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madani, Zohra; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait Yahia, Dalila

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective

  16. Interannual Changes in Biomass Affect the Spatial Aggregations of Anchovy and Sardine as Evidenced by Geostatistical and Spatial Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Barra, Marco; Petitgas, Pierre; Bonanno, Angelo; Somarakis, Stylianos; Woillez, Mathieu; Machias, Athanasios; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Giannoulaki, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Geostatistical techniques were applied and a series of spatial indicators were calculated (occupation, aggregation, location, dispersion, spatial autocorrelation and overlap) to characterize the spatial distributions of European anchovy and sardine during summer. Two ecosystems were compared for this purpose, both located in the Mediterranean Sea: the Strait of Sicily (upwelling area) and the North Aegean Sea (continental shelf area, influenced by freshwater). Although the biomass of anchovy and sardine presented high interannual variability in both areas, the location of the centres of gravity and the main spatial patches of their populations were very similar between years. The size of the patches representing the dominant part of the abundance (80%) was mostly ecosystem- and species-specific. Occupation (area of presence) appears to be shaped by the extent of suitable habitats in each ecosystem whereas aggregation patterns (how the populations are distributed within the area of presence) were species-specific and related to levels of population biomass. In the upwelling area, both species showed consistently higher occupation values compared to the continental shelf area. Certain characteristics of the spatial distribution of sardine (e.g. spreading area, overlapping with anchovy) differed substantially between the two ecosystems. Principal component analysis of geostatistical and spatial indicators revealed that biomass was significantly related to a suite of, rather than single, spatial indicators. At the spatial scale of our study, strong correlations emerged between biomass and the first principal component axis with highly positive loadings for occupation, aggregation and patchiness, independently of species and ecosystem. Overlapping between anchovy and sardine increased with the increase of sardine biomass but decreased with the increase of anchovy. This contrasting pattern was attributed to the location of the respective major patches combined with the

  17. Assessing the quality of sardine based on biogenic amines using a fuzzy logic model.

    PubMed

    Zare, Davood; Ghazali, H M

    2017-04-15

    There is an increasing concern about the quality and quality assessment procedures of seafood. In the present study, a model to assess fish quality based on biogenic amine contents using fuzzy logic model (FLM) is proposed. The fish used was sardine (Sardinella sp.) where the production of eight biogenic amines was monitored over fifteen days of storage at 0, 3 and 10°C. Based on the results, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were selected as input variables and twelve quality grades were considered for quality of fish as output variables for the FLM. Input data were processed by rules established in the model and were then defuzzified according to defined output variables. Finally, the quality of fish was evaluated using the designed model and Pearson correlation between storage times with quality of fish showed r=0.97, 0.95 and 1 for fish stored at 0, 3 and 10°C, respectively.

  18. Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

    2014-06-01

    'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate.

  19. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities and In Vivo Antihypertensive Effects of Sardine Protein Hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiacheng; Liu, Qianyue; Xue, Bin; Chen, Long; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2016-09-28

    In our previous study, an antihypertensive protein hydrolysate was prepared from sardine. This study aimed to investigate the composition of sardine protein hydrolysate (SPH) and it's in vivo antihypertensive effect. SPH was separated sequentially with ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography. Fractions with high angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity were further analyzed with RP-HPLC and amino acids analysis. Then, SPH was individually oral administrated to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive wistar kyoto rats (WKY) for 4 wk. After treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), organ index, oxidative status, serum ACE activity, and serum angiotensin-II (ANG-II) of all the rats were determined. According to the separation and analysis results, 3 main fractions with high ACE-inhibitory activity were obtained with different amino acids composition. The animal experiments results showed that SPH could significantly reduce SBP (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) within 4 h after a single oral administration. After a chronic oral administration, a steady state of SBP in SHR rats was attained. The heart weight index and left ventricular weight index were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in SPH-treated SHR rats. The malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels in organs and serum, serum ACE activity, and serum ANG-II concentration in SPH-treated SHR rats were significantly lowered (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) as compared to their controls. Meanwhile there was no significant effect (P > 0.05) on those parameters in WKY rats. These results indicate that SPH can decrease blood pressure in SHR rats and not in WKY rats. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Hysterothylacium aduncum, the only anisakid parasite of sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from the southern and eastern coasts of Spain.

    PubMed

    Rello, Francisco Javier; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Valero, Adela

    2008-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out on the anisakids in sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from the southern (Atlantic and Mediterranean) and eastern coasts of Spain. Length of fish was from 12.2-21.0 cm. The anisakids found were identified as the third larval stage (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum, with a total prevalence of 11.85%. Prevalence within the host was 9.64% in viscera and 4.69 % in muscle. The highest infection parameters were found in fish from the east coast (western Balearic Sea) with prevalence of 25.21%, mean intensity of 2.10, and mean abundance of 0.52. No worms of the genus Anisakis were found in the 359 sardines analyzed.

  1. Quantifying the predation on sardine and hake by cetaceans in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begoña Santos, M.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pierce, Graham J.

    2014-08-01

    Construction of ecosystem models requires detailed information on trophic interactions which may not be readily available, especially for top predators such as cetaceans. Such information can also be useful to estimate natural mortality (M) for fish stock assessments and to evaluate the potential for competition between cetaceans and fisheries. In the present paper we provide estimates and confidence limits, taking into account sampling error, for consumption of fish by the four most common cetaceans along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, while highlighting the uncertainties and biases inherent in the information presently available on energy requirements, diet and population size. We estimated that common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) consume around 6800 (95% CI, 4871-9476) tons of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), 8800 (6195-12,647) tons of gadids, 1100 (721-1662) tons of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and 1900 (1222-2752) tons of scads (Trachurus sp.) annually. For striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), prey consumed were 900 (196-2661) tons of sardine, 6200 (3448-11,129) tons of gadids, 200 (11-504) tons of hake and 1600 (0-5318) tons of scads. Estimated amounts taken by harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are much lower, reflecting their low abundance in the area. Cetacean predation on sardine represents 2-8% of the current M value, indicating that cetaceans probably have little influence on sardine population dynamics. For the southern hake stock, estimated average removal by cetaceans often exceeds M. While this may indicate that both M and the consumption estimates for hake require revision it also suggests that cetaceans could have a more significant impact on hake populations. Different approaches to estimation of energy requirements of cetaceans can result in figures that differ by at least a factor of 2. The lack of good estimates of field metabolic rate for most species probably represents the most

  2. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average.

  3. The role of environmental controls in determining sardine and anchovy population cycles in the California Current: Analysis of an end-to-end model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, Jerome; Rose, Kenneth A.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Katherine S.

    2015-11-01

    Sardine and anchovy are two forage species of particular interest because of their low-frequency cycles in adult abundance in boundary current regions, combined with a commercially relevant contribution to the global marine food catch. While several hypotheses have been put forth to explain decadal shifts in sardine and anchovy populations, a mechanistic basis for how the physics, biogeochemistry, and biology combine to produce patterns of synchronous variability across widely separated systems has remained elusive. The present study uses a 50-year (1959-2008) simulation of a fully coupled end-to-end ecosystem model configured for sardine and anchovy in the California Current System to investigate how environmental processes control their population dynamics. The results illustrate that slightly different temperature and diet preferences can lead to significantly different responses to environmental variability. Simulated adult population fluctuations are associated with age-1 growth (via age-2 egg production) and prey availability for anchovy, while they depend primarily on age-0 survival and temperature for sardine. The analysis also hints at potential linkages to known modes of climate variability, whereby changes in adult abundance are related to ENSO for anchovy and to the PDO for sardine. The connection to the PDO and ENSO is consistent with modes of interannual and decadal variability that would alternatively favor anchovy during years of cooler temperatures and higher prey availability, and sardine during years of warmer temperatures and lower prey availability. While the end-to-end ecosystem model provides valuable insight on potential relationships between environmental conditions and sardine and anchovy population dynamics, understanding the complex interplay, and potential lags, between the full array of processes controlling their abundances in the California Current System remains an on-going challenge.

  4. Spatial variability of Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) abundance as related to the upwelling cycle off the southeastern Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Roa, Digna; Mendoza, Jeremy; Muller-Karger, Frank; Cárdenas, Juan José; Achury, Alina; Astor, Yrene

    2017-01-01

    The Sardinella aurita fishery off northeastern Venezuela, region of seasonal wind-driven coastal-upwelling, accounts for 90% of the Caribbean Sea small pelagic catch. This law-protected artisanal fishery takes place up to ~10 km offshore. The spatial distribution, number of schools, and biomass of S. aurita were studied using eight hydro-acoustic surveys (1995-1998). The study included the analysis of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. Surveys were grouped by strong, weak, and transitional upwelling seasons. Relationships between these observations were analyzed using Generalized Additive Models. Results show that during the primary upwelling season (January-May) sardines were widely distributed in upwelling plumes that extended up to 70 km offshore. In the other hand, during the weak upwelling season (September-October) higher sardine densities were found within 10 Km off the coastal upwelling foci. The number of small pelagic schools was directly correlated with small pelagic densities; however, regardless of the season, higher numbers of small pelagic schools were always closer to the shoreline, especially during warm conditions. These two behaviors increase the availability and catchability of sardines for the artisanal fishery during the warm season, regardless of the total stock size. Using this evidence, we pose the hypothesis that the collapse of the regional S. aurita fishery in 2005 was due to a combination of stressful habitat conditions sustained since 2004. These included bottom-up factors due to food scarcity caused by weak upwelling, combined with top-down stress due to overfishing, as sardines accumulated in narrow diminished upwelling plumes located close to the coast. The increased catchability within easily accessible upwelling foci led to the demise of this biological resource, which as of 2014 had not yet recovered. Environmental conditions affecting the sardine habitat needs to be taken into account for the management

  5. Spatial variability of Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) abundance as related to the upwelling cycle off the southeastern Caribbean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan José; Achury, Alina; Astor, Yrene

    2017-01-01

    The Sardinella aurita fishery off northeastern Venezuela, region of seasonal wind-driven coastal-upwelling, accounts for 90% of the Caribbean Sea small pelagic catch. This law-protected artisanal fishery takes place up to ~10 km offshore. The spatial distribution, number of schools, and biomass of S. aurita were studied using eight hydro-acoustic surveys (1995–1998). The study included the analysis of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. Surveys were grouped by strong, weak, and transitional upwelling seasons. Relationships between these observations were analyzed using Generalized Additive Models. Results show that during the primary upwelling season (January-May) sardines were widely distributed in upwelling plumes that extended up to 70 km offshore. In the other hand, during the weak upwelling season (September-October) higher sardine densities were found within 10 Km off the coastal upwelling foci. The number of small pelagic schools was directly correlated with small pelagic densities; however, regardless of the season, higher numbers of small pelagic schools were always closer to the shoreline, especially during warm conditions. These two behaviors increase the availability and catchability of sardines for the artisanal fishery during the warm season, regardless of the total stock size. Using this evidence, we pose the hypothesis that the collapse of the regional S. aurita fishery in 2005 was due to a combination of stressful habitat conditions sustained since 2004. These included bottom-up factors due to food scarcity caused by weak upwelling, combined with top-down stress due to overfishing, as sardines accumulated in narrow diminished upwelling plumes located close to the coast. The increased catchability within easily accessible upwelling foci led to the demise of this biological resource, which as of 2014 had not yet recovered. Environmental conditions affecting the sardine habitat needs to be taken into account for the

  6. Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in canned sardines commercially available in eastern Kentucky, USA.

    PubMed

    Shiber, John G

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen samples of canned sardines, originating from six countries and sold in eastern Kentucky, USA, were analyzed in composites of 3-4 fish each for total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and for mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition amalgamation and AAS. Results in μg/g wet: As 0.49-1.87 (mean: 1.06), Cd<0.01-0.07 (0.03), Pb<0.06-0.27 (0.11), Hg ND <0.09. Values fall generally within readings reported by others, but no internationally agreed upon guidelines have yet been set for As or Cd in canned or fresh fish. The incidence of cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with As ingestion is extraordinarily high here. With the role of food-borne As in human illness presently under scrutiny and its maximum allowable limits in fish being reviewed, more studies of this nature are recommended, especially considering the potential importance of small pelagic fishes as future seafood of choice.

  7. [Evaluation of prerequisites programs for a HACCP plan for frozen sardine plant].

    PubMed

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2008-06-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) and sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP) are prerequisites programs for the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a food safety approach during processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate GMP/SSOP prerequisites in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The GMP compliance was verified according to a standard procedure of the Ministry for the Health of Venezuela, and the SSOP were assessed according to a checklist proposed by the FDA. GMP and SSOP were evaluated following a demerit-based approach. A percentage value was calculated and referred to as sanitary effectiveness. Results indicated that the plant had a good level of compliance with GMP from assessment of buildings and facilities, equipment and tools, hygienic requisites of the production, assurance of the hygiene quality, storage and transportation, and the percentage of sanitary effectiveness was 84%. The level of compliance for SSOP was 53,12% with demerits found in all assessed aspects consisting of inexistent guidelines, lack of control in the sanitary plan and lack of leadership in applying corrective actions. Thus, an improvement in the plant sanitation program was designed targeting SSOP.

  8. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled submodels: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and an agent-based fishing fleet submodel. A predator roughly mimicking albacore was included as individuals that consumed anchovy and sardine. All submodels were coded within the ROMS open-source community model, and used the same resolution spatial grid and were all solved simultaneously to allow for possible feedbacks among the submodels. We used a super-individual approach and solved the coupled models on a distributed memory parallel computer, both of which created challenging but resolvable bookkeeping challenges. The anchovy and sardine growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement, and the fishing fleet submodel, were each calibrated using simplified grids before being inserted into the full end-to-end model. An historical simulation of 1959-2008 was performed, and the latter 45 years analyzed. Sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) for the historical simulation showed strong horizontal gradients and multi-year scale temporal oscillations related to various climate indices (PDO, NPGO), and both showed responses to ENSO variability. Simulated total phytoplankton was lower during strong El Nino events and higher for the strong 1999 La Nina event. The three zooplankton groups generally corresponded to the spatial and temporal variation in simulated total phytoplankton. Simulated biomasses of anchovy and sardine were within the historical range of observed biomasses but predicted biomasses showed much less inter-annual variation. Anomalies of annual biomasses of anchovy and sardine showed a switch in the mid

  9. Food safety considerations in relation to Anisakis pegreffii in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardines (Sardina pilchardus) fished off the Ligurian Coast (Cinque Terre National Park, NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Prearo, Marino; Tomei, Laura; De Montis, Gabriella; Ercolini, Carlo

    2014-11-03

    Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus are pelagic fishes of notable economic and gastronomic importance in the northwest Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea, Italy). The consumption of thermally unprocessed or lightly processed, marinated or salted anchovies and sardines presents a potential risk to acquire anisakiasis, a fish-borne parasitic disease in humans. Prevalence and abundance of Anisakis larvae in Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus from the Monterosso fishing grounds (Cinque Terre National Park, Ligurian Sea, Italy) were assessed, and the larvae were identified by morphological and PCR-RFLP methods. Anisakis larvae, all belonging to Anisakis pegreffii spp. were found in the visceral mass of 1050 anchovies (0.8% overall prevalence), whereas no Anisakis larvae were found in the 750 sardines examined. According to these data, the risk of acquiring anisakiasis from the consumption of raw or undercooked anchovies and sardines caught in the fishing area we investigated is very low.

  10. Modelling physical-biological interactions in the Southeast Brazil Bight: transport patterns of Brazilian Sardine larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggiani Dias, D.; Gherardi, D. F.; Pezzi, L. P.

    2013-05-01

    The advection of Brazilian Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) eggs and larvae in the SBB was modeled using an individual-based model (Ichthyop) and a hydrodynamic model (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS) to test for differences in larval retention for five spawning areas with high probability of egg occurrence: i) two areas north of the domain - Cape Frio and Rio de Janeiro, ii) one in the middle in Sao Sebastiao, and iii) two in the South in Paranagua. According to previous studies, this encompasses the known spawning habitat. Advective processes and physical characteristics, such as water temperature and salinity, were considered to determine larvae transport and survival. The hydrodynamic model grid has a horizontal resolution of 1/12o. Results of monthly mean Sea Surface Temperature (MSST) and Sea Surface Height (MSSH) indicate there isn't warming or cooling trend over the years, and the seasonal cycle well represented. These results were compared with satellite-derived data from the AVHRR sensor and AVISO project. Model results accurately represent the position and shape of the main surface structures observed in the satellite data. Monthly MSST maps for the experiment period indicate that the model tends to underestimate temperatures in upwelling areas and overestimate in the Brazil Current region, with differences mostly around ±1oC. For MSSH, although the model represents well the main surface ocean structures, it tends to underestimate along the domain. Temperature-salinity diagrams plotted in a coastal area for December of four years (1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988), near Ubatuba region, are consistent with field collected data, suggesting that the main water masses in SBB are reliably represented. The IBM experiments were carried out during the summer of six years (1980, 1981, 1988, 1991, 1992 and 1993). For each year, 20000 eggs were released, distributed in the five areas, and tracked for 45 days. At the end of simulation, the mortality due to

  11. Nutritional value and acceptability of homemade maize/sorghum-based weaning mixtures supplemented with rojo bean flour, ground sardines and peanut paste.

    PubMed

    Mosha, Theobald C E; Vicent, Mary M

    2004-06-01

    Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning diets (namely, maize-rojo beans-peanut, maize-peanut-sardines, maize-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, maize-peanut-soaked rojo beans, maize-peanut-germinated rojo beans, sorghum-rojo beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked rojo beans, and sorghum-peanut-germinated rojo beans) were formulated and assayed for proximate composition, energy, mineral density, tannin content and residual urease activity. The diets were also evaluated for storage stability under ambient conditions, sensory quality and overall acceptability. Results of the study indicated that, concentrations of protein, fat, ash, calcium, iron, zinc and copper were significantly (P<0.05) increased when plain maize and sorghum gruels were enriched with rojo beans, peanut paste and/or ground sardines. Soaking and germinating the rojo beans and dehulling the sorghum reduced the concentration of tannins in the gruels significantly (P<0.05). Residual urease activity ranged between 0.00 and 0.07 units, about 10-fold lower than the maximum level (0.8 units) allowed in weaning foods. Both maize and sorghum-based composite gruels had a short shelf-life under ambient conditions (26.4 degrees C) ranging between 4 and 6 h, with gruels containing ground sardines showing a tendency to spoil faster. All composite gruels except those containing germinated rojo beans were highly liked and accepted by consumers (P<0.05), similar to the plain maize and sorghum gruels. The maize and sorghum-based composite products therefore have a potential for use as weaning and/or supplementary foods for older infants and young children. Further investigations are suggested to extend the shelf-life of the composite products and improve the organoleptic quality of the diets containing germinated rojo beans.

  12. Behavioural responses of sardines Sardina pilchardus to simulated purse-seine capture and slipping.

    PubMed

    Marçalo, A; Araújo, J; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Pierce, G J; Stratoudakis, Y; Erzini, K

    2013-09-01

    The behavioural effects of confinement of sardine Sardina pilchardus in a purse seine were evaluated through three laboratory experiments simulating the final stages of purse seining; the process of slipping (deliberately allowing fishes to escape) and subsequent exposure to potential predators. Effects of holding time (the time S. pilchardus were held or entangled in the simulation apparatus) and S. pilchardus density were investigated. Experiment 1 compared the effect of a mild fishing stressor (20 min in the net and low S. pilchardus density) with a control (fishing not simulated) while the second and third experiments compared the mild stressor with a severe stressor (40 min in the net and high S. pilchardus density). In all cases, sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were used as potential predators. Results indicated a significant effect of crowding time and density on the survival and behaviour of slipped S. pilchardus. After simulated fishing, S. pilchardus showed significant behavioural changes including lower swimming speed, closer approaches to predators and higher nearest-neighbour distances (wider school area) than controls, regardless of stressor severity. These results suggest that, in addition to the delayed and unobserved mortality caused by factors related to fishing operations, slipped pelagic fishes can suffer behavioural impairments that may increase vulnerability to predation. Possible sub-lethal effects of behavioural impairment on fitness are discussed, with suggestions on how stock assessment might be modified to account for both unobserved mortality and sub-lethal effects, and possible approaches to provide better estimates of unobserved mortality in the field are provided. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Forecasts of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) off Chile under the A2 IPCC climate change scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Claudio; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Barbieri, María Angela; Bernal, Claudio; Aranis, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effects of climate change on both oceanographic conditions and the relative abundance and distribution of fisheries resources. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) fisheries using predictions of changes from global models (according to the NCAR model and IPCC emissions scenario A2), bioclimate envelope models and satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from high-resolution regional models for the simulation period 2015-2065. Predictions of SST from global climate models were regionalised using the Delta statistical downscaling technique. The results show an SST trend of 0.0196 °C per year in the study area, equivalent to 0.98 °C for the simulation horizon and for a high CO2 emission scenario (A2). The bioclimate envelope models were developed using historical (2001-2011) monthly environmental and fisheries data. These data included the local relative abundance index of fish catch per unit effort (CPUE), corresponding to the total catch (kg) by 1000 hooks in a 1° latitude × 1° longitude fishing grid for swordfish and to the total catch (ton) by hold capacity (100 m3) in a 10‧ latitude × 10‧ longitude grid for common sardine. The environmental data included temporal (month), spatial (latitude) and thermal conditions (SST). In the first step of the bioclimate modelling performed in this study, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used as an exploratory tool to identify the functional relationships between the environmental variables and CPUE. These relationships were then parameterised using general linear models (GLMs) to provide a robust forecasting tool. With this modelling approach, environmental variables explained 58.7% of the variation in the CPUE of swordfish and 60.6% of the variation in the CPUE of common sardine in the final GLMs. Using IDRISI GIS, these GLMs simulated monthly changes in the

  14. Endotoxin and biogenic amine levels in Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and Mediterranean hake (Merluccius merluccius) stored at 22 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena; Varnai, Veda Marija; Orct, Tatjana; Vukusic, Jelena; Kipcic, Dubravka

    2009-03-01

    Whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and Mediterranean hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Croatian Adriatic were stored at 22 degrees C and changes in histamine, putrescine, tyramine and cadaverine levels were monitored in relation to bacterial endotoxin. After 12 h, histamine levels in sardine were above the legal limit of 50 mg kg(-1), set by the US Food and Drug Administration, and an increase in putrescine content preceded the increase in histamine. After 24 h, histamine contents in mackerel and sardine reached 1090 +/- 101 and 577 +/- 275 mg kg(-1), respectively, which exceeded the toxic threshold of 500 mg kg(-1). At the same time, the putrescine content was also high in both fish (353-420 mg kg(-1)). The time-course of endotoxin production was similar in all fish species stored at 22 degrees C. A high correlation was found between endotoxin and histamine, and between endotoxin and putrescine in mackerel and sardine. On the other hand, high endotoxin levels in hake, after 24 h, were associated with the low histamine and putrescine content (40-60 mg kg(-1)).

  15. Elucidating dynamic responses of North Pacific fish populations to climatic forcing: Influence of life-history strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsu, A.; Aydin, K. Y.; King, J. R.; McFarlane, G. A.; Chiba, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Kaeriyama, M.; Watanabe, Y.

    2008-05-01

    In order to explore mechanistic linkages between low-frequency ocean/climate variability, and fish population responses, we undertook comparative studies of time-series of recruitment-related productivity and the biomass levels of fish stocks representing five life-history strategies in the northern North Pacific between the 1950s and the present. We selected seven species: Japanese sardine ( Sardinopus melanostictus) and California sardine ( Sardinopus sagax) (opportunistic strategists), walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma, intermediate strategist), pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, salmonic strategist), sablefish ( Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) (periodic strategists) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias, equilibrium strategist). The responses in terms of productivity of sardine, pink salmon, sablefish and halibut to climatic regime shifts were generally immediate, delayed, or no substantial responses depending on the particular regime shift year and fish stock (population). In walleye pollock, there were some periods of high productivity and low productivity, but not coincidental to climatic regime shifts, likely due to indirect climate forcing impacts on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Biomass of zooplankton and all fish stocks examined, except for spiny dogfish whose data were limited, indicated a decadal pattern with the most gradual changes in periodic strategists and most intensive and rapid changes in opportunistic strategists. Responses of sardine productivity to regime shifts were the most intense, probably due to the absence of density-dependent effects and the availability of refuges from predators when sardine biomass was extremely low. Spiny dogfish were least affected by environmental variability. Conversely, spiny dogfish are likely to withstand only modest harvest rates due to their very low intrinsic rate of increase. Thus, each life-history strategy type had a unique response to climatic

  16. Sardine oil loaded vanillic acid grafted chitosan microparticles, a new functional food ingredient: attenuates myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyoblast cell lines (H9c2).

    PubMed

    Vishnu, K V; Ajeesh Kumar, K K; Chatterjee, Niladri S; Lekshmi, R G K; Sreerekha, P R; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-08-02

    Fish oil has been widely recognized as an excellent dietary source of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. However, it can undergo oxidation easily resulting in the formation of toxic off flavor compounds such as hydroperoxides. These compounds adversely affect the nutritional quality and may induce several stress reactions in body. To solve this problem, a new antioxidant bio-material, vanillic acid-grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch), was synthesized and used as a wall material for microencapsulation of fish oil. The sardine oil loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles could be a potential functional food ingredient considering the numerous health benefits of fish oil, chitosan, and vanillic acid. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation was conducted using H9c2 cardiomyocytes. MTT assay revealed that effective cytoprotective effect was induced by a sample concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. Results of apoptosis by double fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide and caspase-3 evaluation by ELISA substantiated the above findings. Further, flow cytometric determination of membrane potential, relative expression of NF-κB by PCR, and ROS determination using DCFH-DA also confirmed the protective effect of encapsulated sardine oil against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. NF-κB expression was down-regulated nearly by 50% on cells treated with encapsulated sardine oil. Altogether, the results revealed that sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles demonstrated potential cell protection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Fat and protein from olive oil-fried sardines interact to normalize serum lipoproteins and reduce liver lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; García-Linares, M Carmen; García-Arias, M Trinidad; Bastida, Sara; Viejo, Jesús

    2003-07-01

    Fatty fish consumption has been recommended due to its high (n-3) PUFA content. However, an effect of its protein on serum lipids and lipoproteins has also been suggested. The present study was designed to determine the acceptability of diets containing sardines fried in olive oil or the fat extracted from those sardines and the normalization of serum lipids and lipoproteins, the hepatic lipid profile, and the fatty acid composition of the liver of growing Wistar rats fed these diets after dietary loading of cholesterol. Hypercholesterolemia was induced for 3 wk by feeding rats a casein/olive oil/cholesterol diet. Rats were then switched for 2 wk to cholesterol-free purified diets containing casein plus olive oil (CO), sardines fried in olive oil (S) and casein plus the fat extracted from sardines fried in olive oil (CSF). The S and CSF diets were well accepted by the rats. Withdrawal of dietary cholesterol markedly reduced (P < 0.05) serum cholesterol level in all of the groups, but the S group had the greatest decrease and the CO group the smallest decrease. The S group had a more normal lipoprotein profile, in which HDL was the major lipid carrier, whereas rats of the CO group still had beta-VLDL particles. CSF-fed rats had an intermediate profile. Liver fat and total, free and esterified cholesterol levels were lower (P < 0,05) in the S group than in the other two groups. The S and CSF diets increased (P < 0.05) the (n-3) PUFA content in hepatic triacylglyceride, cholesterol ester and phospholipid fractions. The liver fatty acid profile of the S group was more normalized than those of the other two groups. These findings suggest that the inclusion in the diet of whole sardines fried in olive oil normalizes cholesterol metabolism in hypercholesterolemic rats more quickly than consumption of their extracted fat.

  18. Host and geographic range extensions of the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, R.P.; Batts, W.N.; Yun, S.; Traxler, G.S.; Kaufman, J.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from populations of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagaxfrom the coastal waters of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and central and southern California, USA. The virus was also isolated from Pacific mackerel Scomber japonicus in southern California, from eulachon or smeltThaleichthys pacificus, and surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus pretiosus from Oregon, USA. Mortality and skin lesions typical of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in other marine fish species were observed among sardine in Canada and in a few surf smelt from Oregon, but the remaining isolates of VHSV were obtained from healthy appearing fish. The prevalence of VHSV among groups of apparently healthy sardine, mackerel and smelt ranged from 4 to 8% in California and Oregon. A greater prevalence of infection (58%) occurred in groups of sardine sampled in Canada that sustained a naturally occurring epidemic during 1998-99. A captive group of surf smelt in Oregon exhibited an 81% prevalence of infection with clinical signs in only a few fish. The new isolates were confirmed as North American VHSV and were closely related based on comparisons of the partial nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene. The VHSV isolates from sardine in Canada and California were the most closely related, differing from isolates obtained from other marine fish species and salmonids in British Columbia, Canada, Alaska and Washington, USA. These new virus isolations extend both the known hosts (sardine, mackerel and 2 species of smelt) and geographic range (Oregon and California, USA) of VHSV.

  19. Critical Role of Different Immobilized Biocatalysts of a Given Lipase in the Selective Ethanolysis of Sardine Oil.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Perez, Sonia; Turati, Daniela Flavia Machado; Borges, Janaina Pires; Luna, Pilar; Señorans, Francisco Javier; Guisan, Jose M; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria

    2017-01-11

    Different immobilized derivatives of two lipases were tested as catalysts of the synthesis of ethyl esters of omega-3 fatty acids during the ethanolysis of sardine oil in solvent-free systems at 25 °C. Lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and Lecitase Ultra (a phospholipase with lipolytic activity) were studied. Lipases were adsorbed on hydrophobic Sepabeads C18 through the open active center and on an anion-exchanger Duolite with the active center exposed to the reaction medium. TLL-Sepabeads derivatives exhibit a high activity of 9 UI/mg of immobilized enzyme, and they are 20-fold more active than TLL-Duolite derivatives and almost 1000-fold more active than Lipozyme TL IM (the commercial derivative from Novozymes). Lecitase-Sepabeads exhibit a high selectivity for the synthesis of the ethyl ester of EPA that is 43-fold faster than the synthesis of the ethyl ester of DHA.

  20. Is disease an important mortality factor for Pacific herring?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Marine pelagic forage fishes, including sardines, anchovies, and herring, undergo large oscillations in population abundance. Although over-fishing can have a dramatic impact in reducing population size, this anthropogenic perturbation cannot fully account for all population declines because natural oscillations in marine pelagic fish biomasses occurred prior to the onset of commercial fishing. Among the herring metapopulation in Puget Sound / Straight of Georgia, the mean estimated annual mortality, exclusive of commercial fishing, increased from 20% in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s to 64-87% during 1996-1999. This natural mortality affects primarily the older age cohorts and resulted in recent decreased median ages of adult herring from age 4-6 cohorts to age 2-3 cohorts that die prior to iteroparous spawning. Surveys of wild herring from the region indicate that the protozoan parasite Ichthyophonus sp., is currently ubiquitous among Pacific herring populations in Washington and British Columbia, and prevalence of infection increase directly with herring age, from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the underrepresented age 6+ cohorts. Ichthyophonus can be highly pathogenic to immunologically naïve Pacific herring, causing 80% mortality 2 mo. after exposure in the laboratory. Current laboratory-based studies are underway to determine whether natural Ichthyophonus infections are terminal for the host, and whether these infections account for the decreasing median age of wild Pacific herring populations in recent years.

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera using commercial proteases: effects on lipid distribution and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kechaou, Emna Soufi; Dumay, Justine; Donnay-Moreno, Claire; Jaouen, Pascal; Gouygou, Jean-Paul; Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-02-01

    Total lipid and phospholipid recovery as well as amino acid quality and composition from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were compared. Enzymatic hydrolyses were performed using the three proteases Protamex, Alcalase, and Flavourzyme by the pH-stat method (24 h, pH 8, 50 degrees C). Three fractions were generated: an insoluble sludge, a soluble aqueous phase, and an oily phase. For each fraction, lipids, phospholipids, and proteins were quantified. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the raw material and hydrolysates were performed. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) for cuttlefish viscera was 3.2% using Protamex, 6.8% using Flavourzyme, and 7% using Alcalase. DH for sardine viscera was 1.9% (using Flavourzyme), 3.1% (using Protamex) and 3.3% (using Alcalase). Dry matter yields of all hydrolysis reactions increased in the aqueous phases. Protein recovery following hydrolysis ranged from 57.2% to 64.3% for cuttlefish and 57.4% to 61.2% for sardine. Tissue disruption following protease treatment increased lipid extractability, leading to higher total lipid content after hydrolysis. At least 80% of the lipids quantified in the raw material were distributed in the liquid phases for both substrates. The hydrolysed lipids were richer in phospholipids than in the lipids extracted by classical chemical extraction, especially after Flavourzyme hydrolysis for cuttlefish and Alcalase hydrolysis for sardine. The total amino acid content differed according to the substrate and the enzyme used. However, regardless of the raw material or the protease used, hydrolysis increased the level of essential amino acids in the hydrolysates, thereby increasing their potential nutritional value for feed products.

  2. The impact of enterocin AS-48 on the shelf-life and safety of sardines (Sardina pilchardus) under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Ananou, S; Zentar, H; Martínez-Bueno, M; Gálvez, A; Maqueda, M; Valdivia, E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of enterocin AS-48, packaged under normal atmosphere (NA), vacuum (VP) or modified atmosphere (MAP) on the shelf life and safety of fresh sardines (Sardina pilchardus) stored at 5 °C. We studied the effect of these hurdles, alone or combined, on the relevant autochthonous bacterial populations. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content was used as indicative of freshness. Levels of biogenic amines cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, and histamine were also determined. The application of AS-48 did not reduce the mesophilic, psychrotrophic, or Gram negative bacteria viable cell counts under any of the storage conditions tested. AS-48 did cause significant reductions in viable staphylococci counts, especially under VP. In sardines under NA treated with AS-48, the populations of histamine- and tyramine-forming total and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) showed no significant reductions. MAP or VP with AS-48 allowed reductions (significant at some storage times) in histamine- and tyramine-forming LAB. The TVB-N content was also reduced under normal atmosphere and, especially, in sardines stored under MAP. The most interesting results are those concerning the decrease (by several fold) in the levels of the biogenic amines cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, and histamine determined after treatment with AS-48.

  3. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    PubMed

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  4. Impact of El Niño events on pelagic fisheries in Peruvian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ñiquen, Miguel; Bouchon, Marilú

    2004-03-01

    Using data from stock assesment surveys on pelagic resources during El Niño events of 1972/73, 1982/83, 1997/98, we analyze biological changes on pelagic ecosystems and pelagic fisheries during different stages of development of El Niño phenomenon: emergence, full, final and post-Niño. Results indicate changes in spatial distribution of resources, their concentration and size structure. In anchovy (Engraulis ringens) a decrease in biomass was observed, which was estimated at 1.2 million tons in September 1998, the lowest throughout the 1990s. This resource showed an asymmetric distribution towards the south of Peru. Other pelagic resources increased their biomass during or after Niño events, primarily sardine (Sardinops sagax), jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus). At the end of the El Niño phenomenon we found less productivity but more diversity in the pelagic ecosystem. During the 1997/98 El Niño, the diversity index (Manual de Ecologia, 1a Edition, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, 267pp) increased from 0.87 to 1.23-1.70. In both the emergence stage and fully developed stages of El Niño we found large numbers of sardine and longnose anchovy present simultaneously. Size structure of sardine, jack mackerel, and pacific mackerel showed an increase in juveniles. Anchovy during El Niño showed a single modal group composed of adults, but the post-Niño phase indicated an increase in juveniles with an average length of 6-7 cm. In El Niño conditions spawning among anchovy was low, but among sardine and pacific mackerel it was high. We observed, for the first time during full spawning, juvenile sardines with a total length of 18-20 cm. The anchovy spawning season during the post-Niño phase was considerably lengthened, from April to December 1998. Drastic change occurred in fisheries when monospecific fisheries, based on anchovy before El Niño, became multispecific fisheries based on sardine, jack

  5. Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000 µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500 µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Combinative effect of sardine peptides and quercetin alleviates hypertension through inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme activity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianming; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Qianyue; Ou, Shiyi; Zhang, Lili; Peng, Xichun

    2017-10-01

    Hypertension had relation to angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity and inflammation. In our previous research, sardine peptides (SP) with ACE inhibitory activity were prepared. However, the combinative effect of SP and quercetin (QC) on hypertension alleviation was still unknown. In the present study, the antihypertensive effect of SP and QC was discovered and the optimal proportion of SP and QC (v/v=8:2, with 20.00mg/mL of SP and 12.99μg/mL of QC for their original concentrations) was screened on ACE activity inhibition in vitro. And the in vivo experiment supported it by indicating that the mixture reduced the systolic blood pressure, heart, left ventricular and kidney weight and their corresponding indices, serum ACE activity, angiotensin-II (ANG-II) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (in high dose) concentration in SHR rats. Besides, the mixture also lowers NO, TNF-α andinterleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration significantly in vitro. Hence, the combinative effect of SP and QC in optimal proportion had stronger inhibition on ACE activity than SP or QC alone, and could alleviate hypertension through inhibition of ACE activity and inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of the mixtures of squid ink tyrosinase and tannic acid on properties of sardine surimi gel.

    PubMed

    Vate, Naveen Kumar; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2016-01-01

    Effect of the mixture of squid ink tyrosinase (SIT) at 300 and 500 U/g protein and tannic acid (TA) at 0.5 and 1 % (based on protein) with different reaction times (90 and 180 min) on gel properties of sardine surimi was investigated. Surimi gel incorporated with mixture of SIT (500 U/g protein) and 1 % TA with a reaction time of 90 min had the highest breaking force and deformation (p < 0.05), in which the increases by 29.3 % and 11.9 % were observed, in comparison with the control. However, gels added with SIT/TA mixture had the lower whiteness, compared to the control (p < 0.05). Gel added with SIT/TA mixture showed more compact and finer network with higher connectivity of strands, compared to the control. This was coincidental with decreased expressible moisture content. Based on sensory evaluation, the highest overall likeness score was found in gel added with the mixture of SIT (500 U/g protein) and 1 % TA (p < 0.05). Therefore the mixture of tyrosinase from squid ink and tannic acid could be used as additives to improve the properties of surimi gel.

  8. Phylogeographic, morphometric and taxonomic re-evaluation of the river sardine, Mesobola brevianalis (Boulenger, 1908) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Chedrini)

    PubMed Central

    Riddin, Megan A.; Bills, I. Roger; Villet, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The river sardine, Mesobola brevianalis (Boulenger, 1908), is the type species of Mesobola Howes, 1984. Standard phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene of individuals from populations across southern Africa that are currently identified as Mesobola brevianalis showed that these populations represent four genetically distinct allopatric lineages. Furthermore, Engraulicypris sardella (Günther, 1868), the type species of Engraulicypris Günther, 1894, was convincingly nested amongst these clades. These findings support synonymisation of Engraulicypris and Mesobola syn. n.; restoration of Engraulicypris gariepinus (Barnard, 1943), stat. rev. for the lower Orange River population; description of two new species, Engraulicypris ngalala sp. n. and Engraulicypris howesi sp. n. from the Rovuma and Kunene river systems, respectively; affirmation of the synonymy of Engraulicypris brevianalis (Boulenger, 1908), comb. n. sensu stricto and Engraulicypris whitei van der Horst, 1934; and restoration of Engraulicypris bredoi Poll, 1945, stat. rev. and Engraulicypris spinifer Bailey & Matthes, 1971, stat. rev. from Mesobola. Discriminant function analysis of a truss network of five traditional morphometric measurements and 21 morphometric measurements that characterised the shape of the fishes was used to seek morphological markers for the genetically distinct populations. Only Engraulicypris gariepinus was morphometrically distinctive, but live colouration differed between the lineages. Detailed taxonomic descriptions and an identification key for the species are provided. PMID:28138294

  9. [Effects of experimental Listeria monocytogenes infection on mice fed on lamprey or sardine oil prepared under high-temperature deodorization].

    PubMed

    Mineo, S; Konishi, Y; Satoh, K; Yanagisawa, A; Ishikawa, K; Kurata, M

    1992-01-01

    Fresh lamprey (F-La) or sardine (F-Sa) oil is known to contain a large amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. When F-La or F-Sa was deodorized with steam at 280 degrees C under 1 mmHg for 1 h (H-La and H-Sa, respectively), the contents of EPA and DHA were reduced and unidentified peaks were newly detected by gas-liquid chromatography. To know the biological influences of these high-temperature deodorized oils, the sterilizing function of the macrophage against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in male ddY mice fed H-La or H-Sa. One week feeding of H-La or H-Sa lowered the LD50 values of the bacteria injected intravenously. Numbers of the viable bacteria on the day 3 after intravenous injection were about 10 times higher in the liver and 5 times higher in the spleen of mice fed H-La or H-Sa as compared with those of the control group. These results suggest that the sterilizing function of fixed macrophages both in the liver and the spleen was suppressed in mice fed H-La or H-Sa.

  10. What can otolith shape analysis tell us about population structure of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, from Atlantic and Mediterranean waters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemaa, Sharif; Bacha, Mahmoud; Khalaf, Gaby; Dessailly, David; Rabhi, Khalef; Amara, Rachid

    2015-02-01

    The European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, exhibits a complex population structure, which has produced conflicting results in previous genetic studies. Despite its importance in the fisheries industry, stock delineation for management and conservation purposes is still a matter of debate throughout the distribution range of the species. This study examines whether otolith shapes are more efficient than genetic markers to detect population structure in pelagic species with large population sizes. Sardines were analyzed from 15 sampling localities in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea covering almost the whole distribution range of the species. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 77%. Group A: northern Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Gabès; group B: Atlantic Morocco-south Alboran-Algero-provençal coasts; and group C: European Atlantic coast. The Almeria-Oran front and the Gibraltar strait are not an efficient barrier for sardine population separation as there seems to be exchanges between populations of the south-western Mediterranean Sea and those of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean coast or Gulf of Cadiz. The results are discussed in relation to environmental conditions, oceanographic features, and physical barriers to dispersal in the study area, and compared with those obtained by previous genetic, morphometric, and meristic data. For pelagic species with high gene flow, present results highlighted the need to take into account the identification of phenotypic stocks to ensure sustainable fishery benefits and efficient conservation as they may have unique demographic properties and responses to exploitation.

  11. Immobilization of Moniliella spathulata R25L270 Lipase on Ionic, Hydrophobic and Covalent Supports: Functional Properties and Hydrolysis of Sardine Oil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lívia T de A; Moreno-Perez, Sonia; Fernández Lorente, Gloria; Cipolatti, Eliane P; de Oliveira, Débora; Resende, Rodrigo R; Pessela, Benevides C

    2017-09-25

    The oleaginous yeast Moniliella spathulata R25L270 was the first yeast able to grow and produce extracellular lipase using Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeate) cake as substrate. The novel lipase was recently identified, and presented promising features for biotechnological applications. The M. spathulata R25L270 lipase efficiently hydrolyzed vegetable and animal oils, and showed selectivity for generating cis-5,8,11,15,17-eicosapentaenoic acid from sardine oil. The enzyme can act in a wide range of temperatures (25-48 °C) and pH (6.5-8.4). The present study deals with the immobilization of M. spathulata R25L270 lipase on hydrophobic, covalent and ionic supports to select the most active biocatalyst capable to obtain omega-3 fatty acids (PUFA) from sardine oil. Nine immobilized agarose derivatives were prepared and biochemically characterized for thermostability, pH stability and catalytic properties (KM and Vmax). Ionic supports improved the enzyme-substrate affinity; however, it was not an effective strategy to increase the M. spathulata R25L270 lipase stability against pH and temperature. Covalent support resulted in a biocatalyst with decreased activity, but high thermostability. The enzyme was most stabilized when immobilized on hydrophobic supports, especially Octyl-Sepharose. Compared with the free enzyme, the half-life of the Octyl-Sepharose derivative at 60 °C increased 10-fold, and lipase stability under acidic conditions was achieved. The Octyl-Sepharose derivative was selected to obtain omega-3 fatty acids from sardine oil, and the maximal enzyme selectivity was achieved at pH 5.0.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas dhakensis Strain F2S2-1, Isolated from the Skin Surface of an Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps)

    PubMed Central

    Nadiga, Mohan; Vaidyanathan, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Draft genome sequencing of Aeromonas dhakensis strain F2S2-1, isolated from the skin surface of an Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), has been carried out. The draft genome was roughly 4.7 Mb in size with 61.7% G+C content. Annotation of the genome yielded 4,337 genes coding for proteins, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Annotation also revealed the presence of 52 genes linked to resistance to antibiotics/toxic compounds. Pathway analysis revealed the presence of novobiocin biosynthetic genes and genes for biosynthesis of a siderophore group on nonsynthetic peptides. PMID:27540048

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas dhakensis Strain F2S2-1, Isolated from the Skin Surface of an Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    PubMed

    Nadiga, Mohan; Vaidyanathan, V V; Thayumanavan, Thangavelu

    2016-08-18

    Draft genome sequencing of Aeromonas dhakensis strain F2S2-1, isolated from the skin surface of an Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), has been carried out. The draft genome was roughly 4.7 Mb in size with 61.7% G+C content. Annotation of the genome yielded 4,337 genes coding for proteins, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Annotation also revealed the presence of 52 genes linked to resistance to antibiotics/toxic compounds. Pathway analysis revealed the presence of novobiocin biosynthetic genes and genes for biosynthesis of a siderophore group on nonsynthetic peptides. Copyright © 2016 Nadiga et al.

  14. Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Balfegó, Mariona; Canivell, Silvia; Hanzu, Felicia A; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Martínez-Medina, Margarita; Murillo, Serafín; Mur, Teresa; Ruano, Elena G; Linares, Francisca; Porras, Nuria; Valladares, Silvia; Fontalba, Maria; Roura, Elena; Novials, Anna; Hernández, Cristina; Aranda, Gloria; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Simó, Rafael; Gomis, Ramon

    2016-04-18

    Nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of treating diabetes mellitus. The inclusion of fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week is recommended by current international dietary guidelines for type 2 diabetes. In contrast to a large number of human studies examining the effects of oily fish on different cardiovascular risk factors, little research on this topic is available in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the effects of a sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition, and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. 35 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to follow either a type 2 diabetes standard diet (control group: CG), or a standard diet enriched with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week (sardine group: SG) for 6 months. Anthropometric, dietary information, fasting glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, EMFA and specific bacterial strains were determined before and after intervention. There were no significant differences in glycemic control between groups at the end of the study. Both groups decreased plasma insulin (SG: -35.3%, P = 0.01, CG: -22.6%, P = 0.02) and homeostasis model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SG: -39.2%, P = 0.007, CG: -21.8%, P = 0.04) at 6-months from baseline. However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04). The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001). Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline. Although enriching diet with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week during

  15. 50 CFR 660.509 - Closure of directed fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific sardine or Pacific mackerel is reached, the directed fishery for Pacific sardine or Pacific mackerel shall be closed until the beginning of the next fishing season as stated in § 660.510 (a) and (b... fishery for Pacific sardine or Pacific mackerel. Upon such closure, Pacific mackerel may be...

  16. 50 CFR 660.509 - Closure of directed fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pacific sardine or Pacific mackerel is reached, the directed fishery for Pacific sardine or Pacific mackerel shall be closed until the beginning of the next fishing season as stated in § 660.510 (a) and (b... fishery for Pacific sardine or Pacific mackerel. Upon such closure, Pacific mackerel may be...

  17. Pacific HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-21

    Pacific HYCOM E. Joseph Metzger†, Harley E. Hurlburt†, Alan J. Wallcraft†, Luis Zamudio ‡ and Patrick J. Hogan† †Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis...Simulations • HYCOM code upgrade: v2.0.02 v2.1.09 • Thin deep isopycnal layer capability • PLM vertical remapping for fixed coordinate layers • COARE 2.6 heat...flux (flxflg = 4) vs. Kara et al. (flxflg = 2) • Bug- fixed ice model • Longwave SST correction • Monthly shortwave attenuation coefficients - turbidity

  18. Effect of added lipids on the texture of minced hake (Merluccius merluccius L.), megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis W.) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus W.) during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Careche, M; Tejada, M

    1991-12-01

    The effect of added cod liver oil and oxidized cod liver oil on the measurement of texture in minced hake (Merluccius merluccius L.), megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis W.) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus W.) has been measured during frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The results show that added neutral and oxidized lipids, even at high rancidity levels, do not affect shear resistances measured by the Kramer shear-compression cell in non-formaldehyde forming species such as megrim and sardine, over the frozen storage period. However, in a formaldehyde-forming species such as hake, in the presence of neutral and oxidized lipids at the end of the storage period, the values of shear resistances may be lower than in the absence of these lipids, probably owing to formation of less formaldehyde in these cases. Although it is very difficult to estimate the importance of a single compound or group of compounds on texture, these results seem to indicate that formaldehyde is a much more important factor than oxidized lipids in changes of texture in fish.

  19. The effect of combined traditional and novel treatments on oxidative status of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) muscle lipids.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, Joaquín; Gómez-Guillén, M Carmen; Montero, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Fish is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with beneficial effects on human health; however, these lipids are very sensitive to auto-oxidation reactions, leading to loss of nutritional and sensory quality. The effect of traditional (brining, smoking) and novel (addition of polyphenolic extracts, high pressure) preservation processes on the antioxidant/oxidative status of muscle lipids from dolphinfish and sardine was studied. Brining with oregano or rosemary aqueous extracts, as well as smoking, gave rise to deposition of phenolic compounds (9-42, 1.5-4.5 and 0.4-2.3 µg phenol/g for smoked, oregano-brined and rosemary-brined samples, respectively) in the muscle of both fish species. The antioxidant activity, as measured by ferric reducing ability, was also improved after brining with antioxidant extracts or smoking, results ranging from 8.9 to 82 mM FeSO4 · 7H2O equivalents/mg muscle depending on the treatment and the fish species. Consequently, fish lipid oxidation (as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) derived from brining and pressurizing, applied alone or in combination, was reduced between 6.6 and 69.8% depending on the treatment and the fish species. The combination of brining with oregano extract and light smoking showed an additional antioxidant effect, as compared with that obtained by smoking, on reducing sardine lipid oxidation derived from brining and pressurizing.

  20. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life.

  1. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton-zooplankton-anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Strady, Emilie; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Veron, Alain; Tronczynski, Jacek; Radakovitch, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    The transfer of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on (210)Po, (210)Pb activity concentrations and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that (210)Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while (210)Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and (210)Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence (210)Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes.

  2. Pacific Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.; Takeo, A.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Based on our recent results on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry (e.g., Suetsugu & Shiobara, 2014, Annual Review EPS), together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (both radial and azimuthal), with deployments of ~10-15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) (namely "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey"; Takeo et al., 2013, JGR; Kawakatsu et al., 2013, AGU; Takeo, 2014, Ph.D. Thesis; Takeo et al., 2014, JpGU). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations might be sought.

  3. Pacific Northwest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The Rocky, Cascade, and Coast Mountain Ranges dominate the landscape of the Pacific Northwest in this image created June 11-17, 2012 from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Potato and other agriculture can be seen in the bottom center of the image, as the Rockies transition to the plains of Idaho. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation.

  5. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Reconstruction of historical changes in northern fur seal prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific through individual-based analysis of dietary records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, Masashi; Yonezaki, Shiroh

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed long-term dietary records of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to reconstruct historical changes in prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific off northeastern Japan. The nominal relationships between the occurrence frequencies of fishes or squids in fur seal stomachs and the sampling locations reflected the spatial heterogeneity of fish and squid distributions along the shelf-slope-offshore continuum off northeastern Japan, whereas changes in the temporal occurrence frequencies reflected mainly the migration and foraging patterns of the fur seals. The occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs were standardized by using generalized linear models to compensate for sampling biases in space and time. The reconstructed historical trends revealed decadal shifts in relatively high prey abundance-from mackerels in the 1970s to Japanese sardine in the 1980s and myctophids/sparkling enope squids in the 1990s-that were related to decadal shifts in the oceanographic regime. The sequential increase in mackerel and Japanese sardine abundances coincided with the annual catch trends of commercial fisheries. The index of overall prey availability calculated from the standardized occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs was fairly stable over the decades.

  7. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from δ13C and δ15N values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouvelon, T.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Mornet, F.; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay, through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA). Mesozooplankton and individuals of sardines and anchovies were collected during one season (spring 2010), over spatially contrasted stations within the study area. First, the potential effect of preservation (ethanol vs. freezing) and of delipidation (by cyclohexane) on mesozooplankton δ13C and δ15N values was assessed. Results demonstrated the necessity to correct for the preservation effect and for lipid contents in mesozooplankton for further analyses of sardines' and anchovies' diet through SIA. Next, this study highlighted the interest of working on identified mesozooplanktonic organisms instead of undetermined assemblages when unravelling food sources of planktivorous fish using stable isotopes. The inter-specific variability of isotope values within a planktonic assemblage was effectively high, probably depending on the various feeding behaviours that can occur among mesozooplankton species. Intra-specific variability was also significant and related to the spatial variations of baseline signatures in the area. To investigate the foraging areas and potential diet overlap of S. pilchardus and E. encrasicolus, mixing models (SIAR) were applied. Both fish species appeared to feed mainly in the neritic waters of the Bay of Biscay in spring and to select mainly small- to medium-sized copepods (e.g. Acartia sp., Temora sp.). However, E. encrasicolus showed a greater trophic plasticity by

  8. Integrative approach revises the frequently misidentified species of Sardinella (Clupeidae) of the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Stern, N; Rinkevich, B; Goren, M

    2016-11-01

    To deal with the difficulties of species differentiation and delimitation among the commercially important sardines from the genus Sardinella, an integrative approach was adopted, incorporating traditional taxonomy with four DNA markers (coI, cytb, 16s and nuclear rag2). Combining these methodologies has enabled a thorough re-description of three of the most common species of Sardinella of the Indo-west Pacific Ocean: white sardinella Sardinella albella, fringescale sardinella Sardinella fimbriata and the goldstripe sardinella Sardinella gibbosa, as well as a description of a new species, Gon's sardinella Sardinella goni, from the island of Boracay, Philippines. In addition, extensive widespread sampling of S. gibbosa reveals a significant genetic separation between the populations from the western Indian Ocean and the west Pacific Ocean, despite no supporting morphological differentiation. An updated morphological key of the species of Sardinella of the Indo-west Pacific Ocean is also provided in order to minimize future misidentifications within these economically important taxa. Finally, the genetic and morphological variabilities within and between the investigated species are used to discuss their biogeographical distribution and possible processes of speciation. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Enhancement of ACE and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitory potency of protein hydrolysates from sardine and tuna by-products by simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Batista, Irineu; Ramos, Cristina; Montero, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    This work was focused on the study of the bioactive potential of three fish protein hydrolysates, one of them prepared from industrial sardine by-products (head and viscera) and the others from tuna by-products (head, and muscle and viscera). These protein hydrolysates exhibited moderate ability to inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme or ACE (IC50 between 0.24-1.16 mg dry weight per ml) and prolyl oligopeptidase or PO (IC50 between 3.30-9.57 mg ml(-1)), those obtained from tuna by-products being the most effective. Overall, ACE- and PO-inhibiting activities were enhanced by sequential nanofiltration through 3 and 1 kDa MWCO membranes (IC50 between 0.02-0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.10-4.21 mg ml(-1) (PO)). The inhibitory properties of the hydrolysates were greatly improved by in vitro gastric digestion, and were barely affected by further intestinal digestion. The digested tuna hydrolysates, mainly that from heads, proved to be the best source of PO- and ACE- inhibiting molecules (IC50 = 0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.04 mg ml(-1) (PO)) and could be potential new ingredients in food with interest in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases.

  10. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  11. Multiregional periodic matrix for modeling the population dynamics of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) along the moroccan atlantic coast: management elements for fisheries.

    PubMed

    Serghini, Mansour; Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Auger, Pierre; Charouki, Najib; Ramzi, Azeddine; Ettahiri, Omar; Tchuente, Maurice

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic time discrete mathematical model based on multiregional periodic matrices to describe the dynamics of Sardina pilchardus in the Central Atlantic area of the Moroccan coast. This model deals with two stages (immature and mature) and three spatial zones where sardines are supposed to migrate from one zone to another. The population dynamics is described by an autonomous recurrence equation N(t + 1) = A.N(t), where A is a positive matrix whose entries are estimated using data collected during biannual acoustic surveys carried out from 2001 to 2003 onboard the Norwegian research vessel "Dr Fridtjof Nansen". The dominant eigenvalue lambda of A that gives the long-term growth rate of fish population is smaller than one. This agrees with the stock decrease observed in the data collected. We show that lambda is highly sensitive to the recruitment rate and much less sensitive to the reproduction rate. These results can clearly be used to define an efficient scenario in order to fight for instance against a stock decrease.

  12. Environmental conditions, early life stages distributions and larval feeding of patagonian sprat Sprattusfuegensis and common sardine Strangomerabentincki in fjords and channels of the northern Chilean patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Tabit; Castro, Leonardo R.; Montecinos, Sandra; Gonzalez, Humberto E.; Soto, Samuel; Muñoz, Maria I.; Palma, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    We assessed ontogenetic changes in distribution and feeding of the Patagonian sprat Sprattus fuegensis and common sardine Strangomera bentincki, and their association with environmental characteristics (hydrography, larval food, gelatinous zooplankton predators), and actual feeding from inshore to offshore areas of the Chilean Patagonia. During the springs of 2007 and 2008, S. bentincki egg and larvae were present north of the Taitao Peninsula (47°S) and S. fuegensis was found to the south of the peninsula. Along the inshore-offshore axis, distributions also differed: while eggs and early larval stages of S. bentincki occurred inshore and seawards, larger larvae occurred mostly seawards. The opposite was observed in S. fuegensis. However, distributions of both species followed the same rule, determined by the size of their prey: eggs and early larval stages occurred in areas of higher abundance of small prey sizes, and larger larvae coincided with the highest abundances of larger prey sizes. No relationship was detected between potential gelatinous predators and the egg and larval distributions of both fish species. Mean ingested prey sizes in both species increased as larvae grew, while maintaining the capacity to feed on small sized items. This ontogenetic feeding pattern and the distributions linked to prey seem to be beneficial in order to take advantage of short term food pulses and to overcome the strong changes in environmental conditions east to west from fjords to open waters.

  13. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  14. Tropical Pacific moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Research objectives are to: (1) describe the synoptic scale variability of moisture over the tropical Pacific Ocean; (2) describe the systems leading to this variability; and (3) develop and implement satellite analysis procedures to facilitate (1) and (2) over the data sparse Pacific.

  15. Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-07

    Like fall and winter of 2000, this year NASA Topex/Poseidon satellite data shows that the Pacific ocean continues to be dominated by the strong Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which is larger than the El Niño/La Niña pattern.

  16. Influence of ocean winds on the pelagic ecosystem in upwelling regions

    PubMed Central

    Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Checkley, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Upwelling of nutrient-rich, subsurface water sustains high productivity in the ocean's eastern boundary currents. These ecosystems support a rate of fish harvest nearly 100 times the global mean and account for >20% of the world's marine fish catch. Environmental variability is thought to be the major cause of the decadal-scale biomass fluctuations characteristic of fish populations in these regions, but the mechanisms relating atmospheric physics to fish production remain unexplained. Two atmospheric conditions induce different types of upwelling in these ecosystems: coastal, alongshore wind stress, resulting in rapid upwelling (with high vertical velocity, w); and wind-stress curl, resulting in slower upwelling (low w). We show that the level of wind-stress curl has increased and that production of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) varies with wind-stress curl over the past six decades. The extent of isopycnal shoaling, nutricline depth, and chlorophyll concentration in the upper ocean also correlate positively with wind-stress curl. The size structure of plankton assemblages is related to the rate of wind-forced upwelling, and sardine feed efficiently on small plankters generated by slow upwelling. Upwelling rate is a fundamental determinant of the biological structure and production in coastal pelagic ecosystems, and future changes in the magnitude and spatial gradient of wind stress may have important and differing effects on these ecosystems. Understanding of the biological mechanisms relating fisheries production to environmental variability is essential for wise management of marine resources under a changing climate. PMID:18250305

  17. Pacific Southwest Media Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    News media, state and local officials, and others can find press releases, media events and contacts in EPA's Pacific Southwest. Additional resources include newsletters, annual reports, and library services that support regional activities.

  18. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  19. Effects of Ocean Climate on Transboundary Movement of Coastal Pelagic Resources Between the EEZs of Mexico and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Garcia, J.; Sanchez, C.; Lo, N. C.; Charter, R.

    2007-05-01

    Interannual to multidecadal changes in ocean climate directly impact access to transboundary coastal pelagic resources between fisheries operating in U.S. and Mexican waters. This study provides a preliminary analysis of the scale of year-to-year shifts in the distribution of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) with data from 2002 and 2003. One of the purposes of this initiative is to provide a template for collaborative research to guide regional policy development for responsible and sustainable utilization of the shared resource. This work is based on coordinated quarterly ocean surveys run by Mexican (the IMECOCAL program=Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California) and U.S. scientists (the CalCOFI program=California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) allowing us to evaluate the annual state of the pelagic ecosystem from northern California to southern Baja California. The subject of this study is the "subarctic stock" of the Pacific sardine which is centered off California in the U.S. and extends southwards to the region off central Baja California. Estimates of sardine biomass in U.S. and Mexican waters, based on the rates of egg production measured during the IMECOCAL and CalCOFI surveys of April 2002 and April 2003, show order of magnitude differences in the relative proportions of biomass in the Mexican EEZ that is associated with the contrasts in ocean climate resulting from the regional effects of El Niño during April 2003. Results indicate a significant northward shift of the sardine stock off Mexico during 2003: we estimate that approximately 20 percent of the total biomass of the stock was located in the Mexican EEZ during spring of 2002 while the shift in ocean climate resulted in the presence of only 2 percent of the biomass of the stock in Mexican waters during April, 2003. A second, more southerly sardine stock extended from southern to central Baja California in April, 2003, but it was out of reach of the fleet

  20. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  1. Dynamic height: A key variable for identifying the spawning habitat of small pelagic fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Rebecca G.; Checkley, David M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Small pelagic fishes off southern California exhibit interannual variations in the regions they occupy. An enhanced understanding of these fluctuations could improve fisheries management and predictions of fish's responses to climate change. We investigated dynamic height as a variable for identifying the spawning habitat of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus). During cruises between 1998 and 2004, dynamic height was calculated from temperature and salinity profiles, while fish egg concentration was measured with obliquely towed bongo nets and the Continuous, Underway Fish Egg Sampler. Dynamic height ranged between 68 and 108 cm, with values increasing offshore. The greatest probability of encountering anchovy, sardine, and jack mackerel eggs occurred at dynamic heights of 79-83 cm, 84-89 cm, and 89-99 cm, respectively. Four mechanisms were proposed to explain how dynamic height affects egg distribution: (1) dynamic height is a proxy for upper water column temperature and salinity, which are known to influence spawning habitat. (2) Low dynamic heights are indicative of coastal upwelling, which increases primary and secondary productivity. (3) Egg concentration is greater at dynamic heights coincident with geostrophic currents that transport larvae to favorable habitats. (4) Eddies delineated by dynamic height contours retain eggs in productive habitats. To evaluate these mechanisms, a generalized linear model was constructed using dynamic height, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, zooplankton volume, geostrophic currents, and eddies as independent variables. Dynamic height explained more variance than any other variable in models of sardine and anchovy spawning habitat. Together temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll accounted for 80-95% of the dynamic height effect, emphasizing the importance of the first two mechanisms. However, dynamic height remained statistically significant in the

  2. Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  3. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  4. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  5. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  6. Tropical Thunderstorm, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This tropical thunderstorm was photographed over the Pacific Ocean NW of New Guinea (10.0N, 130.0E). Taken late in the day in low light, the three dimensional effect is the result of the interaction of atmospheric dust and rays of sunlight passing through the atmosphere. The high cumulonimbus clouds reach the upper atmosphere and often produce unusual lighting effects.

  7. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  8. The Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The articles in this special edition were compiled to provide information to Canadian social studies teachers about Pacific Rim countries. Section 1, entitled "The Big Picture and Future Interests," contains: (1) "Social Studies for the 21st Century" (J. Tucker); (2) "Culture and Communication: A Perspective on Asian…

  9. The South Pacific superswell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Fischer, Karen M.

    Seafloor depths in a broad area of French Polynesia are 250 to 750 m shallower than lithosphere of the same age in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. The area of shallow seafloor also correlates with a region of high density of volcanoes, low seismic velocity in the upper mantle, and a reduction in the thickness of the elastic plate supporting the volcanoes. The Marquesas fracture zone marks an abrupt transition between normal lithosphere to the north which follows the thermal subsidence curve for a 125-km-thick plate and shallow lithosphere to the south which behaves as though it is only 75-km thick. This age dependence in the French Polynesian depth anomalies, the low elastic plate thickness, and the change in depth at the Marquesas fracture zone, a lithospheric discontinuity, require elevated temperatures in the lithosphere. The pattern and amplitude of the depth anomaly is not consistent with the notion that it results from lithospheric thinning beneath a number of overlapping hot spot swells. Rather, we propose that hot spot traces cluster in this region because the lithosphere is already thinner and more vulnerable to magma penetration. The reduction in the thickness of the thermal plate is presumably due to enhanced small-scale convection resulting from the thermal and/or chemical effect of a broad mantle up welling beneath the South Pacific as imaged by seismic tomography. The morphologic and petrologic characteristics of this superswell resemble those that existed in the mid-Cretaceous over H. W. Menard's Darwin Rise, a region of the Pacific which includes the Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Marshall Islands, Magellan Seamounts, and Wake Guyots. We propose that the South Pacific superswell is the modern-day equivalent of the Darwin Rise, and that it may be merely an extreme example of global variability in lithospheric thermal structure as a function of temperature, chemistry, and/or state-of-stress in the upper mantle.

  10. North Pacific Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Many images are made of relatively bright phytoplankton blooms. However, not all such blooms reflect more light than they absorb. SeaWiFS collected this image of a patch in the north Pacific that had been darkened because the photosynthetic pigments of the phytoplankton living there had absorbed more of the incoming solar radiation than the relatively phytoplankton-poor surrounding waters. The Hawaiian islands can be seen through the clouds about 1000 kilometers to the southwest of the patch.

  11. North Pacific Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Many images are made of relatively bright phytoplankton blooms. However, not all such blooms reflect more light than they absorb. SeaWiFS collected this image of a patch in the north Pacific that had been darkened because the photosynthetic pigments of the phytoplankton living there had absorbed more of the incoming solar radiation than the relatively phytoplankton-poor surrounding waters. The Hawaiian islands can be seen through the clouds about 1000 kilometers to the southwest of the patch.

  12. Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As with most small island groups around the world, the Marquesas Island group 9.0S, 140.0W) is usually concealed by heavy cloud cover throughout the day making them very difficult to photograph in their entirety. Located in the south central Pacific Ocean, just north of the Tuamotu Archipelago, the islands partially seen in this view are: Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka and Ua Pu.

  13. Northeast Pacific flatfish management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, Robert J.

    1998-03-01

    Exploitation of northeast Pacific flatfish effectively began in the late 1800s with the fishery for Pacific halibut. Harvest of other flatfish occurred on a limited, local basis until foreign fishing fleets came to the area in the late 1950s. When US and Canadian fishermen replaced the foreign fleets in the 1970s and 1980s, a conservation-based management system designed to control foreign fishing was applied to the domestic fleet. Flatfish stock assessment is based on scientific surveys, both trawl and longline, and on catch-age models. In Alaskan waters since 1989 and since 1996 in Canadian waters, mandatory observers collect data on species composition, discards of flatfish and other groundfish, and catch and discards of prohibited species. Fishermen pay observer costs. Most biomass and harvest occurs in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands area. Many northeast Pacific flatfish are near record-high abundance, an order of magnitude higher than 20 years ago. Exploitation rates based on F35% or F0.1 generate acceptable biological catch of more than 1 million mt, but annual harvest reaches only 300,000 mt. Total groundfish harvest is limited by an optimum yield limit of 2 million mt in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands, where the acceptable biological catch is 3 million mt, and by limits on amounts of Pacific halibut and other prohibited species bycatch. Most flatfish are relatively low-value species, and fishermen chose to fish for more valuable species. A large, powerful fleet which developed under open access in the US saw fishing time decline and economic problems increase as catching capacity grew, while Canada stabilized its fleet with limited entry and catch restrictions for individual vessels.

  14. Climate-driven Shifting in Distribution Patterns of Calanus sinicus Brodsky in the Continental Shelf Waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yan, Q. L.; Fan, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale variations in zooplankton dynamics, including the poleward movements and earlier timing of life cycle events, have been widely observed over recent decades. The biogeographical shifts are often related to the increasing sea surface temperature or the long-term climatological change, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (NESO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The Copepod Calanus sinicus Brodsky plays an important trophic role in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean as a grazer of phytoplankton and main food source for many ecologically and commercially important fish, such as sardine and anchovy. Because of its importance in marine ecosystem dynamics, C. sinicus was selected as one of the "keystone species" in the China-GLOBEC program. In this study, we examined the shifts in spatial patterns of the species within its distribution domain - the Yellow Sea and the northern East China Sea in the 1950s, 1980s and 2010s. We used contour mapping and a mathematical model to locate the geographical distribution center of the species. We found a significant relationship (r=0.594, P<0.05) between the monthly PDO index and the latitudes of the distribution center of C. sinicus, and a lag of two months for copepods to respond the PDO index. Our findings imply a northward shifting in the distribution center, and the northern Yellow Sea is becoming a new distribution center as another possible over-summering site of C. sinicus.

  15. The Pacific RANET Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  16. Pacific Southwest Tribal Program Newsletters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pacific Southwest Tribal Program newsletters contain news and events of interest to tribal communities including: environmental news, upcoming meetings, webinars and training, grants, jobs and internships.

  17. Empowerment at Pacific Gas & Electric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Steven B.

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric's employee involvement program aggressively focuses on customer service, performance measurement tied to management bonuses, and commitment to change in the organizational culture. (SK)

  18. Empowerment at Pacific Gas & Electric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Steven B.

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric's employee involvement program aggressively focuses on customer service, performance measurement tied to management bonuses, and commitment to change in the organizational culture. (SK)

  19. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  20. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  1. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  2. A Western Pacific Hotspot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, C. G.; Hall, R.

    2002-12-01

    The petrology of volcanic rocks from the St. Andrew Strait and helium isotope ratios of backarc lavas from the Manus Basin have been used to propose the existence of an active hotspot beneath the eastern Bismarck Sea [1,2]. The possible influence of this hotspot can be assessed by mapping its present location onto a plate tectonic reconstruction of the western Pacific [3,4]. During the Middle Eocene the nascent Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc lay above the hotspot. The volume of magma emplaced at the IBM arc at that time substantially exceeds the average magma production rate for mature island arcs. Furthermore, the ultramafic (boninitic) character of much of this magmatism requires elevated temperatures in the mantle. The geochemistry of contemporaneous magmatism in the backarc resembles melts usually found at ocean islands and much of the backarc region experienced significant uplift at that time. All of these features can be explained by the influx of hot, buoyant, chemically distinct mantle beneath the IBM and its hinterland. The plates lying above the hotspot during the later Eocene were subsequently subducted, but plate reconstruction suggests that during the Oligo-Miocene it was crossed by parts of the Caroline Plate where the Euripik Rise is found. This is an aseismic rise that possesses the geophysical characteristics of thickened oceanic crust formed by excess, basaltic magmatism and is the type of structure that would result from the passage of relatively young oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Plate reconstruction for the western Pacific predicts a hotspot trail that is consistent with the Middle Eocene and Oligo-Miocene geology of the IBM and Caroline Plates, respectively. Parts of the trail have been disrupted by subsequent sea-floor spreading or lost through subduction but the remaining vestiges are consistent with the action of a thermal anomaly throughout much of the Cenozoic. More speculatively, the difference in buoyancy between the IBM

  3. Pacific Northwest election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamar, Anthony

    Six AGU members have been elected members of the Regional Committee of the AGU Pacific Northwest Region. Their terms are July 1, 1986, to June 30, 1988. The Regional Committee, which directs the activities of the branch, is composed of a representative of each of the AGU sections taking part in branch activities.Those elected are Robert M. Ellis, Tectonophysics Section; Stephen L. Gillett, Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section; Tark S. Hamilton, Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section; Renner B. Hofmann, Seismology Section; Charles W. Slaughter, Hydrology Section; and Richard E. Thomson, Ocean Sciences Section.

  4. Optimizing C-17 Pacific Basing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Starlifter and C-5 Galaxy turbofan -powered aircraft (Owen, 2014). Pax Americana was characterized by a busy and steady operating environment for US global...center of the Pacific as well as the north and western Pacific rim (Owen, 2014). Turbofan airlifters began to be integrated into the large-scale

  5. Pacific Educational Research Journal, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kathleen F., Ed.; Lai, Morris K., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This first issue of the new "Pacific Educational Research Journal" offers articles covering diverse subjects and using diverse research methods. The new journal represents a rejuvenation of a previous publication to address educational issues specific to the Pacific region. Ethnic groups specifically addressed include Hawaiians,…

  6. Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Pacific madrone

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is one of the most widely distributed tree species native to the Pacific coast. Named for its discoverer, Archibald Menzies, a 19th century Scottish physician and naturalist, the species is called arbutus in Canada, and madrone, madroña, or madroño in the United States. The latter name is...

  7. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  8. The Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Treesearch

    Forest Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1937-01-01

    The research organization of the United States Forest Service in the North Pacific Region is the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, one of the 12 regional experiment stations maintained by the service. This station, which has headquarters in Portland, Oregon, is making studies and surveys in the fields of economics, forest management, forest...

  9. The North Pacific Gyre Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; di Lorenzo, E.

    2007-12-01

    Discussion of North Pacific Decadal decadal variability has focused primarily on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the leading mode of sea surface temperature anomalies north of the tropics. The PDO appears to result from a superposition of SST pattern forced by the North Pacific atmosphere due to its intrinsic dynamics and teleconnected from the tropics, with a regional impact of the ocean circulation in the frontal regions associated with the Kuroshio/Oyashio and their extensions into the interior. Recent modeling, however, suggest that previously unexplained decadal changes of salinity, nutrient upwelling and chlorophyl in the California Current are not dominated by the PDO. Rather, these are associated with a mode of variability associated with wind driven changes of the North Pacific Gyre. Consideration of this mode variability may thus be important to understand present and future variations of the North Pacific ecosystem, and in the interpretation of climate proxies.

  10. Holocene climate variability in the NE Pacific: Insight from connections between the Gulf of Alaska and the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B. P.; Addison, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, decadal-scale climatic change in the North Pacific region appears to be characterized by circulation modes with coherent and recognizable spatial patterns (i.e., PDO). Examination of trends in paleo-records from widespread regions, allow recognition of how these modes have varied over time. Changes in patterns of correlations of proxies between regions suggest several periods of reorganization of ocean-atmospheric circulation during the Holocene. Major shifts appear to have occurred during climatic transitions into the Neoglacial period (ca 4000 BP), and into and out of the Little Ice Age (LIA; ca. AD 1200 and 1850). Recent paleoclimatic studies from Mt, Logan ice cores and elsewhere suggest these transitions reflect shifts between atmospheric circulation modes of more zonal vs. more meridional flow. These shifts in climate can be tracked into variability in primary productivity and higher trophic levels, such as pelagic fish, in the North Pacific marine ecosystem. Within the Gulf of Alaska, new high-resolution reconstructions of ocean paleoproductivity based on multiproxy analysis of sediment cores suggest persistent variability over multidecadal scales, punctuated by abrupt state changes in overall productivity level. Such “mega-regime shifts” are of a different nature and larger amplitude than historical regime-shifts. Records of Alaskan salmon are generally positively correlated with Gulf of Alaska productivity. Interestingly, records of California Current sardine and anchovy abundance reveal different relationships to Alaska salmon abundance during the LIA relative to historical observations. It is likely that a different pattern of ocean-atmospheric circulation during the LIA, resulted in different relationships between these regional ecosystems.

  11. Modeling Pacific Decadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.

    2002-05-01

    Hypotheses for decadal variability rely on the large thermal inertia of the ocean to sequester heat and provide the long memory of the climate system. Understanding decadal variability requires the study of the generation of ocean anomalies at decadal frequencies, the evolution of oceanic signals, and the response of the atmosphere to oceanic perturbations. A sample of studies relevant for Pacific decadal variability will be reviewed in this presentation. The ocean integrates air-sea flux anomalies that result from internal atmospheric variability or broad-band coupled processes such as ENSO, or are an intrinsic part of the decadal feedback loop. Anomalies of Ekman pumping lead to deflections of the ocean thermocline and accompanying changes of the ocean circulation; perturbations of surface layer heat and fresh water budgets cause anomalies of T/S characteristics of water masses. The former process leads to decadal variability due to the dynamical adjustment of the mid latitude gyres or thermocline circulation; the latter accounts for the low frequency climate variations by the slow propagation of anomalies in the thermocline from the mid-latitude outcrops to the equatorial upwelling regions. Coupled modeling studies and ocean model hindcasts suggest that the adjustment of the North Pacific gyres to variation of Ekman pumping causes low frequency variations of surface temperature in the Kuroshio-Oyashio extension region. These changes appear predictable a few years in advance, and affect the local upper ocean heat budget and precipitation. The majority of low frequency variance is explained by the ocean's response to stochastic atmospheric forcing, the additional variance explained by mid-latitude ocean to atmosphere feedbacks appears to be small. The coupling of subtropical and tropical regions by the equator-ward motion in the thermocline can support decadal anomalies by changes of its speed and path, or by transporting water mass anomalies to the equatorial

  12. A Western Pacific Hotspot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, C. G.; Hall, R.

    2003-04-01

    The petrology of volcanic rocks from the St. Andrew Strait and helium isotope ratios of backarc lavas from the Manus Basin have been used to propose the existence of an active hotspot beneath the eastern Bismarck Sea (Johnson et al., 1978; Macpherson et al., 1998). The past influence of this hotspot can be assessed by mapping its present location onto a plate tectonic reconstruction of the western Pacific (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). During the Middle Eocene the nascent Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc lay above the hotspot. The volume of magma emplaced at the IBM arc at that time substantially exceeds the average magma production rate for mature island arcs. Furthermore, the ultramafic (boninitic) character of much of this magmatism requires elevated temperatures. The geochemistry of contemporaneous magmatism in the backarc resembles ocean island basalts and much of the backarc region experienced significant uplift at that time. All of these features can be explained by the influx of hot, buoyant, chemically distinct mantle beneath the IBM and its hinterland. The lithosphere lying above the hotspot during the later Eocene was subsequently subducted. During the Oligo-Miocene the hotspot was traversed by parts of the Caroline Plate where the Euripik Rise is found. This is an aseismic rise that possesses the geophysical characteristics of thickened oceanic crust formed by excess, basaltic magmatism and is the type of structure that would result from the passage of relatively young oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Plate reconstruction for the western Pacific predicts a hotspot trail that is consistent with the Middle Eocene and Oligo-Miocene geology of the IBM and Caroline Plates, respectively (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). Parts of the trail have been disrupted by subsequent sea-floor spreading or lost through subduction but the remaining vestiges are consistent with the action of a thermal anomaly throughout much of the Cenozoic. More speculatively, buoyancy

  13. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (<150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Henderson Island, South Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-15

    Uninhabited Henderson Island is part of the United Kingdom's Pitcairn Islands group in the South Pacific. According to a study by the University of Tasmania published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, the island has the highest density of plastic waste anywhere in the world, an estimated 38 million pieces of rubbish. The island is near the center of an ocean current, so it collects rubbish from boats and South America. The image was acquired February 7, 2012, covers an area of 10.3 by 12.3 km, and is located at 24.3 degrees south, 128.3 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21691

  15. Pacific Northwest AGU Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, David C.; Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The 30th AGU Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting was held September 29 to October 1, 1983, on the campus of Western Washington University, Bellingham, Wash. Approximately 125 attended the meeting, and 36 papers were presented. The meeting included two fields trips, five special symposia, and a banquet where keynote speaker Don Swanson presented “Dome building on Mt. St. Helens.”The meeting highlights included a symposium on Tertiary sedimentary basins of Washington and Oregon which revealed the importance of sedimentological studies for deciphering the timing and nature of accretionary processes in tectonically active areas. Geological and geophysical studies on the recent tectonics of the Juan de Fuca plate and nearby continent were presented by workers from the United States and Canada as well as ongoing studies for the evolution and character of the crystalline North Cascades of Washington and British Columbia.

  16. A Mostly Quiet Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-18

    Some climate forecast models indicate there is an above average chance that there could be a weak to borderline El Niño by the end of November 2003. However, the trade winds, blowing from east to west across the equatorial Pacific Ocean, remain strong. Thus, there remains some uncertainty among climate scientists as to whether the warm temperature anomaly will form again this year. The latest remote sensing data from NASA's Jason satellite show near normal conditions across the equatorial Pacific. There are currently no visible signs in sea surface height of an impending El Niño. This equatorial quiet contrasts with the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and U.S. West Coast where lower-than-normal sea surface levels and cool ocean temperatures continue (indicated by blue and purple areas). The image above is a global map of sea surface height, accurate to within 30 millimeters. The image represents data collected and composited over a 10-day period, ending on Nov. 3, 2003. The height of the water relates to the temperature of the water. As the ocean warms, its level rises; and as it cools, its level falls. Yellow and red areas indicate where the waters are relatively warmer and have expanded above sea level, green indicates near normal sea level, and blue and purple areas show where the waters are relatively colder and the surface is lower than sea level. The blue areas are between 5 and 13 centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, whereas the purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04878

  17. Cenozoic reconstruction of southwest Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Y.Y.; Kroenke, L.W.

    1986-07-01

    Poles of opening and spreading rates for some of the well-studied marginal basins in the southwest Pacific have been redetermined. Times of opening range from Late Cretaceous-Paleocene in the Tasman basin to middle Pliocene in the Bismarck Sea. The observed magnetic lineations in most of these basins show a relatively short duration of opening and relatively small area of total opening. Most of the smaller basins are bounded by troughs and arcuate island chains, some of which are inferred to be trenches and volcanic arcs situated along paleoconvergent boundaries. At least four successive paleoconvergent boundaries are believed to have formed between the Pacific and the Indian-Australian plates during the Cenozoic. Combining the newly determined poles of opening, spreading rates, and paleoplate boundary locations, a series of palinspastic maps of the southwest Pacific have been constructed for these times, relative to a fixed hot-spot frame of reference for both the Pacific and Indian-Australian plates.

  18. April 2016 Pacific Southwest Newsletter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Pacific Southwest Newsletter for April 2016: University of Arizona Reduces Food Waste, Cleaning Up Underground Fuel Tanks in Fresno, The Argonaut Mine, Ensuring Clean Water in Nevada,Cleaning Up Groundwater in Whittier, California, and more!

  19. Mid-pacific mountains revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenke, Loren W.; Kellogg, James N.; Nemoto, Kenji

    1985-06-01

    The Mid-Pacific Mountains are guyots whose volcanic pedestals have been constructed on a broad basement plateau, the flanks of which are downfaulted. Edifice construction may have been controlled by an orthogonal system of intersecting faults trending roughly ENE and NNW. Low amplitude gravity anomalies observed over the Mid-Pacific Mountains indicate complete Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation, crustal thickening, and eruption on thin elastic lithosphere. Tholeiites of the Mid-Pacific Mountains resemble lavas of Iceland and the Galapagos Islands. The orthogonal fault system, low gravity anomalies, and lava chemistry of the Mid-Pacific Mountains can be explained by eruption on or near a great ENE-trending rift system.

  20. Rehabilitation services for the Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M H; Barker, J C

    1993-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Rehabilitation Research and Training Center was created to help meet the challenges of rehabilitating people in rural remote communities in the United States-associated Pacific. We describe the center, the special region it serves, some of its many programs, and some of the ways it is helping communities in this region provide services that are appropriate and sensitive to the culture, the environment, and the disability. PMID:8351905

  1. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  2. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  3. Effects of parental age and food availability on the reproductive success of Heermann's gulls in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Vieyra, Leticia; Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2009-04-01

    Parental age, body condition, and food availability have been found to influence breeding parameters in seabirds, such as clutch size, number of chicks hatched and fledged, hatching, fledging, and reproductive success. In this paper we analyze the influence of parental age and body condition estimated by body mass, and food availability estimated from catch per unit effort (CPUE) statistics for Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) + northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) by the local fishing fleet, on the breeding parameters of the Heermann's Gull (Larus heermanni; a vulnerable species according to Mexican federal law) nesting in Isla Rasa, Gulf of California, Mexico. Results are based on data from 1123 recaptures of known-age individuals, ranging from 4 to 13 years of age, during seven observation years between 1989 and 1997. Ages of mated male and female gulls were positively correlated. Breeding parameters showed their lowest values in 1992, an El Niño year in which the birds also showed significantly lower individual masses for both males and females, and in which the local CPUE of sardine + anchovies was lowest. All breeding parameters increased significantly with parental age and were highest at 10-12 years. No significant statistical interactions were found between food availability and parental age on the breeding parameters. Through a path analysis we found that there is a strong chained relationship between variables: food availability, which is strongly driven by oceanographic conditions, affects both the survival of eggs into hatchlings and the survival of hatchlings into fledglings. This external factor and parental age, a biological factor intrinsic to each nesting couple, explain 41% of the observed between-nest variation in fledgling success.

  4. Managing Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries for Adaptive Capacity: Insights from Dynamic Social-Ecological Drivers of Change in Monterey Bay

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Stacy E.; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C.; Carr, Mark H.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Crowder, Larry B.; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C.; Kittinger, John N.; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M.; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience. PMID:25790464

  5. Eastern Pacific and central Pacific types of ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying

    In this study, I identify and contrast two types of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO): one located in the eastern Pacific near the South American coast (i.e. EP-ENSO), and the other in the central Pacific close to the date line (i.e. CP-ENSO). The EP-ENSO possesses the properties of the canonical ENSO and is related to thermocline variations. It is characterized by basin-wide surface and subsurface evolution, coupled with Southern Oscillation and dominated by 2 to 4 year timescale. In contrast, the CP-ENSO is characterized by in-situ evolution and local atmosphere-ocean coupling, and is likely driven by atmospheric forcing. From an upper-ocean heat budget analysis, the CP-ENSO is found to be related to the trade wind forcing associated with the variations of the northern subtropical high. Wind-induced surface heat flux forcing first warms up the upper ocean temperature in the Northeastern Subtropical Pacific. The SST anomalies later spread toward the central equatorial Pacific through heat-flux forcing and vertical advection processes, are further enhanced by zonal advection, and eventually terminate by surface heat flux. The budget results suggest a possible interaction pathway between the north-eastern subtropics and central equatorial Pacific. The CP-ENSO is dominated by a quasi-biennial (˜2.5 yr) periodicity that is also found in subtropical high and Asian-Australian monsoon variability. The possible linkage between CP-ENSO and monsoon variability is demonstrated by an Indian Ocean-decoupled experiment using a coupled GCM. The biennial CP-ENSO in the model is significantly reduced when the Indian Ocean coupling is turned off to weaken the biennial monsoon variability. This study suggests the existence of a distinct CP-ENSO that is a result of interactions among Asian-Australian monsoon, northern subtropical Pacific and central equatorial Pacific.

  6. Utilization of wasted sardine oil as co-substrate with pig slurry for biogas production--a pilot experience of decentralized industrial organic waste management in a Portuguese pig farm.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L; Duarte, E; Figueiredo, D

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to demonstrate in a pig farm and in real conditions, the possibilities to co-digest wasted sardine oil (WSO) and pig slurry (PS) at farm scale. A biogas mobile pilot plant, was set up in the farm and operated in real conditions during 4 months. Dynamic mesophilic (35-37 °C) continuous pilot trials were performed during four different periods of time. In each period a different organic loading rate (OLR) based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was operated sequentially, with pig slurry (PS) (OLR = 1.6 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and with mixtures of WSO:PS with a volumetric composition (% v/v) of 2:98 (OLR = 3.0 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)), 3:97 (OLR = 3.7 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and 5:95 (OLR = 5.2 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)). Biomass adapted very fast in metabolise the WSO and biogas productivity was raised substantially for different compositions of WSO:PS. Process stability indicators pH and Total volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (T-VFA/BA) ratio, suggests that the co-digestion process was robust. It was concluded that WSO could be easily co-digested in farm scale biogas plants.

  7. Apollo 12 Pacific Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Sitting in the life raft, during the Apollo 12 Pacific recovery, are the three mission astronauts; Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms, while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  8. Apollo 12 Pacific Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Sitting in the life raft, during the Apollo 12 Pacific recovery, are the three mission astronauts; Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms, while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  10. No deep diving: evidence of predation on epipelagic fish for a stem beaked whale from the Late Miocene of Peru.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Olivier; Collareta, Alberto; Landini, Walter; Post, Klaas; Ramassamy, Benjamin; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2015-09-22

    Although modern beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are known to be highly specialized toothed whales that predominantly feed at great depths upon benthic and benthopelagic prey, only limited palaeontological data document this major ecological shift. We report on a ziphiid-fish assemblage from the Late Miocene of Peru that we interpret as the first direct evidence of a predator-prey relationship between a ziphiid and epipelagic fish. Preserved in a dolomite concretion, a skeleton of the stem ziphiid Messapicetus gregarius was discovered together with numerous skeletons of a clupeiform fish closely related to the epipelagic extant Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). Based on the position of fish individuals along the head and chest regions of the ziphiid, the lack of digestion marks on fish remains and the homogeneous size of individuals, we propose that this assemblage results from the death of the whale (possibly via toxin poisoning) shortly after the capture of prey from a single school. Together with morphological data and the frequent discovery of fossil crown ziphiids in deep-sea deposits, this exceptional record supports the hypothesis that only more derived ziphiids were regular deep divers and that the extinction of epipelagic forms may coincide with the radiation of true dolphins. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. No deep diving: evidence of predation on epipelagic fish for a stem beaked whale from the Late Miocene of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Olivier; Collareta, Alberto; Landini, Walter; Post, Klaas; Ramassamy, Benjamin; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Although modern beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are known to be highly specialized toothed whales that predominantly feed at great depths upon benthic and benthopelagic prey, only limited palaeontological data document this major ecological shift. We report on a ziphiid–fish assemblage from the Late Miocene of Peru that we interpret as the first direct evidence of a predator–prey relationship between a ziphiid and epipelagic fish. Preserved in a dolomite concretion, a skeleton of the stem ziphiid Messapicetus gregarius was discovered together with numerous skeletons of a clupeiform fish closely related to the epipelagic extant Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). Based on the position of fish individuals along the head and chest regions of the ziphiid, the lack of digestion marks on fish remains and the homogeneous size of individuals, we propose that this assemblage results from the death of the whale (possibly via toxin poisoning) shortly after the capture of prey from a single school. Together with morphological data and the frequent discovery of fossil crown ziphiids in deep-sea deposits, this exceptional record supports the hypothesis that only more derived ziphiids were regular deep divers and that the extinction of epipelagic forms may coincide with the radiation of true dolphins. PMID:26354940

  12. Tropical Pacific moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to describe synoptic scale variability of moisture over the tropical Pacific Ocean and the systems leading to this variability; implement satellite analysis procedures in support of this effort, and to incorporate additional satellite information into operational analysis forecast systems at the National Meteorological Center (NMC). Composite satellite radiance patterns describe features detectable well before the development of synoptic scale tropical plumes. These typical features were extracted from historical files of Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiance observations for a pair of tropical plumes which developed during January 1989. Signals were inserted into the NMC operational medium range forecast model and a suite of model integrations were conducted. Many of the 48 h model errors of the historical forecasts were eliminated by the inclusion of more complete satellite observations. Three studies in satellite radiance analysis progressed. An analysis which blended TOVS moisture channels, OLR observations and European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model analysis to generate fields of total precipitable water comparable to those estimated from Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) mu-wave observations. This study demonstrated that a 10 y climatology of precipitable water over the oceans is feasible, using available infrared observations (OLR and TOVS) and model analysis (ECMWF, NMC or similar quality). The estimates are sensitive to model quality and the estimating model must be updated with operational model changes. Coe developed a set of tropical plume and ITCZ composites from TOVS observations, and from NMC and ECMWF analyses which had been passed through a radiative transfer model to simulate TOVS radiances. The composites have been completed as well as many statistical diagnostics of individual TOVS channels. Analysis of the computations is commencing. Chung has initiated a study of the

  13. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  14. Oscillation Rules as the Pacific Cools

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-12-13

    The latest image of sea-surface height measurements from NASA U.S./French Jason-1 oceanography satellite shows the Pacific Ocean remains locked in a strong, cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  15. Decadal changes in Pacific carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabine, Christopher L.; Feely, Richard A.; Millero, Frank J.; Dickson, Andrew G.; Langdon, Chris; Mecking, Sabine; Greeley, Dana

    2008-07-01

    This paper uses the extended multiple linear regression (eMLR) technique to investigate changes over the last decade in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) inventories on a meridional line (P16 along 152°W) up the central Pacific and on a zonal line (P02 along 30°N) across the North Pacific. Maximum changes in the total DIC concentrations along P02 are 15-20 μmol kg-1 over 10 years, somewhat higher than the ˜1 μmol kg-1 a-1 increase in DIC expected based on the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase. The maximum changes of 15-20 μmol kg-1 along the P16 line over the 14/15-year time frame fit with the expected magnitude of the anthropogenic signal, but there is a deeper than expected penetration of the signal in the North Pacific compared to the South Pacific. The effect of varying circulation on the total DIC change, based on decadal alterations of the apparent oxygen utilization rate, is estimated to be greater than 10 μmol kg-1 in the North Pacific, accounting for as much as 80% of the total DIC change in that region. The average anthropogenic CO2 inventory increase along 30°N between 1994 and 2004 was 0.43 mol m-2 a-1, with much higher inventories in the western Pacific. Along P16, the average Northern Hemisphere increase was 0.25 mol m-2 a-1 between 1991/1992 and 2006 compared to an average Southern Hemisphere anthropogenic CO2 inventory increase between 1991 and 2005 of 0.41 mol m-2 a-1.

  16. Home Reef, South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In the South Pacific, south of Late Island along the Tofua volcanic arc in Tonga, a new volcanic island Home Reef is being re-born. The island is thought to have emerged after a volcanic eruption in mid-August that has also spewed large amounts of floating pumice into Tongan waters and sweeping across to Fiji about 350 km (220 miles) to the west of where the new island has formed. In 2004 a similar eruption created an ephemeral island about 0.5 by 1.5 km (0.3 by 0.9 miles) in size; it was no longer visible in an ASTER image acquired November 2005. This simulated natural color image shows the vegetation-covered stratovolcanic island of Late in the upper right. Home Reef is found in the lower left. The two bluish plumes are hot seawater that is laden with volcanic ash and chemicals; the larger one can be traced for more than 14 km (8.4 miles) to the east. The image was acquired October 10, 2006 and covers an area of 24.3 by 30.2 km. It is located at 18.9 degrees South latitude, 174.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  17. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  18. Asian Pacific Americans and Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakanishi, Don T.

    Research on several major interrelated dimensions of the Asian Pacific American higher educational experience is reviewed. The interrelated dimensions are (1) the impact of major demographic trends among the Asian Pacific population on its college-going sector; (2) the issues of Asian Pacific American faculty and administrative representation in…

  19. 75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of...

  20. 75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of...

  1. 75 FR 8839 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of...

  2. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of...

  3. Estimates of Low Frequency Volume Scattering Off the Oregon-Washington Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Sardinops sagax; saury, Cololabis saira; Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi; jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus, Pacific mackerel...mostly between 13 and 24 cm length and saury are slightly larger, between 15 and 30 cm length (Brodeur and Pearcy, 1986). Pacific herring, Clupea harengus

  4. Sustainable fisheries management: Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, Cleveland R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, Jack E.; Reiser, Dudley W.

    1999-01-01

    What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery.This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed.A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

  5. Tracking the Pacific Decadal Precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Furtado, Jason C.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.

    2017-03-01

    Events of recent years—including extended droughts across California, record fires across western Canada, and destabilization of marine ecosystems—highlight the profound impact of multiannual to decadal-scale climate shifts upon physical, biological, and socioeconomic systems. While previous research has focused on the influence of decadal-scale climate oscillations such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, recent research has revealed the presence of a quasi-decadal mode of climate variability that, unlike the quasi-stationary standing wave-like structure of the oscillatory modes, involves a progression of atmospheric pressure anomalies around the North Pacific, which has been termed the Pacific Decadal Precession (PDP). In this paper we develop a set of methods to track the spatial and temporal evolutions of the PDP within historical observations as well as numerical model simulations. In addition, we provide a method that approximates the time evolution of the PDP across the full period of available data for real-time monitoring of the PDP. Through the development of these tracking methods, we hope to provide the community with a consistent framework for future analysis and diagnosis of the PDP's characteristics and underlying processes, thereby avoiding the use of different, and disparate, phenomenological- and mathematical-based indices that can confound our understanding of the PDP and its evolution.

  6. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  7. Profile of Pacific Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall…

  8. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  9. America's Stake in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Paul

    Countries of the Western Pacific allied with the United States--Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan--are seriously threatened by Soviet expansion and Sino-Soviet rivalry. At present when the United States military resources are stretched thin, responsibility for defense of these prosperous free states should be assumed by the states…

  10. Hispanics in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Annabel Kirschner

    Sources of diversity in the Pacific Northwest's Spanish origin population, up 79.7% since 1970, was the subject of research based on 1980 Census data. Census information for Whites and Hispanics from metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties with 400 or more persons of Spanish origin was compared on the basis of age, family/household structure,…

  11. Stump sprouting of Pacific yew.

    Treesearch

    Don Minore; Howard G. Weatherly

    1996-01-01

    Large numbers of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) trees have been cut to supply bark for taxol production, and replacement of those trees may depend on their ability to sprout from the stump. Stump characteristics were related to the initiation and survival of epicormic branches (sprouts) on 100 yew stumps in each of 11 recently harvested...

  12. Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference -- Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Teachers, students, and parents listen as scientists explain what is different about the microgravity envirornment of space and why it is a valuable tool for research. This was part of the outreach session of the Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference on May 2, 2001, at the California Science Center.

  13. Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference -- Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Chiaki Mukai of Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) speaks to students at the California Science Center during the outreach session of the Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference on May 2, 2001. She flew as a payload specialist on two NASA Space Shuttle missions, STS-65 carrying the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, 1994) and STS-95 (1998).

  14. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  15. Pacific Ocean buoy temperature date

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pacific Ocean buoy temperature dataThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Carbone, F., M. Landis, C.N. Gencarelli, A. Naccarato, F. Sprovieri, F. De Simone, I.M. Hedgecock, and N. Pirrone. Sea surface temperature variation linked to elemental mercury concentrations measured on Mauna Loa. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, online, (2016).

  16. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  17. Korea in the Pacific Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Tuk Chu

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses how the Korean culture has remained intact despite influence from the Chinese and examines Korean Confucianism, the country's central cultural element. States that the Korean people are uninformed about other Pacific Rim countries but that educators are developing new social studies curricula to acquaint students with the region.…

  18. Pacific Educational Research Journal, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kathleen, Ed.; Lai, Morris, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal features theoretical, empirical, and applied research with implications for and relevance to education in the Pacific area. This volume contains: (1) "Community Perceptions of Culture and Education on Moloka'i" (Lois A. Yamauchi, William L. Greene, Katherine T. Ratliffe, and Andrea K. Ceppi); (2) "Academic Performance…

  19. Long-term ecosystem change in the western North Pacific inferred from commercial fisheries and top predator diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezaki, Shiroh; Kiyota, Masashi; Okamura, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the current status of marine ecosystems is necessary for the sustainable utilization of ecosystem services through fisheries and other human activities under changing environmental conditions. Understanding of historical changes in marine ecosystems can help us to assess their current status. In this study, we analyzed Japanese commercial fishery catch data and scientific survey data of the diet of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus, NFS) to investigate potential long-term ecosystem changes in the western North Pacific Ocean off northeastern Japan over the past 60 years. Total commercial catches experienced peaks around 1960 and during the 1980s, decreasing to low levels around 1970 and after 1990. Catches were substantively impacted by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in 2011. Species composition of the commercial catch changed over time, resulting in changes in the mean trophic level (MTL) of the catches. Trends in observed commercial catches were affected by many factors, including species population fluctuations potentially related to large-scale environmental shifts, migration and distribution patterns of species related to local oceanography, changes in fishing technology, and the introduction of fishery management frameworks. The composition of NFS diet also changed over time: although overall changes were small, MTL derived from NFS stomach contents declined from the early 1970s to the late 1980s. This fall in the MTL of the diet of NFS is suggestive of a shift in pelagic fish fauna from a "mackerel-dominant regime" to a "sardine-dominant regime". Inconsistencies between changes in species composition and MTLs of the commercial catch and NFS diet resulted from differences in commercial fishing targeting and NFS foraging behavior strategies. Although commercial catch is a valuable source of information for investigating historical changes in fisheries, biological resources, and ecosystems, catch data should be interpreted carefully and

  20. Zooplankton and the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Álamo, María Ana; Färber-Lorda, Jaime

    2006-05-01

    We review the spatial and temporal patterns of zooplankton in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and relationships with oceanographic factors that affect zooplankton distribution, abundance and trophic relationships. Large-scale spatial patterns of some zooplankton groups show broad coincidence with surface water masses, circulation, and upwelling regions, in agreement with an ecological and dynamic partitioning of the pelagic ecosystem. The papers reviewed and a new compilation of zooplankton volume data at large-scale show that abundance patterns of zooplankton biomass have their highest values in the upwelling regions, including the Gulf of Tehuantepec, the Costa Rica Dome, the equatorial cold tongue, and the coast of Peru. Some of the first studies of zooplankton vertical distribution were done in this region, and a general review of the topic is presented. The possible physiological implications of vertical migration in zooplankton and the main hypotheses are described, with remarks on the importance of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) as a barrier to both the vertical distribution and migration of zooplankton in the region. Recent results, using multiple-net gear, show that vertical distribution is more complex than previously thought. There are some well-adapted species that do live and migrate within the OMZ. Temporal patterns are reviewed and summarized with historical data. Seasonal variations in zooplankton biomass follow productivity cycles in upwelling areas. No zooplankton time series exist to resolve ENSO effects in oceanic regions, but some El Niño events have had effects in the Peru Current ecosystem. Multidecadal periods of up to 50 years show a shift from a warm sardine regime with a low zooplankton biomass to a cool anchovy regime in the eastern Pacific with higher zooplankton biomasses. However, zooplankton volume off Peru has remained at low values since the 1972 El Niño, a trend opposite to that of anchoveta biomass since 1984. Studies of

  1. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  2. Persistently anomalous Pacific geomagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Catherine L.; Constable, Catherine G.

    A new average geomagnetic field model for the past 3kyr (ALS3K) helps bridge a large temporal sampling gap between historical models and more traditional paleomagnetic studies spanning the last 5 Myr. A quasi-static feature seen historically in the central Pacific has the opposite sign in ALS3K; its structure is similar to, but of larger amplitude than, that in the time-averaged geomagnetic field for the last 5 Myr. Anomalous geomagnetic fields exist beneath the Pacific over timescales ranging from 10²-106 years. It is unlikely that bias over such long time scales arises from electromagnetic screening, but conceivable that the Lorentz force is influenced by long wavelength thermal variations and/or localized regions of increased electrical conductivity (associated with compositional anomalies and possibly partial melt). This is consistent with recent seismic observations of the lower mantle.

  3. Decadal changes in the Canary Current Upwelling Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Luis, J. M.; Relvas-Almeida, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Canary Current Upwelling System (CCUS) covers the latitudinal range 12-43 degrees N and has some singularities in relation to the other three major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS), namely a major interruption in the continuity of the system at the Strait of Gibraltar and it is the only one with a sardine species from a different genus (Sardina vs Sardinops). Long-term trends in ocean temperature and coastal upwelling were investigated using the AVHRR Pathfinder SST (sea surface temperature) Version 5.1 dataset, in situ SST from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), and upwelling indices from the Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory (PFEL). The analysis is applied to the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic, from 10 to 45 degrees N extending until 30 degrees W, focusing mainly in the CCUS because the strong dynamic link between the atmosphere and the ocean makes upwelling regions highly sensitive to global change and ideal to monitor and investigate its effects. The detail in SST variability results in a large extent from the fine analysis and the numerical processing carefully designed to avoid trend bias in the climatological studies. The obtained fields of SST trends show a generalized warming of the entire region. However, alternate patches of significantly different warming rates are observed, ranging from large scale down to mesoscale. Known coastal upwelling features are seen to warm at a lower rate than corresponding offshore waters, pointing to an intensification of the upwelling in the last decades. Wind data are used to attempt to explain the variability of some upwelling structures. Our results evidence the main role that mesoscale processes play in the modulation of the spatial and temporal variability of SST, namely at the decadal scale. This result prevents any global conclusion about the intensification of the upwelling at the scale of the entire CCUS. The bulk of the sardine population is located

  4. Equatorial Wave Line, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Equatorial Wave Line (2.0 N, 102.5W) seen in the Pacific Ocean is of great interest to oceanographers because of the twice annual upwelling of the oceans nutrients. As a result of nearly constant easterly winds, cool nutrient rich water wells up at the equator. The long narrow line is an equatorial front or boundry between warm surface equatorial water and cool recently upwelled water as the intermix of nutrients takes place.

  5. Equatorial Wave Line, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-95-042 (13-19 Jan 1993) --- The Equatorial Pacific Ocean is represented in this 70mm view. The international oceanographic research community is presently conducting a program called Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) to study the global ocean carbon budget. A considerable amount of effort within this program is presently being focused on the Equatorial Pacific Ocean because of the high annual average biological productivity. The high productivity is the result of nearly constant easterly winds causing cool, nutrient-rich water to well up at the equator. In this view of the sun glint pattern was photographed at about 2 degrees north latitude, 103 degrees west longitude, as the Space Shuttle passed over the Equatorial Pacific. The long narrow line is the equatorial front, which defines the boundary between warm surface equatorial water and cool, recently upwelled water. Such features are of interest to the JGOFS researchers and it is anticipated that photographs such as this will benefit the JGOFS program.

  6. Conservation of North Pacific shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E.; Butler, Robert W.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Mundkur, Taej; Handel, Colleen M.

    1994-01-01

    In his introduction to the 1979 Symposium proceedings entitled “Shorebirds in Marine Environments," Frank Pitelka stressed the need for studies and conservation programs that spanned the western hemisphere (Pitelka 1979). In the 15 years since Pitelka's call to arms, the locations of many important migratory and wintering sites for shorebirds have been identified in the Americas (Senner and Howe 1984, Morrison and Ross 1989, Morrison and Butler 1994) and in the East Asian-Australasian flyway (Lane and Parish 1991, Mundkur 1993, Watkins 1993). However, assessments for Central America, the Russian Far East and most of Oceania remain incomplete or lacking.The recognition that shorebird conservation required the protection of habitats throughout the birds' range (e.g., Morrison 1984, Davidson and Evans 1989 in Ens et al. 1990) prompted the establishment of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN) in the Americas in 1985 (Joyce 1986). This program complemented the 1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially for Waterbirds (Ramsar Convention, Smart 1987), recognized by more that 50 countries world-wide.Our purpose for writing this paper is to: (1) describe the distribution of North Pacific shorebirds throughout their annual cycle; (2) review the locations of and threats to important sites used by North Pacific shorebirds during the breeding, migration, and wintering periods, and (3) outline a program for international conservation of Pacific shorebirds.

  7. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  8. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  9. Paleoceanography of the tropical eastern pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Grigg, R W; Hey, R

    1992-01-10

    The East Pacific Barrier (EPB) is the most effective marine barrier to dispersal of tropical shallow-water fauna in the world today. The fossil record of corals in the eastern Pacific suggests this has been true throughout the Cenozoic. In the Cretaceous, the EPB was apparently less effective in limiting dispersal. Equatorial circulation in the Pacific then appears to have been primarily east to west and the existence of oceanic atolls (now drowned guyots) in the eastern Pacific probably aided dispersal. Similarly, in the middle and early Mesozoic and late Paleozoic, terranes in the central tropical Pacific likely served as stepping stones to dispersal of tropical shelf faunas, reducing the isolating effect of an otherwise wider Pacific Ocean (Panthalassa).

  10. Panoramic view of the Mexican Pacific Coastline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic panoramic view, the orbiter tail points toward the Mexican Pacific coastline (18.0N, 103.0W) near the international resort of Acapulco on the nearly cloud free eastern Pacific Ocean. Almost all of southern Mexico can be seen from Puerto Vallarta in the north to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south. The cloud covered Gulf of Mexico at the horizon contrasts sharply with the blue Pacific.

  11. 76 FR 66196 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod... to vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Western...

  12. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod... to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Western...

  13. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  14. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  15. 76 FR 9693 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod... allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore...

  16. 76 FR 5718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod... allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore...

  17. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  18. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  19. Contact EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contact EPA Region 9, Pacific Southwest: 24-hour report of violations and emergencies, environmental complaint tip line, Environmental Information Center, Library, Reception, Employee Locator, Media, Press, Public Affairs.

  20. Contact EPA Region 9 (Pacific Southwest)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contact EPA Region 9, Pacific Southwest: 24-hour report of violations and emergencies, environmental complaint tip line, Environmental Information Center, Library, Reception, Employee Locator, Media, Press, Public Affairs.

  1. Amazon Deforestation Impacts on Pacific Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, L. A.; Randall, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation is known to affect Amazonian precipitation, but to what extent does changing Amazonian vegetation and rainfall impact eastern Pacific SST? Correlations between Amazonian rainfall rates and other atmospheric parameters (e.g. global precipitation, surface air temperature, vertical velocity, etc.) over the eastern Pacific indicate a strong relationship between these processes, but it does not show causality. In order to investigate the impact on the Pacific climate, the Community Earth System Model is used to test an extreme case of deforestation where broadleaf evergreen trees over the Amazon are replaced by C4 grass.

  2. Possible solar modulation of pacific decadal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lihua; Yin, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-01

    The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is an El Niño-like pattern of Pacific climate variability, oscillating between its warm and cool phase about every 20-30 years as defined by oceanic temperature anomalies in the northeast and tropical Pacific Ocean. In this work, the authors investigate the possible connection between the PDO and solar activity by means of wavelet technique. The study shows obvious fluctuation characteristics in the PDO series. The modulation action from solar activity plays an important role in the oscillation of the Pacific, and there is a possible association existing in the PDO and solar activity on decade time scales.

  3. Characteristics of Fishes with the Potential to Cause Acoustic Clutter off Oregon and Washington during the Summer of 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-10

    of 2012: an aerial survey of sardines, a combined echo sounder /trawl survey of sardines and hake, a Canadian echo sounder /trawl survey of hake, and...of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting echo sounder /trawl surveys of Pacific hake since 1977. Since 2001, surveys have...been conducted biennially. The Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) of NMFS conducted echo sounder /trawl surveys of Pacific sardine in the

  4. 78 FR 18323 - Pacific Halibut Fishery; Guideline Harvest Levels for the Guided Sport Fishery for Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Levels for the Guided Sport Fishery for Pacific Halibut in International Pacific Halibut Commission... 2013 Pacific halibut guideline harvest levels (GHLs) for the guided sport fishery in International... to inform the public about the 2013 GHLs for the guided sport fishery for halibut. The GHLs are...

  5. 76 FR 54739 - Pacific Halibut Fishery; Guideline Harvest Levels for the Guided Sport Fishery for Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Levels for the Guided Sport Fishery for Pacific Halibut in International Pacific Halibut Commission... 2011 Pacific halibut guideline harvest levels (GHLs) for the guided sport fishery in International... to inform the public about the 2011 GHLs for the guided sport fishery for halibut. The GHLs are...

  6. Parental Involvement in Education: What Works in the Pacific? Promising Practices in the Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koki, Stan; Lee, Harvey

    Increasing parent involvement in the Pacific region requires an understanding of the traditional system of Pacific education. While historically Pacific education involved parents and community members as children's first teachers, the American model of education virtually ignores this tradition. The school assumes the entire responsibility for…

  7. Automation of the University of the South Pacific Library and the Pacific Information Centre. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Daniel

    The Pacific Information Center (PIC) was established in 1983 to identify, collect, and record information about materials from and relating to the South Pacific region. The project involves sharing access and information among countries in this region. PIC, which works in conjunction with the University of the South Pacific (USP) Library, receives…

  8. 10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation Company) ca. 1916, photographer unknown VIEW OF ORIGINAL PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY LYNWOOD SHELTER SHED - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 78 FR 26616 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC660 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a webinar to discuss the...

  10. 75 FR 63441 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); November 3-9, 2010, Pacific Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    .... Salmon Management 1. Preseason Salmon Management Schedule for 2011 2. Fishery Management Plan Amendment 16, Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures 3. Progress Report on Sacramento River Fall... Salmon Methodology Review G. Pacific Halibut Management 1. 2011 Pacific Halibut Regulations H. Groundfish...

  11. Tectonic Evolution of the Jurassic Pacific Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, M.; Ishihara, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present the tectonic evolution of the Jurassic Pacific plate based on magnetic anomly lineations and abyssal hills. The Pacific plate is the largest oceanic plate on Earth. It was born as a microplate aroud the Izanagi-Farallon-Phoenix triple junction about 192 Ma, Early Jurassic [Nakanishi et al., 1992]. The size of the Pacific plate at 190 Ma was nearly half that of the present Easter or Juan Fernandez microplates in the East Pacific Rise [Martinez et at, 1991; Larson et al., 1992]. The plate boundary surrounding the Pacific plate from Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous involved the four triple junctions among Pacific, Izanagi, Farallon, and Phoenix plates. The major tectonic events as the formation of oceanic plateaus and microplates during the period occurred in the vicinity of the triple junctions [e.g., Nakanishi and Winterer, 1998; Nakanishi et al., 1999], implying that the study of the triple junctions is indispensable for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Pacific plate. Previous studies indicate instability of the configuration of the triple junctions from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (155-125 Ma). On the other hand, the age of the birth of the Pacific plate was determined assuming that all triple junctions had kept their configurations for about 30 m.y. [Nakanishi et al., 1992] because of insufficient information of the tectonic history of the Pacific plate before Late Jurassic.Increase in the bathymetric and geomagnetic data over the past two decades enables us to reveal the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction before Late Jurassic. Our detailed identication of magnetic anomaly lineations exposes magnetic bights before anomaly M25. We found the curved abyssal hills originated near the triple junction, which trend is parallel to magnetic anomaly lineations. These results imply that the configuration of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction had been RRR before Late Jurassic.

  12. 15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 1920-22 PACIFIC AVE., WIEGAL COMPANY CANDY FACTORY (1904); 1924-26 PACIFIC AVE., CAMPBELL BUILDING (DAVIS BUILDING) (1890); 1928-30 PACIFIC AVE., REESE-CRANDALL & REDMAN BUILDING, (1890); 1932-36 PACIFIC AVE., MC DONALD & SMITH BUILDING (1890); 1938-48 PACIFIC AVE., F.S. HARMON COMPANY WAREHOUSE (1908), DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  13. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-16

    STS049-71-042 (8 May 1992) --- This photograph, taken from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour, shows a collapsed thunderstorm in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The clouds were pushed from this circular area of the ocean's surface by relatively cool air that spread downward and outward from a dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new, though smaller, storms are developing. The photo was taken on May 8, 1992, between Borneo and the Philippine island of Mindoro. Two coral atolls can be seen near the center of the photograph. The crew members used a handheld Hasselblad camera, 250-mm lens, color film to expose the image.

  14. Flower scents from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Joulain, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, exotic scents from the islands of the South Pacific have universally been appreciated. Most frequently, fragrant flowers (e.g., frangipani, jasmine sambac, tiaré, pua kenikeni) are used locally for ornamental purposes such as flower garlands (leis). Despite their powerful and delightful fragrance, very few of these flowers have been commercially employed in this part of the world for perfume manufacturing. Creative perfumers are nevertheless strongly interested to better understand these fragrances and to use them, either genuine or artificially reconstituted. Analytical results on the fragrance of these flowers are reported, together with some economical considerations.

  15. Asia-Pacific energy database

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  16. The Pacific tsunami warning system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pararas-Carayannis, G.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of tsunamis on human societies can be traced back in written history to 480 BC, when the Minoan civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean was wiped out by great tsunami waves generated by the volcanic explosion of the island of Santorin. In the Pacific Ocean where the majority of these waves have been generated, the historical record, although brief, shows tremendous destruction. In Japan which has one of the most populated coastal regions in the world and a long history of earthquake activity, tsunamis have destroyed entire coastal communities. There is also history of tsunami destruction in Alaska, in Hawaiian Islands, and in South America. 

  17. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  18. 78 FR 39583 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments... reports to fish in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments...

  19. The South Pacific Forestry Development Programme

    Treesearch

    Tang Hon Tat

    1992-01-01

    Only a few countries in the South Pacific are large enough for industrial forestry to be a key component of the national economy, but forests provide benefits to many people. The United Nations FA0 South Pacific Forestry Development Programme was established in April 1988, at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a $385,000 budget, and 14 nations participating. The Programme's...

  20. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, which includes the... boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area and the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth U.S... defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a naval vessel protection...

  1. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, which includes the... boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area and the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth U.S... defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a naval vessel protection...

  2. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, which includes the... boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area and the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth U.S... defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a naval vessel protection...

  3. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, which includes the... boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area and the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth U.S... defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a naval vessel protection...

  4. Genetic variation and distribution of Pacific crabapple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Pacific crabapple (Malus fusca (Raf.) C.K. Schneid.) is found in moist coastal habitats in the Pacific Northwest. It is one of four apple species native to North America. Malus fusca is culturally important to First Nations of the region who value and use the fruits of this species as food, bark...

  5. Apollo XIII Spacecraft - Splashdown - South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-04-17

    S70-35652 (17 April 1970) --- The Apollo 13 spacecraft heads toward a splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean. The Apollo 13 Command Module splashed down in the South Pacific at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970. Note the capsule and its parachutes just visible against a gap in the dark clouds.

  6. Pacific Standards for Excellence in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    The Pacific Mathematics and Science Regional Consortium has developed standards for excellence in mathematics and science education appropriate to the Pacific regions. These standards are presented in three volumes, and the series is firmly based upon the research findings of scientists, teachers, curriculum developers, and others. This volume…

  7. Vision impairment in the Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J E; Konyama, K; Taylor, H R

    2002-01-01

    The Western Pacific region is one of great diversity, containing the most populous country, China, and many small Pacific island countries. This review describes the prevalence of blindness and vision loss, illustrates the changing trends in the important causes of vision loss and blindness, and the stages of development of the delivery of eye care services across this region. PMID:12034678

  8. Forestry research in Asia and Pacific

    Treesearch

    Jim Chamberlain; Erin Moore

    1992-01-01

    Much research has been done in Asia and the Pacific that might help Pacific Island countries produce more biomass and better manage their natural resources. National forestry research institutes throughout the region have examined many important aspects of forestry. Not all research findings are directly transferable between countries, but research methods and results...

  9. ASIAN AMERICAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDERS HERITAGE MONTH

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-31

    BO THAO-URABE, A MEMBER OF PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA’S COMMISSION ON ASIAN AMERICANS AND PACIFIC ISLANDERS, SPOKE TO TEAM MEMBERS OF NASA’S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER DURING AN ASIAN AMERICANS AND PACIFIC ISLANDERS MONTH CELEBRATION EVENT MAY 31.

  10. Pacific Locked in La Nada Limbo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-07

    The latest image of sea surface heights in the Pacific Ocean from NASA Jason-2 satellite shows that the equatorial Pacific Ocean is now in its 10th month of being locked in what some call a neutral, or La Nada state.

  11. Unity and Diversity in the Pacific Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley-Smith, Terence

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the three Pacific cultural areas of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia and identifies the differences within and between the groups. States that a regionwide sense of identity has emerged because these small nations have gained independence from colonizing countries and joined regional institutions such as the South Pacific Forum. (GEA)

  12. The Emerging Pacific: Reshaping World Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Steven L.; Wilson, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces a series of articles which emphasize the diversity and unity of the Pacific Rim nations. Examines the interests of the United States, USSR, Japan, and China in this part of the world and discusses how teachers might organize lessons on this region. States that the articles present a variety of ways of seeing the emerging Pacific. (GEA)

  13. We, the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…

  14. Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities

    Treesearch

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1990-01-01

    The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past decades. Today, the economic, social, ecologic, and esthetic values of mangroves are well recognized. Past research on these ecosystems is responsible for the change in perception. However, a review of eleven subjects relevant to the management of Pacific...

  15. Seabird Conservation Planning in the Pacific Region

    Treesearch

    Kyra L. Mills; Maura Naughton; Gregg Elliott

    2005-01-01

    The North Pacific is a highly productive marine area, sustaining millions of resident and migratory marine birds. These birds are faced with a variety of threats, both on land, where they breed and roost, and at sea, where they forage for food. Several seabird conservation plans are currently underway in this region. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Pacific...

  16. Pacific Educational Computer Network Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. ALOHA System.

    The Pacific Educational Computer Network Feasibility Study examined technical and non-technical aspects of the formation of an international Pacific Area computer network for higher education. The technical study covered the assessment of the feasibility of a packet-switched satellite and radio ground distribution network for data transmission…

  17. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R.; Hinthome, J.

    The 28th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, September 13-20, 1981, was hosted by the Department of Geology at Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. A total of 31 papers was presented to the 91 registrants in two general sessions. Topics included seismology, general geophysics, volcanology, hydrology, oceanography, and two special symposia: Tectonics of the Columbia Plateau and Neogene —Quaternary Faults of the Pacific Northwest' and ‘Studies of the Eruption of Mount Saint Helens.’ Before and after the formal meetings, several field conferences were conducted to examine the Neogene tectonics of the Coast Range (Bob Bentley, Al Niem, and Ray Wells, leaders); the Columbia River Gorge (Bob Bentley, Marv Beeson, and Terry Tolan, leaders); the western Columbia Plateau northsouth transect (Bob Bentley and Jim Anderson, leaders); Quaternary structures of the Toppenish Ridge anticline (Don Tahkeal, Newell Campbell, and Bob Bentley, leaders); the Umtanum imbricate fault zone and pre-Saddle Mountains unconformity near Priest Rapids Dam (Ed Price and Bob Bentley, leaders); and the Yakima anticlines in the Cle Elum-Wallula deformed zone between Ellensburg and Yakima (Bob Bentley, leader).

  18. Pacific Dictates Droughts and Drenchings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-30

    The latest remote sensing data from NASA's Jason satellite show that the equatorial Pacific sea surface levels are higher, indicating warmer sea surface temperatures in the central and west Pacific Ocean. This pattern has the appearance of La Niña rather than El Niño. This contrasts with the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and U.S. West Coast where lower-than-normal sea surface levels and cool ocean temperatures continue (indicated by blue and purple areas). The image above is a global map of sea surface height, accurate to within 30 millimeters. The image represents data collected and composited over a 10-day period, ending on Jan 23, 2004. The height of the water relates to the temperature of the water. As the ocean warms, its level rises; and as it cools, its level falls. Yellow and red areas indicate where the waters are relatively warmer and have expanded above sea level, green indicates near normal sea level, and blue and purple areas show where the waters are relatively colder and the surface is lower than sea level. The blue areas are between 5 and 13 centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, whereas the purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05071

  19. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  20. Modeling North Pacific Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, J. E.; Percival, D. B.; Mofjeld, H. O.

    2002-05-01

    We present a case study in modeling the North Pacific (NP) index, a time series of the wintertime Aleutian low sea level pressure from 1900 to 1999. We consider three statistical models, namely, a Gaussian stationary autoregressive process, a Gaussian fractionally difference (FD) or ``long-memory" process, and a ``signal plus noise" process consisting of a square wave oscillation with a pentadecadal period embedded in Gaussian white noise. Each model depends upon three parameters, so all three models are equally simple. The shortness of the time series makes it unrealistic to formally prefer one model over the other: we estimate it would take a 300 year record to differentiate between the models. Although the models fit equally well, they have quite different implications for the long-term behavior of the NP index, e.g. generation of regimes of characteristic lengths. Additional information and physical arguments may add support for a particular model. The FD - ``long memory" process suggests multiple physical contributions with different damping constants many North Pacific biological time series which are influenced by atmospheric and oceanic processes, show regime-like ecosystem reorganizations.

  1. Cancer in Pacific people in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Ineke; Sarfati, Diana; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Blakely, Tony

    2012-07-01

    To describe cancer incidence rates among Pacific people living in New Zealand from 1981 to 2004. Linked census-cancer registration data were used to calculate age-standardized cancer incidence rates for Pacific people. Both trends over time within Pacific people and differences in rates between Pacific and European/Other people in New Zealand were assessed. Pacific rates were higher for cancers of the cervix, endometrium, gallbladder, lip, mouth and pharynx, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid, and lower for colorectal, bladder, and testicular cancers and melanoma. Differences were large, ranging from a 90 % lower rate of melanoma to over seven times higher rate of liver cancer compared to European/Other. Breast and prostate cancers were the commonest malignancies for Pacific women and men, respectively. Important changes for Pacific women over time include a 64 % decrease in cervical cancer incidence (ptrend = 0.02) and a 245 % increase for lung cancer (ptrend = 0.02), while men had a 366 % increase in prostate cancer (ptrend = 0.02). Pacific people in New Zealand have a disproportionate cancer burden related to infectious diseases such as HPV and Hepatitis B. However, with escalating evidence for causal associations between diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity with various cancers, the challenge will be to prevent these cancers from rising in Pacific people who have the highest rates of these conditions in New Zealand. Disparities for tobacco-related cancers support tobacco consumption as another important cause of cancer incidence disparity. Continued efforts are needed to reduce infectious disease and improve screening program uptake among Pacific people.

  2. 76 FR 4854 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... profitability of these vessels as a result of this proposed rule is based on the average Pacific sardine ex-vessel price per mt. NMFS used average Pacific sardine ex-vessel price per mt to conduct a profitability...-2010 of approximately $11.5 million. There will also likely be a drop in profitability based on this...

  3. 78 FR 6794 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... profitability of these vessels as a result of this proposed rule is based on the average Pacific sardine ex-vessel price per mt. NMFS used average Pacific sardine ex-vessel price per mt to conduct a profitability.... Therefore the proposed rule will decrease the effected small entities' potential profitability compared...

  4. 78 FR 36117 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... profitability of these vessels as a result of this action is based on the average Pacific sardine ex-vessel price per mt. NMFS used average Pacific sardine ex-vessel price per mt to conduct a profitability... $12 million. Therefore, this action will decrease the affected small entities' potential...

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory CALIOPE overview

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, R.S.; Kelly, J.F.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1995-03-01

    This overview covers progress in the following areas in which Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributes to the CALIOPE Program: (1) Fabrication of electro-optic modulators to generate FM-coding on IR lasers in the 8-12 and 3-5 {mu}m regions. (2) IR spectroscopy of signature species, abnormal isotopic distributions, hydrolysis and kinetics of effluents interacting with the atmosphere, and reflectance measurements of natural surfaces. (3) Systems analysis of FM-DIAL concepts, including lateral phase coherence and MTF measurements, and laboratory tests of detector technology and demodulation methods. (4) Field tests of FM-DIAL, covering field validation of portable diode laser concepts, FM-CO{sub 2} interrogation of Hanford sites, and signal returns from natural specular surfaces. (5) Ancillary matters: ground-truthing at Hanford (and RSTR?), countermeasures, and new laser design concepts.

  6. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m(3). In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  7. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and...

  8. Teaching about the Pacific Rim. ERIC Digest No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest examines: (1) the meaning of the term "Pacific Rim"; (2) reasons for emphasizing the Pacific Rim in the social studies curriculum; and (3) useful strategies for teaching about this part of the world. The terms, Pacific Rim and Pacific Basin, are used. interchangeably; however, the "Rim" refers to those nations…

  9. 17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 2102-2106 PACIFIC AVE., MORRIS MILLER BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2110 PACIFIC AVE., TACOMA DRY GOODS BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2114-16 PACIFIC AVE., HUNT & MOTTET COMPANY HEADQUARTERS (1907), BULLARD & HILL, ARCHITECTS. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  10. 77 FR 70420 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC364 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) South of Humbug Policy Workgroup (Workgroup) for Pacific halibut will hold a working...

  11. 50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Western Pacific Community Development... PACIFIC General § 665.20 Western Pacific Community Development Program. (a) General. In accordance with.... (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to participate in the western Pacific community development program...

  12. Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Eddie

    2000-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment is Phase 2 of the Trans-Pacific High Data Rate Satcom Experiments following the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Experiment. It is a part of the Global Information Infrastructure-Global Interoperability for Broadband Networks Project (GII-GIBN). Provides global information infrastructure involving broadband satellites and terrestrial networks and access to information by anyone, anywhere, at any time. Collaboration of government, industry, and academic organizations demonstrate the use of broadband satellite links in a global information infrastructure with emphasis on astronomical observations, collaborative discussions and distance learning.

  13. Geological history of the western North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, A.G.; Heezen, B.C.; Boyce, R.E.; Bukry, D.; Douglas, R.G.; Garrison, R.E.; Kling, S.A.; Krasheninnikov, V.; Lisitzin, A.P.; Pimm, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    A considerable portion of the abyssal floor of the western North Pacific was already receiving pelagic sediment in late Jurassic time. Carbonate sediments were later replaced by abyssal clays as the basin deepened and bottom waters became more aggressive. The resulting facies boundary, which can be recognized on seismic profiles, is broadly transgressive; it ranges in age from mid-Cretaceous in the western Pacific to Oligocene in the central Pacific. Cherts are encountered at and below the major facies boundary and appear to have been formed by postdepositional processes.

  14. Linkages between the North Pacific Oscillation and central tropical Pacific SSTs at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, Jason C.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Anderson, Bruce T.; Schneider, Niklas

    2012-12-01

    The North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) recently (re-)emerged in the literature as a key atmospheric mode in Northern Hemisphere climate variability, especially in the Pacific sector. Defined as a dipole of sea level pressure (SLP) between, roughly, Alaska and Hawaii, the NPO is connected with downstream weather conditions over North America, serves as the atmospheric forcing pattern of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and is a potential mechanism linking extratropical atmospheric variability to El Niño events in the tropical Pacific. This paper explores further the forcing dynamics of the NPO and, in particular, that of its individual poles. Using observational data and experiments with a simple atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), we illustrate that the southern pole of the NPO (i.e., the one near Hawaii) contains significant power at low frequencies (7-10 years), while the northern pole (i.e., the one near Alaska) has no dominant frequencies. When examining the low-frequency content of the NPO and its poles separately, we discover that low-frequency variations (periods >7 years) of the NPO (particularly its subtropical node) are intimately tied to variability in central equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the El Niño-Modoki/Central Pacific Warming (CPW) phenomenon. This result suggests that fluctuations in subtropical North Pacific SLP are important to monitor for Pacific low-frequency climate change. Using the simple AGCM, we also illustrate that variability in central tropical Pacific SSTs drives a significant fraction of variability of the southern node of the NPO. Taken together, the results highlight important links between secondary modes (i.e., CPW-NPO-NPGO) in Pacific decadal variability, akin to already established relationships between the primary modes of Pacific climate variability (i.e., canonical El Niño, the Aleutian Low, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation).

  15. Springtime trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollutants characterized by the Western Pacific (WP) pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Noh, Young Min; Lee, Yun Gon

    2016-12-01

    Springtime trans-Pacific transport of Asian air pollutants has been investigated in many ways to figure out its mechanism. Based on the Western Pacific (WP) pattern, one of climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere known to be associated with the pattern of atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean, in this study, we characterize the pattern of springtime trans-Pacific transport using long-term satellite measurements and reanalysis datasets. A positive WP pattern is characterized by intensification of the dipole structure between the northern Aleutian Low and the southern Pacific High over the North Pacific. The TOMS/OMI Aerosol Index (AI) and MOPITT CO show the enhancement of Asian pollutant transport across the Pacific during periods of positive WP pattern, particularly between 40 and 50°N. This enhancement is confirmed by high correlations of WP index with AI and CO between 40 and 50°N. To evaluate the influence of the WP pattern, we examine several cases of trans-Pacific transport reported in previous research. Interestingly, most trans-Pacific transport cases are associated with the positive WP pattern. During the period of negative WP pattern, reinforced cyclonic wave breaking is consistently found over the western North Pacific, which obstructs zonal advection across the North Pacific. However, some cases show the trans-Pacific transport of CO in the period of negative WP pattern, implying that the WP pattern is more influential on the transport of particles mostly emitted near ∼40°N. This study reveals that the WP pattern can be utilized to diagnose the strength of air pollutant transport from East Asia to North America.

  16. 17. 'Southern Pacific Company Pacific System, 3 180'61/2' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 'Southern Pacific Company - Pacific System, 3 - 180'-6-1/2' c. to c. end pins S. Tr. Thro. Spans, 10th, 11th and 13th Crossings of Sacramento River, also for 1 - 180'-6-1/2' c. to c. end pins S. Tr. Thro. Span, 8th Crossing Sacramento River, The Phoenixville Bridge Co., Phoenixville Pa., Apr. 9th, 1901.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 310.58, Milepost 310.58, Sims, Shasta County, CA

  17. 76 FR 63564 - Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA759 Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in...

  18. 76 FR 80266 - Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA886 Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component of the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska... Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  19. Mental health in the Pacific: the role of the Pacific Island Mental Health Network.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Frances

    2009-02-01

    This article summarises the work being undertaken by the World Health Organisation Pacific Islands Mental Health Network (PIMHnet) since its inception in 2006. The article also outlines the mental health issues that present particular challenges in the Pacific region, and the innovative approaches that have been taken to address those issues, with the goal of improving mental health throughout the Pacific. PIMHnet is co-ordinated by Dr. Michelle Funk (Coordinator Mental Health Policy and Service Development Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse WHO); Dr Xiangdong Wang (Regional Mental Health Advisor, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific); Dr. Frances Hughes (Facilitator PIMHnet and Stephanie Calder (Senior Analyst, PIMHnet).

  20. Eat Seafood Twice a Week: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Seafood

    MedlinePlus

    ... tacos, or clams with whole-wheat and Pacific mackerel, herring, and sardines. pasta. Add variety by trying ... light” tuna is lower in mercury. or Pacific mackerel, herring on a salad, or oven-baked pollock. ...

  1. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  2. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

  3. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  4. Pacific Basin Communication Study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Users' meeting summary report, chronology of visits, economic data for forum countries, techniques used in the study, communication choices, existing resources in the Pacific Basin, and warc 79 region 3 rules and regulations were presented in volume 2.

  5. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  6. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  7. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  8. Agriculture and biotechnology in Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Shigaki, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific countries are small in land mass and therefore represent one of the most fragile ecosystems. Due to the isolation of these island counties, these are home to unique species of plants and animals as well as crop varieties and landraces. Biosafety issues in the Pacific countries, therefore, require special attention to take these factors into account. The issues are shared with other small island nations such as the Caribbean countries. Although most Pacific countries do not have scientific capacity to develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), they are inadvertently introduced from the developed world. As the countries do not have appropriate capacity to monitor the introduction and commerce of GMO's, it is imperative to establish biosafety legislation and capacity by pooling the resources within the Pacific countries.

  9. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  10. Satellite Tracks Double Eastern Pacific Hurricanes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Aug. 27 to Aug. 30, 2016, shows the movement of Category 4 Hurricane Madeline approaching Hawaii in the Central Pacific Ocean and Category ...

  11. Forest management challenged in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Heilman, P.E. )

    1990-11-01

    This article discusses the US Forest Service Pacific Northwest and current management practice in the light of increasingly cynical public questions about forest policy. Policy challenges to the Service include clearcutting, sustainability, diversity, and ecosystem preservation.

  12. Educational Radio: Directions in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Sachida

    1986-01-01

    This personal perspective on developments in educational radio broadcasting in some small island nations of the South Pacific discusses radio as a powerful teaching aid, curriculum development, educational communicators, printed support materials, costs, facilities duplication, and future trends. (MBR)

  13. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  14. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  15. The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 1971 August 2008 The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for... Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SSC San Diego San Diego, CA 92152-5001 SB...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 08–2008 Final THE FUTURE SSC PACIFIC CIVIL SERVICE WORKFORCE P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J

  16. Western Pacific Basin: A Climatological Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-29

    Pacific trades and the Indian southwesterlies. (From Estoque , 1956) Figure 2-7. Schematic Representation of the ET over the Western Pacific Basin. (From...13 SEMIPERMANENT CLIMATIC CONTROLS Figure 2-11a. Mean Positions of the Near Equatorial Trade Wind Convergence (NETWC) (From Estoque , 1956...Atkinson and Sadler, 1970). Figure 2-11b. Mean Positions of the Near Equatorial Trade Wind Convergence (NETWC) (From Estoque , 1956: Atkinson and Sadler

  17. Schools of the Pacific rainfall climate experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.

  18. Schools of the Pacific rainfall climate experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.

  19. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  20. AIDS education reaches Pacific atolls.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati consists of 33 islands and 69,000 inhabitants dispersed over a large area of the Central Pacific. It includes the former Gilbert Islands, which were linked as British colonies with the Ellice Islands until the latter declared themselves independent as Tuvalu. Kiribati became independent from Britain in 1979 and joined WHO [the World Health Organization] in 1984. Launched in 1988, the national AIDS program is now implementing its second medium-term plan. As part of this plan, the program recently held its first AIDS awareness workshop for hotel workers, health care workers and youth. The workshop was held on Kiritimati, the world's largest atoll. Also known as Christmas Island, the atoll of 2650 inhabitants has excellent bird-watching and fishing opportunities, which have drawn growing numbers of tourists in recent years. Although neither of the two HIV infections identified in Kiribati by March 1994 were on Kiritimati, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases there has been on the rise. Meeting in a traditional thatched building, the workshop participants proved eager to learn about HIV and STDs [sexually transmitted diseases]. They received instruction in prevention skills, including a demonstration of proper condom use led by the national AIDS coordinator. At the close of the workshop, condoms were provided to hotel staff for distribution.

  1. Aerosol in the Pacific troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Antony D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of near real-time optical techniques is emphasized for the measurement of mid-tropospheric aerosol over the Central Pacific. The primary focus is on measurement of the aerosol size distribution over the range of particle diameters from 0.15 to 5.0 microns that are essential for modeling CO2 backscatter values in support of the laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) program. The measurement system employs a LAS-X (Laser Aerosol Spectrometer-PMS, Boulder, CO) with a custom 256 channel pulse height analyzer and software for detailed measurement and analysis of aerosol size distributions. A thermal preheater system (Thermo Optic Aerosol Descriminator (TOAD) conditions the aerosol in a manner that allows the discrimination of the size distribution of individual aerosol components such as sulfuric acid, sulfates and refractory species. This allows assessment of the relative contribution of each component to the BCO2 signal. This is necessary since the different components have different sources, exhibit independent variability and provide different BCO2 signals for a given mass and particle size. Field activities involve experiments designed to examine both temporal and spatial variability of these aerosol components from ground based and aircraft platforms.

  2. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    PubMed

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  3. 78 FR 61839 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Activities Other Business if Time Allows, such as: Allocation Review Processes Budget Updates ESA... 0648-XC909 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... Coordination Committee (CCC) consisting of the eight Regional Fishery Management Council (RFMC) chairs,...

  4. PacNET: Pacific Lightning Detection Network to Continuously Monitor Convective Storms Over the Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    support investigations at the University of Hawaii of tropical and subtropical cyclogenesis, cyclone track forecasting, and forecasting flash - flood events... flash - flood events over the Pacific. TRANSITIONS Data from the Pacific lightning detection NETwork (PacNET) will be streamed via the Internet

  5. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... the overall EPO tuna catch. The number of purse seine vessels that have landed tuna in California...; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine... rule. SUMMARY: NMFS is issuing regulations under the Tuna Conventions Act of 1950 to...

  6. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  7. Selected Bibliography on Asian and Pacific American Children and Families. Asian Pacific American Education Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This is an annotated bibliography of recent articles, books, and scholarly papers on Asian and Pacific American children and families. Works are divided by topical area, with a primary focus on literature related to the education of Asian/Pacific American children. There are four main topical divisions: (1) education; (2) family; (3) mental…

  8. 77 FR 54575 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-159

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...-54576] [FR Doc No: 2012-21806] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project--Rate Order No. WAPA-159 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE... the Secretary of Energy the power marketing functions of the Secretary of the Department of...

  9. Competition for national forest timber in the Northern, Pacific Southwest, and Pacific Northwest regions.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes

    1980-01-01

    Competition for National Forest timber was examined in the Northern, Pacific Southwest, and Pacific Northwest Regions of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The impacts of sealed bidding and the Small Business Set-Aside Program were found to vary widely among the different appraisal zones. Noncompetitive sales were screened for collusive activity; and...

  10. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  11. Pacific Decadal Oscillation Still Rules in Pacific; No Niño Anytime Soon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-27

    These data, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending August 18, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temperatures still blanket the far-western tropical Pacific and much of the north and south mid-Pacific.

  12. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Herring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    these times are salmon, seals, abnormalities developed in the lower jaws of sea lions, killer whales, dogfish , and birds larvae from eggs incubated at 4.0...offshore, important predators include Optimal temperatures for juvenile and adult hake, sablefish, dogfish , Pacific cod, and salmon. Pacific herring

  13. Relative roles of equatorial central Pacific and western North Pacific precipitation anomalies in ENSO teleconnection over the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunyong; Son, Hye-Young; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-07-01

    It is shown here that the teleconnections of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are contributed by two anomalous precipitation forcings in the equatorial central Pacific (CP; 160°E-120°W, 5°S-5°N) and western North Pacific (WNP; 110°E-150°E, 0°N-20°N). The positive CP precipitation anomalies induce a prevailing cyclonic flow over the North Pacific (120°E-110°W, 20°N-70°N), whereas the negative WNP precipitation forcing tends to induce anticyclonic anomalies over the Kuroshio extension region and North Pacific. It is demonstrated that the equatorial CP and WNP precipitation anomalies play relative roles in generating atmospheric teleconnections over the North Pacific, which can be determined by the competing responses to the CP and WNP precipitation anomalies. The reconstructed teleconnection patterns based on only the two tropical forcings capture the majority of the subseasonal evolution of the ENSO teleconnection. In addition, we find that the diversity of inter-ENSO events in the atmospheric teleconnection can be better-explained by considering the relative roles of the CP and WNP precipitation anomalies.

  14. What Maintains the Central North Pacific Genetic Discontinuity in Pacific Herring?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Lin, Longshan; Gao, Tianxiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Sakurai, Yasunori; Grant, W. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring show an abrupt genetic discontinuity in the central North Pacific that represents secondary contact between refuge populations previously isolated during Pleistocene glaciations. Paradoxically, high levels of gene flow produce genetic homogeneity among ocean-type populations within each group. Here, we surveyed variability in mtDNA control-region sequences (463 bp) and nine microsatellite loci in Pacific herring from sites across the North Pacific to further explore the nature of the genetic discontinuity around the Alaska Peninsula. Consistent with previous studies, little divergence (ΦST  = 0.011) was detected between ocean-type populations of Pacific herring in the North West Pacific, except for a population in the Yellow Sea (ΦST  = 0.065). A moderate reduction in genetic diversity for both mtDNA and microsatellites in the Yellow Sea likely reflects founder effects during the last colonization of this sea. Reciprocal monophyly between divergent mtDNA lineages (ΦST  = 0.391) across the Alaska Peninsula defines the discontinuity across the North Pacific. However, microsatellites did not show a strong break, as eastern Bering Sea (EBS) herring were more closely related to NE Pacific than to NW Pacific herring. This discordance between mtDNA and microsatellites may be due to microsatellite allelic convergence or to sex-biased dispersal across the secondary contact zone. The sharp discontinuity between Pacific herring populations may be maintained by high-density blocking, competitive exclusion or hybrid inferiority. PMID:23300525

  15. Seamount statistics in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Deborah K.; Jordan, Thomas H.

    1988-04-01

    We apply the wide-beam sampling technique of Jordan et al. (1983) to approximately 157,000 km of wide-beam profiles to obtain seamount population statistics for eight regions in the eastern and southern Pacific Ocean. Population statistics derived from wide-beam echograms are compared with seamount counts from Sea Beam swaths and with counts from bathymetric maps. We find that the average number of seamounts with summit heights h ≥ H is well-approximated by the exponential frequency-size distribution: ν(H)=νoe-βH. The exponential model for seamount sizes, characterized by the single scale parameter β-1, is found to be superior to a power-law (self-similar) model, which has no intrinsic scale, in describing the average distribution of Pacific seamounts, and it appears to be valid over a size spectrum spanning 5 orders of magnitude in abundance. Large-scale regional variations in seamount populations are documented. We observe significant differences in seamount densities across the Murray fracture zone in the North Pacific and the Eltanin fracture zone system in the South Pacific. The Eltanin discontinuity is equally evident on both sides of the Pacific-Antarctic ridge. In the South Pacific, regions symmetrically disposed about the ridge axis have very similar seamount densities, despite the large difference between Pacific plate and Antarctic plate absolute velocities; evidently, any differences in the shear flows at the base of the Pacific and Antarctic plates do not affect seamount emplacement. Systematic variations in νo and β are observed as a function of lithospheric age, with the number of large seamounts increasing more rapidly than small seamounts. These observations have been used to develop a simple model for seamount production under the assumptions that (1) an exponential size-frequency distribution is maintained, (2) production is steady state, and (3) most small seamounts are formed on or near the ridge axis. The limited data available from

  16. Anchovies to Whales: tracking vertebrate biodiversity in Monterey Bay by metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closek, C. J.; Starks, H.; Walz, K.; Boehm, A. B.; Chavez, F.

    2016-12-01

    The oscillation between the dominance of Sardinops sagax (pacific sardine) and Engraulis mordax (northern anchovy) has been documented in the California Coastal Ecosystem for more than 100 years. These two species are strong drivers of trophic interactions in the region. As part of the Marine Biodiversity Observational Network (MBON) initiative, we used archived filtered seawater samples collected late-summer to mid-fall over a span of 8 years from Monterey Bay, CA to examine the change in marine vertebrate environmental DNA (eDNA). Water samples were collected from a nearshore location in Monterey Bay (C1) during the years of 2008-15. The water was then filtered, and the filter was archived at -80°C. DNA was extracted from the filters, and the 12S rRNA gene present in mitochondrial DNA was PCR amplification using primers designed to amplify 12s rRNA genes from marine vertebrates. The amplicons were subsequently sequenced with an Illumina MiSeq and the data processed using an analysis pipeline for sequence annotation. More than 20 fish genera were noted in the sequences from 2008-12, with Engraulis the dominant fish genus from 2013-15. Anchovy and Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale) were present in temporal patterns similar to those noted during visual observations where anchovy and humpback whale were more abundant during the years of 2013-2015 than the other years. This study demonstrates our ability to detect megafauna and fish species that are important to the Monterey Bay ecosystem from coastal water samples and determine community structural differences over time.

  17. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  18. Building operational research capacity in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Bissell, K; Viney, K; Brostrom, R; Gounder, S; Khogali, M; Kishore, K; Kool, B; Kumar, A M V; Manzi, M; Marais, B; Marks, G; Linh, N N; Ram, S; Reid, S; Roseveare, C; Tayler-Smith, K; Van den Bergh, R; Harries, A D

    2014-06-21

    Operational research (OR) in public health aims to investigate strategies, interventions, tools or knowledge that can enhance the quality, coverage, effectiveness or performance of health systems. Attention has recently been drawn to the lack of OR capacity in public health programmes throughout the Pacific Islands, despite considerable investment in implementation. This lack of ongoing and critical reflection may prevent health programme staff from understanding why programme objectives are not being fully achieved, and hinder long-term gains in public health. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) has been collaborating with Pacific agencies to conduct OR courses based on the training model developed by The Union and Médecins Sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg in 2009. The first of these commenced in 2011 in collaboration with the Fiji National University, the Fiji Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization and other partners. The Union and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community organised a second course for participants from other Pacific Island countries and territories in 2012, and an additional course for Fijian participants commenced in 2013. Twelve participants enrolled in each of the three courses. Of the two courses completed by end 2013, 18 of 24 participants completed their OR and submitted papers by the course deadline, and 17 papers have been published to date. This article describes the context, process and outputs of the Pacific courses, as well as innovations, adaptations and challenges.

  19. Building operational research capacity in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Viney, K.; Brostrom, R.; Gounder, S.; Khogali, M.; Kishore, K.; Kool, B.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Manzi, M.; Marais, B.; Marks, G.; Linh, N. N.; Ram, S.; Reid, S.; Roseveare, C.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Van den Bergh, R.; Harries, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Operational research (OR) in public health aims to investigate strategies, interventions, tools or knowledge that can enhance the quality, coverage, effectiveness or performance of health systems. Attention has recently been drawn to the lack of OR capacity in public health programmes throughout the Pacific Islands, despite considerable investment in implementation. This lack of ongoing and critical reflection may prevent health programme staff from understanding why programme objectives are not being fully achieved, and hinder long-term gains in public health. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) has been collaborating with Pacific agencies to conduct OR courses based on the training model developed by The Union and Médecins Sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg in 2009. The first of these commenced in 2011 in collaboration with the Fiji National University, the Fiji Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization and other partners. The Union and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community organised a second course for participants from other Pacific Island countries and territories in 2012, and an additional course for Fijian participants commenced in 2013. Twelve participants enrolled in each of the three courses. Of the two courses completed by end 2013, 18 of 24 participants completed their OR and submitted papers by the course deadline, and 17 papers have been published to date. This article describes the context, process and outputs of the Pacific courses, as well as innovations, adaptations and challenges. PMID:26477282

  20. Changes in South Pacific anthropogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Jason F.; Millero, Frank J.; Sabine, Christopher L.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in anthropogenic CO2 are evaluated in the South Pacific, along the meridional line P18 (110°W) and the zonal line P06 (32°S), using the extended multiple linear regression (eMLR) method. The structure of the column inventory of anthropogenic CO2 on P18 is similar to the southern section of P16 in the central South Pacific (150°W), but the overall increase is greater by approximately 5-10 μmol kg-1. The value of the anthropogenic CO2 inventory on P18 is in agreement at the crossover point of an earlier evaluation of P06. Subsequent changes in pH due to the increase in anthropogenic CO2 are also evaluated. The change in pH is determined from the changes in anthropogenic CO2 and do not reflect variability in other decadal signals. For both cruise tracks, the average annual change in pH is -0.0016 mol kg-1 yr-1. This value is in good agreement with the average decrease in pH in the North Pacific, at the Hawaii Times Series and the subtropical North Atlantic. The uptake rates of anthropogenic CO2 are within reasonable agreement with similar studies in the South Pacific. There is evidence for greater uptake of anthropogenic CO2 in the western South Pacific and is attributed to the formation of subtropical Mode Water in the region.

  1. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, Tilden R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  2. The East Pacific Rise current: Topographic enhancement of the interior flow in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilberman, N. V.; Roemmich, D. H.; Gille, S. T.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of absolute velocity based on Argo float profiles and trajectories in the ocean interior show evidence for an equatorward current, the East Pacific Rise current, between 42°S and 30°S, along the western flank of the East Pacific Rise. The East Pacific Rise current carries predominantly intermediate water masses, including Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water, and deeper waters, from the southern edge of the subtropical gyre toward the Equator. The 2004 to 2014 mean East Pacific Rise current transport extrapolated through the 0-2600 m depth range is 8.1 ± 1.6 sverdrup (Sv) (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), consistent with a wind-driven interior transport influenced by the East Pacific Rise topography. While deep ocean mixing and geothermal heating can both create pressure gradients that support geostrophic flows in the deep ocean, this study indicates that about half of the East Pacific Rise current transport is associated with topographic steering of the deep flow over the East Pacific Rise.

  3. Tropical Pacific climate trends since 1960

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posmentier, Eric S.; Cane, Mark A.; Zebiak, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    Merchant ship observations appear to indicate an increase in the strength of the surface winds in the tropical Pacific and elsewhere in recent decades. Here, trends in tropical Pacific sea surface temperature and sea level, which has repeatedly been shown to be closely related to the winds, are investigated. The results suggest that sea levels since 1960 have been rising oceanwide at about 3.5 cm/decade, while simultaneously tilting about 2 cm/decade higher in the east and lower in the west, and that surface temperatures have been rising about 0.6 C/decade. These results are not consistent with the apparent wind change; rather, they support the contention that the apparent wind changes are an artifact introduced by changes in measurement technique, and suggest that tropical Pacific winds may have actually decreased in strength.

  4. Time series of the northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, M. Angelica; Bograd, Steven J.

    2007-10-01

    In July 2006, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) and Fisheries & Oceans Canada sponsored the symposium “Time Series of the Northeast Pacific: A symposium to mark the 50th anniversary of Line P”. The symposium, which celebrated 50 years of oceanography along Line P and at Ocean Station Papa (OSP), explored the scientific value of the Line P and other long oceanographic time series of the northeast Pacific (NEP). Overviews of the principal NEP time-series were presented, which facilitated regional comparisons and promoted interaction and exchange of information among investigators working in the NEP. More than 80 scientists from 8 countries attended the symposium. This introductory essay is a brief overview of the symposium and the 10 papers that were selected for this special issue of Progress in Oceanography.

  5. Pacific Islanders—Migration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

    1983-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

  6. North Pacific decadal climate variability since 1661

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biondi, Franco; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    Climate in the North Pacific and North American sectors has experienced interdecadal shifts during the twentieth century. A network of recently developed tree-ring chronologies for Southern and Baja California extends the instrumental record and reveals decadal-scale variability back to 1661. The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is closely matched by the dominant mode of tree-ring variability that provides a preliminary view of multiannual climate fluctuations spanning the past four centuries. The reconstructed PDO index features a prominent bidecadal oscillation, whose amplitude weakened in the late l700s to mid-1800s. A comparison with proxy records of ENSO suggests that the greatest decadal-scale oscillations in Pacific climate between 1706 and 1977 occurred around 1750, 1905, and 1947.

  7. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Cancer.gov

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  8. 1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW DOWNSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

  9. 2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW UPSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

  10. 3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. 7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. 1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. 4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  14. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  15. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  16. 78 FR 78810 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee (Recreation RAC) will meet in San Bernardino, California. The Recreation RAC is...

  17. 78 FR 49253 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Forest Service Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committe will meet in Sacramento, California. The Committee is authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement...

  18. 78 FR 47675 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Ad Hoc Groundfish Electronic Monitoring Committee and Ad Hoc Trawl Groundfish Electronic...

  19. 78 FR 4391 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC447 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Meetings of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council and...

  20. 77 FR 55193 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC182 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: Members of the Pacific Fishery...

  1. 76 FR 27999 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... (Pacific Council) will convene a conference call of the Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee... information pertinent to a review of groundfish essential fish habitat, to summarize the Pacific Council...

  2. 78 FR 25955 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC657 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  3. 77 FR 2961 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA945 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Meeting of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council Golden King...

  4. 77 FR 65535 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC314 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  5. 76 FR 13360 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA283 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  6. 76 FR 6402 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA193 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  7. 76 FR 55363 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA682 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  8. 77 FR 67633 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC349 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  9. 77 FR 31327 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC039 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  10. 78 FR 54239 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC845 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  11. 76 FR 80890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA895 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  12. 76 FR 49453 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA624 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  13. 76 FR 26252 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA416 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  14. 77 FR 31329 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC046 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  15. 78 FR 4131 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC450 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  16. 76 FR 76387 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA856 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. The University of the South Pacific: Context, Purpose and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Grant

    1984-01-01

    The history, development, and administration of the University of the South Pacific--a decade-old, multinational, Third World university serving the south Pacific region--are outlined, and issues of academic freedom and institutional purpose are discussed. (MSE)

  19. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  20. Pacific Basin Communications Study, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Communications Study describes and assesses extent telecommunications systems in the Pacific Islands region. The study examines user needs in terms of the development of social services and commercial activities. Alternative technological solutions to communications problems are proposed and described. Recommendations include the augmentation and improvement of existing systems allowing for increased communications capacity. Regional cooperation will be required to accommodate the specific, unique requirements of individual nations. Questions of financing, implementation, management, costs and benefits of a regional telecommunications system are discussed.

  1. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  2. Christmas Island, Line Island Group, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Christmas Island (2.0N,158.0W), mid central Pacific Ocean, is considered to be the largest atoll in the world, about 25 km in diameter, and is part of the Line Island Group, a northwest-southeast trending chain of volcanic islands on some of the oldest ocean crust in the Pacific. The lagoon is nearly filled with reef growth leaving only a narrow entrance from the sea and large cocoanut groves are found along the fringes of the lagoon.

  3. Tropical Pacific Observing for the Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legler, David M.; Hill, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    More than 60 scientists and program officials from 13 countries met at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) 2020 Workshop. The workshop, although motivated in part by the dramatic decline of NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) buoy reporting from mid-2012 to early 2014 (see http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-07/aging-el-nino-buoys-getting-fixed-as-weather-forecasts-at-risk.html), evaluated the needs for tropical Pacific observing and initiated efforts to develop a more resilient and integrative observing system for the future.

  4. 78 FR 13641 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); March 5-11, 2013 Pacific Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ..., March 9 to address litigation and personnel matters. The Pacific Council will meet as late as necessary... Habitat Issues F. Administrative Matters 1. Research Planning 2. Approval of Council Meeting Minutes 3.... NMFS Report 2. Swordfish Management Report on Potential Changes to the Turtle Conservation Area and...

  5. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  6. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.324 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  7. 78 FR 59657 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... to further the Pacific Council process for considering EM. No management actions will be decided at... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC890 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  8. The Future of the Pacific Basin: A Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    People of the Pacific Basin must decide how to manage the Pacific Ocean commons, who does what in a changing industrial structure, and how to adapt to the new technological revolution. Although the United Nations' Law of the Sea moved into national jurisdiction many of the ocean resources of the Pacific Region, there is one new major…

  9. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Treesearch

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  10. 76 FR 24465 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company Notice of Application Tendered for Filing....: 2310-193. c. Date Filed: April 12, 2011. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company. e. Name of... Contact: Steve Peirano, Relicensing Project Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, P.O. Box 770000...

  11. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  12. 75 FR 30756 - FM Table of Allotments, Pacific Junction, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Pacific Junction, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications... Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction, Iowa. The reference coordinates for Channel 299C2 at Pacific...

  13. Army Aviation’s Pacific Rebalance: Evolution Towards Maritime Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Army Aviation’s Pacific Rebalance: Evolution towards Maritime Operations...Monograph nJN 2015 - MAY 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Army Aviation’s Pacific Rebalance: Evolution towards Maritime Operations Sb. GRANT...Candidate: MAJ John M. McLean II Monograph Title: Army Aviation’s Pacific Rebalance: Evolution towards Maritime Operations Approved by

  14. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  15. The Future of the Pacific Basin: A Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    People of the Pacific Basin must decide how to manage the Pacific Ocean commons, who does what in a changing industrial structure, and how to adapt to the new technological revolution. Although the United Nations' Law of the Sea moved into national jurisdiction many of the ocean resources of the Pacific Region, there is one new major…

  16. Is the Sun Setting on the Pacific Rim?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Contends that the growing political and emotional split between the United States and Japan, the Pacific's two most powerful nations, may sever the unity of the Pacific Rim. Presents statistics, such as literacy and population growth rates, as well as economic data for thirteen Pacific Rim nations. (GEA)

  17. 77 FR 38773 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of committee meeting. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council's.... through 5 p.m. Pacific time. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Alaska Fishery Science Center...

  18. Asian and Pacific American Education: Directions for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Food and Nutrition Services.

    The overall themes of the papers given at the 1979 Conference on Asian and Pacific American Education are summarized here. Topics are equal educational opportunities for Asian and Pacific Americans; the educational needs of Pacific American communities; school district policymaking; the responsiveness of postsecondary education to Asian and…

  19. 1980 Resolutions: National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This paper contains nineteen resolutions adopted by the National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education (NAAPAE). The resolutions concern (1) the maintenance of Asian/Pacific American linguistic and cultural traditions by educational institutions, (2) the support of Asian/Pacific American studies programs, (3) NAAPAE support of…

  20. 77 FR 53179 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC203 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Model Evaluation Workgroup (MEW) will hold a work session to review work products...

  1. 76 FR 54217 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA663 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of the Stock Assessment Review (STAR) Panel, to consider...

  2. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  3. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program authorized...

  4. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  5. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  6. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  7. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  8. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  9. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  10. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program authorized...

  11. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  12. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  13. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program authorized...

  14. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  15. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  16. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  17. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  18. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  19. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  20. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program authorized...

  1. PALM: Pacific Area Language Materials. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This CD-ROM provides a resource for anyone interested in the diverse languages of the Pacific. It contains a digital archive of approximately 700 booklets in 11 Pacific languages. The original booklets were produced several years ago by the PALM project in order to record Pacific regional languages and to serve as teaching tools. This digital PALM…

  2. 75 FR 38464 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of the Ecosystem Plan Development Team (EPDT) which is open to the... Ecosystem Advisory Subpanel (EAS) and drafting a report to the Pacific Council on initial stages of developing an Ecosystem Fishery Management Plan (EFMP). The EPDT has taken the lead in preparing a Pacific...

  3. 76 FR 28422 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... Fishery Management Council (Western Pacific Council), is subject to overfishing. NMFS notifies the appropriate fishery management council (Council) whenever it determines that; overfishing is occurring,...

  4. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest..., Colorado River Storage Project Manager, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social.... Thomas Hackett, Rates Team Lead, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, 150 East Social...

  5. 76 FR 59922 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to... sideboard limit established for non-AFA crab vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore...

  6. 76 FR 58414 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Central... directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to... sideboard limit established for non-AFA crab vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore...

  7. Use of ICT in Education in the South Pacific: Findings of the Pacific eLearning Observatory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Pacific eLearning Observatory at the University of the South Pacific (USP) conducted an online survey of educational technologists (n = 60) to assess levels of access to information and communication technologies (ICT) in education and identify ways of lowering the barriers to ICT in the Pacific region. Almost half of USP's 22,000 students are…

  8. 78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC397 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... INFORMATION: This action is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and the...

  9. Agricultural Education in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, J. A.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a paper presenting the results of a survey conducted in 1967 by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations at the request of the South Pacific Commission. The survey included existing facilities for agricultural education in the several territories…

  10. Pacific Regional Solar Heating Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writers' Development Trust, Toronto (Ontario).

    This handbook is intended as a guide for engineers, architects, and individuals familiar with heating and ventilating applications who wish to design a solar heating system for a residential or small commercial building in the Pacific Coast Region. The climate of the region is discussed by selected cities in terms of the effect of climate on solar…

  11. Verticillium wilt in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt is a serious disease of many economically important agricultural and horticultural crops in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). The disease affects herbaceous annuals and perennials as well as woody trees and shrubs. Plants affected by Verticillium wilt exhibit chlorosis, wilting, defolia...

  12. BNSF / Union Pacific Monthly Activities Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Last three monthly progress reports submitted by BNSF/Union Pacific Railway Companies on cleanup activities at the Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area Superfund Site, as required by the Butte Priority Soils UAO, Docket No. CERCLA 08-2011-0011.

  13. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  14. Multimedia Transforms Union Pacific's Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Describes a multimedia training program developed for Union Pacific to help improve management-worker relations and to improve service reliability by improving morale and motivating employees for training. Courses are described; multimedia interactivity is explained, including decision making and problem solving; and future plans are reviewed.…

  15. Planning Special Education in the Pacific Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrman, Raymond H.

    Concerning the education of exceptional children in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the paper outlines the seven-step educational planning process utilized by the Special Education Division of the Trust Territory Department of Education. In initial planning phases the process is product oriented, not process oriented. Particular…

  16. Rehabilitation in Asia and the Pacific, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation International, New York, NY.

    The current state of rehabilitation for persons with disabilities in the Asia and Pacific Region is outlined in a series of national or regional descriptions. The descriptions focus on such aspects as the incidence of disabilities, education, demographic and economic factors, attitudes, government policy and initiatives, non-government initiatives…

  17. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  18. INTELSAT et al. in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses services provided to the island countries of the South Pacific Basin by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), a 110 member-country cooperative that operates a global satellite system. The services include provision of basic satellite communications facilities, technical assistance and training, and free…

  19. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  20. Agricultural Education in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, J. A.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a paper presenting the results of a survey conducted in 1967 by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations at the request of the South Pacific Commission. The survey included existing facilities for agricultural education in the several territories…

  1. Culturally Sustaining Leadership: A Pacific Islander's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattori, Mary Therese Perez

    2016-01-01

    Social justice in educational settings can be advanced through culturally sustaining leadership development programs for indigenous students, faculty, and administrators. The state of Hawai'i has been a fertile ground for culture-based development experiences for emerging leaders from islands throughout the Pacific. These opportunities arise from…

  2. Delimiting communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Ellen M. Donoghue

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for delimiting communities in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) region of the Pacific Northwest that responds to the need to assess impacts and issues associated with broad-scale ecosystem management. Census block groups are aggregated to provide an alternative to more commonly used geographic delimitations of communities, specifically...

  3. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  4. The Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop: Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Among the many compelling reasons for the development of biofuels on remote Pacific islands, several of the most important include: (1) a lack of indigenous fossil fuels necessitates their import at great economic loss to local island economics, (2) ideal conditions for plant growth exist on many Pacific islands to produce yields of biomass feedstocks, (3) gaseous and liquid fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol manufactured locally from biomass feedstocks are the most viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels for transportation, and (4) the combustion of biofuels is cleaner than burning petroleum products and contributes no net atmospheric CO2 to aggravate the greenhouse effect and the subsequent threat of sea level rise to low islands. Dr. Vic Phillips, HNEI Program Manager of the Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program welcomed 60 participants to the Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop at the Sheraton Makaha Hotel, Waianae, Oahu, on March 27 and 28, 1989. The objectives of the workshop were to update progress since the Second Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop in April 1987 and to develop a plan for action for biofuels R and D, technology transfer, and commercialization now (immediate attention), in the near-term (less than two years), in the mid-term (three to five years), and in the long-term (more than six years). An emerging theme of the workshop was how the production, conversion, and utilization of biofuels can help increase environmental and economic security locally and globally. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  5. Historical growth plots in the Pacific Southwest

    Treesearch

    Lawrence A. Rabin; William W. Oliver; Robert F. Powers; Martin W. Ritchie; Matt D. Busse; Eric E. Knapp

    2009-01-01

    In the past, researchers from the Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW) undertook forest growth studies to evaluate how best to manage timber resources. However, historical and future data collected at PSW growth plots also have the potential to increase our understanding of the ecological processes occurring in our forests and shed light on national issues of...

  6. Planting native oak in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington

    2010-01-01

    The extent of oak woodland and savanna habitat in the Pacific Northwest has been dramatically reduced since settlement in the mid-1800s. This report presents a practical guide for landowners and managers who are interested in reestablishing native oak by planting seedlings. Keys to successful establishment are (1) planting quality...

  7. Raindrop Characteristics in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest, influenced by maritime air masses for most of the year, generally exhibits low rainfall intensities. The drop-size characteristics of such low-intensity storms are rarely studied. An investigation of natural drop sizes and their distribution was conducted at the Palouse ...

  8. Environmental Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Environmental education issues and programs in Asian and Pacific countries are examined in four sections. Section One presents a general overview of environmental education in the region. Topics discussed include environmental problems, goals and objectives for environmental education, legislation, the nature of environmental education, curriculum…

  9. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  10. Distribution of Pacific Marten in Coastal Oregon

    Treesearch

    Katie M Moriarty; John D Bailey; Sharon E Smythe; Jake Verschuyl

    2016-01-01

    Information on the distribution of rare and little known species is critical for managers and biologists challenged with species conservation in an uncertain future. Pacific Martens (Martes caurina) historically resided throughout Oregon and northern California’s coastal forests, but were considered extinct until 1996 when a population in northern...

  11. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest study will be the third regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the first two—the Midwest in 2013 and the Southeast in 2014 (Van Metre and others, 2012, 2014).

  12. Increasing Pacific decadal variability under greenhouse forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, G.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2016-12-01

    Decadal changes in Pacific climate impact long-term transitions in marine ecosystems and influence the statistics of weather including ocean and atmosphere extremes such as strong droughts , hurricanes and marine heatwaves. Using observational analyses of basin-scale sea surface temperatures (SST) we show that the variance of the El Niño-like decadal variability is increasing over the period 1940-2016 by 30%, along with an intensification of the coupling (e.g. lag correlation) between major climate modes of the Pacific. The significance of these trends, and their link to greenhouse forcing, is confirmed by examining an ensemble of 30 simulations of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) over the period 1920-2100 forced with the RCP8.5 radiative forcing scenario. In the CESM-LE, we find that a significant trend in the strength the winds-evaporation- SST (WES) thermodynamics feedback leads to an intensification of the low-frequency variance of the North Pacific Meridional Mode (NPMM), which in turn energizes the El Niño-like Pacific decadal variability through its El Niño precursor dynamics. The stronger SST anomalies associated with the NPMM also reinforce the coupling with El Niño and the climate coupling between tropics and extra-tropics, suggesting that an important fraction of the observed and modeled trends in ENSO variance may be caused by stronger thermodynamics coupling and meridional modes under greenhouse forcing.

  13. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  14. Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch: Research Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch, Newport, Oregon is part of the Western Ecology Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA. The Branch conducts research and provides scientific technical support to Headquarters and Regional O...

  15. Bibliographic Resources on Pacific/Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This bibliographic listing of sources on Pacific/Asian American groups provides titles of existing bibliographies and literature reviews. Over 100 entries are included in the document. Most of the entries were published during the 1970's, with a few dating from the late 1960's and several from 1980 and 1981. The objective is to offer researchers,…

  16. Geologic maps of Pacific basin and rim

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, C.

    1986-07-01

    A major component of the Circum-Pacific Map Project is to compile five regional geologic maps at a scale of 1:10 million and a final map of the Pacific Ocean basin at a scale of 1:17 million. The Geologic Map of the Northeast Quadrant was published in 1983, and the Geologic Map of the Southeast Quadrant in 1985. The Geologic Maps of the Northwest Quadrant, the Southwest Quadrant, and the Antarctic Region are expected to reach publication during 1986. The Geologic Map of the Pacific Basin, with energy and mineral resources, is scheduled for publication in 1989. Each geologic map is a synthesis of a large amount of information. The land areas portray rock types by patterns and ages by colors; major faults are shown if they form the boundaries for map units. The oceanic areas include bathymetric contours, 13 sea-floor sediment types, all Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) sites, selected DSDP columns, and selected sites of pre-Quaternary bedrock or sediment recovery. A correlation diagram on each map shows stratigraphic columns for the five regional maps, map units, geologic ages, and a time scale. An inset map shows presently active tectonic plates. The principal information sources for each sheet are given in a reference list, and each map is accompanied by explanatory notes. This map series represents the first integrated set of geologic maps of the entire Pacific Ocean basin and rim, including the Antarctic continent- altogether more than half the surface area of planet Earth.

  17. Serum biochemistries of Pacific black brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains results for nine serum biochemistries in molting Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). These data were used to calculate reference intervals (sometimes referred to as normal values) for the nine serum biochemistries. All brant were after-hatch year. All samples were collected in 2006 and 2007 in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska.

  18. Fire and birds in maritime Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Mark H. Huff; Nathaniel E. Seavy; John D. Alexander; C. John Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers face the challenge of understanding how numerous factors, including fire and fire suppression, influence habitat composition and animal communities. We summarize information on fire effects on major vegetation types and bird/fire relations within the maritime Pacific Northwest, and pose management related questions and research considerations....

  19. Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpf, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The handbook provides basic information needed to identify the common diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Hosts, distribution, disease cycles, and identifying characteristics are described for more than 150 diseases, including cankers, diebacks, galls, rusts, needle diseases, root diseases, mistletoes, and rots. Diseases in which abiotic factors are involved are also described. For some groups of diseases, a descriptive key to field identification is included.

  20. Multimedia Transforms Union Pacific's Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Describes a multimedia training program developed for Union Pacific to help improve management-worker relations and to improve service reliability by improving morale and motivating employees for training. Courses are described; multimedia interactivity is explained, including decision making and problem solving; and future plans are reviewed.…

  1. Pacific Salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem.

    Treesearch

    S.M. Gende; R.T. Edwards; M.F. Willson; M.S. Wipfli

    2002-01-01

    almon runs in the Pacific Northwest have been declining for decades, so much so that many runs are threatened or endangered; others have been completely extirpated (Nehlsen et al. 1991). This "salmon crisis" looms large in the public eye, because it has serious and wideranging economic, cultural, and ecological repercussions. Billions of dollars have gone...

  2. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  3. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  4. Distance Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Bruce, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Issues related to the use of distance education are discussed in this bulletin, which also summarizes the status of distance education in 26 countries of Asia and the Pacific. Section 1 contains a rationale for distance education and points out possibilities offered by advances in communication technologies. Section 2 gives country-by-country…

  5. Rehabilitation in Asia and the Pacific, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation International, New York, NY.

    The current state of rehabilitation for persons with disabilities in the Asia and Pacific Region is outlined in a series of national or regional descriptions. The descriptions focus on such aspects as the incidence of disabilities, education, demographic and economic factors, attitudes, government policy and initiatives, non-government initiatives…

  6. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  7. Pacific Megatrends in Education. PREL Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.

    Organizations can try to see into the future by identifying and describing megatrends--the large social, economic, political, and technological changes that have long-term effects. Recognizing the extensive benefits of considering future shifts and trends in the strategic planning process, Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL)…

  8. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  9. We, the Asians and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    This booklet, fifth in a series of six, presents a descriptive statistical profile of the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans based on data from the 1980 U.S. Census. The census identifies more than 20 specific population groups, and growth in terms of numbers and diversity is highlighted. Total population for these groups numbered 3.7 million…

  10. Pacific Crude Oil Demands: An International Concern.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Pacific Area as a whole has a great deficit in crude oil resources and, like much of the world, is heavily dependent upon the Middle East. In...spite of the great growth of industrial bases and refining capabilities, with their commensurate increase in requirements, crude oil production has not

  11. Modeling the population dynamics of Pacific yew.

    Treesearch

    Richard T. Busing; Thomas A. Spies

    1995-01-01

    A study of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) population dynamics in the mountains of western Oregon and Washington was based on a combination of long-term population data and computer modeling. Rates of growth and mortality were low in mature and old-growth forest stands. Diameter growth at breast height ranged from 0 to 3 centimeters per decade...

  12. Pacific Islands Families Study: psychological distress among mothers of Pacific children living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Janis; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Iusitini, Leon; Taylor, Steve

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated: 1) the prevalence of psychological distress among a cohort of mothers of Pacific children; and 2) the socio-demographic and lifestyle variables associated with psychological distress. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) Study is a longitudinal investigation of a cohort of Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand, and their mothers and fathers. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) was used to assess psychological distress among mothers (N=851) at about 11 years postpartum. Current psychological distress was reported by 19% of mothers, and six explanatory variables were significantly associated with maternal psychological distress: stressful life events, postnatal depression, marital status, maternal education, ethnicity and cultural alignment. These findings suggest that the mental health of Pacific people varies by particular ethnic group and cultural alignment. This highlights the need for culturally appropriate evaluation and treatment for at-risk Pacific mothers that will break down psychological, cultural and economic barriers to accessing help for psychological distress. By learning about factors that are potentially modifiable we can begin to identify the most appropriate ways to address their impact on psychological distress among Pacific women. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Covariability of western tropical Pacific-North Pacific atmospheric circulation during summer.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2015-11-23

    North Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) is permanent high-pressure system over the Northern Pacific Ocean and it extends to the western North Pacific during the boreal summer (June-July-August), which is so called the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH). Here, we examine the covariability of the NPSH-WNPSH during summer using both observation and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) model data. The statistical analyses indicate that the NPSH-WNPSH covariability shows significant decadal variability in the observations, in addition, the in-phase relationship of NPSH-WNPSH is enhanced after the mid-to-late 1990s. A dipole-like sea surface temperature (SST) pattern, i.e., a warming in the western Pacific and a cooling in the eastern Pacific, is dominant after the mid-to-late 1990s, which acts to enhance the covariability of NPSH-WNPSH by modulating the atmospheric teleconnections. However, the covariability of NPSH-WNPSH in the future climate is not much influenced by the anthropogenic forcing but it is largely characterized by the natural decadal-to-interdecadal variability, implying that the enhancement of NPSH-WNPSH covariability after the mid-to-late 1990s could be considered as part of decadal-to-interdecadal variability.

  14. Effects of Indo-Pacific throughflow on the upper tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschell, M. A.; Kindle, J. C.; O'Brien, James J.

    1995-09-01

    The dynamics and influence of the connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the Indonesian Archipelago (PACIO) on the upper tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans are investigated using a reduced gravity global model. Two different model geometries are used; the first has an open PACIO region (open case) that permits normal transport, the second has a closed PACIO region (closed case) that allows no transport. The model is forced by either monthly 1980-1989 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind stresses or by an imposed Rossby wave pulse. The average upper layer thickness of the Indian Ocean is significantly greater and more variable because of the influence of PACIO transport. The effect in the Pacific Ocean is much smaller, and there appears to be no appreciable effect of PACIO transport on interannual variability in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. RMS differences between the open and closed cases show areas of low-frequency (> ½ year) variability over most of the southern Indian Ocean, the western boundary of the Indian Ocean, the region of the Mindanao Eddy, and the eastern equatorial Pacific waveguide. Areas of significant high-frequency variability are the East African Coastal Current, the Mindanao Eddy region, the Coral Sea Basin, and in the eastern equatorial Pacific waveguide. The large effect on the southern Indian Ocean is linked to off-equatorial Rossby waves generated by transport through the PACIO region.

  15. A decadal tropical Pacific condition unfavorable to central Pacific El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wenxiu; Zheng, Xiao-Tong; Cai, Wenju

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of central Pacific (CP) El Niño events displays strong decadal variability but the associated dynamics are unclear. The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) are two dominant modes of tropical Pacific decadal variability that can interact with high-frequency activities. Using a 500 year control integration from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, we find that the difference in mean state between the low-frequency and high-frequency CP El Niño periods is similar to the decadal background condition concurrently contributed by a negative IPO and a positive TPDV. This decadal state features strengthened trade winds west of the International Date Line and anomalous cool sea surface temperatures across the central tropical Pacific. As such, positive zonal advection feedback is difficult to be generated over the central to western tropical Pacific during the CP El Niño developing season, resulting in the low CP El Niño frequency.

  16. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Aaron D.; Hatch, Douglas R.; Close, David A.

    1998-08-05

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations as well. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam.

  17. Biophysical Feedbacks in the Tropical Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzeion, Ben; Timmermann, Axel; Murtugudde, Ragu; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the influence of phytoplankton on the tropical Pacific heat budget. A hybrid coupled model for the tropical Pacific that is based on a primitive equation reduced-gravity multilayer ocean model, a dynamic ocean mixed layer, an atmospheric mixed layer, and a statistical atmosphere is used. The statistical atmosphere relates deviations of the sea surface temperature from its mean to wind stress anomalies and allows for the rectification of the annual cycle and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon through the positive Bjerknes feedback. Furthermore, a nine-component ecosystem model is coupled to the physical variables of the ocean. The simulated chlorophyll concentrations can feed back onto the ocean heat budget by their optical properties, which modify solar light absorption in the surface layers. It is shown that both the surface layer concentration as well as the vertical profile of chlorophyll have a significant effect on the simulated mean state, the tropical annual cycle, and ENSO. This study supports a previously suggested hypothesis (Timmermann and Jin) that predicts an influence of phytoplankton concentration of the tropical Pacific climate mean state and its variability. The bioclimate feedback diagnosed here works as follows: Maxima in the subsurface chlorophyll concentrations lead to an enhanced subsurface warming due to the absorption of photosynthetically available shortwave radiation. This warming triggers a deepening of the mixed layer in the eastern equatorial Pacific and eventually a reduction of the surface ocean currents (Murtugudde et al.). The weakened south-equatorial current generates an eastern Pacific surface warming, which is strongly enhanced by the Bjerknes feedback. Because of the deepening of the mixed layer, the strength of the simulated annual cycle is also diminished. This in turn leads to an increase in ENSO variability.

  18. [Costa Rica mangroves: the north Pacific].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla; Cortés, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    Costa Rica has mangrove forests on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Pacific side has 99% of the mangrove area of the country. In this review we compile available information on the mangroves of the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from Bahía Salinas, on the border with Nicaragua, to the tip of the Peninsula de Nicoya at Cabo Blanco. We provide information on the location of the mangroves and all available information for each mangrove forest. These mangrove communities are smaller in extension and tree sizes, and have lower diversity compared to the mangroves on the southern section of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The dominant species are Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa along the canal edges, backed by Avicennia germinans, and farther inland Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. At Potrero Grande a healthy population of Pelliciera rhizophorae, a rare species, has been reported. We recognized 38 mangrove communities in this part of the country, based on the National Wetland Inventory, published papers, field observations, theses, technical reports, and the national topographic maps (1:50,000, Instituto Geográfico Nacional). Relatively detailed information could be found for only five mangrove forests, for 14 more only prelimary and incomplete lists of plants and in some cases of animal species are available, for nine there is even less information, and for nine more only their location is known, which in some cases was not correct. Detail mapping, characterization of the vegetation and fauna, physiological studies, analyses of biogeochemical and physical processes, economic valuations, and determination of the health status of the mangrove of the northern Pacific coast, as well as for the rest of Costa Rica, are neccesary and urgent.

  19. Lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the southeastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, J.; Long, M. D.; Creasy, N.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.; Tavera, H.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been documented in many portions of the lowermost mantle, with particularly strong anisotropy thought to be present along the edges of Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs). The region surrounding the Pacific LLSVP, however, has not been studied extensively in terms of its anisotropic structure. In this study we use seismic data from southern Peru and northern Bolivia to probe lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the southeastern Pacific, including at the eastern edge of the Pacific LLSVP. Differential shear wave splitting measurements from phases that have similar raypaths in the upper mantle but different raypaths in the lowermost mantle can be used to constrain anisotropy in D". In this study, we measured splitting for 285 pairs of SKS/SKKS, PKS/SKS, and PKS/SKKS pairs for the same event-station combinations, using data from 93 broadband seismic stations of the PULSE and CAUGHT networks as well as two permanent stations. Most measurements are characterized by fast directions roughly parallel to the South American trench and 1 s delay times, consistent with previous studies of upper mantle anisotropy beneath Peru and Bolivia, indicating a strong upper mantle contribution to the splitting of PKS/SKS/SKKS phases. However, a minority of pairs exhibited strongly discrepant splitting between the phases, indicating a contribution from lowermost mantle anisotropy. We used measurements of splitting intensity, or the amount of energy on the transverse component, to objectively and quantitatively analyze these discrepancies. We find evidence for complex splitting patterns in the lowermost mantle, with discrepant and non-discrepant pairs sampling the same regions. While we do find evidence for some localized regions of lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the southeastern Pacific, with some discrepancies in splitting intensity greater than 0.6, the geographical relationships between these regions and the edges of the Pacific LLSVP are less clear

  20. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  1. Iron Fertilization in the Subantarctic South Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, G.; Anderson, R. F.; Schwartz, R.; Park, J.; Pahnke, K.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Lamy, F.; Gersonde, R.

    2014-12-01

    The scarcity of iron limits marine export production and carbon uptake in about 25% of the global ocean where the concentration of major nutrients is high, yet phytoplankton growth is low. Of these, the Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems, both in the modern and in the past. Recent work in the Subantarctic South Atlantic (Martínez-Garcia et al., 2009, 2014, Anderson et al., 2014) suggests that dust-driven iron fertilization lowered atmospheric CO2 from about 225 ppm to 185 ppm in the latter half of each glacial cycle of the late Pleistocene, with the increase in Subantarctic productivity consuming a greater fraction of the surface nutrients and thus driving more storage of carbon in the ocean interior. The opposite effect, reduced iron fertilization, has been hypothesized to drive the 15-20 ppm increase during Heinrich Events in the last glacial cycle (Martínez -Garcia et al, 2014). The vast majority of the information we have so far is from observations in the Subantarctic Atlantic and therefore our current estimates of the role of the Southern Ocean in lowering CO2 rely critically on the assumed extrapolation of the results from the Atlantic Sector to the entire Southern Ocean. However, the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean not only accounts for the largest surface area of the Subantarctic Southern Ocean, but the deep Pacific Ocean also can be inferred - based on its volume - to have stored the largest fraction of carbon that was extracted from the atmosphere and from the terrestrial biosphere during glacial periods. Here we report first results from a set of cores from the Subantarctic Pacific (PS75, Lamy et al 2014), including a high-resolution sediment core (PS75/056-1) from the flank of the East Pacific Rise that allows to resolve millennial year variability over the past glacial cycle. We test how tightly dust and

  2. Updated archaeointensity dataset from the SW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mimi; Nilsson, Andreas; Holme, Richard; Hurst, Elliot; Turner, Gillian; Herries, Andy; Sheppard, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that there are far more archaeomagnetic data from the Northern Hemisphere than from the Southern. Here we present a compilation of archaeointensity data from the SW Pacific region covering the past 3000 years. The results have primarily been obtained from a collection of ceramics from the SW Pacific Islands including Fiji, Tonga, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and Vanuatu. In addition we present results obtained from heated clay balls from Australia. The microwave method has predominantly been used with a variety of experimental protocols including IZZI and Coe variants. Standard Thellier archaeointensity experiments using the IZZI protocol have also been carried out on selected samples. The dataset is compared to regional predictions from current global geomagnetic field models, and the influence of the new data on constraining the pfm9k family of global geomagnetic field models is explored.

  3. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  4. Interhemispheric thermal gradient and tropical Pacific climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, John C. H.; Fang, Yue; Chang, P.

    2008-07-01

    We explore the impact of interhemispheric thermal gradients forcing on the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere climate in an intermediate coupled model. The equatorial zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient strengthens with an increased northward interhemispheric thermal gradient, the increase arising from earlier onset and later retreat of the seasonal cold tongue, and intensification during the peak cold season. When the mean interhemispheric thermal gradient is reversed, the central equatorial Pacific SST annual cycle abruptly reverses in phase, with its cold season in Mar-May rather than Sep-Nov. While startling, this response is consistent with a prevailing hypothesis that ties the cold tongue SST annual cycle phase to the hemispheric mean asymmetry of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. El Niño-Southern Oscillation activity is also sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal gradient, with peak activity occurring when the mean gradient is small, reducing rapidly as the mean gradient increases in either direction.

  5. Ancient tortoise hunting in the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Stuart; Worthy, Trevor H.; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Clark, Geoffrey; Irwin, Geoff; Best, Simon; Kirch, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    We report the unprecedented Lapita exploitation and subsequent extinction of large megafauna tortoises (?Meiolania damelipi) on tropical islands during the late Holocene over a 281,000 km2 region of the southwest Pacific spanning from the Vanuatu archipelago to Viti Levu in Fiji. Zooarchaeological analyses have identified seven early archaeological sites with the remains of this distinctive hornless tortoise, unlike the Gondwanan horned meiolaniid radiation to the southwest. These large tortoise radiations in the Pacific may have contributed to the rapid dispersal of early mobile Neolithic hunters throughout southwest Melanesia and on to western Polynesia. Subsequent rapid extinctions of these terrestrial herbivorous megafauna are likely to have led to significant changes in ecosystems that help explain changes in current archaeological patterns from Post-Lapita contexts in the region.

  6. Ancient tortoise hunting in the southwest Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stuart; Worthy, Trevor H.; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Clark, Geoffrey; Irwin, Geoff; Best, Simon; Kirch, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We report the unprecedented Lapita exploitation and subsequent extinction of large megafauna tortoises (?Meiolania damelipi) on tropical islands during the late Holocene over a 281,000 km2 region of the southwest Pacific spanning from the Vanuatu archipelago to Viti Levu in Fiji. Zooarchaeological analyses have identified seven early archaeological sites with the remains of this distinctive hornless tortoise, unlike the Gondwanan horned meiolaniid radiation to the southwest. These large tortoise radiations in the Pacific may have contributed to the rapid dispersal of early mobile Neolithic hunters throughout southwest Melanesia and on to western Polynesia. Subsequent rapid extinctions of these terrestrial herbivorous megafauna are likely to have led to significant changes in ecosystems that help explain changes in current archaeological patterns from Post-Lapita contexts in the region. PMID:27922064

  7. Shoe spill in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis C.; Ingraham, , W. James, Jr.

    Approximately 80,000 Nike brand shoes were lost overboard on May 27, 1990, in the north Pacific Ocean (˜48°N 161°W Figure 2). Six months to a year later, thousands of shoes washed ashore in North America from southern Oregon to the Queen Charlotte Islands. Figure 1 shows six shoes found on the beach. We have gathered beachcomber reports and compared the inferred shoe drift with an oceanographic hindcast model and historical drift bottle returns. This spill-of- opportunity provided a calibration point for the model; computer runs for 1946-1991 suggested that drift of floatable material across the northeast Pacific Ocean for May 1990-January 1991 was farther south than the mean of the forty-five simulations.

  8. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Long waves in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, George; Halpern, David; Hansen, Donald; Legeckis, Richard; Miller, Laury; Watts, Randolph; Wimbush, Mark; Paul, Carl; Watts, Randolph; Weisberg, Robert

    Westward traveling waves, with a period of 3 weeks and a wavelength of ˜1000 km, are observed intermittently in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (see cover). The waves were first detected in 1975 in satellite measurements of the sea surface temperature [Legeckis, 1977]. Since then, additional measurements (under the auspices of the NOAA program Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS)) with a variety of instruments—drifting buoys, current meters and temperature sensors on moorings, and inverted echo sounders—have provided considerable information about these waves and have confirmed the hypothesis that they are caused by instabilities associated primarily with the latitudinal shear of the surface currents near the equator [Philander, 1978a; Cox, 1980].

  10. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  11. Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet. PMID:19523283

  12. Diphyllobothriasis associated with eating raw pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet.

  13. Aptian anoxia in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sliter, W.V. )

    1989-10-01

    Marine strata of Aptian age in the Pacific Basin include two distinct levels that represent episodes during which sediments rich in organic carbon were deposited. Both episodes lasted less than 1 m.y., as revealed in strata deposited atop submerged topographic highs. One unusually widespread episode of early Aptian age ({approximately}117.5 Ma) correlates with coeval units in Europe and thus is analogous to the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event in its short duration and wide geographic extent. The second episode of late Aptian age ({approximately}116.5 Ma) is restricted to allochthonous pelagic deposits in the Franciscan Complex of California. These results support the concept of widespread and narrowly synchronous anoxic events. Further, they show that organic carbon deposition in the Pacific Basin took place in intermediate water oxygen-minimum zones and thus differed in the mode of deposition, and hence paleoceanography, from that in other middle Cretaceous ocean basins.

  14. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  15. Monitoring Cetaceans in the North Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    whale calls in the North Pacific Ocean: Seasonal and geographical variation 1996-2002. (by: Mary Ann Daher , Kathleen M. Stafford, Joseph E. George...correlates. (by: Kathleen M. Stafford, Sue E. Moore, Mary Ann Daher , Joseph E. George, David Rodriguez, and Kimberly Amaral) PEER-REVIEWED...remotely-sensed environmental variables to compare with current and future datasets. In 2007, a collaborative project with Ms. Mary Ann Daher of

  16. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  17. Sunglint in South Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-24

    AST-19-1555 (24 July 1975) --- A sunglint in the South Western Pacific Ocean, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. The island is Bougainville of the Solomon Islands group. The horizon of Earth is in the background. The picture was taken at an altitude of 231 kilometers (143 statute miles), with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using medium-speed Ektachrome QX-807 type film.

  18. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  19. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-25

    standpoint of certain U.S. industry groups, such as textiles and apparel, as well as those concerned with labor, human rights and intellectual property...March 15, 2010. Ten official-level negotiating groups were for areas including industrial goods, agriculture, sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards...quoted in “Trans-Pacific Partnership Talks Conclude, Malaysia Weighs Joining Eight-Nation Talks,” International Trade Reporter, March 25, 2010. The

  20. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L

    2007-08-01

    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.