Science.gov

Sample records for pacing improves regional

  1. Regional Framework for Self Paced Learning Modules. South Fraser Health Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blenkinsopp, John

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a guide for developing consistent, effective self-directed learning modules for the Surrey Memorial Hospital staff, physicians, and volunteers in the South Fraser Region. Eleven sections include: (1) "Philosophy for Self Paced Learning"; "What's Exciting?"; "What's the Challenge?"; (2) "Purpose"; (3)…

  2. Improvement of Right Ventricular Hemodynamics with Left Ventricular Endocardial Pacing during Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    HYDE, EOIN R.; BEHAR, JONATHAN M.; CROZIER, ANDREW; CLARIDGE, SIMON; JACKSON, TOM; SOHAL, MANAV; GILL, JASWINDER S.; O'NEILL, MARK D.; RAZAVI, REZA; RINALDI, CHRISTOPHER A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular epicardial (BV‐CS) or endocardial left ventricular (LV) stimulation (BV‐EN) improves LV hemodynamics. The effect of CRT on right ventricular function is less clear, particularly for BV‐EN. Our objective was to compare the simultaneous acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the right and left ventricles (RV and LV) with BV‐CS and BV‐EN in order to determine the optimal mode of CRT delivery. Methods Nine patients with previously implanted CRT devices successfully underwent a temporary pacing study. Pressure wires measured the simultaneous AHR in both ventricles during different pacing protocols. Conventional epicardial CRT was delivered in LV‐only (LV‐CS) and BV‐CS configurations and compared with BV‐EN pacing in multiple locations using a roving decapolar catheter. Results Best BV‐EN (optimal AHR of all LV endocardial pacing sites) produced a significantly greater RV AHR compared with LV‐CS and BV‐CS pacing (P < 0.05). RV AHR had a significantly increased standard deviation compared to LV AHR (P < 0.05) with a weak correlation between RV and LV AHR (Spearman rs = −0.06). Compromised biventricular optimization, whereby RV AHR was increased at the expense of a smaller decrease in LV AHR, was achieved in 56% of cases, all with BV‐EN pacing. Conclusions BV‐EN pacing produces significant increases in both LV and RV AHR, above that achievable with conventional epicardial pacing. RV AHR cannot be used as a surrogate for optimizing LV AHR; however, compromised biventricular optimization is possible. The beneficial effect of endocardial LV pacing on RV function may have important clinical benefits beyond conventional CRT. PMID:27001004

  3. "Value" of improved treadmill exercise capacity: lessons from a study of rate responsive pacing

    PubMed Central

    Staniforth, A; Andrews, R; Harrison, M; Perry, A; Cowley, A

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To compare the value of a series of cardiovascular measurements in patients with symptomatic disease receiving an effective treatment (rate responsive pacing).
Patients—12 pacemaker dependent patients with VVIR units.
Interventions—Single blind crossover between VVI and VVIR.
Outcome measures—Exercise capacity was assessed by treadmill tests (modified Bruce protocol and a fixed workload protocol) with respiratory gas analysis. Self paced corridor walk tests were also undertaken. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by questionnaire. Daily activity was measured in the patients' homes using shoe and belt pedometers.
Results—Treadmill tests and QOL questionnaires correctly identified the clinical benefit associated with VVIR. The modified Bruce protocol was superior to the fixed workload protocol as it was better tailored to the fairly well preserved exercise capacity of the patients. Symptom scores, but not walking times, were improved with VVIR during corridor walk tests. VVIR did not improve daily activity measured using either the belt or shoe pedometers.
Conclusions—VVIR pacing improved some but not all measures of exercise capacity. This finding illustrates the difficulty of selecting an instrument to measure symptomatic improvement in clinical research; and raises the question, what is the best way of measuring exercise capacity?

 Keywords: rate responsive pacing;  exercise capacity;  quality of life PMID:9875118

  4. Left ventricular pacing improves haemodynamic variables in patients with heart failure with a normal QRS duration

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M S; Bleasdale, R A; Mumford, C E; Frenneaux, M P; Morris-Thurgood, J A

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and a normal QRS duration can benefit from left ventricular (VDD-LV) pacing. Design: Cardiac resynchronisation is reserved for patients with a broad QRS duration on the premise that systolic resynchronisation is the mechanism of benefit, yet improvement from pacing correlates poorly with QRS duration. In CHF patients with a broad QRS duration, those with a high resting pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) > 15 mm Hg benefit. In this acute haemodynamic VDD-LV pacing study, patients with CHF with a normal QRS duration were divided into two groups—patients with a resting PCWP > 15 mm Hg and patients with a resting PCWP < 15 mm Hg—to determine whether benefit is predicted by a high resting PCWP. Patients: 20 patients with CHF, New York Heart Association functional class IIb–IV, all with a normal QRS duration (⩽ 120 ms). Interventions: Temporary pacing wires were positioned to enable VDD-LV pacing and a pulmonary artery catheter was inserted for measurement of PCWP, right atrial pressure, and cardiac output. Results: In patients with a PCWP > 15 mm Hg (n  =  10), cardiac output increased from 3.9 (1.5) to 4.5 (1.65) l/min (p < 0.01), despite a fall in PCWP from 24.7 (7.1) to 21.0 (6.2) mm Hg (p < 0.001). In patients with a PCWP < 15 mm Hg there was no change in PCWP or cardiac output. Combined data showed that PCWP decreased from 17.0 (9.1) to 15.3 (7.7) mm Hg during VDD-LV pacing (p < 0.014) and cardiac output increased non-significantly from 4.7 (1.5) to 4.9 (1.5) (p  =  0.125). Conclusions: Patients with CHF with a normal QRS duration and PCWP > 15 mm Hg derive acute haemodynamic benefit from VDD-LV pacing. PMID:15084543

  5. "U-Pace" Instruction: Improving Student Success by Integrating Content Mastery and Amplified Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Diane M.; Pfeiffer, Heidi M.; Fleming, Raymond; Ports, Katie A.; Pedrick, Laura E.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L.; Jirovec, Danielle L.; Helion, Alicia M.; Swain, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    "U-Pace," an instructional intervention, has potential for widespread implementation because student behavior recorded in any learning management system is used by "U-Pace" instructors to tailor coaching of student learning based on students' strengths and motivations. "U-Pace" utilizes an online learning environment to integrate content mastery…

  6. "U-Pace" Instruction: Improving Student Success by Integrating Content Mastery and Amplified Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Diane M.; Pfeiffer, Heidi M.; Fleming, Raymond; Ports, Katie A.; Pedrick, Laura E.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L.; Jirovec, Danielle L.; Helion, Alicia M.; Swain, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    "U-Pace," an instructional intervention, has potential for widespread implementation because student behavior recorded in any learning management system is used by "U-Pace" instructors to tailor coaching of student learning based on students' strengths and motivations. "U-Pace" utilizes an online learning…

  7. Improving estimation of cardiac vagal tone during spontaneous breathing using a paced breathing calibration.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Grossman, Paul; Coyle, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a commonly employed non-invasive measure of cardiac vagal control. It has been demonstrated that respiratory parameters such as tidal volume and respiratory frequency can change RSA without altering tonic vagal activity. Thus, within-individual comparisons of cardiac vagal control across different behavioral tasks might benefit from an adjustment for respiratory confounds. We tested an adjustment method using transfer function analysis and paced breathing at 3 different respiratory frequencies as the basis for regressing out respiratory related RSA changes in a task where breathing was not controlled. Electrocardiogram and calibrated respiration were recorded with the LifeShirt system from 15 young adult participants. Time series of RR intervals and lung volume change were computed and the respiration-to-RR-interval transfer-function magnitude (RSA-TF, in ms/liter) estimated. Mean (SD) of RSA-TF was 142 (68) at 9 breaths/min, 78 (52) at 13.5 breaths/min, 57 (43) at 18 breaths/min, and 121 (56) during baseline, with a respiratory frequency of 12.5 (3.8) breaths/min. At baseline, measured and predicted RSA-TF values (mean 94 +/- 82) differed significantly and correlated only moderately (r = 0.67). Factors contributing to a less than perfect correlation included slightly elevated subjective anxiety levels and hyperventilation during paced breathing, both of which may have affected cardiac vagal tone. This study demonstrates a novel procedure for computing a respiratory unrelated RSA index. Results provide some support for the utility of this adjustment method for improving the estimation of cardiac vagal tone from RSA, but also indicate that the paced breathing procedure may need to be further refined.

  8. Self-pacing increases critical power and improves performance during severe-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Black, Matthew I; Jones, Andrew M; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2015-07-01

    The parameters of the power-duration relationship for severe-intensity exercise (i.e., the critical power (CP) and the curvature constant (W')) are related to the kinetics of pulmonary O2 uptake, which may be altered by pacing strategy. We tested the hypothesis that the CP would be higher when derived from a series of self-paced time-trials (TT) than when derived from the conventional series of constant work-rate (CWR) exercise tests. Ten male subjects (age, 21.5 ± 1.9 years; mass, 75.2 ± 11.5 kg) completed 3-4 CWR and 3-4 TT prediction trial protocols on a cycle ergometer for the determination of the CP and W'. The CP derived from the TT protocol (265 ± 44 W) was greater (P < 0.05) than the CP derived from the CWR protocol (250 ± 47 W), while the W' was not different between protocols (TT: 18.1 ± 5.7 kJ, CWR: 20.6 ± 7.4 kJ, P > 0.05). The mean response time of pulmonary O2 uptake was shorter during the TTs than the CWR trials (TT: 34 ± 16, CWR: 39 ± 19 s, P < 0.05). The CP was correlated with the total O2 consumed in the first 60 s across both protocols (r = 0.88, P < 0.05, n = 20). These results suggest that in comparison with the conventional CWR exercise protocol, a self-selected pacing strategy enhances CP and improves severe-intensity exercise performance. The greater CP during TT compared with CWR exercise has important implications for performance prediction, suggesting that TT completion times may be overestimated by CP and W' parameters derived from CWR protocols.

  9. In Heart Failure Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Single Lead MultiSpot Left Ventricular Pacing Does Not Improve Acute Hemodynamic Response To Conventional Biventricular Pacing. A Multicenter Prospective, Interventional, Non-Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterliński, Maciej; Sokal, Adam; Lenarczyk, Radosław; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Vanderheyden, Marc; Khalameizer, Vladimir; Francis, Darrel; Heynens, Joeri; Stegemann, Berthold; Cornelussen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent efforts to increase CRT response by multiSPOT pacing (MSP) from multiple bipols on the same left ventricular lead are still inconclusive. Aim The Left Ventricular (LV) MultiSPOTpacing for CRT (iSPOT) study compared the acute hemodynamic response of MSP pacing by using 3 electrodes on a quadripolar lead compared with conventional biventricular pacing (BiV). Methods Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent an acute hemodynamic study to determine the %change in LV+dP/dtmax from baseline atrial pacing compared to the following configurations: BiV pacing with the LV lead in a one of lateral veins, while pacing from the distal, mid, or proximal electrode and all 3 electrodes together (i.e. MSP). All measurements were repeated 4 times at 5 different atrioventricular delays. We also measured QRS-width and individual Q-LV durations. Results Protocol was completed in 24 patients, all with LBBB (QRS width 171±20 ms) and 58% ischemic aetiology. The percentage change in LV+dP/dtmax for MSP pacing was 31.0±3.3% (Mean±SE), which was not significantly superior to any BiV pacing configuration: 28.9±3.2% (LV-distal), 28.3±2.7% (LV-mid), and 29.5±3.0% (LV-prox), respectively. Correlation between LV+dP/dtmax and either QRS-width or Q-LV ratio was poor. Conclusions In patients with LBBB MultiSPOT LV pacing demonstrated comparable improvement in contractility to best conventional BiV pacing. Optimization of atrioventricular delay is important for the best performance for both BiV and MultiSPOT pacing configurations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01883141 PMID:27124724

  10. Recent developments in cardiac pacing.

    PubMed

    Rodak, D J

    1995-10-01

    Indications for cardiac pacing continue to expand. Pacing to improve functional capacity, which is now common, relies on careful patient selection and technical improvements, such as complex software algorithms and diagnostic capabilities.

  11. Right ventricular free wall pacing improves cardiac pump function in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension: a computer simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Lumens, Joost; Arts, Theo; Broers, Bernard; Boomars, Karin A; van Paassen, Pieter; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, Tammo

    2009-12-01

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), duration of myofiber shortening is prolonged in the right ventricular (RV) free wall (RVfw) compared with that in the interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. This interventricular mechanical asynchrony eventually leads to right heart failure. We investigated by computer simulation whether, in PAH, early RVfw pacing may improve interventricular mechanical synchrony and, hence, cardiac pump function. A mathematical model of the human heart and circulation was used to simulate left ventricular and RV pump mechanics and myofiber mechanics. First, we simulated cardiovascular mechanics of a healthy adult at rest. Size and mass of heart and blood vessels were adapted so that mechanical tissue load was normalized. Second, compensated PAH was simulated by increasing mean pulmonary artery pressure to 32 mmHg while applying load adaptation. Third, decompensated PAH was simulated by increasing mean pulmonary artery pressure further to 79 mmHg without further adaptation. Finally, early RVfw pacing was simulated in severely decompensated PAH. Time courses of circumferential strain in the ventricular walls as simulated were similar to the ones measured in healthy subjects (uniform strain patterns) and in PAH patients (prolonged RVfw shortening). When simulating pacing in decompensated PAH, RV pump function was best upon 40-ms RVfw preexcitation, as evidenced by maximal decrease of RV end-diastolic volume, reduced RVfw myofiber work, and most homogeneous distribution of workload over the ventricular walls. Thus our simulations indicate that, in decompensated PAH, RVfw pacing may improve RV pump function and may homogenize workload over the ventricular walls.

  12. Using "U-Pace" Instruction to Improve the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, R.; Stoiber, L. C.; Pfeiffer, H. M.; Kienzler, S. E.; Fleming, R. R.; Pedrick, L. E.; Barth, D. J.; Reddy, D. .

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the student success associated with the "U-Pace" instructional approach, which integrates mastery-based learning with proactive instructor support in an online learning environment, would replicate for both economically disadvantaged students and students who are not economically…

  13. Pacing-induced regional differences in adenosine receptors mRNA expression in a swine model of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Del Ry, Silvia; Cabiati, Manuela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Aquaro, Giovanni D; Martino, Alessandro; Mattii, Letizia; Morales, Maria-Aurora

    2012-01-01

    The adenosinergic system is essential in the mediation of intrinsic protection and myocardial resistance to insult; it may be considered a cardioprotective molecule and adenosine receptors (ARs) represent potential therapeutic targets in the setting of heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to test whether differences exist between mRNA expression of ARs in the anterior left ventricle (LV) wall (pacing site: PS) compared to the infero septal wall (opposite region: OS) in an experimental model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac tissue was collected from LV PS and OS of adult male minipigs with pacing-induced HF (n = 10) and from a control group (C, n = 4). ARs and TNF-α mRNA expression was measured by Real Time-PCR and the results were normalized with the three most stably expressed genes (GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP). Immunohistochemistry analysis was also performed. After 3 weeks of pacing higher levels of expression for each analyzed AR were observed in PS except for A(1)R (A(1)R: C = 0.6±0.2, PS = 0.1±0.04, OS = 0.04±0.01, p<0.0001 C vs. PS and OS respectively; A(2A)R: C = 1.04±0.59, PS = 2.62±0.79, OS = 2.99±0.79; A(2B)R: C = 1.2±0.1, PS = 5.59±2.3, OS = 1.59±0.46; A(3)R: C = 0.76±0.18, PS = 8.40±3.38, OS = 4.40±0.83). Significant contractile impairment and myocardial hypoperfusion were observed at PS after three weeks of pacing as compared to OS. TNF-α mRNA expression resulted similar in PS (6.3±2.4) and in OS (5.9±2.7) although higher than in control group (3.4±1.5). ARs expression was mainly detected in cardiomyocytes. This study provided new information on ARs local changes in the setting of LV dysfunction and on the role of these receptors in relation to pacing-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion and contraction. These results suggest a possible therapeutic role of adenosine in patients with HF and dyssynchronous LV contraction.

  14. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-05-11

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals.

  15. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan C.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L.; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  16. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  17. Pacing-induced spatiotemporal dynamics can be exploited to improve reentry termination efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.

    2009-08-01

    Some potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias may be terminated by a series of premature stimuli. Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which may be modeled as an excitation wave traveling around in a ring, is one such arrhythmia. We investigated the mechanisms and requirements for termination of such reentry using an ionic cardiac ring model. Termination requires conduction block, which in turn is facilitated by spatial dispersion in repolarization and recovery time. When applying short series of two or three stimuli, we found that for conduction block to robustly occur, the magnitude of the spatial gradient in recovery time must exceed a critical value of 20 ms/cm. Importantly, the required spatial gradient can be induced in this homogeneous system by the dynamics of the stimulus-induced waves—we show analytically the necessary conditions. Finally, we introduce a type of pacing protocol, the “aggressive ramp,” which increases the termination efficacy by exploiting such pacing-induced heterogeneities. This technique, which is straightforward to implement, may therefore have important clinical implications.

  18. PACE EH post project assessment of quality of life changes in a Florida community related to infrastructure improvements.

    PubMed

    Harduar-Morano, Laurel; Price, Julianne R; Parker, Daniel; Blackmore, Carina

    2008-06-01

    The Indian River county health department, environmental health division (IRCHD EH) in Florida implemented the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health (PACE EH) in the low-income community of West Wabasso, Florida. Over two and a half years, IRCHD EH worked with the community and various governmental agencies to bring much-needed improvements to the area. At the end of the two and a half years, a survey was conducted to discover if the residents' quality of life had increased due to the community's improvements. The survey results yielded high satisfaction rates among residents. The general response was that their feelings of safety and overall well-being attributed to infrastructure improvements in their community had increased significantly. An unforeseen benefit realized by all parties involved was a renewed trust in government. The majority of surveyed residents (91%) felt that governmental agencies were better able to respond to their issues. PMID:18561568

  19. Keeping Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the struggles of two tough moms who team up to start their own company. Fed up with a lack of stylish, properly-fitting shoes for their children with cerebral palsy, they established "Keeping Pace" which currently offers a selection of stylish girls' and boys' athletic sneakers and casual dress shoes for boys, all sold…

  20. Improving Responsiveness to Intervention for English-Language Learners: A Comparison of Instructional Pace on Letter Naming Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Donna; Bluck, John

    2006-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of a 1-s and a 5-s paced intervention on rates of letter naming by English Language Learners (ELL). Participants were four kindergarten students performing below the average letter naming level and learning rate than other ELL classmates. The fast paced intervention consisted of a…

  1. Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.; Manohar, M.; Lundeen, G.

    1983-08-01

    To examine the effects of tachycardia on coronary circulation, transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow (MBF, 15-micron diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres) was studied in six healthy adult ponies at rest (heart rate . 60 +/- 7 beats . min-1), during ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1, as well as with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 before and during maximal coronary vasodilatation (iv adenosine infusion; 4 mumole . kg-1 . min-1). Mean aortic pressure and cardiac output were unchanged from control values with ventricular pacing. Whereas ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1 resulted in a progressive uniform increase in transmural MBF and well-maintained endo:epi perfusion ratio, pacing at 250 beats . min-1 did not result in a further increase in MBF compared to pacing at 200 beats . min-1 and the left ventricular (LV) subendocardial:subepicardial (endo:epi) perfusion ratio was significantly less than 1.00 (0.87 +/- 0.05). Blood flow to the LV papillary muscles and subendocardium was significantly less than that recorded at 200 beats . min-1. The LV endo:epi perfusion ratio with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 during adenosine infusion resulted in a decrease in mean aortic pressure (63% of control value) and a marked further reduction in blood flow to the LV papillary muscles as well as the LV subendocardium, while MBF increased dramatically in the LV subepicardium compared to values observed during ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 alone. These data demonstrate that coronary vasomotion functions to maintain LV subendocardial blood flow in the pony myocardium at a heart rate of 200 beats . min-1, while at 250 beats . min-1 exhaustion of coronary vasodilator reserve in the deeper layers limits further increase in MBF.

  2. PACE Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    M., Zimring,; Hoffman, I.; Fuller, M.

    2010-08-11

    The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On July 6, 2010, FHFA and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) concluded that Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs 'present significant safety and soundness concerns' to the housing finance industry. This statement came after a year of discussions with state and federal agencies in which PACE, a novel mechanism for financing energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements, has gone from receiving support from the White House, canonization as one of Scientific American's 'World Changing Ideas' and legislative adoption in 24 states to questionable relevance, at least in the residential sector. Whether PACE resumes its expansion as an innovative tool for financing energy efficiency and clean generation depends on outcomes in each of the three branches of government - discussions on a PACE pilot phase among federal agencies, litigation in federal court, and legislation in Congress - all highly uncertain. This policy brief addresses the practical impacts of these possible outcomes on existing and emerging PACE programs across the United States and potential paths forward.

  3. Deception of ambient and body core temperature improves self paced cycling in hot, humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Castle, Paul C; Maxwell, Neil; Allchorn, Alan; Mauger, Alexis R; White, Danny K

    2012-01-01

    We used incorrect visual feedback of ambient and core temperature in the heat to test the hypothesis that deception would alleviate the decrement in cycling performance compared to a no deception trial. Seven males completed three 30 min cycling time trials in a randomised order on a Kingcycle ergometer. One time trial was in temperate, control conditions (CON: 21.8 ± 0.6°C; 43.3 ± 4.3%rh), the others in hot, humid conditions (HOT: 31.4 ± 0.3°C; 63.9 ± 4.5%rh). In one of the hot, humid conditions (31.6 ± 0.5°C; 65.4 ± 4.3%rh), participants were deceived (DEC) into thinking the ambient conditions were 26.0°C; 60.0%rh and their core temperature was 0.3°C lower than it really was. Compared to CON (16.63 ± 2.43 km) distance covered was lower in HOT (15.88 ± 2.75 km; P < 0.05), but DEC ameliorated this (16.74 ± 2.87 km; P < 0.05). Mean power output was greater in DEC (184.4 ± 60.4 W) than HOT (168.1 ± 54.1 W; P < 0.05) and no difference was observed between CON and DEC. Rectal temperature and iEMG of the vastus lateralis were not different, but RPE in the third minute was lower in DEC than HOT (P < 0.05). Deception improved performance in the heat by creating a lower RPE, evidence of a subtle mismatch between the subconscious expectation and conscious perception of the task demands.

  4. Does regional anaesthesia improve outcome?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, P M

    2015-12-01

    This review examines the recent evidence of an impact of regional anaesthesia on important clinical outcomes. Evidence was obtained from a variety of studies, with increasing numbers of analyses of large databases being prominent. The benefits and limitations of these approaches are considered in order to provide a context for interpretation of the data they generate. There should be little argument that correctly performed and appropriately used regional anaesthetic techniques can provide the most effective postoperative analgesia for the duration of the block, but the majority of studies suggest that this does not translate into improved longer-term surgical outcomes. The evidence for reduced incidence of major complications when regional anaesthesia is compared with, or added to, general anaesthesia is mixed. There appears to be a small effect in reducing blood loss during major joint arthroplasty. Some, but not all, studies demonstrate a reduced incidence of respiratory and infective complications with regional anaesthesia, but the effect on cardiovascular complications is variable. There are even some data consistent with a hypothesis that general anaesthesia may be protective against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, there is probably no generally applicable benefit in long-term outcomes with regional anaesthesia. More likely is an interaction between patient factors, the surgical procedure, and the relative capability of the anaesthetist to manage different types of anaesthesia.

  5. Pacing Without Wires: Leadless Cardiac Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, more than 700,000 pacemakers are implanted annually with more than 250,000 implanted in the United States. Since the first fully transvenous pacemaker implantations in the early 1960s, great technologic advances have been made in pacing systems. However, the combination of subcutaneous pulse generators and transvenous pacing leads has remained constant for more than 50 years. Leadless pacing systems offer an alternative to traditional pacing systems by eliminating the need for permanent transvenous leads while providing therapy for patients with bradyarrhythmias. Methods: We discuss the 2 leadless cardiac pacemakers (LCPs), the Nanostim Leadless Pacemaker and Micra Transcatheter Pacing System, and the 1 ultrasound-powered device, the WiCS-LV, that have been studied in humans. Currently LCPs are restricted to single-chamber pacing, specifically, ventricular pacing. Dual-chamber pacing and multichamber pacing with leadless systems have yet to be studied. Results: LCPs represent the greatest advancement in bradycardia therapy since the first transvenous pacemaker implantation more than 50 years ago. Conclusion: Initial studies of both the Nanostim and Micra LCPs show favorable efficacy and safety results compared to transvenous pacemakers. Pending US Food and Drug Administration approval, these devices will transform our ability to provide pacing for patients with bradyarrhythmias. Future developments may allow for completely leadless single-chamber and multichamber pacing, ushering in an era of pacing without wires.

  6. Pacing Without Wires: Leadless Cardiac Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, more than 700,000 pacemakers are implanted annually with more than 250,000 implanted in the United States. Since the first fully transvenous pacemaker implantations in the early 1960s, great technologic advances have been made in pacing systems. However, the combination of subcutaneous pulse generators and transvenous pacing leads has remained constant for more than 50 years. Leadless pacing systems offer an alternative to traditional pacing systems by eliminating the need for permanent transvenous leads while providing therapy for patients with bradyarrhythmias. Methods: We discuss the 2 leadless cardiac pacemakers (LCPs), the Nanostim Leadless Pacemaker and Micra Transcatheter Pacing System, and the 1 ultrasound-powered device, the WiCS-LV, that have been studied in humans. Currently LCPs are restricted to single-chamber pacing, specifically, ventricular pacing. Dual-chamber pacing and multichamber pacing with leadless systems have yet to be studied. Results: LCPs represent the greatest advancement in bradycardia therapy since the first transvenous pacemaker implantation more than 50 years ago. Conclusion: Initial studies of both the Nanostim and Micra LCPs show favorable efficacy and safety results compared to transvenous pacemakers. Pending US Food and Drug Administration approval, these devices will transform our ability to provide pacing for patients with bradyarrhythmias. Future developments may allow for completely leadless single-chamber and multichamber pacing, ushering in an era of pacing without wires. PMID:27660571

  7. Project for Program Improvement through the Utilization of Self-Paced Individualized Instruction Concepts Industrial Equipment Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley's Ridge Vocational Technical School, Forrest City, AR.

    The general objectives of an Arkansas technical school's self-paced individualized instruction program were designing, field testing, and disseminating an instructional management system with support materials that identify and justify the need for a program of instruction. Eight specific objectives have been developed to facilitate students'…

  8. Sensors for rate responsive pacing

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Orto, Simonetta; Valli, Paolo; Greco, Enrico Maria

    2004-01-01

    Advances in pacemaker technology in the 1980s have generated a wide variety of complex multiprogrammable pacemakers and pacing modes. The aim of the present review is to address the different rate responsive pacing modalities presently available in respect to physiological situations and pathological conditions. Rate adaptive pacing has been shown to improve exercise capacity in patients with chronotropic incompetence. A number of activity and metabolic sensors have been proposed and used for rate control. However, all sensors used to optimize pacing rate metabolic demands show typical limitations. To overcome these weaknesses the use of two sensors has been proposed. Indeed an unspecific but fast reacting sensor is combined with a more specific but slower metabolic one. Clinical studies have demonstrated that this methodology is suitable to reproduce normal sinus behavior during different types and loads of exercise. Sensor combinations require adequate sensor blending and cross checking possibly controlled by automatic algorithms for sensors optimization and simplicity of programming. Assessment and possibly deactivation of some automatic functions should be also possible to maximize benefits from the dual sensor system in particular conditions. This is of special relevance in patient whose myocardial contractility is limited such as in subjects with implantable defibrillators and biventricular pacemakers. The concept of closed loop pacing, implementing a negative feedback relating pacing rate and the control signal, will provide new opportunities to optimize dual-sensors system and deserves further investigation. The integration of rate adaptive pacing into defibrillators is the natural consequence of technical evolution. PMID:16943981

  9. Experience with an ICD incorporating biventricular pacing.

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, V; Dörnberger, V; Rüb, N; Eigenberger, B; Kettering, K; Bosch, R; Mewis, C

    2003-04-01

    Biventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization is a promising therapy for symptomatic improvement in selected patients with underlying severe congestive heart failure. ICD treatment has been shown to prolong life in patients with life threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias, but it does not improve quality of life. This review discusses current experience with ICD's incorporating biventricular pacing.

  10. Temporary internal pacing.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Díaz-Miguel, R; Gómez Grande, M L

    2014-12-01

    Technology and insertion techniques for cardiac temporary internal pacing have experienced a remarkable development over the last few years. Despite this fact, the procedure continues to have potentially fatal associated complications. Temporary internal pacing is indicated for the treatment of bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional treatment, or arrhythmias causing cardiovascular or clinical instability of the patient. On the other hand, the indications of temporary cardiac pacing are far less well defined than those of permanent pacing. Since the decision of implementing temporary pacing is complex and delicate, it should always be carefully considered, and over-indication should be avoided. We must base these decisions on robust knowledge of the arrhythmias that may benefit from temporary internal pacing, and should also acquire the habit of considering external temporary pacing among other less aggressive treatments, and to make the best use of new technologies such as echocardiography that add accuracy to the procedure. PMID:24786750

  11. Atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 improves the canine rapid atrial pacing-induced structural and electrical remodeling. Fan, ACE2 improves atrial substrate remodeling.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinqi; Zou, Lili; Cui, Kun; Woo, Kamsang; Du, Huaan; Chen, Shaojie; Ling, Zhiyu; Zhang, Quanjun; Zhang, Bo; Lan, Xianbin; Su, Li; Zrenner, Bernhard; Yin, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by homogeneous transmural atrial gene transfer can reverse atrial remodeling and its mechanisms in a canine atrial-pacing model. Twenty-eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated, AF-control, gene therapy with adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) and gene therapy with Ad-ACE2 (Ad-ACE2) (n = 7 per subgroup). AF was induced in all dogs except the Sham-operated group by rapid atrial pacing at 450 beats/min for 2 weeks. Ad-EGFP and Ad-ACE2 group then received epicardial gene painting. Three weeks after gene transfer, all animals except the Sham group underwent rapid atrial pacing for another 3 weeks and then invasive electrophysiological, histological and molecular studies. The Ad-ACE2 group showed an increased ACE2 and Angiotensin-(1-7) expression, and decreased Angiotensin II expression in comparison with Ad-EGFP and AF-control group. ACE2 overexpression attenuated rapid atrial pacing-induced increase in activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) levels, and decrease in MAPK phosphatase 1(MKP-1) level, resulting in attenuation of atrial fibrosis collagen protein markers and transforming growth factor-β1. Additionally, ACE2 overexpression also modulated the tachypacing-induced up-regulation of connexin 40, down-regulation of connexin 43 and Kv4.2, and significantly decreased the inducibility and duration of AF. ACE2 overexpression could shift the renin-angiotensin system balance towards the protective axis, attenuate cardiac fibrosis remodeling associated with up-regulation of MKP-1 and reduction of MAPKs activities, modulate tachypacing-induced ion channels and connexin remodeling, and subsequently reduce the inducibility and duration of AF.

  12. Self-Paced Fortran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, James

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the instructional format of the lecture and the self-paced methods of teaching FORTRAN at Michigan State University and compares end-of-term grades of students taking a second computer science course based on whether they took the first course in the self-paced or the traditional lecture format. (Author/BB)

  13. Development and evaluation of the feasibility and effects on staff, patients, and families of a new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE), to improve communication and palliative care in intensive care and during clinical uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are widespread concerns about communication and support for patients and families, especially when they face clinical uncertainty, a situation most marked in intensive care units (ICUs). Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate an interventional tool to improve communication and palliative care, using the ICU as an example of where this is difficult. Methods Our design was a phase I-II study following the Medical Research Council Guidance for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions and the (Methods of Researching End-of-life Care (MORECare) statement. In two ICUs, with over 1900 admissions annually, phase I modeled a new intervention comprising implementation training and an assessment tool. We conducted a literature review, qualitative interviews, and focus groups with 40 staff and 13 family members. This resulted in the new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE). Phase II evaluated the feasibility and effects of PACE, using observation, record audit, and surveys of staff and family members. Qualitative data were analyzed using the framework approach. The statistical tests used on quantitative data were t-tests (for normally distributed characteristics), the χ2 or Fisher’s exact test (for non-normally distributed characteristics) and the Mann–Whitney U-test (for experience assessments) to compare the characteristics and experience for cases with and without PACE recorded. Results PACE provides individualized assessments of all patients entering the ICU. It is completed within 24 to 48 hours of admission, and covers five aspects (key relationships, social details and needs, patient preferences, communication and information status, and other concerns), followed by recording of an ongoing communication evaluation. Implementation is supported by a training program with specialist palliative care. A post-implementation survey of 95 ICU staff found that 89% rated PACE assessment as very or

  14. Physiological cardiac pacing: Current status.

    PubMed

    Das, Asit; Kahali, Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Adverse hemodynamics of right ventricular (RV) pacing is a well-known fact. It was believed to be the result of atrio-ventricular (AV) dyssynchrony and sequential pacing of the atrium and ventricle may solve these problems. However, despite maintenance of AV synchrony, the dual chamber pacemakers in different trials have failed to show its superiority over single chamber RV apical pacing in terms of death, progression of heart failure, and atrial fibrillation (AF). As a consequence, investigators searched for alternate pacing sites with a more physiological activation pattern and better hemodynamics. Direct His bundle pacing and Para-Hisian pacing are the most physiological ventricular pacing sites. But, this is technically difficult. Ventricular septal pacing compared to apical pacing results in a shorter electrical activation delay and consequently less mechanical dyssynchrony. But, the study results are heterogeneous. Selective site atria pacing (atrial septal) is useful for patients with atrial conduction disorders in prevention of AF. PMID:27543481

  15. Transferring PACE Assessments Upon Home Sale

    SciTech Connect

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Coughlin, Jason; Fuller, Merrian; Zimring, Mark

    2010-04-12

    A significant barrier to investing in renewable energy and comprehensive energy efficiency improvements to homes across the country is the initial capital cost. Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing this upfront cost issue. Recently, the White House cited PACE programs as an important element of its 'Recovery through Retrofit' plan. The residential PACE model involves the creation of a special clean energy financing district that homeowners elect to opt into. Once opted in, the local government (usually at the city or county level) finances the upfront investment of the renewable energy installation and/or energy efficiency improvements. A special lien is attached to the property and the assessment is paid back as a line item on the property tax bill. As of April 2010, 17 states have passed legislation to allow their local governments to create PACE programs, two already have the authority to set up PACE programs, and over 10 additional states are actively developing enabling legislation. This policy brief analyzes one of the advantages of PACE, which is the transferability of the special assessment from one homeowner to the next when the home is sold. This analysis focuses on the potential for the outstanding lien to impact the sales negotiation process, rather than the legal nature of the lien transfer itself. The goal of this paper is to consider what implications a PACE lien may have on the home sales negotiation process so that it can be addressed upfront rather than risk a future backlash to PACE programs. If PACE programs do expand at a rapid rate, the chances are high that there will be other cases where prospective buyers uses PACE liens to negotiate lower home prices or require repayment of the lien as a condition of sale. As a result, PACE programs should highlight this issue as a potential risk factor for the sake of full disclosure. A good example of this

  16. Self-Paced Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Norma Jean

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of self-paced units. Development suggestions include determining the form of the units, including goals, responsibilities, and definitions of terms; keeping them short; including a variety of activities; and requiring that all lessons be completed at school. Contains sample units on climatology and meteorology, the sun, and…

  17. Cardiac pacing and aviation.

    PubMed

    Toff, W D; Edhag, O K; Camm, A J

    1992-12-01

    Certain applicants with stable disturbances of rhythm or conduction requiring cardiac pacing, in whom no other disqualifying condition is present, may be considered fit for medical certification restricted to multi-crew operations. The reliability of modern pacing systems appears adequate to permit restricted certification even in pacemaker dependent subjects except for certain models of pacemakers and leads known to be at increased risk of failure. These are to be avoided. There is little evidence to suggest that newer devices are any more reliable than their predecessors. Single and dual chamber systems appear to have similar reliability up to 4 years, after which time significant attrition of dual chamber devices occurs, principally due to battery depletion. All devices require increased scrutiny as they approach their end of life as predicted from longevity data and pacing characteristics. Unipolar and bipolar leads are of similar reliability, apart from a number of specific bipolar polyurethane leads which have been identified. Atrial leads, particularly those without active fixation, are less secure than ventricular leads and applicants who are dependent on atrial sensing or pacing should be denied certification. Bipolar leads are to be preferred due to the lower risk of myopotential and exogenous EMI. Sensor-driven adaptive-rate pacing systems using active sensors may have reduced longevity and require close scrutiny. Activity-sensing devices using piezoelectric crystal sensors may be subject to significant rate rises in rotary wing aircraft. The impracticality of restricted certification in helicopters will, in any event, preclude certification. Such devices would best be avoided in hovercraft (air cushioned vehicle) pilots. Only minor rate rises are likely in fixed-wing aircraft which are unlikely to be of significance. Anti-tachycardia devices and implanted defibrillators are inconsistent with any form of certification to fly. PMID:1493823

  18. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  19. Noninvasive external cardiac pacing for thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.D.; Warren, S.E.; Gervino, E.V.; Aroesty, J.M.; Royal, H.D.; Parker, J.A.; Silverman, K.J.; Kolodny, G.M.; Zoll, P.M.; McKay, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in noninvasive external cardiac pacing have led to a technique with reliable electrical capture and tolerable patient discomfort. To assess the use of this modality of pacing in combination with thallium scintigraphy as a noninvasive pacing stress test, we applied simultaneous noninvasive cardiac pacing, hemodynamic monitoring, and thallium-201 scintigraphy in 14 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for chest pain syndromes. Two patients had normal coronary arteries, while the remaining 12 had significant coronary artery disease. Thallium scintigraphic responses to pacing were compared to routine exercise thallium stress testing in nine of these 14 patients. All patients were noninvasively paced to more than 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate. Twelve patients demonstrated reversible thallium defects, which corresponded in 11 cases to significant lesions seen on coronary angiography. Of nine patients who underwent both pacing and exercise thallium stress tests, comparable maximal rate-pressure products were achieved. Moreover, thallium imaging at peak pacing and during delayed views did not differ significantly from exercise thallium scintigraphy. A limiting factor associated with the technique was local patient discomfort, which occurred to some degree in all patients. We conclude that noninvasive external cardiac pacing together with thallium scintigraphy is capable of detecting significant coronary artery disease and may be comparable to routine exercise thallium stress testing. This new modality of stress testing could be useful in patients unable to undergo the exercise required for standard exercise tolerance testing, particularly if improvements in the technology can be found to reduce further the local discomfort.

  20. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Pete; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Marland, Gregg

    2008-06-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global carbon cycle include human utilization of fossil fuels and impacts on less intensively managed systems such as peatlands, wetlands and permafrost. A great deal of knowledge, expertise and data is available within each sector. We describe the contribution of sectoral carbon budgets to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Whilst many sectors exhibit similarities for carbon budgeting, some key differences arise due to differences in goods and services provided, ecology, management practices used, landmanagement personnel responsible, policies affecting land management, data types and availability, and the drivers of change. We review the methods and data sources available for assessing sectoral carbon budgets, and describe some of key data limitations and uncertainties for each sector in different regions of the world. We identify the main gaps in our knowledge/data, show that coverage is better for the developed world for most sectors, and suggest how sectoral carbon budgets could be improved in the future. Research priorities include the development of shared protocols through site networks, a move to full carbon accounting within sectors, and the assessment of full greenhouse gas budgets.

  1. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  2. Securing Contactless Chips with PACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, Dennis

    PACE (Password Authenticated Connection Establishment) is a cryptographic protocol that was developed to provide a secure knowledge-based authentication mechanism for contactless chips. The problems that are inherent to (but not limited to) contactless chips are described and PACE as a solution based on cryptographic tools is sketched. Finally, it is shown how to use PACE together with traditional short PINs of 4-6 digits as access control mechanism for contactless chips withstanding denial-of-service attacks.

  3. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin J

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  4. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O'Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5-6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. -5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (-5 ± 9 vs. -11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  5. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study †

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Ives, Stephen J.; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O’Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  6. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  7. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  8. Improving Regional Air Quality with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This model documentation is designed to assist State and local governments in pursuing wind energy purchases as a control measure under regional air quality plans. It is intended to support efforts to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs), including wind energy purchases, to ensure compliance with the standard for ground-level ozone established under the Clean Air Act.

  9. An Undergraduate Intern Program at PACES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) established the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) in 1995 to conduct basic and applied research that contributes to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. Specifically, PACES provides a repository of remote sensing and other information that supports investigations into an improved understanding of geological, ecological and environmental processes occurring in the southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Approximately 85% of UTEP's students come from El Paso County, a fast growing urban region representative of many large cities in the Southwest that have, or will soon have, a majority of their population composed of groups currently underrepresented in the scientific and technical workforce. UTEP's student population has an ethnic distribution (63% Hispanic, 32% Anglo, 3% African American, 1.5 % Asian American, and less than 1% Native American) that closely matches the demographics of the region it serves. Thus, UTEP has a mission to serve a multicultural population where minority students comprise the majority. Most Hispanic students at UTEP are primarily of Mexican origin. A large number are first or second-generation U.S. citizens. Characteristics that unite Hispanic students, in particular those of Mexican-origin, are a strong sense of family loyalty and a belief that all family members are responsible for contributing to the economic stability and well-being of the family. Most of their families are larger in number than the national average, and a variety of generations live together or share considerable resources. Thus, many young people feel an obligation and a desire to go to work at a young age and to continue working while in college, thereby assisting their parents and other family members. Older siblings understand that they have responsibilities to do household chores, to aid their younger siblings economically, and to assist elderly family members. This "work ethic" within the

  10. Health Information System Simulation. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beth H.; Lacobie, Kevin

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. This volume contains five self-paced modules that allow students to interact with a health…

  11. Four chamber pacing in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cazeau, S; Ritter, P; Bakdach, S; Lazarus, A; Limousin, M; Henao, L; Mundler, O; Daubert, J C; Mugica, J

    1994-11-01

    A 54-year-old man received a four chamber pacing system for severe congestive heart failure (NYHA functional Class IV). His ECG showed a left bundle branch block (200-msec QRS duration) with 200-msec PR interval, normal QRS axis, and 90-msec interatrial interval. An acute hemodynamic study with insertion of four temporary leads was performed prior to the implant, which demonstrated a significant increase in cardiac output and decrease of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. A permanent pacemaker was implanted based on the encouraging results of the acute study. The right chamber leads were introduced by cephalic and subclavian approaches. The left atrium was paced with a coronary sinus lead, Medtronic SP 2188-58 model. An epicardial Medtronic 5071 lead was placed on the LV free wall. The four leads were connected to a standard bipolar DDD pacemaker, Chorus 6234. The two atrial leads were connected via a Y-connector to the atrial channel of the pacemaker with a bipolar pacing configuration. The two ventricular leads were connected in a similar fashion to the ventricular channel of the device. The right chamber leads were connected to the distal poles. The left chamber leads were connected to the proximal poles of the pacemaker. Six weeks later, the patient's clinical status improved markedly with a weight loss of 17 kg and disappearance of peripheral edema. His functional class was reduced to NYHA II. Four chamber pacing is technically feasible. In patients with evidence of interventricular dyssynchrony, this original pacing mode probably provides a mechanical activation sequence closer to the natural one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Slow Pace for Race to Top Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Almost two years into the federal Race to the Top program, states are spending their shares of the $4 billion prize at a snail's pace--a reflection of the challenges the 12 winners face as they try to get ambitious education improvement plans off the ground. Through the end of March, the 11 states and the District of Columbia had spent just 14…

  13. Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    PubMed

    Liew, Reginald

    2013-10-01

    Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management. This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

  14. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently the gold standard for cardiac pacing. However, it is invasive and nonspecific for cardiac tissues. We recently developed a noninvasive cardiac pacing technique using optogenetic tools, which are widely used in neuroscience. Optogenetic pacing of the heart provides high spatial and temporal precisions, is specific for cardiac tissues, avoids artifacts associated with electrical stimulation, and therefore promises to be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research. We demonstrated optogenetic control of heart rhythm in a well-established model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. We developed transgenic flies expressing a light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), specifically in their hearts and demonstrated successful optogenetic pacing of ChR2-expressing Drosophila at different developmental stages, including the larva, pupa, and adult stages. A high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy imaging system that is capable of providing images at a rate of 130 frames/s with axial and transverse resolutions of 1.5 and 3.9 μm, respectively, was used to noninvasively monitor Drosophila cardiac function and its response to pacing stimulation. The development of a noninvasive integrated optical pacing and imaging system provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology. PMID:26601299

  15. Diaphragm pacing: the state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Antoine; Arame, Alex; Pricopi, Ciprian; Boucherie, Jean-Claude; Badia, Alain; Panzini, Capucine Morelot

    2016-01-01

    Diaphragm pacing (DP) is an orphan surgical procedure that may be proposed in strictly selected ventilator-dependent patients to get an active diaphragm contraction. The goal is to wean from mechanical ventilation (MV) and restore permanent efficient breathing. The two validated indications, despite the lack of randomised control trials, concern patients with high-level spinal cord injuries (SCI) and central hypoventilation syndromes (CHS). To date, two different techniques exist. The first, intrathoracic diaphragm pacing (IT-DP), based on a radiofrequency method, in which the electrodes are directly placed around the phrenic nerve. The second, intraperitoneal diaphragm pacing (IP-DP) uses intradiaphragmatic electrodes implanted through laparoscopy. In both techniques, the phrenic nerves must be intact and diaphragm reconditioning is always required after implantation. No perioperative mortality has been reported and ventilator-weaning rate is about 72% to 96% in both techniques. Improvement of quality of life, by restoring a more physiological breathing, has been almost constant in patients that could be weaned. Failure or delay in recovery of effective diaphragm contractions could be due to irreversible amyotrophy or chest wall damage. Recent works have evaluated the interest of IP-DP in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). After some short series were reported in the literature, the only multicentric randomized study including 74 ALS patients was prematurely stopped because of excessive mortality in paced patients. Then, another trial analysed the place of IP-DP in peripheral diaphragm dysfunction but, given the multiple biases, the published results cannot validate that indication. Reviewing all available literature as in our experience, shows that DP is an effective method to wean selected patients dependent on ventilator and improve their daily life. Other potential indications will have to be evaluated by randomised control trials. PMID:27195135

  16. Obstacles to activity pacing: assessment, relationship to activity and functioning.

    PubMed

    Cane, Douglas; McCarthy, Mary; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2016-07-01

    Activity pacing is frequently included among the strategies provided to individuals with chronic pain to manage pain and improve functioning. Individuals with chronic pain may, however, limit their use of activity pacing because they perceive significant obstacles to its use. This study describes the development of a measure to assess obstacles to activity pacing and examines the relationship of this measure to activity patterns and functioning. A sample of 637 individuals with chronic pain completed items describing potential obstacles to activity pacing as part of their pretreatment assessment. Item analyses were used to construct a 14-item measure of obstacles to activity pacing. A subset of these individuals completed the measure again after completion of a group treatment program. The resulting measure demonstrated excellent internal consistency and was minimally affected by social desirability. Correlations with measures of activity and psychosocial functioning provided initial construct validity for the measure. Sex differences were found with women initially identifying more obstacles to activity pacing. Fewer obstacles were identified by both men and women after treatment, and these changes were related to modest changes in activity patterns and functioning. The present results identify a number of obstacles that may limit the use of activity pacing by individuals with chronic pain. Treatment may result in a decrease in the number of obstacles identified, and this change is related to changes in the individual's activity pattern and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26963845

  17. The PACES Summer Science Trek: A Pre-College Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michelle B.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) received five-year funding to form the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) in July 1995. PACES has as its goals to conduct research contributing to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth and to develop skilled scientists and engineers. PACES seeks to gain a more comprehensive understanding of geological, ecological and environmental processes and changes taking place in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico region. The PACES center has collaborative ties with two NASA field center (Goddard Space Flight Center and Ames Research Center) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The original proposal contained no provision for outreach programs. However, at a meeting in the fall of 1995, Dan Goldin, NASA Administrator, issued the challenge that in order to accomplish NASA's goals to educate more of the citizenry in science and engineering, the Centers should take a broader perspective aimed at younger children.

  18. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  19. Presentation Time Concerning System-Paced Multimedia Instructions and the Superiority of Learner Pacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Klaus D.; Petzold, Kirstin; Zinnbauer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The superiority of learner-paced over system-paced instructions was demonstrated in multiple experiments. In these experiments, the system-paced presentations were highly speeded, causing cognitive overload, while the learner-paced instructions allowed adjustments of the presentational flow to the learner's needs by pacing facilities, mostly…

  20. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dallas Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-09-15

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  1. Improvements in Representations of Cloud Microphysics for BBHRP and Models using Data Collected during M-PACE and TWP-ICE

    SciTech Connect

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2010-02-22

    In our research we proposed to use data collected during the 2004 Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) and the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) to improve retrievals of ice and mixed-phase clouds, to improve our understanding of how cloud and radiative processes affect cloud life cycles, and to develop and test methods for using ARM data more effectively in model. In particular, we proposed to: 1) use MPACE in-situ data to determine how liquid water fraction and cloud ice and liquid effective radius (r{sub ei} and r{sub ew}) vary with temperature, normalized cloud altitude and other variables for Arctic mixed-phase clouds, and to use these data to evaluate the performance of model parameterization schemes and remote sensing retrieval algorithms; 2) calculate rei and size/shape distributions using TWP-ICE in-situ data, investigate their dependence on cirrus type (oceanic or continental anvils or cirrus not directly traced to convection), and develop and test representations for MICROBASE; 3) conduct fundamental research enhancing our understanding of cloud/radiative interactions, concentrating on effects of small crystals and particle shapes and sizes on radiation; and 4) improve representations of microphysical processes for models (fall-out, effective density, mean scattering properties, rei and rew) and provide them to ARM PIs. In the course of our research, we made substantial progress on all four goals.

  2. Science Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Biology, Chemistry, and Physical Science developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace relationships, learning activities with suggested…

  3. The PACE evaluation: initial findings.

    PubMed

    Branch, L G; Coulam, R F; Zimmerman, Y A

    1995-06-01

    As of mid-1994 there were nine replications of the On Lok model operating under dual capitation payments as sites in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). A tenth site had begun operating under capitation, but was unable to remain viable. The present descriptive study documents the growth and development of the first seven of these sites, all that had been operating under capitation during 1992. Comparisons among these sites and with On Lok are presented in the areas of organizational structure, client characteristics, approaches to case management, service delivery options, and financing. There is considerable variability in the implementation of the PACE model. Combined Medicare and Medicaid capitation monthly payments range from $2,147 to $5,973. These seven PACE sites (excluding On Lok) served a total of 888 current clients at the end of 1992, after a cumulative 136 months of experience under capitation. The very slow enrollment rates may imply that the target clients are less enthusiastic about this model than are its architects. The client selection process may suggest niche-marketing or skimming, but not the full representation of the nursing home population in their states. Given both the slow enrollment and the niche-marketing (the benevolent term) or skimming (the pejorative term) that has occurred, caution about the long-term viability of the PACE model may be warranted. PMID:7622088

  4. Mathematics Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.; Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Algebra 1, Geometry, Math for Technology, Mathematical Problem Solving, and Pre-Algebra developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace…

  5. The PACE evaluation: initial findings.

    PubMed

    Branch, L G; Coulam, R F; Zimmerman, Y A

    1995-06-01

    As of mid-1994 there were nine replications of the On Lok model operating under dual capitation payments as sites in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). A tenth site had begun operating under capitation, but was unable to remain viable. The present descriptive study documents the growth and development of the first seven of these sites, all that had been operating under capitation during 1992. Comparisons among these sites and with On Lok are presented in the areas of organizational structure, client characteristics, approaches to case management, service delivery options, and financing. There is considerable variability in the implementation of the PACE model. Combined Medicare and Medicaid capitation monthly payments range from $2,147 to $5,973. These seven PACE sites (excluding On Lok) served a total of 888 current clients at the end of 1992, after a cumulative 136 months of experience under capitation. The very slow enrollment rates may imply that the target clients are less enthusiastic about this model than are its architects. The client selection process may suggest niche-marketing or skimming, but not the full representation of the nursing home population in their states. Given both the slow enrollment and the niche-marketing (the benevolent term) or skimming (the pejorative term) that has occurred, caution about the long-term viability of the PACE model may be warranted.

  6. Right ventricular apex pacing: is it obsolete?

    PubMed

    Sanaa, Islem; Franceschi, Frédéric; Prevot, Sébastien; Bastard, Emilie; Deharo, Jean-Claude

    2009-02-01

    Clinical trials in patients with pacemakers for sinus node dysfunction or atrioventricular block have highlighted the fact that desynchronization of ventricular contraction induced by right ventricular apical pacing is associated with long-term morbidity and mortality. These clinical data confirm pathophysiological results indicating that right ventricular apical pacing causes abnormal ventricular contraction, reduces pump function and leads to myocardial hypertrophy and ultrastructural abnormalities. In this manuscript, we discuss the clinical evidence for the adverse and beneficial effects of various right ventricular pacing sites, left ventricular pacing sites and biventricular pacing. We also propose a decisional algorithm for pacing modalities, based on atrioventricular conduction, left ventricular function and expected lifespan. PMID:19303581

  7. Trust regions in Kriging-based optimization with expected improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regis, Rommel G.

    2016-06-01

    The Kriging-based Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) method works well on many expensive black-box optimization problems. However, it does not seem to perform well on problems with steep and narrow global minimum basins and on high-dimensional problems. This article develops a new Kriging-based optimization method called TRIKE (Trust Region Implementation in Kriging-based optimization with Expected improvement) that implements a trust-region-like approach where each iterate is obtained by maximizing an Expected Improvement (EI) function within some trust region. This trust region is adjusted depending on the ratio of the actual improvement to the EI. This article also develops the Kriging-based CYCLONE (CYClic Local search in OptimizatioN using Expected improvement) method that uses a cyclic pattern to determine the search regions where the EI is maximized. TRIKE and CYCLONE are compared with EGO on 28 test problems with up to 32 dimensions and on a 36-dimensional groundwater bioremediation application in appendices supplied as an online supplement available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305215X.2015.1082350. The results show that both algorithms yield substantial improvements over EGO and they are competitive with a radial basis function method.

  8. Did recent world record marathon runners employ optimal pacing strategies?

    PubMed

    Angus, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    We apply statistical analysis of high frequency (1 km) split data for the most recent two world-record marathon runs: Run 1 (2:03:59, 28 September 2008) and Run 2 (2:03:38, 25 September 2011). Based on studies in the endurance cycling literature, we develop two principles to approximate 'optimal' pacing in the field marathon. By utilising GPS and weather data, we test, and then de-trend, for each athlete's field response to gradient and headwind on course, recovering standardised proxies for power-based pacing traces. The resultant traces were analysed to ascertain if either runner followed optimal pacing principles; and characterise any deviations from optimality. Whereas gradient was insignificant, headwind was a significant factor in running speed variability for both runners, with Runner 2 targeting the (optimal) parallel variation principle, whilst Runner 1 did not. After adjusting for these responses, neither runner followed the (optimal) 'even' power pacing principle, with Runner 2's macro-pacing strategy fitting a sinusoidal oscillator with exponentially expanding envelope whilst Runner 1 followed a U-shaped, quadratic form. The study suggests that: (a) better pacing strategy could provide elite marathon runners with an economical pathway to significant performance improvements at world-record level; and (b) the data and analysis herein is consistent with a complex-adaptive model of power regulation.

  9. Far field pacing supersedes anti-tachycardia pacing in a generic model of excitable media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittihn, Philip; Luther, Gisela; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Krinsky, Valentin; Parlitz, Ulrich; Luther, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Removing anchored spirals from obstacles is an important step in terminating cardiac arrhythmia. Conventional anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) has this ability, but only under very restrictive conditions. In a generic model of excitable media, we demonstrate that for unpinning spiral waves from obstacles this profound limitation of ATP can be overcome by far field pacing (FFP). More specifically, an argument is presented for why FFP includes and thus can only extend the capabilities of ATP in the configurations considered. By numerical simulations, we show that in the model there exists a parameter region in which unpinning is possible by FFP but not by ATP. The relevance of this result regarding clinical applications is discussed.

  10. Regional Travel-Time Predictions, Uncertainty and Location Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M; Myers, S

    2004-07-15

    We investigate our ability to improve regional travel-time prediction and seismic event location using an a priori three-dimensional (3D) velocity model of Western Eurasia and North Africa (WENA 1.0). Three principal results are presented. First, the 3D WENA 1.0 velocity model improves travel-time prediction over the IASPI91 model, as measured by variance reduction, for regional phases recorded at 22 stations throughout the modeled region, including aseismic areas. Second, a distance-dependent uncertainty model is developed and tested for the WENA 1.0 model. Third, relocation using WENA 1.0 and the associated uncertainty model provides an end-to-end validation test. Model validation is based on a comparison of approximately 10,000 Pg, Pn, and P travel-time predictions and empirical observations from ground truth (GT) events. Ray coverage for the validation dataset provides representative, regional-distances sampling across Eurasia and North Africa. The WENA 1.0 model markedly improves travel-time predictions for most stations with an average variance reduction of 14% for all ray paths. We find that improvement is station dependent, with some stations benefiting greatly from WENA predictions (25% at OBN, and 16% at BKR), some stations showing moderate improvement (12% at ARU, and 17% at NIL), and some stations benefiting only slightly (7% at AAE, and 8% at TOL). We further test WENA 1.0 by relocating five calibration events. Again, relocation of these events is dependent on ray paths that evenly sample WENA 1.0 and therefore provide an unbiased assessment of location performance. These results highlight the importance of accurate GT datasets in assessing regional travel-time models and demonstrate that an a priori 3D model can markedly improve our ability to locate small magnitude events in a regional monitoring context.

  11. Improvement of complex regional pain syndrome after plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Blaes, F; Dharmalingam, B; Tschernatsch, M; Feustel, A; Fritz, T; Kohr, D; Singh, P; Kaps, M; Szalay, G

    2015-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a severe complication following trauma that is associated with vasomotor, sudomotor and sensory disturbances in an affected limb or region of the body. The exact physiopathology is not fully understood yet. Recently, autoantibody findings suggested an immune-mediated physiopathology of the disease. We here describe two otherwise treatment-resistant patients with complex regional pain syndrome and high-titre beta2 adrenergic receptor autoantibodies, who did respond to plasmapheresis. Both patients showed strong improvement of pain and autonomic symptoms measured by impairment level sum score.

  12. Improving regional variation using quality of care measures.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Scott A; Gerstenblith, Gary; Herbert, Robert; Anderson, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    There is significant regional variability in the quality of care provided in the United States. This article compares regional performance for three measures that focus on transitions in care, and the care of patients with multiple conditions. Admissions for people with ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge, and compliance with practice guidelines for people with three chronic conditions (congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes) were analyzed using data drawn from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Standard Analytic Files for 5% of a 2004 national sample of Medicare beneficiaries which was divided by hospital referral regions and regional performance. There were significant regional differences in performance which we hypothesize could be improved through better care coordination and system management.

  13. Self-Paced Instruction: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Elisabeth

    1975-01-01

    Discussed the benefits and costs of self-paced instruction (SPI) based on brief summaries of experiences in teaching introductory economics at seven universities. Provided also is a six-step pattern for setting up a self-paced course. The author concludes that the evidence on the educational benefits of self-paced instruction is at present…

  14. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public...) Payment § 460.186 PACE premiums. The amount that a PACE organization can charge a participant as a monthly premium depends on the participant's eligibility under Medicare and Medicaid, as follows: (a)...

  15. Improving and Communicating Workforce Skills: A Regional Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Dee

    2011-01-01

    The demand for improved workplace skills in the U.S. is rapidly rising, and U.S. industries, employees, and educational systems are struggling to respond. This paper describes the Skills Advantage program, an effort led by employers and facilitated by Kirkwood Community College to address regional employment needs. This work-ready certificate…

  16. Stability of disability among PACE enrollees: financial and programmatic implications.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, D B; Temkin-Greener, H; Clark, M L

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the experience of the first 11 Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) programs. It investigates changes in functional status of participants in relation to length of enrollment in the program and individual risk characteristics. Our findings indicate that mature programs experience stable disability mix over time, supporting the rationale for the current PACE payment method. However, significant differences exist between programs, suggesting that payment rates could be more program specific. Analysis of the effect of patient characteristics at admission on the likelihood of improvement in functional status identified areas for quality improvement. The implications of this study have increasing importance in light of the expected expansion of PACE to approximately 100 sites by the year 2000.

  17. Hospital-Based Coalition to Improve Regional Surge Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Terndrup, Thomas E.; Leaming, James M.; Adams, R. Jerry; Adoff, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Surge capacity for optimization of access to hospital beds is a limiting factor in response to catastrophic events. Medical facilities, communication tools, manpower, and resource reserves exist to respond to these events. However, these factors may not be optimally functioning to generate an effective and efficient surge response. The objective was to improve the function of these factors. Methods Regional healthcare facilities and supporting local emergency response agencies developed a coalition (the Healthcare Facilities Partnership of South Central Pennsylvania; HCFP-SCPA) to increase regional surge capacity and emergency preparedness for healthcare facilities. The coalition focused on 6 objectives: (1) increase awareness of capabilities and assets, (2) develop and pilot test advanced planning and exercising of plans in the region, (3) augment written medical mutual aid agreements, (4) develop and strengthen partnership relationships, (5) ensure National Incident Management System compliance, and (6) develop and test a plan for effective utilization of volunteer healthcare professionals. Results In comparison to baseline measurements, the coalition improved existing areas covered under all 6 objectives documented during a 24-month evaluation period. Enhanced communications between the hospital coalition, and real-time exercises, were used to provide evidence of improved preparedness for putative mass casualty incidents. Conclusion The HCFP-SCPA successfully increased preparedness and surge capacity through a partnership of regional healthcare facilities and emergency response agencies. PMID:23316266

  18. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  19. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  20. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  1. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  2. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  3. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  4. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  5. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  6. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  7. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  8. Keeping pace with Capitol Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, C.

    2007-01-01

    At the Capitol Hill, the legislative branch of the United States government, the work is always at pace. Working with Congress is a tough job yet, rewarding. The Congress worked hard together to serve the public interest but many big issues are one small part of what Congress does. However, many US news media do not report what the government does instead, the media report what the government argues about. The media reports the conflicts but story is always incomplete. In order for the people know what is happening to the government, contact the congressional representative to know the complete story.

  9. Tools and Trends in Self-Paced Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the PLATO system of the 1960's, CALL (computer assisted language learning) has had a major focus on providing self-paced, auto-correcting exercises for language learners to practice their skills and improve their knowledge of discrete areas of language learning. The computer has been recognized from the beginning as a patient and…

  10. Thallium cardiac stressing by esophageal pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.L.; Vacek, J.L.; Preston, D.F.; Robinson, R.G.; Feldkamp, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-three patients were examined with the transesophageal pacing method of cardiac stressing and thallium imaging. Transesophageal cardiac pacing, using a pill electrode or a permanent pacemaker lead, is a safe alternative for patients who are physically unable to exercise. Prior studies suggest that transvenous right atrial pacing with thallium injection is equivalent to physical exercise thallium studies in the detection of coronary artery disease. The esophageal pacing bipolar electrode similarly increases heart rate without the necessity of transvenous pacing or fluoroscopy and without the adverse side effects often seen when using pharmacologic stressing agents (i.e., dipyridamole). The results compare well with cardiac catheterization, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic results. Cardiac paced stress testing requires no sedation, is performed on an out-patient basis, and causes little if any discomfort for the patient.

  11. Innovative pacing: Recent advances, emerging technologies, and future directions in cardiac pacing.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher; Kusumoto, Fred

    2016-07-01

    The field of cardiovascular medicine is rapidly evolving as advancements in technology and engineering provide clinicians new and exciting ways to care for an aging population. Cardiac pacing, in particular, has seen a series of game-changing technologies emerge in the past several years spurred by low-power electronics, high density batteries, improved catheter delivery systems and innovative software design. We look at several of these emerging pacemaker technologies, discussing the rationale, current state and future directions of these pioneering developments in electrophysiology. PMID:27017442

  12. A regional approach to promoting improved care of multiples.

    PubMed

    Malmstrom, P M

    2001-04-01

    Live births of multiples in the U.S. rose 35% from 87,700 in 1988 to 118,295 in 1998. This increase presents public health issues due to the elevated health and psychosocial risks that accompany multiple birth. However, health and social service providers and educators are poorly prepared to address the specific needs of the multiple birth population. The Twin Service Network Project therefore developed regional networks of multiple birth training and resources in California to address this problem. Results indicate that these can substantially improve the care available to multiples. The project's integrated package of training and parenting education materials is available to other regions to assist in such efforts.

  13. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. PMID:27054385

  14. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion.

  15. Quality assurance and improvement: the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network.

    PubMed

    Polaner, David M; Martin, Lynn D

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and improvement (QA/QI) is a critical activity in medicine. The use of large-scale collaborative databases is increasingly essential to obtain enough reports with which to establish standards of practice and define the incidence of complications and risk/benefit ratios for rare events. Such projects can enhance local QA/QI endeavors by enabling institutions to obtain benchmark data against which to compare their performance and can be used for prospective analyses of inter-institutional differences to determine 'best practice'. The pediatric regional anesthesia network (PRAN) is such a project. The first data cohort is currently being analyzed and offers insight into how such data can be used to detect trends in adverse events and improve care.

  16. A decade of nuclear pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Parsonnet, V.; Gilbert, L.; Zucker, I.R.; Werres, R.; Atherley, T.; Manhardt, M.; Cort, J.

    1984-01-01

    In April, 1973, a decade-long study was begun on nuclear-powered pacemakers. The first 15 of these were designed by the Numec Corporation under a contract from the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Altogether 151 units powered by the isotope plutonium 238 were implanted in 131 patients; the pacemakers of 4 different manufacturers were used. The last nuclear pacemaker was implanted in January, 1983. The actuarial survival at 10 years was 92%, meeting the original performance goal of the Commission of 90%. Ninety pulse generators are still in service today; 25 patients have died and 36 pulse generators have been replaced with non-nuclear units. The most common indication for replacement was an inappropriate pacing mode. This high reliability and superior performance suggest that continued use of a radioisotopic power source is justified, particularly if combined with the electronic circuits of today's dual-chambered, multiprogrammable, and multifunctional pacemakers.

  17. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zhang, X.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    A case study and monthly statistical analysis using sounder data assimilation to improve the Alaska regional weather forecast model are presented. Weather forecast in Alaska faces challenges as well as opportunities. Alaska has a large land with multiple types of topography and coastal area. Weather forecast models must be finely tuned in order to accurately predict weather in Alaska. Being in the high-latitudes provides Alaska greater coverage of polar orbiting satellites for integration into forecasting models than the lower 48. Forecasting marine low stratus clouds is critical to the Alaska aviation and oil industry and is the current focus of the case study. NASA AIRS/CrIS sounder profiles data are used to do data assimilation for the Alaska regional weather forecast model to improve Arctic marine stratus clouds forecast. Choosing physical options for the WRF model is discussed. Preprocess of AIRS/CrIS sounder data for data assimilation is described. Local observation data, satellite data, and global data assimilation data are used to verify and/or evaluate the forecast results by the MET tools Model Evaluation Tools (MET).

  18. The effects of fluid ingestion on free-paced intermittent-sprint performance and pacing strategies in the heat.

    PubMed

    Skein, Melissa; Duffield, Rob

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fluid ingestion on pacing strategies and performance during intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. Nine male rugby players performed a habituation session and 2 x 50-min intermittent-sprint protocols at a temperature of 31 degrees C, either with or without fluid. Participants were informed of a third session (not performed) to ensure that they remained blind to all respective conditions. The protocol consisted of a 15-m sprint every minute separated by self-paced bouts of hard running, jogging, and walking for the remainder of the minute. Sprint time, distance covered during self-paced exercise, and vertical jump height before and after exercise were recorded. Heart rate, core temperature, nude mass, capillary blood haematocrit, pH, lactate concentration, perceptual ratings of perceived exertion, thermal stress, and thirst were also recorded. Sprint times (fluid vs. no-fluid: 2.82 +/- 0.11 vs. 2.82 +/- 0.14) and distance covered during self-paced exercise (fluid vs. no-fluid: 4168 +/- 419 vs. 3981 +/- 263 m) were not different between conditions (P = 0.10-0.98) but were progressively reduced to a greater extent in the no-fluid trial (7 +/- 13%) (d = 0.56-0.58). There were no differences (P = 0.22-1.00; d = <0.20-0.84) between conditions in any physiological measures. Perceptual ratings of perceived exertion and thermal stress did not differ between conditions (P = 0.34-0.91; d < or =0.20-0.48). Rating of thirst after exercise was lower in the fluid trial (P = 0.02; d = 0.62-0.73). The present results suggest that fluid availability did not improve intermittent-sprint performance, however did affect pacing strategies with a greater reduction in distance covered of self-paced exercise during the no-fluid trial. PMID:20077276

  19. Consistency of Students' Pace in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the consistency of students' behavior regarding their pace of actions over sessions within an online course. Pace in a session is defined as the number of logged actions divided by session length (in minutes). Log files of 6,112 students were collected, and datasets were constructed for examining pace…

  20. Web Tools: Keeping Learners on Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosloski, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching technology and engineering is pacing. Some students grasp new technological concepts quickly, while others need repetition and may struggle to keep pace. This poses an obstacle for the technology and engineering teacher, and is particularly true when teaching students to build a website. However, there…

  1. Update in cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    PubMed

    García-Bolao, Ignacio; Ruiz-Mateas, Francisco; Bazan, Victor; Berruezo, Antonio; Alcalde, Oscar; Leal del Ojo, Juan; Acosta, Juan; Martínez Sellés, Manuel; Mosquera, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the main advances in cardiac arrhythmias and pacing published between 2013 and 2014. Special attention is given to the interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias, and on advances in cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, with particular reference to the elderly patient.

  2. Passive Active Conservation Evaluator. PACE programmer's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The program features, programming conventions, and algorithms of the PACE comuter program are described. This manual is intended to aid programmers in installing and modifying the program. Written descriptions of program routines, a listing of the program and is data base, a section on programming conventions, an explanation of the algorithms within the program, and advice on installation of PACE are included.

  3. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  4. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  5. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  6. Endocardial pacing: the wave of the future?

    PubMed

    Bordachar, Pierre; Ploux, Sylvain; Lumens, Joost

    2012-10-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a proven treatment for heart failure and requires the implantation of a left ventricular (LV) lead, usually placed in a tributary of the coronary sinus. Encouraged by the fact that approximately 30 % of the patients receiving CRT do not benefit from this therapy, LV endocardial pacing has been proposed as an alternative to traditional LV transvenous epicardial pacing. Endocardial LV pacing has a number of potential advantages over conventional LV epicardial pacing, including a more physiological endocardial-to-epicardial transmural activation sequence, a faster ventricular activation, a larger choice of stimulation sites and a potential superior hemodynamic performance. On the other hand, cardiologists will have to deal with new implant techniques' (transseptal), higher risk of thromboembolic events, and challenging extraction procedures of infected material. The future of endocardial stimulation will depend on the results of randomized studies adequately powered to assess the feasibility, the safety and the effectiveness of this new pacing strategy.

  7. Clinical Outcome After Permanent Pacemaker Implantation in Patients With a High Percentage of Ventricular Pacing.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Tomohiko; Sakamoto, Akira; Kawamura, Kohei; Tanigaki, Toru; Tsubakimoto, Yoshinori; Isodono, Koji; Kimura, Shinzo; Matsuo, Akiko; Inoue, Keiji; Kitamura, Makoto; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that right ventricular apical pacing may lead to cardiac dysfunction. Septal pacing is thought to be superior to apical pacing in the prevention of cardiac dyssynchrony, however, there have been no reports on the contribution of septal pacing to improving clinical outcome.We retrospectively evaluated factors associated with cardiac events in patients with right ventricular pacing.The study population consisted of 256 consecutive patients newly implanted with permanent pacemakers and followed-up for 29 ± 18 months. Cardiac events, consisting of cardiac death or heart failure requiring hospitalization, occurred in 22 patients. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that patients with a high percentage of ventricular pacing (> 90%, n = 101, group H) had a higher incidence of cardiac events than patients with a low percentage of ventricular pacing (< 10%, n = 83, group L) (P = 0.002). In group H, multivariate analysis showed that age (HR: 1.174, 95%CI: 1.066-1.291, P = 0.001), ejection fraction (EF) (HR: 0.898, 95%CI: 0.836-0.964, P = 0.003), QRS duration during cardiac pacing (HR: 1.059, 95%CI: 1.017-1.103, P = 0.006), and existing basal cardiac diseases (HR: 13.080, 95%CI: 2.463-69.479, P = 0.003) were significant predictors of cardiac events, although pacing site had no significant association with prognosis (P = 0.56).Higher age, lower EF, longer QRS duration during cardiac pacing, and existing basal cardiac diseases are associated with poor prognosis in patients with a high percentage of ventricular pacing. PMID:26549389

  8. Can quantile mapping improve precipitation extremes from regional climate models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Satyanarayana; Gobiet, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The ability of quantile mapping to accurately bias correct regard to precipitation extremes is investigated in this study. We developed new methods by extending standard quantile mapping (QMα) to improve the quality of bias corrected extreme precipitation events as simulated by regional climate model (RCM) output. The new QM version (QMβ) was developed by combining parametric and nonparametric bias correction methods. The new nonparametric method is tested with and without a controlling shape parameter (Qmβ1 and Qmβ0, respectively). Bias corrections are applied on hindcast simulations for a small ensemble of RCMs at six different locations over Europe. We examined the quality of the extremes through split sample and cross validation approaches of these three bias correction methods. This split-sample approach mimics the application to future climate scenarios. A cross validation framework with particular focus on new extremes was developed. Error characteristics, q-q plots and Mean Absolute Error (MAEx) skill scores are used for evaluation. We demonstrate the unstable behaviour of correction function at higher quantiles with QMα, whereas the correction functions with for QMβ0 and QMβ1 are smoother, with QMβ1 providing the most reasonable correction values. The result from q-q plots demonstrates that, all bias correction methods are capable of producing new extremes but QMβ1 reproduces new extremes with low biases in all seasons compared to QMα, QMβ0. Our results clearly demonstrate the inherent limitations of empirical bias correction methods employed for extremes, particularly new extremes, and our findings reveals that the new bias correction method (Qmß1) produces more reliable climate scenarios for new extremes. These findings present a methodology that can better capture future extreme precipitation events, which is necessary to improve regional climate change impact studies.

  9. The effects of husbandry training on stereotypic pacing in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Shyne, Amanda; Block, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of operant conditioning on stereotypic pacing in 3 female African wild dogs located at the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston, this study made recordings of pacing behavior immediately following individual sessions of husbandry training and 2 no-training conditions. The study found significant differences in the percentage of observations spent in stereotypic pacing behaviors for all 3 dogs among the 3 different conditions. The authors discuss the data in terms of the contribution of motivated tasks to the effects and the role of food deprivation in the expression of stereotypic pacing. The study suggests that even short periods of training may improve the African wild dogs' welfare by reducing stereotypic pacing following the conditioning sessions.

  10. An Improved Approach of Mesh Segmentation to Extract Feature Regions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Minghui; Duan, Liming; Wang, Maolin; Bai, Yang; Shao, Hui; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Fenglin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to extract concave and convex feature regions via segmenting surface mesh of a mechanical part whose surface geometry exhibits drastic variations and concave-convex features are equally important when modeling. Referring to the original approach based on the minima rule (MR) in cognitive science, we have created a revised minima rule (RMR) and presented an improved approach based on RMR in the paper. Using the logarithmic function in terms of the minimum curvatures that are normalized by the expectation and the standard deviation on the vertices of the mesh, we determined the solution formulas for the feature vertices according to RMR. Because only a small range of the threshold parameters was selected from in the determined formulas, an iterative process was implemented to realize the automatic selection of thresholds. Finally according to the obtained feature vertices, the feature edges and facets were obtained by growing neighbors. The improved approach overcomes the inherent inadequacies of the original approach for our objective in the paper, realizes full automation without setting parameters, and obtains better results compared with the latest conventional approaches. We demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of our approach by performing certain experimental comparisons.

  11. An Improved Approach of Mesh Segmentation to Extract Feature Regions

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Minghui; Duan, Liming; Wang, Maolin; Bai, Yang; Shao, Hui; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Fenglin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to extract concave and convex feature regions via segmenting surface mesh of a mechanical part whose surface geometry exhibits drastic variations and concave-convex features are equally important when modeling. Referring to the original approach based on the minima rule (MR) in cognitive science, we have created a revised minima rule (RMR) and presented an improved approach based on RMR in the paper. Using the logarithmic function in terms of the minimum curvatures that are normalized by the expectation and the standard deviation on the vertices of the mesh, we determined the solution formulas for the feature vertices according to RMR. Because only a small range of the threshold parameters was selected from in the determined formulas, an iterative process was implemented to realize the automatic selection of thresholds. Finally according to the obtained feature vertices, the feature edges and facets were obtained by growing neighbors. The improved approach overcomes the inherent inadequacies of the original approach for our objective in the paper, realizes full automation without setting parameters, and obtains better results compared with the latest conventional approaches. We demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of our approach by performing certain experimental comparisons. PMID:26436657

  12. The Pace of Cultural Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Today, humans inhabit most of the world’s terrestrial habitats. This observation has been explained by the fact that we possess a secondary inheritance mechanism, culture, in addition to a genetic system. Because it is assumed that cultural evolution occurs faster than biological evolution, humans can adapt to new ecosystems more rapidly than other animals. This assumption, however, has never been tested empirically. Here, I compare rates of change in human technologies to rates of change in animal morphologies. I find that rates of cultural evolution are inversely correlated with the time interval over which they are measured, which is similar to what is known for biological rates. This correlation explains why the pace of cultural evolution appears faster when measured over recent time periods, where time intervals are often shorter. Controlling for the correlation between rates and time intervals, I show that (1) cultural evolution is faster than biological evolution; (2) this effect holds true even when the generation time of species is controlled for; and (3) culture allows us to evolve over short time scales, which are normally accessible only to short-lived species, while at the same time allowing for us to enjoy the benefits of having a long life history. PMID:23024804

  13. Program of all-inclusive care (PACE): past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Victor; Baskins, Judith; Dever-Bumba, Maureen

    2009-03-01

    From modest beginnings in 1973 to over 60 programs nationwide, the PACE concept has proven the value of integrated, interdisciplinary-based care for frail older adults. The evolution of PACE and its regulatory and reimbursement model have changed over time, but the principals of care have remained unchanged. Nationally PACE programs are dealing with some of the same challenges they had 30 years ago and yet PACE programs continue to expand and provide care to an ever wider distribution of populations. The looming issue of ever-growing health care expenditures represents another opportunity for PACE to demonstrate its value while providing a level of quality beyond what could normally be provided by typical Medicare and Medicaid payments for similar conditions and patient characteristics. The future for PACE includes a number of possibilities including flexibility in financing and reimbursement, design changes to work with community-based physicians, potential eligibility adjustments, and growth of rural PACE. The PACE model has clearly demonstrated that in a debilitated, frail population in whom health care expenses would be expect to be high, a combination of team care, managed health care services, and care coordination can lead to both improved health outcomes and reduced expenses over time.

  14. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A...

  15. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A...

  16. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For...

  17. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Payment § 460.180 Medicare payment to PACE organizations. (a) Principle...

  18. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Payment § 460.180 Medicare payment to PACE organizations. (a) Principle...

  19. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For...

  20. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A...

  1. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Payment § 460.180 Medicare payment to PACE organizations. (a) Principle...

  2. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A...

  3. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For...

  4. Improvement of snowpack simulations in a regional climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, J.; Miller, N.L.

    2011-01-10

    To improve simulations of regional-scale snow processes and related cold-season hydroclimate, the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3), developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), was coupled with the Pennsylvania State University/NCAR fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). CLM3 physically describes the mass and heat transfer within the snowpack using five snow layers that include liquid water and solid ice. The coupled MM5–CLM3 model performance was evaluated for the snowmelt season in the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwestern United States using gridded temperature and precipitation observations, along with station observations. The results from MM5–CLM3 show a significant improvement in the SWE simulation, which has been underestimated in the original version of MM5 coupled with the Noah land-surface model. One important cause for the underestimated SWE in Noah is its unrealistic land-surface structure configuration where vegetation, snow and the topsoil layer are blended when snow is present. This study demonstrates the importance of the sheltering effects of the forest canopy on snow surface energy budgets, which is included in CLM3. Such effects are further seen in the simulations of surface air temperature and precipitation in regional weather and climate models such as MM5. In addition, the snow-season surface albedo overestimated by MM5–Noah is now more accurately predicted by MM5–CLM3 using a more realistic albedo algorithm that intensifies the solar radiation absorption on the land surface, reducing the strong near-surface cold bias in MM5–Noah. The cold bias is further alleviated due to a slower snowmelt rate in MM5–CLM3 during the early snowmelt stage, which is closer to observations than the comparable components of MM5–Noah. In addition, the over-predicted precipitation in the Pacific Northwest as shown in MM5–Noah is significantly decreased in MM5 CLM3 due to the lower evaporation resulting from the

  5. Conservation law for self-paced movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-08-01

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called "drive," that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control.

  6. Conservation law for self-paced movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-08-01

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called "drive," that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control. PMID:27418602

  7. Update on arrhythmias and cardiac pacing 2013.

    PubMed

    Almendral, Jesús; Pombo, Marta; Martínez-Alday, Jesús; González-Rebollo, José M; Rodríguez-Font, Enrique; Martínez-Ferrer, José; Castellanos, Eduardo; García-Fernández, F Javier; Ruiz-Mateas, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    This report discusses a selection of the most relevant articles on cardiac arrhythmias and pacing published in 2013. The first section discusses arrhythmias, classified as regular paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias, together with their treatment by means of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The next section reviews cardiac pacing, subdivided into resynchronization therapy, remote monitoring of implantable devices, and pacemakers. The final section discusses syncope.

  8. Update on arrhythmias and cardiac pacing 2013.

    PubMed

    Almendral, Jesús; Pombo, Marta; Martínez-Alday, Jesús; González-Rebollo, José M; Rodríguez-Font, Enrique; Martínez-Ferrer, José; Castellanos, Eduardo; García-Fernández, F Javier; Ruiz-Mateas, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    This report discusses a selection of the most relevant articles on cardiac arrhythmias and pacing published in 2013. The first section discusses arrhythmias, classified as regular paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias, together with their treatment by means of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The next section reviews cardiac pacing, subdivided into resynchronization therapy, remote monitoring of implantable devices, and pacemakers. The final section discusses syncope. PMID:24774592

  9. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  10. Effect of adaptive paced cardiolocomotor synchronization during running: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bill; Jin, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiolocomotor synchronization (CLS) has been well established for individuals engaged in rhythmic activity, such as walking, running, or cycling. When frequency of the activity is at or near the heart rate, entrainment occurs. CLS has been shown in many cases to improve the efficiency of locomotor activity, improving stroke volume, reducing blood pressure variability, and lowering the oxygen uptake (VO2). Instead of a 1:1 frequency ratio of activity to heart rate, an investigation was performed to determine if different harmonic coupling at other simple integer ratios (e.g. 1:2, 2:3, 3:2) could achieve any performance benefits. CLS was ensured by pacing the stride rate according to the measured heartbeat (i.e., adaptive paced CLS, or forced CLS). An algorithm was designed that determined the simplest ratio (lowest denominator) that, when multiplied by the heart rate will fall within an individualized, predetermined comfortable pacing range for the user. The algorithm was implemented on an iPhone 4, which generated a 'tick-tock' sound through the iPhone's headphones. A sham-controlled crossover study was performed with 15 volunteers of various fitness levels. Subjects ran a 3 mile (4.83 km) simulated training run at their normal pace on two consecutive days (randomized one adaptive pacing, one sham). Adaptive pacing resulted in faster runs run times, with subjects running an average of 26:03 ± 3:23 for adaptive pacing and 26:38 ± 3:31 for sham (F = 5.46, p < 0.05). The increase in heart rate from the start of the race as estimated by an exponential time constant was significantly longer during adaptive pacing, τ = 0.99 ± 0.30, compared to sham, τ = 1.53 ± 0.34 (t = -6.62, p < 0.01). Eighty-seven percent of runners found it easy to adjust their stride length to match the pacing signal with seventy-nine percent reporting that pacing helped their performance. These results suggest that adaptive paced CLS may have a beneficial effect on running performance and

  11. Sawtooth Pacing by Real-Time Auxiliary Power Control in a Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.; Graves, J. P.

    2011-06-17

    In the standard scenario of tokamak plasma operation, sawtooth crashes are the main perturbations that can trigger performance-degrading, and potentially disruption-generating, neoclassical tearing modes. This Letter demonstrates sawtooth pacing by real-time control of the auxiliary power. It is shown that the sawtooth crash takes place in a reproducible manner shortly after the removal of that power, and this can be used to precisely prescribe, i.e., pace, the individual sawteeth. In combination with preemptive stabilization of the neoclassical tearing modes, sawtooth pacing provides a new sawtooth control paradigm for improved performance in burning plasmas.

  12. Applying Multimodel Ensemble from Regional Climate Models for Improving Runoff Projections on Semiarid Regions of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Galiano, S. G.; Olmos, P.; Giraldo Osorio, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    In the Mediterranean area, significant changes on temperature and precipitation are expected throughout the century. These trends could exacerbate the existing conditions in regions already vulnerable to climatic variability, reducing the water availability. Improving knowledge about plausible impacts of climate change on water cycle processes at basin scale, is an important step for building adaptive capacity to the impacts in this region, where severe water shortages are expected for the next decades. RCMs ensemble in combination with distributed hydrological models with few parameters, constitutes a valid and robust methodology to increase the reliability of climate and hydrological projections. For reaching this objective, a novel methodology for building Regional Climate Models (RCMs) ensembles of meteorological variables (rainfall an temperatures), was applied. RCMs ensembles are justified for increasing the reliability of climate and hydrological projections. The evaluation of RCMs goodness-of-fit to build the ensemble is based on empirical probability density functions (PDF) extracted from both RCMs dataset and a highly resolution gridded observational dataset, for the time period 1961-1990. The applied method is considering the seasonal and annual variability of the rainfall and temperatures. The RCMs ensembles constitute the input to a distributed hydrological model at basin scale, for assessing the runoff projections. The selected hydrological model is presenting few parameters in order to reduce the uncertainties involved. The study basin corresponds to a head basin of Segura River Basin, located in the South East of Spain. The impacts on runoff and its trend from observational dataset and climate projections, were assessed. Considering the control period 1961-1990, plausible significant decreases in runoff for the time period 2021-2050, were identified.

  13. High-resolution entrainment mapping of gastric pacing: a new analytical tool.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Lammers, Wim J E P; Egbuji, John U; Mithraratne, Pulasthi; Chen, Jiande D Z; Cheng, Leo K; Windsor, John A; Pullan, Andrew J

    2010-02-01

    Gastric pacing has been investigated as a potential treatment for gastroparesis. New pacing protocols are required to improve symptom and motility outcomes; however, research progress has been constrained by a limited understanding of the effects of electrical stimulation on slow-wave activity. This study introduces high-resolution (HR) "entrainment mapping" for the analysis of gastric pacing and presents four demonstrations. Gastric pacing was initiated in a porcine model (typical amplitude 4 mA, pulse width 400 ms, period 17 s). Entrainment mapping was performed using flexible multielectrode arrays (paced propagation was found to be anisotropic (longitudinal 2.6 +/- 1.7 vs. circumferential 4.5 +/- 0.6 mm/s; P < 0.001). In the third demonstration, a dysrhythmic episode that occurred during pacing was mapped in HR, revealing an ectopic slow-wave focus and uncoupled propagations. In the fourth demonstration, differences were observed between paced and native slow-wave amplitudes (0.24 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.38 +/- 0.14 mV; P < 0.001), velocities (6.2 +/- 2.8 vs. 11.5 +/- 4.7 mm/s; P < 0.001), and activated areas (20.6 +/- 1.9 vs. 32.8 +/- 2.6 cm(2); P < 0.001). Entrainment mapping enables an accurate quantification of the effects of gastric pacing on slow-wave activity, offering an improved method to assess whether pacing protocols are likely to achieve physiologically and clinically useful outcomes. PMID:19926815

  14. Temporary leadless pacing in a patient with severe device infection.

    PubMed

    Kypta, Alexander; Blessberger, Hermann; Lichtenauer, Michael; Steinwender, Clemens

    2016-05-17

    A 64-year-old patient underwent implantation of a transcatheter pacing systems (TPS) for severe lead endocarditis. The patient experienced fever after a dental procedure. On the transoesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), vegetations were attached to the leads. Because the patient was pacemaker dependent, a temporary pacing lead had to be placed. After removal, however, he did not improve. A second TEE showed new vegetations. Ventricular fibrillation occurred spontaneously; so isoprenalin had to be stopped and a new lead was implanted. Vegetations appeared soon after the new temporary lead was placed. We used a TPS as a bridging device, followed by implantation of a resynchronisation system, and explantation of the TPS. After the Micra TPS was implanted, the patient recovered noticeably. All inflammation parameters were negative and an additional (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT imaging also proved to be negative. So a CRT-D device was then implanted, and the TCP was removed.

  15. Temporary leadless pacing in a patient with severe device infection.

    PubMed

    Kypta, Alexander; Blessberger, Hermann; Lichtenauer, Michael; Steinwender, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old patient underwent implantation of a transcatheter pacing systems (TPS) for severe lead endocarditis. The patient experienced fever after a dental procedure. On the transoesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), vegetations were attached to the leads. Because the patient was pacemaker dependent, a temporary pacing lead had to be placed. After removal, however, he did not improve. A second TEE showed new vegetations. Ventricular fibrillation occurred spontaneously; so isoprenalin had to be stopped and a new lead was implanted. Vegetations appeared soon after the new temporary lead was placed. We used a TPS as a bridging device, followed by implantation of a resynchronisation system, and explantation of the TPS. After the Micra TPS was implanted, the patient recovered noticeably. All inflammation parameters were negative and an additional (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT imaging also proved to be negative. So a CRT-D device was then implanted, and the TCP was removed. PMID:27190123

  16. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... team denies a request for services or payment, the PACE organization must give a participant written... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PACE organization's appeals process. 460.122... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For...

  17. Left ventricular guidewire pacing for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Guérios, Enio E; Wenaweser, Peter; Meier, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports prove the safety and efficacy of cardiac pacing employing a guidewire in the left ventricle as unipolar pacing electrode. We describe the use of left ventricular guidewire pacing as an alternative to conventional transvenous temporary right ventricular pacing in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

  18. Assessment of a Regional Transportation Education Alliance To Improve Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Beverly T.

    This report examines issues related to transportation education, with the objective of developing and packaging transportation-related materials for use in college and university transportation education programs. The study was conducted by the Southwest Region University Transportation Center (SWUTC) region, but it is expected that the results…

  19. Neurophysiological determinants of theoretical concepts and mechanisms involved in pacing.

    PubMed

    Roelands, Bart; de Koning, Jos; Foster, Carl; Hettinga, Floor; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-05-01

    improve performance. The distribution of the power output reveals that after dopamine reuptake inhibition, subjects are able to maintain a higher power output compared with placebo. Manipulations of serotonin and, especially, noradrenaline, have the opposite effect and force subjects to decrease power output early in the time trial. Interestingly, after manipulation of brain serotonin, subjects are often unable to perform an end sprint, indicating an absence of a reserve capacity or motivation to increase power output. Taken together, it appears that many factors, such as ambient conditions and manipulation of brain neurotransmitters, have the potential to influence power output during exercise, and might thus be involved as regulatory mechanisms in the complex skill of pacing.

  20. A Simulation Study of Paced TCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulik, Joanna; Coulter, Robert; Rockwell, Dennis; Partridge, Craig

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of paced TCP, a modified version of TCP designed especially for high delay- bandwidth networks. In typical networks, TCP optimizes its send-rate by transmitting increasingly large bursts, or windows, of packets, one burst per round-trip time, until it reaches a maximum window-size, which corresponds to the full capacity of the network. In a network with a high delay-bandwidth product, however, Transmission Control Protocol's (TCPs) maximum window-size may be larger than the queue size of the intermediate routers, and routers will begin to drop packets as soon as the windows become too large for the router queues. The TCP sender then concludes that the bottleneck capacity of the network has been reached, and it limits its send-rate accordingly. Partridge proposed paced TCP as a means of solving the problem of queueing bottlenecks. A sender using paced TCP would release packets in multiple, small bursts during a round-trip time in which ordinary TCP would release a single, large burst of packets. This approach allows the sender to increase its send-rate to the maximum window size without encountering queueing bottlenecks. This paper describes the performance of paced TCP in a simulated network and discusses implementation details that can affect the performance of paced TCP.

  1. Permanent cardiac pacing in Malaysia. An update.

    PubMed

    Saw, H S; Chong, K T; Singham, A M

    1981-10-01

    Updated data on permanent cardiac pacing in Malaysia is presented. Over the past 3 1/2 years (1976-1980), 75 patients underwent insertion of pacemakers giving an annual incidence of about 20 cases as compared with a total of 21 cases in the previous 8 years (1968-1977). Many of the features reported in an earlier paper in 1977 viz mode of presentation, age and sex distribution and indications for pacing remain unchanged. Over this period only 4 patients required lead replacement. Since concentrating mainly on the use of epicardial leads implanted via a subxiphoid approach, complications have been remarkably low. The problem of availability of pacemakers has been averted. Cost remains a major consideration when recommending one pacemaker in preference over another. The details concerning clinical features, indications for pacing, complications and other problems encountered in the management of these patients are discussed.

  2. The formation of bronchocutaneous fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Patris, Vasileios; Argiriou, Michalis; Salem, Agni-Leila; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Charitos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Temporary epicardial pacing wires during open-heart surgery are routinely used both for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In complicated cases where patients are unstable or the wires are difficult to remove, the pacing wires are cut at the skin level and allowed to retract by themselves. This procedure rarely causes complications. However, there have been cases reporting that retained pacing wires are linked to the formation of sterno-bronchial fistulae, which may present a while after the date of operation and are usually infected. This review aims to study the cases presenting sterno-bronchial fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires and to highlight the important factors associated with these. It is important to note these complications, as fistulae may cause a variety of problems to the patient if undiagnosed and left untreated. With the aid of scans such as fistulography, fistulae can be identified and treated and will improve the patients’ health dramatically. PMID:27716700

  3. Regional anesthesia for the trauma patient: improving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Jeff; Warlick, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a significant health problem and a leading cause of death in all age groups. Pain related to trauma is frequently severe, but is often undertreated in the trauma population. Opioids are widely used to treat pain in injured patients but have a broad range of undesirable effects in a multitrauma patient such as neurologic and respiratory impairment and delirium. In contrast, regional analgesia confers excellent site-specific pain relief that is free from major side effects, reduces opioid requirement in trauma patients, and is safe and easy to perform. Specific populations that have shown benefits (including morbidity and mortality advantages) with regional analgesic techniques include those with fractured ribs, femur and hip fractures, and patients undergoing digital replantation. Acute compartment syndrome is a potentially devastating sequela of soft-tissue injury that complicates high-energy injuries such as proximal tibia fractures. The use of regional anesthesia in patients at risk for compartment syndrome is controversial; although the data is sparse, there is no evidence that peripheral nerve blocks delay the diagnosis, and these techniques may in fact facilitate the recognition of pathologic breakthrough pain. The benefits of regional analgesia are likely most influential when it is initiated as early as possible, and the performance of nerve blocks both in the emergency room and in the field has been shown to provide quality pain relief with an excellent safety profile. PMID:26316813

  4. Evaluation of Long Term Effect of RV Apical Pacing on Global LV Function by Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Tilkar, Mahendra; Jain, Siddhant; Mondal, Subrata; Sarkar, Piyabi; Modi, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We very often face pacemaker implanted patients during follow-up with shortness of breath and effort intolerance inspite of normal clinical parameters. Aim The aim of our study is to evaluate the cause of effort intolerance and probable cause of sub-clinical Congestive Cardiac Failure (CCF) in a case of long term Right Ventricular (RV) apical pacing on global Left Ventricular (LV) function non- invasively by echocardiography. Materials and Methods We studied 54 patients (Male 42, Female 12) of complete heart block (CHB) with RV apical pacing (40 VVI and 14 DCP). Mean duration of pacing was 58+4 months. All patients underwent 24 hours Holter monitoring to determine the percentage of ventricular pacing beats. 2-D Echocardiography was done to assess the regional wall motion of abnormality and global LV ejection fraction by modified Simpson’s rule. These methods were coupled with the Doppler derived Myocardial Performance Index (MPI), tissue Doppler imaging, and mechanical regional dyssynchrony with 3-D Echocardiography. Data were analysed from 54 RV- apical paced patients and compared with age and body surface area of 60 controlled subjects (Male 46, Female 14). Results Evaluation of LV function in 54 patients demonstrated regional wall motion abnormality and Doppler study revealed both LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction compare with control subjects (regional wall motion abnormality 80±6% vs 30±3% with p-value<0.0001) which is proportional to the percentage of ventricular pacing beats (mean paced beat 78%). Global LVEF 50±4% vs 60±2% (p-valve <0.0001) and MPI 0.46 ±0.12 v/s 0.36±0.09 (p-value <0.0001). Conclusion RV–apical pacing induces iatrogenic electrical dyssynchrony which leads to remodeling of LV and produces mechanical dyssynchrony which is responsible for LV dysfunction. Alternate site of RV pacing and/or biventricular pacing should be done to maintain biventricular electrical synchrony which will preserve the LV function. PMID

  5. PACES Participation in Educational Outreach Programs at the University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Rebecca L.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is involved in several initiatives to improve science education within the El Paso area public schools. These include outreach efforts into the K- 12 classrooms; training programs for in-service teachers; and the introduction of a strong science core curricula within the College of Education. The Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES), a NASA-funded University Research Center, will leverage off the goals of these existing initiatives to provide curriculum support materials at all levels. We will use currently available Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) materials as well as new materials developed specifically for this region, in an effort to introduce the Earth System Science perspective into these programs. In addition, we are developing curriculum support materials and classes within the Geology and Computer Departments, to provide education in the area of remote sensing and GIS applications at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  6. Self-paced and externally triggered rhythmical lower limb movements: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Shibata, Midori; Kuriki, Shinya

    2012-05-10

    Self-paced rhythmical lower limb movement is an important component of locomotive motion in humans. External stimuli are known to facilitate the generation of rhythmical motion. The importance of such self-paced and externally triggered movements is widely recognized, and these movements of the upper limbs have been studied in detail. However, the difference in neural mechanisms between the self-paced and externally triggered movements of the lower limbs is not clear even in healthy subjects. The present study investigated the neural regions involved in the lower limb movements by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjects were fixed face-up to an MRI bed and performed lower limb movements that mimicked walking under self-paced and externally triggered conditions. The results showed that the supplementary motor area, sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum were involved in both types of movement, but the basal ganglia and the thalamus were selectively recruited for the self-paced lower limb movement. These results are compatible with those of previous studies on the control of the lower limbs, and on upper limb movement under self-paced and externally triggered conditions.

  7. An Integrated Preprofessional Individually Paced Instruction Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollom, Kenneth A.; Kurtz, Edwin B.

    The individually-paced instruction program carried out by the engineering faculty at Oklahoma State University is described in this article to illustrate its goals, principles, characteristics, developments, and present status. The instructional model is discussed in connection with behavioral objectives, criteria for performance, and student…

  8. Self-Paced Physics, Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Samples of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this collection for dissemination purposes. Descriptions are included of course objectives, characteristics, structures, and content. As a two-semester course of study for science and engineering sophomores, most topics are on a level comparable to that of classical physics by…

  9. Self-Paced Graphics with Track Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Garland K.

    An engineering graphics course offered at North Carolina State University for freshman engineering students is described. The course is divided into 14 units and the students are allowed to proceed at their own pace. The first 11 units comprise the required core; the remaining 3 units may be chosen from other areas such as computer graphics,…

  10. The potential and reality of permanent his bundle pacing.

    PubMed

    Barba-Pichardo, Rafael; Moriña-Vázquez, Pablo; Venegas-Gamero, José; Frutos-López, Manuel; Moreno-Lozano, Valle; Herrera-Carranza, Manuel

    2008-10-01

    Right ventricular apex pacing can have deleterious effects. Our aims were to investigate how many patients referred for permanent pacing were suitable candidates for permanent His bundle pacing, and to determine the proportion in whom such pacing was successful. All cases of suprahisian block and most cases of infrahisian block (71.4%) were corrected by temporary His bundle pacing. However, permanent His bundle pacing was achieved in only 55% of cases in which it was attempted, and in only 35.4% of all possible cases. PMID:18817687

  11. Improving SLCF Science in the Himalayan Region: ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, A. K.; Pradhan, B. B.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    What fraction of the black carbon arriving on Yala Glacier in Langtang, Nepal, is from cooking fires in the houses in the valley below? What fraction is from elsewhere in rural Nepal? What fraction is from industrial and transport sources in Kathmandu? What fraction is from northern India and beyond? What fraction is from the high altitude forest fires that take place during March or April? Effectively mitigating the impacts of black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers requires detailed understanding not just of emissions and impacts, but also of the atmospheric transport pathways that connect the two. In mountainous areas of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya detailed quantitative knowledge about emissions, atmospheric processes, and impacts is still largely missing. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental organization covering Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. ICIMOD's recently established Atmosphere Initiative not only assesses mitigation options and contributes to policy and capacity building in the region, but also works actively to promote collaboration among researchers in the region, while building up an in-house team whose research will address key questions about SLCF. In Spring 2013 ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative, in collaboration with the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany, carried out the largest field campaign to date in Nepal, hosting instruments belonging to dozens of institutions around the world, at nine field site within and upwind of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The dataset that has been collected gives unprecedented insights into the emissions and atmospheric processes taking place downwind of and within the largest urban agglomeration in the Himalaya region. Meanwhile, in collaboration with national partner institutions, ICIMOD is in the process of setting up one atmospheric observatory each in Bhutan and in

  12. Improving a regional model using reduced complexity and parameter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelson, Victor A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Haitjema, Henk M.

    2002-01-01

    The availability of powerful desktop computers and graphical user interfaces for ground water flow models makes possible the construction of ever more complex models. A proposed copper-zinc sulfide mine in northern Wisconsin offers a unique case in which the same hydrologic system has been modeled using a variety of techniques covering a wide range of sophistication and complexity. Early in the permitting process, simple numerical models were used to evaluate the necessary amount of water to be pumped from the mine, reductions in streamflow, and the drawdowns in the regional aquifer. More complex models have subsequently been used in an attempt to refine the predictions. Even after so much modeling effort, questions regarding the accuracy and reliability of the predictions remain. We have performed a new analysis of the proposed mine using the two-dimensional analytic element code GFLOW coupled with the nonlinear parameter estimation code UCODE. The new model is parsimonious, containing fewer than 10 parameters, and covers a region several times larger in areal extent than any of the previous models. The model demonstrates the suitability of analytic element codes for use with parameter estimation codes. The simplified model results are similar to the more complex models; predicted mine inflows and UCODE-derived 95% confidence intervals are consistent with the previous predictions. More important, the large areal extent of the model allowed us to examine hydrological features not included in the previous models, resulting in new insights about the effects that far-field boundary conditions can have on near-field model calibration and parameterization. In this case, the addition of surface water runoff into a lake in the headwaters of a stream while holding recharge constant moved a regional ground watershed divide and resulted in some of the added water being captured by the adjoining basin. Finally, a simple analytical solution was used to clarify the GFLOW model

  13. Toward a More Efficient Implementation of Antifibrillation Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We devise a methodology to determine an optimal pattern of inputs to synchronize firing patterns of cardiac cells which only requires the ability to measure action potential durations in individual cells. In numerical bidomain simulations, the resulting synchronizing inputs are shown to terminate spiral waves with a higher probability than comparable inputs that do not synchronize the cells as strongly. These results suggest that designing stimuli which promote synchronization in cardiac tissue could improve the success rate of defibrillation, and point towards novel strategies for optimizing antifibrillation pacing. PMID:27391010

  14. Regionalization of services improves access to emergency vascular surgical care.

    PubMed

    Roche-Nagle, G; Bachynski, K; Nathens, A B; Angoulvant, D; Rubin, B B

    2013-04-01

    Management of vascular surgical emergencies requires rapid access to a vascular surgeon and hospital with the infrastructure necessary to manage vascular emergencies. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of regionalization of vascular surgery services in Toronto to University Health Network (UHN) and St Michael's Hospital (SMH) on the ability of CritiCall Ontario to transfer patients with life- and limb-threatening vascular emergencies for definitive care. A retrospective review of the CritiCall Ontario database was used to assess the outcome of all calls to CritiCall regarding patients with vascular disease from April 2003 to March 2010. The number of patients with vascular emergencies referred via CritiCall and accepted in transfer by the vascular centers at UHN or SMH increased 500% between 1 April 2003-31 December 2005 and 1 January 2006-31 March 2010. Together, the vascular centers at UHN and SMH accepted 94.8% of the 1002 vascular surgery patients referred via CritiCall from other hospitals between 1 January 2006 and 31 March 2010, and 72% of these patients originated in hospitals outside of the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Across Ontario, the number of physicians contacted before a patient was accepted in transfer fell from 2.9 ± 0.4 before to 1.7 ± 0.3 after the vascular centers opened. In conclusion, the vascular surgery centers at UHN and SMH have become provincial resources that enable the efficient transfer of patients with vascular surgical emergencies from across Ontario. Regionalization of services is a viable model to increase access to emergent care. PMID:23508395

  15. Improved Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization for regional infrasound

    DOE PAGES

    Blom, Philip S.; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2015-10-20

    The Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) methodology is examined and simplified providing a generalized method of estimating the source location and time for an infrasonic event and the mathematical framework is used therein. The likelihood function describing an infrasonic detection used in BISL has been redefined to include the von Mises distribution developed in directional statistics and propagation-based, physically derived celerity-range and azimuth deviation models. Frameworks for constructing propagation-based celerity-range and azimuth deviation statistics are presented to demonstrate how stochastic propagation modelling methods can be used to improve the precision and accuracy of the posterior probability density function describing themore » source localization. Infrasonic signals recorded at a number of arrays in the western United States produced by rocket motor detonations at the Utah Test and Training Range are used to demonstrate the application of the new mathematical framework and to quantify the improvement obtained by using the stochastic propagation modelling methods. Moreover, using propagation-based priors, the spatial and temporal confidence bounds of the source decreased by more than 40 per cent in all cases and by as much as 80 per cent in one case. Further, the accuracy of the estimates remained high, keeping the ground truth within the 99 per cent confidence bounds for all cases.« less

  16. Improved Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization for regional infrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Philip S.; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2015-10-20

    The Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) methodology is examined and simplified providing a generalized method of estimating the source location and time for an infrasonic event and the mathematical framework is used therein. The likelihood function describing an infrasonic detection used in BISL has been redefined to include the von Mises distribution developed in directional statistics and propagation-based, physically derived celerity-range and azimuth deviation models. Frameworks for constructing propagation-based celerity-range and azimuth deviation statistics are presented to demonstrate how stochastic propagation modelling methods can be used to improve the precision and accuracy of the posterior probability density function describing the source localization. Infrasonic signals recorded at a number of arrays in the western United States produced by rocket motor detonations at the Utah Test and Training Range are used to demonstrate the application of the new mathematical framework and to quantify the improvement obtained by using the stochastic propagation modelling methods. Moreover, using propagation-based priors, the spatial and temporal confidence bounds of the source decreased by more than 40 per cent in all cases and by as much as 80 per cent in one case. Further, the accuracy of the estimates remained high, keeping the ground truth within the 99 per cent confidence bounds for all cases.

  17. Improved Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization for regional infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Philip S.; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    The mathematical framework used in the Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) methodology is examined and simplified providing a generalized method of estimating the source location and time for an infrasonic event. The likelihood function describing an infrasonic detection used in BISL has been redefined to include the von Mises distribution developed in directional statistics and propagation-based, physically derived celerity-range and azimuth deviation models. Frameworks for constructing propagation-based celerity-range and azimuth deviation statistics are presented to demonstrate how stochastic propagation modelling methods can be used to improve the precision and accuracy of the posterior probability density function describing the source localization. Infrasonic signals recorded at a number of arrays in the western United States produced by rocket motor detonations at the Utah Test and Training Range are used to demonstrate the application of the new mathematical framework and to quantify the improvement obtained by using the stochastic propagation modelling methods. Using propagation-based priors, the spatial and temporal confidence bounds of the source decreased by more than 40 per cent in all cases and by as much as 80 per cent in one case. Further, the accuracy of the estimates remained high, keeping the ground truth within the 99 per cent confidence bounds for all cases.

  18. Optimal pacing for symptomatic AV block: a comparison of VDD and DDD pacing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Max; Krahn, Andrew D; Yee, Raymond; Klein, George J; Skanes, Allan C

    2003-12-01

    VDD pacing provides the physiological benefits of atrioventricular synchronous pacing with the convenience of a single lead system, but is hampered by uncertainty regarding long-term atrial sensing and potential development of sinus node disease. To examine the long-term reliability and complication rates of VDD pacing, we compared the outcome of 112 consecutive patients (age 70 +/- 13 years, 59% male) with symptomatic AV block who received a single pass bipolar VDD system to 80 patients (age 63 +/- 16 years, 70% male) who received DDD pacing for the same indication. All patients were judged to have intact sinus node function based on submitted ECGs and monitoring results at the time of implant. Implant time was reduced in VDD patients compared to DDD patients (63 +/- 20 vs 97 +/- 36 minutes, P < 0.0001). Implant complications occurred in 5 (6%) DDD patients compared to 3 (3%) VDD patients (P = 0.15). The implant P wave was lower with VDD pacing compared to DDD patients (2.91 +/- 1.48 vs 4.0 +/- 1.7 mV, P < 0.0001), but remained stable during long-term follow-up in both groups. During 17.7 +/- 10.0 months of follow-up in the VDD group, only 2 VDD patients were reprogrammed to VVIR mode, compared to 3 DDD patients. Physiological atrioventricular activation was maintained in 94%-99% of beats throughout the follow-up period in the VDD group. VDD pacing is an excellent strategy for treatment of patients with symptomatic AV block. The lower cost, high reliability, and abbreviated implantation time suggest that VDD pacing is a viable alternative to DDD pacing in patients with high-degree AV block and normal sinus node function.

  19. Optimal pacing for symptomatic AV block: a comparison of VDD and DDD pacing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Max; Krahn, Andrew D; Yee, Raymond; Klein, George J; Skanes, Allan C

    2004-01-01

    VDD pacing provides the physiological benefits of atrioventricular synchronous pacing with the convenience of a single lead system, but is hampered by uncertainty regarding long term atrial sensing and potential development of sinus node disease. To examine the long-term reliability and complication rates of VDD pacing, we compared the outcome of 112 consecutive patients (age 70 +/- 13 years, 59% men) with symptomatic AV block who received a single pass bipolar VDD system, to 80 patients (age 63 +/- 16 years, 70% men) who received DDD pacing for the same indication. All patients were judged to have intact sinus node function based on submitted ECGs and monitoring results at the time of implant. Implant time was reduced in VDD patients compared to DDD patients (63 +/- 20 vs 97 +/- 36 minutes, P < 0.0001). Implant complications occurred in 5 (6%) DDD patients compared to 3 (3%) VDD patients (P = 0.15). The implant P wave was lower with VDD pacing compared to DDD patients (2.91 +/- 1.48 vs 4.0 +/- 1.7 mv, P < 0.0001), but remained stable during long-term follow-up in both groups. During 17.7 +/- 10.0 months of follow-up in the VDD group, only two VDD patients were reprogrammed to VVIR mode, compared to three DDD patients. Physiological atrioventricular activation was maintained in 94%-99% of beats throughout the follow-up period in the VDD group. VDD pacing is an excellent strategy for treatment of patients with symptomatic AV block. The lower cost, high reliability, and abbreviated implantation time suggest that VDD pacing is a viable alternative to DDD pacing in patients with high degree AV block and normal sinus node function.

  20. The Pace of Perceivable Extreme Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.; Gan, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    When will the signal of obvious changes in extreme climate emerge over climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key question for planning and implementing measures to mitigate the potential impact of climate change to natural and human systems that are generally adapted to potential changes from current variability. We estimated ToEs for the magnitude, duration and frequency of global extreme climate represented by 24 extreme climate indices (16 for temperature and 8 for precipitation) with different thresholds of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio based on projections of CMIP5 global climate models under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 for the 21st century. The uncertainty of ToE is assessed by using 3 different methods to calculate S/N for each extreme index. Results show that ToEs of the projected extreme climate indices based on the RCP4.5 climate scenarios are generally projected to happen about 20 years later than that for the RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Under RCP8.5, the projected magnitude, duration and frequency of extreme temperature on Earth will all exceed 2 standard deviations by 2100, and the empirical 50th percentile of the global ToE for the frequency and magnitude of hot (cold) extreme are about 2040 and 2054 (2064 and 2054) for S/N > 2, respectively. The 50th percentile of global ToE for the intensity of extreme precipitation is about 2030 and 2058 for S/N >0.5 and S/N >1, respectively. We further evaluated the exposure of ecosystems and human societies to the pace of extreme climate change by determining the year of ToE for various extreme climate indices projected to occur over terrestrial biomes, marine realms and major urban areas with large populations. This was done by overlaying terrestrial, ecoregions and population maps with maps of ToE derived, to extract ToEs for these regions. Possible relationships between GDP per person and ToE are also investigated by relating the mean ToE for each country and its average value of GDP per person.

  1. Single chamber atrial pacing: an underused and cost-effective pacing modality in sinus node disease

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, K; Connelly, D; Charles, R

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To determine the safety and cost effectiveness of single chamber atrial pacing in patients with sinus node disease.
Design—Retrospective follow up study.
Setting—Tertiary referral centre.
Patients—81 patients with single chamber atrial pacemakers implanted between 1992 and 1996.
Main outcome measures—The development of high grade atrioventricular block resulting in a further pacemaker procedure. The cost savings of changing our current pacing practice to conform with British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group guidelines.
Results—During the follow up period, four patients (5.8%) required a further procedure to upgrade their atrial pacemaker to a dual chamber system owing to the development of high grade atrioventricular block. In 1995 and 1996, 343 pacemakers were implanted in patients with sinus node disease; 19 (5.5%) received single chamber atrial pacemakers and 271 (79%) dual chamber pacemakers. If the current pacing practice was changed so that all patients received single chamber atrial pacemakers, with revision for symptomatic atrioventricular block, savings in excess of £206 000 would have been made in the two year period.
Conclusions—Atrial pacing in patients with sinus node disease is underused. The need for patients to undergo further procedures owing to the development of atrioventricular block is small and significant cost savings could be made by changing pacemaker practice.

 Keywords: sinus node disease;  atrial pacing;  cost effectiveness PMID:9875119

  2. The Problem of Pacing a Student Learning at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Ronald M.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of pacing distance learning students is discussed together with suggested pacing methods: insertion of questions in text of study guides; short-term, regular assignments; tutorial letters; audiocassette and videotape usage; and computer assisted instruction. (MBR)

  3. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  4. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  5. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  6. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  7. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  8. Improved construction materials for polar regions using microcellular thermoplastic foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Microcellular polymer foams (MCF) are thermoplastic foams with very small cell diameters, less than 10 microns, and very large cell densities, 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 15) cells per cubic centimeter of unfoamed material. The concept of foaming polymers with microcellular voids was conceived to reduce the amount of material used for mass-produced items without compromising the mechanical properties. The reasoning behind this concept was that if voids smaller than the critical flaw size pre-existing in polymers were introduced into the matrix, they would not affect the overall strength of the product. MCF polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were examined to determine the effects of the microstructure towards the mechanical properties of the materials at room and arctic temperatures. Batch process parameters were discovered for these materials and foamed samples of three densities were produced for each material. To quantify the toughness and strength of these polymers, the tensile yield strength, tensile toughness, and impact resistance were measured at room and arctic temperatures. The feasibility of MCF polymers has been demonstrated by the consistent and repeatable MCF microstructures formed, but the improvements in the mechanical properties were not conclusive. Therefore the usefulness of the MCF polymers to replace other materials in arctic environments is questionable.

  9. PACE (Revised). Resource Guide. Research & Development Series No. 240D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This resource guide contains information on the Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE) materials, a glossary, and listings of sources of information. Introductory materials include a description of PACE, information on use of PACE materials, and objectives of the 18 units for all three levels at which they are developed. An…

  10. 77 FR 3958 - Mortgage Assets Affected by PACE Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... assets affected by Property Assessed Clean Energy (``PACE'') programs and Notice of Intent (``NOI'') to... property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs.'' In response to and compliance with the California... property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs.'' The California District Court further ordered that ``...

  11. Applying 20/20 Hindsight to Self-Pacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleberger, Gary E.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several suggestions for the maintenance of a science self-paced classroom. Topics include the use of computers for student self-assessment, teachers and students roles in the self-paced classroom, and laboratory setup and packaging in the self-paced science laboratory. (Author/DS)

  12. Pacing, Pixels, and Paper: Flexibility in Learning Words from Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Kara; Rausch, Joseph; Quirk, Abigail; Halladay, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on how self-control over pace might help learners successfully extract information from digital learning aids. Past research has indicated that too much control over pace can be overwhelming, but too little control over pace can be ineffective. Within the popular self-testing domain of flashcards, we sought to elucidate…

  13. The Efficacy of PACE in the Remediation of Naming Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Edith Chin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study compared PACE (Promoting Aphasics' Communicative Effectiveness) and traditional stimulation therapy in the remediation of naming deficits in a 66-year-old conduction aphasic. In PACE, client and clinician engage in natural interaction sequences using multiple channels, including gestures, to communicate. PACE resulted in greater gains in…

  14. His bundle pacing: Initial experience and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amrish; Deshmukh, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Direct His bundle pacing provides the most physiologic means of artificial pacing of the ventricles with a preserved His-Purkinje system and may play a role in patients with a diseased intrinsic conduction system. We describe our initial motivations and experience with permanent direct His bundle pacing and important lessons learned since that time. PMID:27591359

  15. State of the art of leadless pacing

    PubMed Central

    Sperzel, Johannes; Burri, Haran; Gras, Daniel; Tjong, Fleur V.Y.; Knops, Reinoud E.; Hindricks, Gerhard; Steinwender, Clemens; Defaye, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Despite undisputable benefits, conventional pacemaker therapy is associated with specific complications related to the subcutaneous device and the transvenous leads. Recently, two miniaturized leadless pacemakers, Nanostim™ (St. Jude Medical) and Micra™ (Medtronic), which can be completely implanted inside the right ventricle using steerable delivery systems, entered clinical application. The WiCS™-cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) system (wireless cardiac stimulation for CRT, EBR Systems) delivers leadless left ventricular endocardial stimulation for cardiac resynchronization. In addition to obvious cosmetic benefits, leadless pacing systems may have the potential to overcome some complications of conventional pacing. However, acute and long-term complications still remains to be determined, as well as the feasibility of device explantation years after device placement. PMID:26024918

  16. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaudi, L. R.; Rossi, E.; Mántaras, M. C.; Perrone, M. S.; Siri, L. Nicola

    2007-11-01

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  17. Gait Alterations During Constant Pace Treadmill Racewalking.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Racewalking is an Olympic event requiring great endurance, and racewalkers often use treadmills in training because of the benefits of having a flat unchanging surface where pace judgment can be learned and because inclement weather can be avoided. The effects of fatigue associated with racewalking on a treadmill have not been studied and could be informative with regard to the maintenance of legal technique. The aim of this study was to measure key gait variables during a physically demanding treadmill racewalk. Fourteen international racewalkers completed 10 km on an instrumented treadmill at a pace equivalent to 103% of their recent best time. Spatiotemporal and ground reaction force data were recorded at 4 distances. High-speed videography data were simultaneously recorded to analyze changes in knee angle between the early and late stages. Increases in step length and corresponding decreases in cadence were found, although the small changes were not considered meaningful. There was also a small increase in flight time and a small decrease in push-off force. There were no other significant changes for any other variables (including knee angles). The increase in flight time might be important given that racewalkers are not permitted a visible loss of contact and suggests that fatiguing sessions on a treadmill can lead to the adoption of nonlegal technique. However, this disadvantage of treadmill training can be negated if the coach scrutinizes athletes throughout the session, and overall the consistent technique used is of benefit with regard to learning correct form and pacing ability. PMID:25647657

  18. An Exploratory Study of Student-Paced versus Teacher-Paced Accommodations for Large-Scale Math Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Keith; Rozek-Tedesco, Marick A.; Tindal, Gerald; Glasgow, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether a teacher-paced video (TPV) accommodation or a student-paced computer (SPC) accommodation provided differential access for student with disabilities versus their general education peers on a large-scale math test. It found that although both pacing accommodations significantly influenced mean scores, the SPC…

  19. Regional scale evidence for improvements in surface water chemistry 1990-2001.

    PubMed

    Skjelkvåle, B L; Stoddard, J L; Jeffries, D S; Tørseth, K; Høgåsen, T; Bowman, J; Mannio, J; Monteith, D T; Mosello, R; Rogora, M; Rzychon, D; Vesely, J; Wieting, J; Wilander, A; Worsztynowicz, A

    2005-09-01

    The main aim of the international UNECE monitoring program ICP Waters under the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to assess, on a regional basis, the degree and geographical extent of the impact of atmospheric pollution, in particular acidification, on surface waters. Regional trends are calculated for 12 geographical regions in Europe and North America, comprising 189 surface waters sites. From 1990-2001 sulphate concentrations decreased in all but one of the investigated regions. Nitrate increased in only one region, and decreased in three North American regions. Improvements in alkalinity and pH are widely observed. Results from the ICP Waters programme clearly show widespread improvement in surface water acid-base chemistry, in response to emissions controls programs and decreasing acidic deposition. Limited site-specific biological data suggest that continued improvement in the chemical status of acid-sensitive lakes and streams will lead to biological recovery in the future.

  20. Regional scale evidence for improvements in surface water chemistry 1990-2001.

    PubMed

    Skjelkvåle, B L; Stoddard, J L; Jeffries, D S; Tørseth, K; Høgåsen, T; Bowman, J; Mannio, J; Monteith, D T; Mosello, R; Rogora, M; Rzychon, D; Vesely, J; Wieting, J; Wilander, A; Worsztynowicz, A

    2005-09-01

    The main aim of the international UNECE monitoring program ICP Waters under the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to assess, on a regional basis, the degree and geographical extent of the impact of atmospheric pollution, in particular acidification, on surface waters. Regional trends are calculated for 12 geographical regions in Europe and North America, comprising 189 surface waters sites. From 1990-2001 sulphate concentrations decreased in all but one of the investigated regions. Nitrate increased in only one region, and decreased in three North American regions. Improvements in alkalinity and pH are widely observed. Results from the ICP Waters programme clearly show widespread improvement in surface water acid-base chemistry, in response to emissions controls programs and decreasing acidic deposition. Limited site-specific biological data suggest that continued improvement in the chemical status of acid-sensitive lakes and streams will lead to biological recovery in the future. PMID:15944047

  1. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement....

  2. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a...

  3. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement....

  4. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement....

  5. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a...

  6. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement....

  7. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a...

  8. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a...

  9. Comparison of effectiveness of right ventricular septal pacing versus right ventricular apical pacing.

    PubMed

    Cano, Oscar; Osca, Joaquín; Sancho-Tello, María-José; Sánchez, Juan M; Ortiz, Víctor; Castro, José E; Salvador, Antonio; Olagüe, José

    2010-05-15

    Chronic right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) has been associated with negative hemodynamic and clinical effects. The aim of the present study was to compare RVAP with right ventricular septal pacing (RVSP) in terms of echocardiographic features and clinical outcomes. A total of 93 patients without structural heart disease and with an indication for a permanent pacemaker were randomly assigned to receive a screw-in lead either in the RV apex (n = 46) or in the RV mid-septum (n = 47). The patients were divided into 3 subgroups according to the percentage of ventricular pacing: control group (n = 21, percentage of ventricular pacing < or =10%), RVAP group (n = 28), or RVSP group (n = 32; both latter groups had a percentage of ventricular pacing >10%). The RVAP group had more intraventricular dyssynchrony and a trend toward a worse left ventricular ejection fraction compared to the RVSP and control groups at 12 months of follow-up (maximal delay to peak systolic velocity between any of the 6 left ventricular basal segments was 57.8 +/- 38.2, 35.5 +/- 20.6, and 36.5 +/- 17.8 ms for RVAP, RVSP, and control group, respectively; p = 0.006; mean left ventricular ejection fraction 62.9 +/- 7.9%, 66.5 +/- 7.2%, and 66.6 +/- 7.2%, respectively, p = 0.14). Up to 48.1% of the RVAP patients showed significant intraventricular dyssynchrony compared to 19.4% of the RVSP patients and 23.8% of the controls (p = 0.04). However, no overt clinical benefits from RVSP were found. In conclusion, RVAP was associated with increased dyssynchrony compared to the RVSP and control patients. RVSP could represent an alternative pacing site in selected patients to reduce the harmful effects of traditional RVAP. PMID:20451689

  10. Application of PACE Principles for Population Health Management of Frail Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Reich, Shelley; Casiano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    To determine which practices would have the most impact on reducing hospital and emergency department admissions and nursing home placement among older adults with multiple comorbid conditions, a literature search and survey were conducted to identify and prioritize comprehensive care principles as practiced in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE medical directors and members of the PACE interdisciplinary team (IDT) were surveyed to gain their insights on the most impactful practices, which were identified as: End-of-Life Management, Caregiver Support, Management of Red Flags, Medication Management, Participant and Caregiver Health Care System Literacy, and Care Coordination. In addition, this research evaluated measures that could be used to assess an organization's level of success with regard to each of the 6 PACE practices identified. The results reported in this article, found through a survey with PACE medical directors and IDT members concerning effective interventions, can be viewed as strategies to improve care for older adults, enabling them to maintain their independence in the community, avoid the expense of facility-based care, and enhance their quality of life.

  11. A biophysically based finite-state machine model for analyzing gastric experimental entrainment and pacing recordings.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Shameer; Trew, Mark L; Du, Peng; O'Grady, Greg; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal motility is coordinated by slow waves (SWs) generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Experimental studies have shown that SWs spontaneously activate at different intrinsic frequencies in isolated tissue, whereas in intact tissues they are entrained to a single frequency. Gastric pacing has been used in an attempt to improve motility in disorders such as gastroparesis by modulating entrainment, but the optimal methods of pacing are currently unknown. Computational models can aid in the interpretation of complex in vivo recordings and help to determine optimal pacing strategies. However, previous computational models of SW entrainment are limited to the intrinsic pacing frequency as the primary determinant of the conduction velocity, and are not able to accurately represent the effects of external stimuli and electrical anisotropies. In this paper, we present a novel computationally efficient method for modeling SW propagation through the ICC network while accounting for conductivity parameters and fiber orientations. The method successfully reproduced experimental recordings of entrainment following gastric transection and the effects of gastric pacing on SW activity. It provides a reliable new tool for investigating gastric electrophysiology in normal and diseased states, and to guide and focus future experimental studies. PMID:24276722

  12. Maine PACE Program Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Dana; Adamson, Joy M

    2015-01-30

    The ARRA EECBG BetterBuilding helped augment the existing Home Energy Savings Programs (HESP) and incentives with financing through a subordinate lien PACE and HUD PowerSaver programs. The program was designed to document innovative techniques to dramatically increase the number of homes participating in weatherization programs in participating towns. Maine will support new energy efficiency retrofit pilots throughout the state, designed to motivate a large number of homeowners to invest in comprehensive home energy efficiency upgrades to bring real solutions to market.

  13. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Resende, Letícia de S; Pedretti Gomes, Karla C; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson; Remy, Gabriella L; Almeida Ramos, Valdir de

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. Proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. The addition of cinnamon reduced the proportion of pacing during and after enrichment (Wilcoxon: Z = 3.16, p < .001; Z = 3.16, p < .001, respectively), indicating a prolonged effect of the enrichment on the animals' behavior. Catnip appears to have elicited no significant difference in the stereotypic pacing before, during, or after the enrichment (Friedman: X(2) = 2.69; p = .260). The results highlight the potential use of cinnamon as a method of environmental enrichment for small captive-housed cats.

  14. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Resende, Letícia de S; Pedretti Gomes, Karla C; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson; Remy, Gabriella L; Almeida Ramos, Valdir de

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. Proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. The addition of cinnamon reduced the proportion of pacing during and after enrichment (Wilcoxon: Z = 3.16, p < .001; Z = 3.16, p < .001, respectively), indicating a prolonged effect of the enrichment on the animals' behavior. Catnip appears to have elicited no significant difference in the stereotypic pacing before, during, or after the enrichment (Friedman: X(2) = 2.69; p = .260). The results highlight the potential use of cinnamon as a method of environmental enrichment for small captive-housed cats. PMID:22044295

  15. Classification of similar but differently paced activities in the KTH dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Shreeya; Wang, Hui; Ojha, Piyush; Blackburn, William

    2015-02-01

    The KTH video dataset [1] contains three activities - walking, jogging and running - which are very similar but are carried out at a different natural pace. We show that explicit inclusion of a feature which may be interpreted as a measure of the overall state of motion in a frame improves a classifier's ability to discriminate between these activities.

  16. Suppression of electrical storm by biventricular pacing in a patient with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yasutaka; Chinushi, Masaomi; Washizuka, Takashi; Minagawa, Shirou; Furushima, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Yukio; Komura, Satoru; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a patient with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who had suffered from multiple ICD shocks. Amiodarone and a beta-blocker failed to suppress ventricular tachycardia. His ECG showed a very wide QRS complex with an intraventricular conduction delay, so biventricular (BV) pacing was attempted. The BV pacing successfully prevented the multiple ICD shocks accompanied with an improvement in left ventricular systolic function and physical activity.

  17. Use of balloon flotation pacing catheters for prophylactic temporary pacing during diagnostic and therapeutic catheterization procedures.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J R; Wyman, R M; McKay, R G; Baim, D S

    1988-11-01

    The use of prophylactic temporary pacemakers during diagnostic catheterization, coronary angioplasty and percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty was investigated retrospectively over an 18-month period. Balloon flotation temporary pacemaker leads were placed in 193 (12%) of 1,609 patients undergoing diagnostic catheterization, 641 (65%) of 993 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty and 199 (100%) of 199 patients undergoing aortic or mitral valvuloplasty. There were no perforations or significant arrhythmic complications related to pacemaker placement in these 1,033 cases, and pacing was initiated promptly when required by withdrawal of the catheter tip into the right ventricle. Significant bradycardia or new conduction defects developed in 17 patients (1%) during diagnostic catheterization, 10 patients (1%) during angioplasty and 20 patients (10%) during valvuloplasty, but were severe enough to require initiation of temporary pacing in only 1 (0.06%), 4 (0.4%) and 5 (2.5%) patients, respectively. No patient undergoing diagnostic catheterization or angioplasty (but 5 patients undergoing valvuloplasty) required immediate pacing support to treat a life-threatening bradycardia. The total cost of prophylactic pacemakers was $103,300, with a cost per actual use of $19,300 for diagnostic cases, $16,025 for angioplasty and $3,980 for balloon valvuloplasty. These data suggest that prophylactic temporary pacing is not indicated during either diagnostic catheterization or coronary angioplasty, but should be used routinely during balloon valvuloplasty.

  18. Let's Go! School Nutrition Workgroups: Regional Partnerships for Improving School Meals.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Heidi L; Vine, Jackie; Rogers, Victoria W

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a regional approach for improving the nutritional quality of school meals and increasing the selection of healthier foods. Let's Go! is a childhood obesity prevention program that establishes regional workgroups to develop innovative solutions to improve school meal programs. Let's Go! fosters collaborative decision making, specifically addressing the feasibility of proposed strategies, differences in school environments, and level of readiness for change. This approach led to 77 schools achieving the HealthierUS School Challenge and 130 schools implementing Smarter Lunchrooms techniques in school year 2011-2012. Communities nationwide could use a similar approach to improve school meals. PMID:25656712

  19. Sex differences in pacing during ‘Ultraman Hawaii’

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ held between 1983 and 2015. Methods Within each sex, participants were grouped in quartiles (i.e., Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) with Q1 being the fastest (i.e., lowest overall time) and Q4 the slowest (i.e., highest overall time). To compare performance among events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running), race time in each event was converted in z score and this value was used for further analysis. Results A between-within subjects ANOVA showed a large sex × event (p = 0.015, η2 = 0.014) and a medium performance group × event interaction (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.012). No main effect of event on performance was observed (p = 0.174, η2 = 0.007). With regard to the sex × event interaction, three female performance groups (i.e., Q2, Q3 and Q4) increased race time from swimming to cycling 1, whereas only one male performance group (Q4) revealed a similar trend. From cycling 1 to cycling 2, the two slower female groups (Q3 and Q4) and the slowest male group (Q4) increased raced time. In women, the fastest group decreased (i.e., improved) race time from swimming to cycling 1 and thereafter, maintained performance, whereas in men, the fastest group decreased race time till cycling 2 and increased it in the running. Conclusion In summary, women pace differently than men during ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ where the fastest women decreased performance on day 1 and could then maintain on day 2 and 3, whereas the fastest men worsened performance on day 1 and 2 but improved on day 3. PMID:27703854

  20. A review of multisite pacing to achieve cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Christopher Aldo; Burri, Haran; Thibault, Bernard; Curnis, Antonio; Rao, Archana; Gras, Daniel; Sperzel, Johannes; Singh, Jagmeet P; Biffi, Mauro; Bordachar, Pierre; Leclercq, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Non-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy remains a significant problem in up to 30% of patients. Multisite stimulation has emerged as a way of potentially overcoming non-response. This may be achieved by the use of multiple leads placed within the coronary sinus and its tributaries (dual-vein pacing) or more recently by the use of multipolar (quadripolar) left ventricular pacing leads which can deliver pacing stimuli at multiple sites within the same vein. This review covers the role of multisite pacing including the interaction with the underlying pathophysiology, the current and planned studies, and the potential pitfalls of this technology. PMID:25214507

  1. Pro-region engineering for improved yeast display and secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Puguh, Arthya; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V

    2016-03-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of neurological diseases. However, it is difficult to produce as a recombinant protein. In its native mammalian context, BDNF is first produced as a pro-protein with subsequent proteolytic removal of the pro-region to yield mature BDNF protein. Therefore, in an attempt to improve yeast as a host for heterologous BDNF production, the BDNF pro-region was first evaluated for its effects on BDNF surface display and secretion. Addition of the wild-type pro-region to yeast BDNF production constructs improved BDNF folding both as a surface-displayed and secreted protein in terms of binding its natural receptors TrkB and p75, but titers remained low. Looking to further enhance the chaperone-like functions provided by the pro-region, two rounds of directed evolution were performed, yielding mutated pro-regions that further improved the display and secretion properties of BDNF. Subsequent optimization of the protease recognition site was used to control whether the produced protein was in pro- or mature BDNF forms. Taken together, we have demonstrated an effective strategy for improving BDNF compatibility with yeast protein engineering and secretion platforms. PMID:26580314

  2. Improving integrated waste management at the regional level: the case of Lombardia.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Lucia; Falbo, Alida; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The article summarises the main results of the 'Gestione Rifiuti in Lombardia: Analisi del ciclo di vita' (Waste management in Lombardia region: Life cycle assessment; GERLA) project. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been selected by Regione Lombardia as a strategic decision support tool in the drafting of its new waste management programme. The goal was to use the life cycle thinking approach to assess the current regional situation and thus to give useful strategic indications for the future waste management. The first phase of the study consisted of the LCA of the current management of municipal waste in the Lombardia region (reference year: 2009). The interpretation of such results has allowed the definition of four possible waste management scenarios for the year 2020, with the final goal being to improve the environmental performance of the regional system. The results showed that the current integrated waste management of Lombardia region is already characterised by good energy and environmental performances. However, there is still room for further improvement: actions based, on the one hand, on a further increase in recycling rates and, on the other hand, on a series of technological modifications, especially in food waste and residual waste management, can be undertaken to improve the overall system.

  3. A Self-Pacing Program in Algebra, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore County Public Schools, Towson, MD.

    This self-pacing program is the result of a cooperative curriculum development project between The Maryland Department of Education and The Baltimore County Schools. Included is a teachers guide for the use of the materials. The philosophy of this approach is that of individualization of instruction wherein the student moves at a pace commensurate…

  4. PACE: has it changed the chronic care paradigm?

    PubMed

    Lynch, Marty; Hernandez, Mauro; Estes, Carroll

    2008-01-01

    The Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) grew out of a small community organization in San Francisco and has been replicated by non-profit organizations in a number of other communities across the country. The authors review the successes of PACE as reported in the literature and discuss reasons for its limited growth as well as its significant influence on state and federal long term care policy. They argue that PACE has significantly changed how we think of long term care through its pioneering work fully integrating medical and long term care. PACE has also provided an influential model for breaking down the funding silos that characterize the medical and long term care services arena. State Medicaid agencies and Medicare have learned from PACE. Health plans and private long term insurers may also still learn from PACE. However, the fact that only a little more than 10,000 elders have enrolled in PACE nationwide prevents the authors from finding that PACE has brought about significant structural change in a long term care industry dominated by for-profit nursing homes.

  5. Postpericardiotomy syndrome following temporary and permanent transvenous pacing

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, B.; Evans, K.; Thomas, P.

    1999-01-01

    The postpericardiotomy syndrome may occur as a complication of temporary and permanent pacing. Physicians involved in procedures which may be complicated by this condition therefore need to be aware of its diagnosis and management.


Keywords: postpericardiotomy syndrome; cardiac pacing PMID:10435173

  6. Social Interaction in Self-Paced Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Upton, Lorne; Dron, Jon; Malone, Judi; Poelhuber, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a case study of a self-paced university course that was originally designed to support independent, self-paced study at distance. We developed a social media intervention, in design-based research terms, that allows these independent students to contribute archived content to enhance the course, to engage in discussions…

  7. Achievement Monitoring of Individually Paced Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Paul D.

    A study was made to monitor achievement of individually paced instruction. The project concentrated on designing testing procedures in group paced instructional programs to provide information to student, teachers, parents and administrators which could be used in both a formative and summative evaluation. The three objectives of the project were:…

  8. Is Self-Paced Instruction Really Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, J. A.; Crowe, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a self-paced, learning-for-mastery course in undergraduate fluid mechanics. Includes the method of course assessment, method of student evaluation, and a description of the instructor's role and work load. Summarizes aspects of self-paced instruction considered favorable and unfavorable. (GS)

  9. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... writing. (e) Services furnished during appeals process. During the appeals process, the PACE organization... Section 460.122 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE...

  10. Rural Policy Development: An NRHA and PACE Association Collaborative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Morgan, Alan; Morris, Tom

    2004-01-01

    The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) offers a unique model of comprehensive care for frail, elderly people. To date, all of the PACE programs have been located in urban areas. Rural advocates and policymakers, however, believe the program may hold great promise for use in rural areas, which have higher percentages of elderly…

  11. Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soil to Improve Productivity In The Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality and productivity of some farmlands in the central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have been lost through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendments such as manure and improved crop and soil...

  12. Regional Interstate Planning Project Program . . . Vol. IX. California Program Evaluation Improvement Project. Seminar Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearmin, Evalyn, Ed.; And Others

    Program evaluation strategies and techniques based on materials developed by the California Evaluation Improvement Project were discussed at this meeting of the Regional Interstate Planning Project (RIPP). RIPP members represent the State Departments of Education of ten western states, and have met periodically over the past nine years to discuss…

  13. SERVE Regional Forum on School Improvement, Proceedings (Tampa, Florida, October 6-9, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Stephen

    The first SERVE Regional Forum on School Improvement brought together 300 educators from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. These proceedings include: introductory information on SERVE, an introduction to the forum, the forum agenda, comments from participants, summaries of the keynote presentations, and…

  14. Asymmetrical myocardial expression of natriuretic peptides in pacing-induced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Del Ry, Silvia; Cabiati, Manuela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Simioniuc, Anca; Caselli, Chiara; Prescimone, Tommaso; Emdin, Michele; Giannessi, Daniela

    2009-09-01

    High-frequency pacing of the left ventricle (LV) free wall causes a dyssynchronous pattern of contraction that leads to progressive heart failure (HF) with pronounced differences in regional contractility. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible changes in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNA expression in the anterior/anterior lateral region (pacing site, PS) as compared to the infero-septal region (opposite site, OS) and to explore possible association between the contractiling pattern and biomarker expression. Cardiac tissue was collected from minipigs with pacing-induced HF (n=8) and without (control, n=6). The samples were selectively harvested from the anterior left ventricular (LV) wall, PS, and from an area remote to the pacing-site, OS. BNP and CNP mRNA expression was evaluated by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A significant difference in BNP expression was found in the PS between HF animals and controls (BNP/GAPDH: 0.65+/-0.11 vs. 0.35+/-0.04, p=0.02), but not in the OS (BNP/GAPDH: 0.36+/-0.05, ns vs. controls). CNP expression was not different compared to controls, although higher levels were observed in the PS and in the OS with respect to the controls (CNP/GAPDH: controls 0.089+/-0.036, PS 0.289+/-0.23, OS 0.54+/-0.16). This finding was in tune with an increase of CNP tissue concentration (controls: 0.69+/-0.13; PS=1.56+/-0.19; OS=1.70+/-0.42 pg/mg protein; p=0.039 controls vs. OS). Higher BNP mRNA expression in the PS is consistent with a reduction in contractile function in this region, while higher CNP mRNA expression in the OS suggests the presence of concomitant endothelial dysfunction in the remote region.

  15. Computer-Paced versus Experimenter-Paced Working Memory Span Tasks: Are They Equally Reliable and Valid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Working memory span tasks are popular measures, in part, because performance on these tasks predicts performance on other measures of cognitive ability. The traditional method of span-task administration is the experimenter-paced version, whose reliability and validity have been repeatedly demonstrated. However, computer-paced span tasks are…

  16. EPICARDIAL AND INTRAMURAL EXCITATION DURING VENTRICULAR PACING: EFFECT OF MYOCARDIAL STRUCTURE

    PubMed Central

    Taccardi, Bruno; Punske, Bonnie B.; Macchi, Emilio; MacLeod, Robert S.; Ershler, Philip R.

    2009-01-01

    Published studies show that ventricular pacing in canine hearts produces three distinct patterns of epicardial excitation: elliptical isochrones near an epicardial pacing site, with asymmetrical bulges; areas with high propagation velocity, up to 2 or 3 m/s and numerous breakthrough sites; lower velocity areas (< 1 m/s) where excitation moves across the epicardial projection of the septum. With increasing pacing depth the magnitude of epicardial potential maxima becomes asymmetrical. The electrophysiological mechanisms that generate the distinct patterns have not been fully elucidated. In this study we investigated those mechanisms experimentally. Under pentobarbital anesthesia epicardial and intramural excitation isochrone and potential maps have been recorded from 22 exposed or isolated dog hearts, by means of epicardial electrode arrays and transmural plunge electrodes. In 5 experiments, a ventricular cavity was perfused with diluted Lugol solution. Results The epicardial bulges result from electrotonic attraction from the helically shaped subepicardial portions of the wave front. The high velocity patterns and the associated multiple breakthroughs are due to involvement of the Purkinje network. The low velocity at the septum crossing is due to the missing Purkinje involvement in that area. The asymmetric magnitude of the epicardial potential maxima and the shift of the breakthrough sites provoked by deep stimulation are a consequence of the epi-endocardial obliqueness of the intramural fibers. These results improve our understanding of intramural and epicardial propagation during PVCs and paced beats. This can be useful for interpreting epicardial maps recorded at surgery or inversely computed from body surface ECGs. PMID:18263708

  17. Mid-Term Results of Dual-Chamber Pacing in Children with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Alday, Luis E.; Bruno, Eva; Moreyra, Eduardo; Amuchastegui, Luis M.; Juaneda, Ernesto; Maisuls, Hector

    1998-04-01

    BACKGROUND: Permanent dual-chambered pacing (DDD) is an alternative to surgical treatment in patients with severe hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) who do not have a satisfactory response to medical treatment. METHODS: Five children with severe HOCM still symptomatic despite medical treatment underwent permanent DDD pacing and were followed for 21 +/- 9.7 months. RESULTS: All patients improved their functional class. Doppler echocardiographic studies showed an early reduction of the left ventricular outflow tract gradient from 66 +/- 40 to 40 +/- 20 mmHg (P < 0.05) and to 30 +/- 11 mmHg (P < 0.05 and NS for comparison with the baseline and the early post-DDD pacing gradients, respectively) at mid-term follow-up. There was no evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and the results of left ventricular filling studies ruled out deleterious effects on diastolic function. Doppler echocardiography played a key role in the initial and subsequent assessment of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Permanent DDD pacing is a reasonable alternative to surgery in children with HOCM who are still symptomatic despite medical therapy.

  18. Are Global and Regional Improvements in Life Expectancy and in Child, Adult and Senior Survival Slowing?

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Ryan J.; Verguet, Stéphane; Cheng, Yu-Ling; McGahan, Anita M.; Jha, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health–primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest. PMID:25992949

  19. Electrical Pacing of Cardiac Tissue Including Potassium Inward Rectification.

    PubMed

    Galappaththige, Suran; Roth, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    In this study cardiac tissue is stimulated electrically through a small unipolar electrode. Numerical simulations predict that around an electrode are adjacent regions of depolarization and hyperpolarization. Experiments have shown that during pacing of resting cardiac tissue the hyperpolarization is often inhibited. Our goal is to determine if the inward rectifying potassium current (IK1) causes the inhibition of hyperpolarization. Numerical simulations were carried out using the bidomain model with potassium dynamics specified to be inward rectifying. In the simulations, adjacent regions of depolarization and hyperpolarization were observed surrounding the electrode. For cathodal currents the virtual anode produces a hyperpolarization that decreases over time. For long duration pulses the current-voltage curve is non-linear, with very small hyperpolarization compared to depolarization. For short pulses, the hyperpolarization is more prominent. Without the inward potassium rectification, the current voltage curve is linear and the hyperpolarization is evident for both long and short pulses. In conclusion, the inward rectification of the potassium current explains the inhibition of hyperpolarization for long duration stimulus pulses, but not for short duration pulses.

  20. Regulation of Pacing Strategy during Athletic Competition

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Jos J.; Foster, Carl; Bakkum, Arjan; Kloppenburg, Sil; Thiel, Christian; Joseph, Trent; Cohen, Jacob; Porcari, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Athletic competition has been a source of interest to the scientific community for many years, as a surrogate of the limits of human ambulatory ability. One of the remarkable things about athletic competition is the observation that some athletes suddenly reduce their pace in the mid-portion of the race and drop back from their competitors. Alternatively, other athletes will perform great accelerations in mid-race (surges) or during the closing stages of the race (the endspurt). This observation fits well with recent evidence that muscular power output is regulated in an anticipatory way, designed to prevent unreasonably large homeostatic disturbances. Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that a simple index, the product of the momentary Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and the fraction of race distance remaining, the Hazard Score, defines the likelihood that athletes will change their velocity during simulated competitions; and may effectively represent the language used to allow anticipatory regulation of muscle power output. Conclusions These data support the concept that the muscular power output during high intensity exercise performance is actively regulated in an anticipatory manner that accounts for both the momentary sensations the athlete is experiencing as well as the relative amount of a competition to be completed. PMID:21283744

  1. Pushing the Pace of Tree Species Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; McGill, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. PMID:25162663

  2. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  3. Processing radio PSAs: production pacing, arousing content, and age.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annie; Schwartz, Nancy; Lee, Seungjo; Angelini, James

    2007-09-01

    This experiment uses the limited capacity model of mediated message processing (LC3MP) to investigate the effects of production pacing and arousing content in radio public service announcements (PSAs) on the emotional and cognitive responses of college-age and tween (9-12-year-olds) participants. The LC3MP predicts that both arousing content and production pacing should increase emotional arousal, physiological arousal, cognitive effort, and encoding up to the point of cognitive overload after which cognitive effort and encoding should decrease. Results showed that, as expected, arousing content did increase emotional arousal and cognitive effort for both tweens and college students, though the effect was larger for college students. For production pacing, however, the results were less clear cut. First, it was found that for radio PSAs pacing increased arousal for calm messages only. Further, the effects of production pacing on cognitive effort were larger for tweens and were experienced primarily during the first 25 seconds of the message, while college students were less affected by production pacing, and those effects appeared in the last 25 seconds of the messages. Finally, none of the messages in this experiment resulted in cognitive overload - thus both production pacing and arousing content increased memory for both groups of participants.

  4. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  5. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  6. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  7. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  8. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  9. Remote Sensing Ocean Color Observations from NASA's PACE Mission: Applications and Societal Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzortziou, M.; Omar, A. H.; Turner, W.

    2014-12-01

    The PACE (Pre- Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystems) mission is a strategic Climate Continuity mission, included in NASA's 2010 plan: "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space". On a polar orbit, PACE will make climate-quality global measurements that are essential for understanding ocean biology, biogeochemistry and ecology, and determining how the ocean's role in global biogeochemical cycling and ocean ecology both affects and is affected by climate change. With advanced global remote sensing capabilities that include high spectral-resolution imaging, extended spectral coverage to the UV and SWIR, improved spatial resolution in inland, estuarine and coastal waters, enhanced atmospheric correction and higher signal-to-noise, PACE is expected to provide high quality observations that, over the long-term, will contribute to an extended time series of records on inland, coastal, and ocean ecosystems—all of which have substantial value beyond basic science and research. The combination of climate-quality, global atmospheric and oceanic observations provided by the PACE mission will provide a unique capability to help understand changes that affect our ecosystem services, implement science-based management strategies of coastal, marine and inland aquatic resources, and support assessments, policy analyses, and design approaches to plan adaptation and responses to impacts of climate change. Here we discuss the PACE applications program, the new capabilities afforded by this future satellite mission, and how they could potentially advance applications across a range of areas, including Oceans, Climate, Water Resources, Ecological Forecasting, Disasters, Human Health and Air Quality.

  10. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  11. Improvement of Global and Regional Mean Sea Level Trends Derived from all Altimetry Missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary

    2012-07-01

    The global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993 using data from satellite altimetry missions. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 is increasing with a global trend of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL Aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from +/- 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend uncertainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in Sea Level Essential Climate Variable Project in the frame of the Climate Change Initiative, an ESA Programme, in addition to activities performed within the SALP/CNES, strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections allowing us to link regional time series together better. These improvements are described at global and regional scale for all the altimetry missions.

  12. Improving Regional Forecast by Assimilating Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles into WRF Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background type, and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are derived from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators were used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for each profile location and pressure level. The analyses were then used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impacts of AIRS profiles on forecast were assessed against verifying NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  13. The use of propagation path corrections to improve regional seismic event location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, L.K.; Cogbill, A.H.; Velasco, A.A.

    1999-03-01

    In an effort to improve the ability to locate seismic events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed empirical propagation path corrections (PPCs) and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, the authors have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times for shallow events using travel-time observations available from the USGS EDRs, the ISC catalogs, their own travel-tim picks from regional data, and data from other catalogs. They relocate events with the algorithm of Bratt and Bache (1988) from a region encompassing China. For individual stations having sufficient data, they produce a map of the regional travel-time residuals from all well-located teleseismic events. From these maps, interpolated PPC surfaces have been constructed using both surface fitting under tension and modified Bayesian kriging. The latter method offers the advantage of providing well-behaved interpolants, but requires that the authors have adequate error estimates associated with the travel-time residuals. To improve error estimates for kriging and event location, they separate measurement error from modeling error. The modeling error is defined as the travel-time variance of a particular model as a function of distance, while the measurement error is defined as the picking error associated with each phase. They estimate measurement errors for arrivals from the EDRs based on roundoff or truncation, and use signal-to-noise for the travel-time picks from the waveform data set.

  14. Critical role of inhomogeneities in pacing termination of cardiac reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Stein, Kenneth M.; Christini, David J.

    2002-09-01

    Reentry around nonconducting ventricular scar tissue, a cause of lethal arrhythmias, is typically treated by rapid electrical stimulation from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, the dynamical mechanisms of termination (success and failure) are poorly understood. To elucidate such mechanisms, we study the dynamics of pacing in one- and two-dimensional models of anatomical reentry. In a crucial realistic difference from previous studies of such systems, we have placed the pacing site away from the reentry circuit. Our model-independent results suggest that with such off-circuit pacing, the existence of inhomogeneity in the reentry circuit is essential for successful termination of tachycardia under certain conditions. Considering the critical role of such inhomogeneities may lead to more effective pacing algorithms.

  15. The Efficacy of Self-Paced Study in Multitrial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jonge, Mario; Tabbers, Huib K.; Pecher, Diane; Jang, Yoonhee; Zeelenberg, René

    2015-01-01

    In 2 experiments we investigated the efficacy of self-paced study in multitrial learning. In Experiment 1, native speakers of English studied lists of Dutch-English word pairs under 1 of 4 imposed fixed presentation rate conditions (24 × 1 s, 12 × 2 s, 6 × 4 s, or 3 × 8 s) and a self-paced study condition. Total study time per list was equated for…

  16. A hybrid approach to improving the skills of seasonal climate outlook at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyan; Wang, Julian X. L.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Morris, Vernon

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid seasonal forecasting approach was generated by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational Climate Forecast System (CFS) and its nesting Climate extension of Weather Research and Forecasting (CWRF) model to improve forecasting skill over the United States. Skills for the three summers of 2011-2013 were evaluated regarding location, timing, magnitude, and frequency. Higher spatial pattern correlation coefficients showed that the hybrid approach substantially improved summer mean precipitation and 2-m temperature geographical distributions compared with the results of the CFS and CWRF models. The area mean temporal correlation coefficients demonstrated that the hybrid approach also consistently improved the timing prediction skills for both variables. In general, the smaller root mean square errors indicated that the hybrid approach reduced the magnitude of the biases for both precipitation and temperature. The greatest improvements were achieved when the individual models had similar skills. The comparison with a North American multi-model ensemble further proved the feasibility of improving real-time seasonal forecast skill by using the hybrid approach, especially for heavy rain forecasting. Based on the complementary advantages of CFS the global model and CWRF the nesting regional model, the hybrid approach showed a substantial enhancement over CFS real-time forecasts during the summer. Future works are needed for further improving the quality of the hybrid approach through CWRF's optimized physics ensemble, which has been proven to be feasible and reliable.

  17. Improving regional-model estimates of urban-runoff quality using local data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Urban water-quality managers need load estimates of storm-runoff pollutants to design effective remedial programs. Estimates are commonly made using published models calibrated to large regions of the country. This paper presents statistical methods, termed model-adjustment procedures (MAPs), which use a combination of local data and published regional models to improve estimates of urban-runoff quality. Each MAP is a form of regression analysis that uses a local data base as a calibration data set to adjust the regional model, in effect increasing the size of the local data base without additional, expensive data collection. The adjusted regional model can then be used to estimate storm-runoff quality at unmonitored sites and storms in the locality. The four MAPs presented in this study are (1) single-factor regression against the regional model prediction, Pu; (2) least-squares regression against Pu; (3) least-squares regression against Pu and additional local variables; and (4) weighted combination of Pu and a local-regression prediction. Identification of the statistically most valid method among these four depends upon characteristics of the local data base. A MAP-selection scheme based on statistical analysis of the calibration data set is presented and tested.

  18. The impact of SLMTA in improving laboratory quality systems in the Caribbean Region

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Giselle; Gordon, Floris; Irving, Yvette; Whyms, Ismae; Parris, Keith; Beckles, Songee; Maruta, Talkmore; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Albalak, Rachel; Alemnji, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Past efforts to improve laboratory quality systems and to achieve accreditation for better patient care in the Caribbean Region have been slow. Objective To describe the impact of the Strengthening of Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) training programme and mentorship amongst five clinical laboratories in the Caribbean after 18 months. Method Five national reference laboratories from four countries participated in the SLMTA programme that incorporated classroom teaching and implementation of improvement projects. Mentors were assigned to the laboratories to guide trainees on their improvement projects and to assist in the development of Quality Management Systems (QMS). Audits were conducted at baseline, six months, exit (at 12 months) and post-SLMTA (at 18 months) using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist to measure changes in implementation of the QMS during the period. At the end of each audit, a comprehensive implementation plan was developed in order to address gaps. Results Baseline audit scores ranged from 19% to 52%, corresponding to 0 stars on the SLIPTA five-star scale. After 18 months, one laboratory reached four stars, two reached three stars and two reached two stars. There was a corresponding decrease in nonconformities and development of over 100 management and technical standard operating procedures in each of the five laboratories. Conclusion The tremendous improvement in these five Caribbean laboratories shows that SLMTA coupled with mentorship is an effective, user-friendly, flexible and customisable approach to the implementation of laboratory QMS. It is recommended that other laboratories in the region consider using the SLMTA training programme as they engage in quality systems improvement and preparation for accreditation. PMID:27066396

  19. Semirational Directed Evolution of Loop Regions in Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase for Improved Fructooligosaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Trollope, K. M.; Görgens, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    The Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase catalyzes the industrially important biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. Operating at high substrate loading and temperatures between 50 and 60°C, the enzyme activity is negatively influenced by glucose product inhibition and thermal instability. To address these limitations, the solvent-exposed loop regions of the β-fructofuranosidase were engineered using a combined crystal structure- and evolutionary-guided approach. This semirational approach yielded a functionally enriched first-round library of 36 single-amino-acid-substitution variants with 58% retaining activity, and of these, 71% displayed improved activities compared to the parent. The substitutions yielding the five most improved variants subsequently were exhaustively combined and evaluated. A four-substitution combination variant was identified as the most improved and reduced the time to completion of an efficient industrial-like reaction by 22%. Characterization of the top five combination variants by isothermal denaturation assays indicated that these variants displayed improved thermostability, with the most thermostable variant displaying a 5.7°C increased melting temperature. The variants displayed uniquely altered, concentration-dependent substrate and product binding as determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The altered catalytic activity was evidenced by increased specific activities of all five variants, with the most improved variant doubling that of the parent. Variant homology modeling and computational analyses were used to rationalize the effects of amino acid changes lacking direct interaction with substrates. Data indicated that targeting substitutions to loop regions resulted in improved enzyme thermostability, specific activity, and relief from product inhibition. PMID:26253664

  20. Semirational Directed Evolution of Loop Regions in Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase for Improved Fructooligosaccharide Production.

    PubMed

    Trollope, K M; Görgens, J F; Volschenk, H

    2015-10-01

    The Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase catalyzes the industrially important biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. Operating at high substrate loading and temperatures between 50 and 60°C, the enzyme activity is negatively influenced by glucose product inhibition and thermal instability. To address these limitations, the solvent-exposed loop regions of the β-fructofuranosidase were engineered using a combined crystal structure- and evolutionary-guided approach. This semirational approach yielded a functionally enriched first-round library of 36 single-amino-acid-substitution variants with 58% retaining activity, and of these, 71% displayed improved activities compared to the parent. The substitutions yielding the five most improved variants subsequently were exhaustively combined and evaluated. A four-substitution combination variant was identified as the most improved and reduced the time to completion of an efficient industrial-like reaction by 22%. Characterization of the top five combination variants by isothermal denaturation assays indicated that these variants displayed improved thermostability, with the most thermostable variant displaying a 5.7°C increased melting temperature. The variants displayed uniquely altered, concentration-dependent substrate and product binding as determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The altered catalytic activity was evidenced by increased specific activities of all five variants, with the most improved variant doubling that of the parent. Variant homology modeling and computational analyses were used to rationalize the effects of amino acid changes lacking direct interaction with substrates. Data indicated that targeting substitutions to loop regions resulted in improved enzyme thermostability, specific activity, and relief from product inhibition. PMID:26253664

  1. Improving nitrogen management via a regional management plan for Chinese rice production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Wang, Guiliang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-09-01

    A lack of basic information on optimal nitrogen (N) management often results in over- or under-application of N fertilizer in small-scale intensive rice farming. Here, we present a new database of N input from a survey of 6611 small-scale rice farmers and rice yield in response to added N in 1177 experimental on-farm tests across eight agroecological subregions of China. This database enables us to evaluate N management by farmers and develop an optimal approach to regional N management. We also investigated grain yield, N application rate, and estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in comparison to N application and farming practices. Across all farmers, the average N application rate, weighted by the area of rice production in each subregion, was 210 kg ha-1 and ranged from 30 to 744 kg ha-1 across fields and from 131 to 316 kg ha-1 across regions. The regionally optimal N rate (RONR) determined from the experiments averaged 167 kg ha-1 and varied from 114 to 224 kg N ha-1 for the different regions. If these RONR were widely adopted in China, approximately 56% of farms would reduce their use of N fertilizer, and approximately 33% would increase their use of N fertilizer. As a result, grain yield would increase by 7.4% from 7.14 to 7.67 Mg ha-1, and the estimated GHG emissions would be reduced by 11.1% from 1390 to 1236 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) eq Mg-1 grain. These results suggest that to achieve the goals of improvement in regional yield and sustainable environmental development, regional N use should be optimized among N-poor and N-rich farms and regions in China.

  2. PACE and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA)

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2010-03-17

    The FHFA regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On June 18, 2009, James B. Lockhart III, then Director of FHFA, released a letter expressing concern about the negative impact of energy loan tax assessment programs (ELTAPs) - also known as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs - on both the housing finance system and homeowner program participants. Subsequently, a number of PACE proponents responded to the concerns laid out in the FHFA letter. In early Fall 2009, word circulated that FHFA was planning to follow its June letter with guidance to other agencies, possibly including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, discouraging them from buying loans on properties subject to PACE-type assessment liens. This triggered a second round of stakeholder letters, several of which were addressed to President Obama. On October 18, 2009, the White House, in what some believe was an attempt to obviate the need for FHFA guidance, released a Policy Framework for PACE Financing Programs that outlined best practices guidance for homeowner and lender protection. As of February 2010, FHFA and the GSEs have agreed to monitor PACE programs and work with stakeholders and the Administration to consider additional guidance beyond the Policy Framework and to collect more information on PACE program efficacy and risks. A summary of the communications timeline and highlights of the communications are provided.

  3. Feasibility of Leadless Cardiac Pacing Using Injectable Magnetic Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Menahem Y; Gabay, Hovav; Etzion, Yoram; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    A noninvasive, effective approach for immediate and painless heart pacing would have invaluable implications in several clinical scenarios. Here we present a novel strategy that utilizes the well-known mechano-electric feedback of the heart to evoke cardiac pacing, while relying on magnetic microparticles as leadless mechanical stimulators. We demonstrate that after localizing intravenously-injected magnetic microparticles in the right ventricular cavity using an external electromagnet, the application of magnetic pulses generates mechanical stimulation that provokes ventricular overdrive pacing in the rat heart. This temporary pacing consistently managed to revert drug-induced bradycardia, but could only last up to several seconds in the rat model, most likely due to escape of the particles between the applied pulses using our current experimental setting. In a pig model with open chest, MEF-based pacing was induced by banging magnetic particles and has lasted for a longer time. Due to overheating of the electromagnet, we intentionally terminated the experiments after 2 min. Our results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of external leadless temporary pacing, using injectable magnetic microparticles that are manipulated by an external electromagnet. This new approach can have important utilities in clinical settings in which immediate and painless control of cardiac rhythm is required. PMID:27091192

  4. Feasibility of Leadless Cardiac Pacing Using Injectable Magnetic Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Menahem Y.; Gabay, Hovav; Etzion, Yoram; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    A noninvasive, effective approach for immediate and painless heart pacing would have invaluable implications in several clinical scenarios. Here we present a novel strategy that utilizes the well-known mechano-electric feedback of the heart to evoke cardiac pacing, while relying on magnetic microparticles as leadless mechanical stimulators. We demonstrate that after localizing intravenously-injected magnetic microparticles in the right ventricular cavity using an external electromagnet, the application of magnetic pulses generates mechanical stimulation that provokes ventricular overdrive pacing in the rat heart. This temporary pacing consistently managed to revert drug-induced bradycardia, but could only last up to several seconds in the rat model, most likely due to escape of the particles between the applied pulses using our current experimental setting. In a pig model with open chest, MEF-based pacing was induced by banging magnetic particles and has lasted for a longer time. Due to overheating of the electromagnet, we intentionally terminated the experiments after 2 min. Our results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of external leadless temporary pacing, using injectable magnetic microparticles that are manipulated by an external electromagnet. This new approach can have important utilities in clinical settings in which immediate and painless control of cardiac rhythm is required. PMID:27091192

  5. Specific Intensity for Peaking: Is Race Pace the Best Option?

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Iker; Seiler, Stephen; Alcocer, Alberto; Carr, Natasha; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The peaking period for endurance competition is characterized for a relative increase of the intensity of training, after a longer period of training relatively dominated by lower intensity and higher volume Objectives: The present study was designed to compare physiological and 10 km performance effects of high intensity training (HIT) versus race pace interval training (RP) during peaking for competition in well-trained runners. Patients and Methods: 13 athletes took part in the study, they were divided into two groups: HIT and RP. HIT performed short intervals at ~105% of the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV), while RP trained longer intervals at a speed of ~90% of the MAV (a speed approximating 10 km race pace). After 12 weeks of baseline training, the athletes trained for 6 weeks under one of the two peaking regimes. Subjects performed 10 km prior to and after the intervention period. The total load of training was matched between groups during the treatment phase. Subjects completed a graded treadmill running test until volitional exhaustion prior to each 10 km race. MAV was determined as the minimal velocity eliciting maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Results: Both groups significantly improved their 10 km time (35 minutes 29 seconds ± 1 minutes 41 seconds vs 34 minutes 53 seconds ± 1 minutes 55 seconds, P < 0.01 for HIT; 35 minutes 27 seconds ± 1 minutes 40 seconds vs 34 minutes 53 seconds ± 1 minutes 18 seconds P < 0.01 for RP). VO2max increased after HIT (69 ± 3.6 vs 71.5 ± 4.2 ml.Kg-1.min-1, P < 0.05); while it didn’t for RP (68.4 ± 6 vs 69.8 ± 3 ml.Kg-1.min-1, p>0.05). In contrast, running economy decreased significantly after HIT (210 ± 6 ml.Kg-1.km-1 vs 218 ± 9, P < 0.05). Conclusions: A 6 week period of training at either 105% of MAV or 90% of MAV yielded similar performance gains in a 10km race performed at ~90% MAV. Therefore, the physiological impact of HIT training seems to be positive for VO2max but negative for running

  6. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region - an executive course in genomics policy.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tara; Rab, Mohammed Abdur; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2005-01-21

    BACKGROUND: While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th-23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. METHODS: The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. RESULTS: A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals.* Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership;* Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity;* Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to:- formulate national biotechnology strategies- raise biotechnology awareness- encourage teaching and

  7. RCWIM - an improved global water isotope pattern prediction model using fuzzy climatic clustering regionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzer, Stefan; Araguás-Araguás, Luis; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.

    2013-04-01

    Prediction of geospatial H and O isotopic patterns in precipitation has become increasingly important to diverse disciplines beyond hydrology, such as climatology, ecology, food authenticity, and criminal forensics, because these two isotopes of rainwater often control the terrestrial isotopic spatial patterns that facilitate the linkage of products (food, wildlife, water) to origin or movement (food, criminalistics). Currently, spatial water isotopic pattern prediction relies on combined regression and interpolation techniques to create gridded datasets by using data obtained from the Global Network of Isotopes In Precipitation (GNIP). However, current models suffer from two shortcomings: (a) models may have limited covariates and/or parameterization fitted to a global domain, which results in poor predictive outcomes at regional scales, or (b) the spatial domain is intentionally restricted to regional settings, and thereby of little use in providing information at global geospatial scales. Here we present a new global climatically regionalized isotope prediction model which overcomes these limitations through the use of fuzzy clustering of climatic data subsets, allowing us to better identify and customize appropriate covariates and their multiple regression coefficients instead of aiming for a one-size-fits-all global fit (RCWIM - Regionalized Climate Cluster Water Isotope Model). The new model significantly reduces the point-based regression residuals and results in much lower overall isotopic prediction uncertainty, since residuals are interpolated onto the regression surface. The new precipitation δ2H and δ18O isoscape model is available on a global scale at 10 arc-minutes spatial and at monthly, seasonal and annual temporal resolution, and will provide improved predicted stable isotope values used for a growing number of applications. The model further provides a flexible framework for future improvements using regional climatic clustering.

  8. Improvement of global and regional mean sea level derived from satellite altimetry multi missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablain, M.; Faugere, Y.; Larnicol, G.; Picot, N.; Cazenave, A.; Benveniste, J.

    2012-04-01

    With the satellite altimetry missions, the global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993. 'Verification' phases, during which the satellites follow each other in close succession (Topex/Poseidon--Jason-1, then Jason-1--Jason-2), help to link up these different missions by precisely determining any bias between them. Envisat, ERS-1 and ERS-2 are also used, after being adjusted on these reference missions, in order to compute Mean Sea Level at high latitudes (higher than 66°N and S), and also to improve spatial resolution by combining all these missions together. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 provide a global rate of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from + 8 mm/yr to - 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend unceratainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in the frame of the SALP project (supported by CNES) and Sea-level Climate Change Initiative project (supported by ESA), strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections

  9. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. In this study, we assess current compliance with performance standards and model improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean region since the first meeting of the UNESCO ICG-Caribe EWS in 2006. The three measures of network capability modeled in this study are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) P-wave detection time of an automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location uncertainty. By modeling three measures of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and

  10. An improved approach for rainfall estimation over Indian summer monsoon region using Kalpana-1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, C.; Prakash, Satya; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Gairola, R. M.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, an improved Kalpana-1 infrared (IR) based rainfall estimation algorithm, specific to Indian summer monsoon region is presented. This algorithm comprises of two parts: (i) development of Kalpana-1 IR based rainfall estimation algorithm with improvement for orographic warm rain underestimation generally suffered by IR based rainfall estimation methods and (ii) cooling index to take care of the growth and decay of clouds and thereby improving the precipitation estimation. In the first part, a power-law based regression relationship between cloud top temperature from Kalpana-1 IR channel and rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) - precipitation radar specific to the Indian region is developed. This algorithm tries to overcome the inherent orographic issues of the IR based rainfall estimation techniques. Over the windward sides of the Western Ghats, Himalayas and Arakan Yoma mountain chains, separate regression coefficients are generated to take care of the orographically produced warm rainfall. Generally global rainfall retrieval methods fail to detect the warm rainfall over these regions. Rain estimated over the orographic region is suitably blended with the rain retrieved over the entire domain comprising of the Indian monsoon region and parts of the Indian Ocean using another regression relationship. While blending, a smoothening function is applied to avoid rainfall artefacts and an elliptical weighting function is introduced for the purpose. In the second part, a cooling index to distinguish rain/no-rain conditions is developed using Kalpana-1 IR data. The cooling index identifies the cloud growing/decaying regions using two consecutive half-hourly IR images of Kalpana-1 by assigning appropriate weights to growing and non-growing clouds. Intercomparison of estimated rainfall from the present algorithm with TRMM-3B42/3B43 precipitation products and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded rain gauge data are found to be

  11. Evaluating and improving CLM hydrologic processes for integrated earth system modeling at regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Leung, L.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Coleman, A. M.; Ke, Y.; Tesfa, T. K.; Li, H.

    2010-12-01

    The community land model (CLM) was designed for coupling with atmospheric models to simulate water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. These fluxes are regulated in various degrees by its hydrologic processes, which have not been vigorously evaluated for applications at watershed or regional scales. In the framework of an integrated regional earth system model being developed, accurate hydrologic information in all of its components including socio-economy, atmosphere, land, and energy infrastructure is needed to represent the interactions between human and earth system processes. Applying CLM in this framework requires evaluation and model improvement so that CLM could be used to represent hydrology, soil, managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and biogeochemical processes across scales in a single modeling framework. In this presentation, we will report preliminary results on the development of CLM featuring: (1) improved land surface hydrology that incorporates hydrologic processes from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, including the parameterizations of subgrid variability, dynamic surface- and groundwater interactions, and hydraulic redistribution; (2) a semi-distributed extension of CLM (DCLM) for more spatially-explicit hydrologic modeling, which is critical for regional land and water management decisions under climate change mitigation and adaptation scenarios. The model development will be evaluated at flux towers and watersheds at various scales.

  12. Continuous improvement in dietetics education with a regional advisory board: a model that works.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rose L

    2003-08-01

    Continuous improvement has been a focus of business and health care for years. The Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education has also identified the need for continuous improvement in dietetics education programs and requires them to seek outside counsel to help accomplish it. Most dietetics education programs develop advisory boards to provide this outside counsel, but finding individuals to commit to an ongoing advisory board can be challenging. Dietetics internship directors from dietetics practicum programs throughout Arizona created the Arizona Dietetic Practicum Advisory Committee (AzDPAC), which uses suggestions from preceptors, interns, and committee members to generate ideas for improvement. Since the conception of AzDPAC both tangible and intangible outcomes have occurred. Tangible outcomes include better coordination among programs, development of a combined annual affiliate meeting, standardization of forms, creation of a combined "Clinical Bootcamp," development of a Web page describing all programs, and better networking among interns from different programs. In addition, AzDPAC improved cooperation and sharing of expertise and created an available group of peers for new directors. An advisory committee of regional program directors is a model that works in providing dietetics education programs with ongoing outside counsel and ideas for continuous improvement. PMID:12891153

  13. Improving Remotely-sensed Precipitation Estimates Over Mountainous Regions For Use In Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.; Akcelik, M.; Kuligowski, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service's (NWS) flash flood warning and heavy precipitation forecast efforts, the NOAA National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) has been providing satellite based precipitation estimates operationally since 1978. Two of the satellite based rainfall algorithms are the Hydro-Estimator (HE) and the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrieval (SCaMPR). However, unlike the HE algorithm the SCaMPR does not currently make any adjustments for the effects of complex topography on rainfall. This study investigates the potential for improving the SCaMPR algorithm by incorporating an orographic correction and humidity correction based calibration of the SCaMPR against rain gauge transects in northwestern Mexico to identify correctable biases related to elevation, slope, wind direction and humidity. Elevation-dependent bias structure of the SCaMPR algorithm suggest that the rainfall algorithm underestimates precipitation in case of upward atmospheric movements and overestimates rainfall in case of downward atmospheric movements along with mountainous terrain. A regionally dependent empirical elevation-based bias correction technique may help improve the quality of satellite-derived precipitation products. As well as orography, effect of atmospheric indices over precipitation estimates is analyzed. The findings suggest that continued improvement to the developed orographic correction scheme is warranted in order to advance quantitative precipitation estimation in complex terrain regions for use in weather forecasting and hydrologic applications.

  14. The pace of past climate change vs. potential bird distributions and land use in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, Brooke L.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Radeloff, Volker C.; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may drastically alter patterns of species distributions and richness, but predicting future species patterns in occurrence is challenging. Significant shifts in distributions have already been observed, and understanding these recent changes can improve our understanding of potential future changes. We assessed how past climate change affected potential breeding distributions for landbird species in the conterminous United States. We quantified the bioclimatic velocity of potential breeding distributions, that is, the pace and direction of change for each species’ suitable climate space over the past 60 years. We found that potential breeding distributions for landbirds have shifted substantially with an average velocity of 1.27 km yr−1, about double the pace of prior distribution shift estimates across terrestrial systems globally (0.61 km yr−1). The direction of shifts was not uniform. The majority of species’ distributions shifted west, northwest, and north. Multidirectional shifts suggest that changes in climate conditions beyond mean temperature were influencing distributional changes. Indeed, precipitation variables that were proxies for extreme conditions were important variables across all models. There were winners and losers in terms of the area of distributions; many species experienced contractions along west and east distribution edges, and expansions along northern distribution edges. Changes were also reflected in the potential species richness, with some regions potentially gaining species (Midwest, East) and other areas potentially losing species (Southwest). However, the degree to which changes in potential breeding distributions are manifested in actual species richness depends on landcover. Areas that have become increasingly suitable for breeding birds due to changing climate are often those attractive to humans for agriculture and development. This suggests that many areas might have supported more breeding bird

  15. The pace of past climate change vs. potential bird distributions and land use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Brooke L; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Vavrus, Stephen J; Heglund, Patricia J

    2016-03-01

    Climate change may drastically alter patterns of species distributions and richness, but predicting future species patterns in occurrence is challenging. Significant shifts in distributions have already been observed, and understanding these recent changes can improve our understanding of potential future changes. We assessed how past climate change affected potential breeding distributions for landbird species in the conterminous United States. We quantified the bioclimatic velocity of potential breeding distributions, that is, the pace and direction of change for each species' suitable climate space over the past 60 years. We found that potential breeding distributions for landbirds have shifted substantially with an average velocity of 1.27 km yr(-1) , about double the pace of prior distribution shift estimates across terrestrial systems globally (0.61 km yr(-1) ). The direction of shifts was not uniform. The majority of species' distributions shifted west, northwest, and north. Multidirectional shifts suggest that changes in climate conditions beyond mean temperature were influencing distributional changes. Indeed, precipitation variables that were proxies for extreme conditions were important variables across all models. There were winners and losers in terms of the area of distributions; many species experienced contractions along west and east distribution edges, and expansions along northern distribution edges. Changes were also reflected in the potential species richness, with some regions potentially gaining species (Midwest, East) and other areas potentially losing species (Southwest). However, the degree to which changes in potential breeding distributions are manifested in actual species richness depends on landcover. Areas that have become increasingly suitable for breeding birds due to changing climate are often those attractive to humans for agriculture and development. This suggests that many areas might have supported more breeding bird

  16. Quantifying 10 years of improved earthquake-monitoring performance in the Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Lynch, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and adjacent regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. Were a great tsunamigenic earthquake to occur in the Caribbean region today, the effects would potentially be catastrophic due to an increasingly vulnerable region that has seen significant population increases in the past 40–50 years and currently hosts an estimated 500,000 daily beach visitors from North America and Europe, a majority of whom are not likely aware of tsunami and earthquake hazards. Following the magnitude 9.1 Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Early Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE‐EWS) was established and developed minimum performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes. In this study, we model earthquake‐magnitude detection threshold and P‐wave detection time and demonstrate that the requirements established by the UNESCO ICG CARIBE‐EWS are met with 100% of the network operating. We demonstrate that earthquake‐monitoring performance in the Caribbean Sea region has improved significantly in the past decade as the number of real‐time seismic stations available to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami warning centers have increased. We also identify weaknesses in the current international network and provide guidance for selecting the optimal distribution of seismic stations contributed from existing real‐time broadband national networks in the region.

  17. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking

    PubMed Central

    Buhmann, Jeska; Desmet, Frank; Moens, Bart; Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended) synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous) synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities. PMID:27167064

  18. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Jeska; Desmet, Frank; Moens, Bart; Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended) synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous) synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities. PMID:27167064

  19. Improving Snow Measurement Technology to Better Parameterise Cold Regions Hydrometeorology Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J.; Debeer, C.; Ellis, C.; Essery, R.; Helgason, W.; Kinar, N.; Link, T.; MacDonald, J.

    2008-12-01

    Marmot Creek Research Basin, in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada constitutes a long term cold regions hydrometeorological observatory with over 45 years of intensive observations in alpine and forested zones. Recently, novel combinations of measurement technology to snow have been deployed in Marmot Creek to advance the understanding of snow processes and to improve hydrometeorological models of streamflow and atmospheric variables. One advance has been the development and application of portable acoustic reflectometry to measure the density and structure of seasonal snowpacks using an audible sound wave. This has permitted the non-invasive measurement of snow water equivalent for both stationary and snow survey applications. Another advance has been the use of oblique time-lapse digital photography which is corrected for elevation and view angle from a LiDAR DEM to produce daily orthogonal snow covered area images of the alpine zone. These images are used to calculate snowcovered area and to develop and test improved snowcover melt and depletion algorithms. Deployment of 3-axis ultrasonic anemometers and fast hygrometers with collection of 10 Hz data and full correction for non-stationarity, axis rotation and other effects has shown that horizontal turbulence is often advected into mountain clearings and causes failure of traditional bulk transfer calculations of latent and sensible heat. For forest snow a hanging, weighed spruce tree and hanging, weighed sub-canopy troughs are used to capture intercepted snow load and unloaded snow fluxes respectively. These quantities provide the information needed to test detailed models of the snow interception and unloading processes. To quantify variations in sub-canopy energy for snowmelt, infrared imaging radiometers and narrow beam radiometers are used to measure thermal radiation exitance from needles, stems and trunks in forests of varying structure. These measurements are being used to develop improved models of

  20. Development and Implementation of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems in Midwest Region States. REL 2016-143

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Ann-Marie; Greenberg, Ariela; Hawkinson, Laura; Metzger, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This report describes common and unique approaches that Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest Region states have adopted in developing and implementing their quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs). A QRIS is a method for assessing, improving, and communicating the quality of early childhood education and care providers. The study…

  1. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Zhang, X.; Gong, S.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction (ACI) scheme has been developed under CMA chemical weather modeling system GRAPES/CUACE. Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is fed online interactively into a two-moment cloud scheme (WDM6) and a convective parameterization to drive the cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred. The results show that interactive aerosols with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentrations while decrease the mean diameter of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive micro-physical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24% to 48% enhancements of TS scoring for 6-h precipitation in almost all regions. The interactive aerosols with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3°C.

  2. Improved estimates of net primary productivity from modis satellite data at regional and local scales.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yude; Birdsey, Richard; Hom, John; McCullough, Kevin; Clark, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    We compared estimates of net primary production (NPP) from the MODIS satellite with estimates from a forest ecosystem process model (PnET-CN) and forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data for forest types of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The regional means were similar for the three methods and for the dominant oak-hickory forests in the region. However, MODIS underestimated NPP for less-dominant northern hardwood forests and overestimated NPP for coniferous forests. Causes of inaccurate estimates of NPP by MODIS were (1) an aggregated classification and parameterization of diverse deciduous forests in different climatic environments into a single class that averages different radiation conversion efficiencies; and (2) lack of soil water constraints on NPP for forests or areas that occur on thin or sandy, coarse-grained soil. We developed the "available soil water index" for adjusting the MODIS NPP estimates, which significantly improved NPP estimates for coniferous forests. The MODIS NPP estimates have many advantages such as globally continuous monitoring and remarkable accuracy for large scales. However, at regional or local scales, our study indicates that it is necessary to adjust estimates to specific vegetation types and soil water conditions.

  3. The effect of three recovery protocols on blood lactate clearance after race-paced swimming.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of 3 recovery protocols on blood lactate clearance after maximal intensity swimming. Thirty-three regional standard swimmers were tested throughout the course a year and were required to complete a race-paced 200-m swim in their main stroke or individual medley. After the race-paced swim, swimmers were assigned a self-paced continuous steady rate swim of 20 minutes (self-prescribed); a 20-minute coach-administered modified warm-up consisting of various swimming modes, intensities, and rest intervals (coach prescribed); or a 20-minute land-based recovery consisting of light-intensity walking, skipping, and stretching (land based). Blood lactate concentration was measured from the fingertip before and after the race-paced swim and after the recovery activity. The concentration of blood lactate was higher (p < 0.01) after race-paced swimming (range of 10.5-11.0 mmol·L(-1)) compared with baseline (range 1.3-1.4 mmol·L(-1)). However, there were no differences (p > 0.05) between the groups (recovery protocols) at these time points. Conversely, differences were observed between groups after the recovery activities (p < 0.01). Specifically, blood lactate concentration was higher after the land-based activity (3.7 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)) than either the self-prescribed (2.0 ± 1.2 mmol·L(-1)) or coach-prescribed (1.8 ± 0.9 mmol·L(-1)) swimming protocols. The results of the present study suggest that it does not matter whether a self-paced continuous steady rate swimming velocity or a swimming recovery consisting of various strokes, intensities, and rest intervals is adopted as a recovery activity. As both swimming recoveries removed more blood lactate than the land-based recovery, swimmers should therefore be advised to undertake a swimming-based recovery rather than a land-based recovery.

  4. The planning, implementation and publication of a complex intervention trial for chronic fatigue syndrome: the PACE trial

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter D.; Chalder, Trudie; Sharpe, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The PACE trial was a four-arm trial of specialist medical care, compared with specialist medical care with a supplementary therapy: adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive–behavioural therapy or graded exercise therapy, for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The trial found that both cognitive–behavioural and graded exercise therapies were more effective than either of the other two treatments in reducing fatigue and improving physical disability. This paper describes the design, conduct and main results of the trial, along with a description of the challenges that had to be overcome in order to produce clear answers to the clinically important questions the trial posed. PMID:26191420

  5. Regional representativeness assessment and improvement of eddy flux observations in China.

    PubMed

    He, Honglin; Zhang, Liyun; Gao, Yangzi; Ren, Xiaoli; Zhang, Li; Yu, Guirui; Wang, Shaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Both the amounts of data describing the site-scale carbon flux at a high temporal and spatial resolution collected in China and the number of eddy covariance flux towers have been increasing during the last decade. To correctly upscale these fluxes to the regional and global level, the representativeness of the current network of flux towers must be known. The present study quantifies the representativeness of the flux network for the regional carbon exchange. This analysis combined the total solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure and the enhanced vegetation index to indicate the environmental characteristics of each 1-km pixel cell and flux tower. Next, the Euclidean distance from each pixel to the tower was calculated to determine the representativeness of the existing flux towers. To improve the regional representativeness, additional tower locations were pinpointed by identifying and clustering the underrepresented areas. The existing network of flux towers performed well in representing the environmental conditions of the middle and the northeastern portions of China. The well-represented areas covered 60.9% of the total areas. The towers in croplands and grasslands represented the vegetation types well, but the wetlands and barelands were poorly represented. The representativeness of the flux network increased with the addition of nine towers located in forests, grasslands, wetlands and barelands. The representativeness of 27.5% of the land areas improved. In addition, the well-represented areas were enlarged by 15.2%. Substantial gains in representation were achieved by adding new towers on the Tibet Plateau. The representativeness of the northwest and southwest was improved less significantly, suggesting that more towers are required to capture certain ecosystem behaviors. PMID:25310829

  6. Comparison of ventilation and voice outcomes between unilateral laryngeal pacing and unilateral cordotomy for the treatment of bilateral vocal fold paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yike; Pearce, Elizabeth C.; Mainthia, Rajshri; Athavale, Sanjay M.; Dang, Jennifer; Ashmead, Daniel H; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Rousseau, Bernard; Billante, Cheryl R.; Zealear, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Rehabilitation of the bilaterally paralyzed human larynx remains a complex clinical problem. Conventional treatment generally involves surgical enlargement of the compromised airway, but often with resultant dysphonia and risk of aspiration. In this retrospective study, we compared one such treatment, posterior cordotomy, against unilateral laryngeal pacing: reanimation of vocal fold opening by functional electrical stimulation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. Methods Post-operative peak inspiratory flow (PIF) values and overall voice grade ratings were compared between the two surgical groups, and pre and post-operative PIF were compared within the pacing group. Results There were five patients in the unilateral pacing group and 12 patients in the unilateral cordotomy group. Within the pacing group, post-operative PIF values were significantly improved from pre-operative PIF values (p=0.04) without significant effect on voice (grade) (p=0.62). Within the pacing group, the mean post-operative PIF value was significantly higher than that in the cordotomy group (p=0.05). Also, the mean post-operative overall voice grade values in the pacing group were significantly lower (better) than that of cordotomy group (p=0.03). Conclusion Unilateral pacing appears to be an effective and superior treatment to posterior cordotomy with respect to post-operative ventilation and voice outcome measures. PMID:23736349

  7. A self-tuning effect of membership functions in a fuzzy-logic-based cardiac pacing system.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, T; Sugiura, N; Kazui, T; Harada, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a self-tuning method of membership functions in a fuzzy-logic-based cardiac pacing system and validates its feasibility in a double sensor system which has minute ventilation and oxygen saturation level as its guides for the rate regulation. Though the agreement between the pacing rates (fuzzy rates) calculated with three linguistic variables for each parameter and the target rates were not satisfactory, it was improved significantly by tuning the membership functions. Almost the same evaluated values with those obtained by using six linguistic variables for each parameter were obtained. Time required for the self-tuning process was about 40 s (386CPU, 20 MHz) which was fast enough for the system. The smaller number of linguistic labels results in a smaller number of rules, which is beneficial in implantable cardiac pacemakers with limited memory capacity. A fuzzy-logic-based cardiac pacing system is promising for the realization of custom-made cardiac pacemakers.

  8. A Multiscale Tridomain Model for Simulating Bioelectric Gastric Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, Shameer; Trew, Mark L.; O’Grady, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Goal Gastric motility disorders have been associated with abnormal slow wave electrical activity (‘gastric dysrhythmias’). Gastric pacing is a potential therapy for gastric dysrhythmias, however, new pacing protocols are required that can effectively modulate motility patterns, while being power efficient. This study presents a novel comprehensive 3D multi-scale modeling framework of the human stomach, including anisotropic conduction, capable of evaluating pacing strategies. Methods A high resolution anatomically realistic mesh was generated from CT images taken from a human stomach. Principal conduction axes were calculated and embedded within this model based on a modified Laplace-Dirichlet rule based algorithm. A continuum based tridomain formulation was implemented and evaluated for performance, and used to model the slow wave propagation, which takes into account the two main cell types present in gastric musculature. Model parameters were found by matching predicted normal slow-wave activity to experimental observation and data. These simulation parameters were applied while modeling an external pacing event to entrain slow wave patterns. Results The proposed formulation was found to be 2 times more efficient than a previous formulation for a normal slow wave simulation. Convergence analysis showed that a mesh resolution of ≈ 0.4 –0.5mm is required for an accurate solution process. Conclusion The effect of different pacing frequencies on entrainment demonstrated that the pacing protocols are limited by the frequency of the native propagation and the refractory period of the cellular activity. Significance The model is expected to become an important tool in studying pacing protocols for both efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:26080372

  9. Evaluation and improvement of high-resolution models for regional oceans around Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Youyu; Zhai, Li; Paquin, Jean-Philippe; Lei, Ji; Li, Jiaxing; Chgini, Fatemeh; Dupont, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    A set of high-resolution regional ocean models based on the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) are being developed for ocean forecasting and research applications in Canada. The horizontal resolutions of these models are 2-10 km for covering large basins and shelf seas, and 0. 5 km for coastal waters. The solutions of these models, in terms of velocity, vorticity and horizontal gradient of temperature and salinity, show strong dependence on the choice of lateral viscosity coefficient. Various in situ and satellite remote sensing data are used to evaluate the model solutions and guide the model improvement. Finally, case studies demonstrate the value of high-resolution models in studying ocean dynamic processes and improving forecasting applications.

  10. Regional Body-Wave Corrections and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Rodgers, A J; Meyeda, K M; Sicherman, A

    2003-07-18

    Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves, body waves, and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, and coda that can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. It is now well established that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6- to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we developed a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure (Walter and Taylor, 2002). This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. It allows for the possibility of variable apparent stress scaling in earthquakes, an unresolved issue that is the subject of investigation under separate funding. The MDACZ procedure makes use of the extremely stable coda estimates of Mw for source magnitude and can also use independent Q tomography to help reduce trade-offs in fitting spectra. We can then apply the kriging operation to the MDAC2 residuals to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. These corrections allow the exploration of all possible ratios and

  11. Limb Correction of Infrared Imagery in Cloudy Regions for the Improved Interpretation of RGB Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Nicholas J.; Berndt, Emily; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites (EUMETSAT User Services 2009) combine information from several channels into a single composite image. RGB composites contain the same information as the original channels, but presents the information in a more efficient manner. However, RGB composites derived from infrared imagery of both polar-orbiting and geostationary sensors are adversely affected by the limb effect, which interferes with the qualitative interpretation of RGB composites at large viewing zenith angles. The limb effect, or limb-cooling, is a result of an increase in optical path length of the absorbing atmosphere as viewing zenith angle increases (Goldberg et al. 2001; Joyce et al. 2001; Liu and Weng 2007). As a result, greater atmospheric absorption occurs at the limb, causing the sensor to observe anomalously cooler brightness temperatures. Figure 1 illustrates this effect. In general, limb-cooling results in a 4-11 K decrease in measured brightness temperature (Liu and Weng 2007) depending on the infrared band. For example, water vapor and ozone absorption channels display much larger limb-cooling than infrared window channels. Consequently, RGB composites created from infrared imagery not corrected for limb effects can only be reliably interpreted close to nadir, which reduces the spatial coverage of the available imagery. Elmer (2015) developed a reliable, operational limb correction technique for clear regions. However, many RGB composites are intended to be used and interpreted in cloudy regions, so a limb correction methodology valid for both clear and cloudy regions is needed. This paper presents a limb correction technique valid for both clear and cloudy regions, which is described in Section 2. Section 3 presents several RGB case studies demonstrating the improved functionality of limb-corrected RGBs in both clear and cloudy regions, and Section 4 summarizes and presents the key conclusions of this work.

  12. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Zhang, X.; Gong, S.; Wang, Y.; Xue, M.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction (ACI) scheme has been developed under a China Meteorological Administration (CMA) chemical weather modeling system, GRAPES/CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System, CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment). Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are interactively fed online into a two-moment cloud scheme (WRF Double-Moment 6-class scheme - WDM6) and a convective parameterization to drive cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred.

    The results show that aerosols that interact with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content, and cloud droplet number concentrations, while decreasing the mean diameters of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive microphysical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24 to 48 % enhancements of threat score for 6 h precipitation in almost all regions. The aerosols that interact with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3 °C.

  13. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's region improves phonemic and semantic fluency in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Z; Pisoni, A; Papagno, C

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be proficiently used to modulate attentional and cognitive functions. For instance, in the language domain there is evidence that tDCS can fasten picture naming in both healthy individuals and aphasic patients, or improve grammar learning. In this study, we investigated whether tDCS can be used to increase healthy subjects' performance in phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, that are typically used in clinical assessment of language. Ten healthy individuals performed a semantic and a phonemic fluency task following anodal tDCS applied over Broca's region. Each participant underwent a real and a sham tDCS session. Participants were found to produce more words following real anodal tDCS both in the phonemic and in the semantic fluency. Control experiments ascertained that this finding did not depend upon unspecific effects of tDCS over levels of general arousal or attention or upon participants' expectations. These data confirm the efficacy of tDCS in transiently improving language functions by showing that anodal stimulation of Broca's region can enhance verbal fluency. Implications of these results for the treatment of language functions in aphasia are considered.

  15. Pacing impedance variability in tined steroid eluting leads.

    PubMed

    Danilovic, D; Ohm, O J

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pacing impedance (PI) behavior in ambulatory patients. Eighteen atrial and 18 ventricular tined steroid eluting leads with 1.2-mm2 and 5.6-mm2 electrodes were implanted in 20 patients. At 9-27 months after implantation PI was measured automatically by means of additional algorithms downloaded via telemetry links into implanted Thera pulse generators. PI was determined based on the voltage drop on the output capacitor during the 5 V-1 ms pacing impulse, at the programmable sampling rates from 1 second to 30 minutes. The study examined in particular: (1) PI trends and variations associated with different breathing patterns, body postures, provocative maneuvers, bike exercise, and during 24 hours; (2) impact of pacing rate and AV-delay on PI; (3) correlation between PI variability and pacing threshold, lead configuration, absolute PI value, age, gender, disease, and cardiac chamber. The most important findings were: (1) large PI variations of up to 450 omega were observed in properly functioning leads, (2) PI variability exhibited a weak negative correlation with pacing thresholds as if electrode positional stability was not a major factor underlying PI variations, (3) unipolar and bipolar PI variations were equivalent to each other (correlation factor = 0.93) implying that PI was mostly dependent on the circumstances around the lead tip.

  16. The formal pace of Sesame Street over 26 years.

    PubMed

    Koolstra, Cees M; van Zanten, Juliette; Lucassen, Nicole; Ishaak, Nazreen

    2004-08-01

    Television producers often use a high rate in the succession of visual and auditory features in their programs to attract the attention of viewers. In this study an attempt was made to measure the formal pace of television programs by scoring the rates of an extensive set of formal visual and auditory characteristics. Sesame Street was chosen as a focal point because this educational program--with its high pace--is very successful in its competition with the majority of commercial programs from which children can choose to watch at home. The analyzed material consisted of 49 Dutch episodes of Sesame Street broadcast between 1977 and 2003. The formal pace characteristics of separate program items from Sesame Street could be reliably established. Factor analysis indicated that clear pace factors were (a) "editing," consisting of a frequent use of different types of shots (total shots, medium shots, and close-ups) combined with a large number of cuts and (b) speech rate. Over a period of 26 years, the pace of editing increased: the mean number of cuts increased from about 4 to 8 per minute. The mean speech rate decreased from 175 to 139 words per minute.

  17. T wave alternans during exercise and atrial pacing in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohnloser, S. H.; Klingenheben, T.; Zabel, M.; Li, Y. G.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence is accumulating that microvolt T wave alternans (TWA) is a marker of increased risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Initially, atrial pacing was used to elevate heart rate and elicit TWA. More recently, a noninvasive approach has been developed that elevates heart rate using exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 30 consecutive patients with a history of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the spectral method was used to detect TWA during both atrial pacing and submaximal exercise testing. The concordance rate for the presence or absence of TWA using the two measurement methods was 84%. There was a patient-specific heart rate threshold for the detection of TWA that averaged 100 +/- 14 beats/min during exercise compared with 97 +/- 9 beats/min during right atrial pacing (P = NS). Beyond this threshold, there was a significant and comparable increase in level of TWA with decreasing pacing cycle length and increasing exercise heart rates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to demonstrate that microvolt TWA can be assessed reliably and noninvasively during exercise stress. There is a patient-specific heart rate threshold beyond which TWA continues to increase with increasing heart rates. Heart rate thresholds for the onset of TWA measured during atrial pacing and exercise stress were comparable, indicating that heart rate alone appears to be the main factor of determining the onset of TWA during submaximal exercise stress.

  18. Pacing impedance variability in tined steroid eluting leads.

    PubMed

    Danilovic, D; Ohm, O J

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pacing impedance (PI) behavior in ambulatory patients. Eighteen atrial and 18 ventricular tined steroid eluting leads with 1.2-mm2 and 5.6-mm2 electrodes were implanted in 20 patients. At 9-27 months after implantation PI was measured automatically by means of additional algorithms downloaded via telemetry links into implanted Thera pulse generators. PI was determined based on the voltage drop on the output capacitor during the 5 V-1 ms pacing impulse, at the programmable sampling rates from 1 second to 30 minutes. The study examined in particular: (1) PI trends and variations associated with different breathing patterns, body postures, provocative maneuvers, bike exercise, and during 24 hours; (2) impact of pacing rate and AV-delay on PI; (3) correlation between PI variability and pacing threshold, lead configuration, absolute PI value, age, gender, disease, and cardiac chamber. The most important findings were: (1) large PI variations of up to 450 omega were observed in properly functioning leads, (2) PI variability exhibited a weak negative correlation with pacing thresholds as if electrode positional stability was not a major factor underlying PI variations, (3) unipolar and bipolar PI variations were equivalent to each other (correlation factor = 0.93) implying that PI was mostly dependent on the circumstances around the lead tip. PMID:9670178

  19. Towards improving the representation of polar regions in global reanalyses at the NASA GMAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullather, R. I.; Zhao, B.; Nowicki, S.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Suarez, M.; Putman, W.; Shuman, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric reanalyses have been employed in a wide variety of studies investigating processes in the changing Arctic and Antarctic. However reanalyses underperform in polar regions due in part to limitations in the background model, which are associated with spatial resolution and with inadequate representations of physical processes. Some chronic issues include the use of incorrect topography over ice sheets, persistent temperature biases, and discontinuities in time series due to abrupt changes to the observing system. These limitations provoke caution in the use of global reanalyses in polar regions, but also call into question their general applicability to evolving polar climate topics. For example, the assessment of conditions over Greenland and Antarctica in the most recent IPCC report relied heavily on limited area models rather than global reanalyses. The performance of contemporary reanalyses over the north and south polar caps are reviewed with emphasis on differences in atmospheric energy and moisture budgets. In particular, the recently released MERRA-2 reanalysis is critically assessed. Significant changes that are relevant to polar regions in MERRA-2 over the previous MERRA version include an improved representation of glaciated land surfaces and sea ice albedo. Ongoing work to address issues of increased spatial resolution and the introduction of more complex physical processes related to surface hydrology over polar ice sheets will be described.

  20. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant

  1. A case study of population health improvement at a Midwest regional hospital employer.

    PubMed

    Long, D Adam; Sheehan, Paula

    2010-06-01

    This article reviews the population health improvement initiative of a Midwest regional hospital employer. Services included health risk assessments, health education, and motivational health coaching conducted telephonically. Outcomes categories for this program evaluation comprised participation rates, participant satisfaction, health status and behavior change, productivity change, health care claims savings, and return on investment. Participation rates varied widely with incentive structure, although retention of participants in coaching programs averaged 89%. The participant satisfaction rate for the last 14 months of interventions was 96%. Four years of population health status and behavior trending showed significant improvements in smoking status, dietary fat and fiber intake, exercise, mental health (ie, stress, effects depressive symptoms in the past year, life satisfaction), readiness to change (ie, diet, exercise, stress, smoking, body weight), perceptions of overall health, an index of good health habits, sum of lifestyle health risks, and sum of risks and chronic conditions. Body mass index showed nonsignificant improvements during the years of greatest participation (years 2 to 4). Indicators of productivity demonstrated improvements as well. These gains were noted for employees across all health risk statuses, which suggests population health improvement strategies can influence productivity even for healthy employees. Program year 3 was evaluated for health care claims savings using a 2-stage multivariate regression approach. Stage 1 was a computation of propensity-to-participate scores. Stage 2 was an estimation of per member per month (PMPM) claims savings for participant cohorts using a propensity score-weighted linear regression analysis. Participants averaged $40.65 PMPM savings over the control population. Program return on investment, including incentive costs and vendor fees, was 2.87:1.

  2. The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike World Championships.

    PubMed

    Abbiss, Chris R; Ross, Megan L R; Garvican, Laura A; Ross, Neil; Pottgiesser, Torben; Gregory, John; Martin, David T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of pace self-selected by cyclists of varying ability, biological age and sex performing in a mountain bike World Championship event. Data were collected on cyclists performing in the Elite Male (ELITEmale; n = 75), Elite Female (ELITEfemale; n = 50), Under 23 Male (U23male; n = 62), Under 23 Female (U23female; n = 34), Junior Male (JNRmale; n = 71) and Junior Female (JNRfemale; n = 30) categories of the 2009 UCI Cross-Country Mountain Bike World Championships. Split times were recorded for the top, middle and bottom 20% of all finishers of each category. Timing splits were positioned to separate the course into technical and non-technical, uphill, downhill and rolling/flat sections. Compared with bottom performers, top performers in all male categories (ELITEmale, U23male, JNRmale) maintained a more even pace over the event as evidenced by a significantly lower standard deviation and range in average lap speed. Top performers, males, and ELITEmale athletes spent a lower percentage of overall race time on technical uphill sections of the course, compared with middle and bottom placed finishers, females, and JNRmale athletes, respectively. Better male performers adopt a more even distribution of pace throughout cross-country mountain events. Performance of lower placed finishers, females and JNRmale athletes may be improved by enhancing technical uphill cycling ability.

  3. The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike World Championships.

    PubMed

    Abbiss, Chris R; Ross, Megan L R; Garvican, Laura A; Ross, Neil; Pottgiesser, Torben; Gregory, John; Martin, David T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of pace self-selected by cyclists of varying ability, biological age and sex performing in a mountain bike World Championship event. Data were collected on cyclists performing in the Elite Male (ELITEmale; n = 75), Elite Female (ELITEfemale; n = 50), Under 23 Male (U23male; n = 62), Under 23 Female (U23female; n = 34), Junior Male (JNRmale; n = 71) and Junior Female (JNRfemale; n = 30) categories of the 2009 UCI Cross-Country Mountain Bike World Championships. Split times were recorded for the top, middle and bottom 20% of all finishers of each category. Timing splits were positioned to separate the course into technical and non-technical, uphill, downhill and rolling/flat sections. Compared with bottom performers, top performers in all male categories (ELITEmale, U23male, JNRmale) maintained a more even pace over the event as evidenced by a significantly lower standard deviation and range in average lap speed. Top performers, males, and ELITEmale athletes spent a lower percentage of overall race time on technical uphill sections of the course, compared with middle and bottom placed finishers, females, and JNRmale athletes, respectively. Better male performers adopt a more even distribution of pace throughout cross-country mountain events. Performance of lower placed finishers, females and JNRmale athletes may be improved by enhancing technical uphill cycling ability. PMID:23521618

  4. Diaphragm pacing in infants and children. A life-table analysis of implanted components.

    PubMed

    Weese-Mayer, D E; Morrow, A S; Brouillette, R T; Ilbawi, M N; Hunt, C E

    1989-04-01

    Since 1976, we have implanted bilateral phrenic nerve electrodes for diaphragm pacing in 33 infants and children. This population includes 23 patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CHS), two with late onset CHS and hypothalamic dysfunction, three with hypoventilation associated with Chiari II malformation and myelomeningocele, and five with quadriplegia. Our experience, totalling 192 system-years and 96 patient-years of pacing, has enabled us to document the nature and frequency of problems related to the implanted components of the Avery Laboratories (S-232-1) pacemaker system when used in a pediatric population. By life table analysis, the mean time to need for replacement of any implanted component was 56.3 months. A total of 26 failures requiring component replacement occurred and were classified into four types: (1) receiver failure (15 cases), (2) electrode wire or wire insulation breakage (six cases), (3) infection requiring diaphragm pacer system removal (three cases), and (4) mechanical nerve injury (two cases). We conclude that the present diaphragm pacing system is effective but not without risk of biomedical component failure. The present system might be substantially improved by (1) a modified receiver design with a hermetic seal to prevent fluid penetration, (2) stronger, better insulated electrode wires, and (3) modifications of surgical technique and electrode type to prevent phrenic nerve damage. PMID:2784647

  5. Improving Loop Modeling of the Antibody Complementarity-Determining Region 3 Using Knowledge-Based Restraints.

    PubMed

    Finn, Jessica A; Koehler Leman, Julia; Willis, Jordan R; Cisneros, Alberto; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Structural restrictions are present even in the most sequence diverse portions of antibodies, the complementary determining region (CDR) loops. Previous studies identified robust rules that define canonical structures for five of the six CDR loops, however the heavy chain CDR 3 (HCDR3) defies standard classification attempts. The HCDR3 loop can be subdivided into two domains referred to as the "torso" and the "head" domains and two major families of canonical torso structures have been identified; the more prevalent "bulged" and less frequent "non-bulged" torsos. In the present study, we found that Rosetta loop modeling of 28 benchmark bulged HCDR3 loops is improved with knowledge-based structural restraints developed from available antibody crystal structures in the PDB. These restraints restrict the sampling space Rosetta searches in the torso domain, limiting the φ and ψ angles of these residues to conformations that have been experimentally observed. The application of these restraints in Rosetta result in more native-like structure sampling and improved score-based differentiation of native-like HCDR3 models, significantly improving our ability to model antibody HCDR3 loops. PMID:27182833

  6. Regional analgesia for improvement of long-term functional outcome after elective large joint replacement

    PubMed Central

    Atchabahian, Arthur; Schwartz, Gary; Hall, Charles B; Lajam, Claudette M; Andreae, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Background Regional analgesia is more effective than conventional analgesia for controlling pain and may facilitate rehabilitation after large joint replacement in the short term. It remains unclear if regional anaesthesia improves functional outcomes after joint replacement beyond three months after surgery. Objectives To assess the effects of regional anaesthesia and analgesia on long-term functional outcomes 3, 6 and 12 months after elective major joint (knee, shoulder and hip) replacement surgery. Search methods We performed an electronic search of several databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL), and handsearched reference lists and conference abstracts. We updated our search in June 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing regional analgesia versus conventional analgesia in patients undergoing total shoulder, hip or knee replacement. We included studies that reported a functional outcome with a follow-up of at least three months after surgery. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We contacted study authors for additional information. Main results We included six studies with 350 participants followed for at least three months. All of these studies enrolled participants undergoing total knee replacement. Studies were at least partially blinded. Three studies had a high risk of performance bias and one a high risk of attrition bias, but the risk of bias was otherwise unclear or low. Only one study assessed joint function using a global score. Due to heterogeneity in outcome and reporting, we could only pool three out of six RCTs, with range of motion assessed at three months after surgery used as a surrogate for joint function. All studies had a high risk of detection bias. Using the random-effects model, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups (mean difference 3.99 degrees, 95% confidence interval (CI)

  7. Optogenetics for in vivo cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapies.

    PubMed

    Nussinovitch, Udi; Gepstein, Lior

    2015-07-01

    Abnormalities in the specialized cardiac conduction system may result in slow heart rate or mechanical dyssynchrony. Here we apply optogenetics, widely used to modulate neuronal excitability, for cardiac pacing and resynchronization. We used adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9 to express the Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene at one or more ventricular sites in rats. This allowed optogenetic pacing of the hearts at different beating frequencies with blue-light illumination both in vivo and in isolated perfused hearts. Optical mapping confirmed that the source of the new pacemaker activity was the site of ChR2 transgene delivery. Notably, diffuse illumination of hearts where the ChR2 transgene was delivered to several ventricular sites resulted in electrical synchronization and significant shortening of ventricular activation times. These findings highlight the unique potential of optogenetics for cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapies.

  8. Pacing accuracy during an incremental step test in adolescent swimmers.

    PubMed

    Scruton, Adrian; Baker, James; Roberts, Justin; Basevitch, Itay; Merzbach, Viviane; Gordon, Dan

    2015-01-01

    To assess pacing accuracy in a group of adolescent swimmers during an incremental step test. Fifteen well-trained swimmers (age 15±1.5 years; height 170.2±8.8 cm; mass 60.2±6.6 kg), completed two 7×200 m tests, separated by ~72 hours. They swam to a predetermined incrementally increasing pace per step and were instructed to swim at even pace. Upon completion of each step, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate and blood lactate were recorded. Significant differences observed for both trials between actual and predicted swim time (P<0.05). Significant differences also observed between the first and second 100 m of each step in trial 1 for step 1 (P=0.001, effect size [ES] =0.54), step 2 (P=0.0001, ES =0.57), step 4 (P=0.0001, ES =0.53), step 5 (P=0.005, ES =0.65), step 6 (P=0.0001, ES =0.50), and step 7 (P=0.0001, ES =0.70). Similar responses witnessed for trial 2 (P<0.05). Findings suggest that the finite anaerobic capacity was engaged sooner than would normally be anticipated, as a function of an inability to regulate pace. This is proposed to be a consequence of the volume of exposure to the biological and psychological sensations and cognitive developmental status. Given the apparent error in pacing judgment exhibited in this population group, caution should be applied when adopting such tests to monitor training responses with adolescent athletes, and alternate means of modulating pace be investigated.

  9. Pacing accuracy during an incremental step test in adolescent swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Scruton, Adrian; Baker, James; Roberts, Justin; Basevitch, Itay; Merzbach, Viviane; Gordon, Dan

    2015-01-01

    To assess pacing accuracy in a group of adolescent swimmers during an incremental step test. Fifteen well-trained swimmers (age 15±1.5 years; height 170.2±8.8 cm; mass 60.2±6.6 kg), completed two 7×200 m tests, separated by ~72 hours. They swam to a predetermined incrementally increasing pace per step and were instructed to swim at even pace. Upon completion of each step, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate and blood lactate were recorded. Significant differences observed for both trials between actual and predicted swim time (P<0.05). Significant differences also observed between the first and second 100 m of each step in trial 1 for step 1 (P=0.001, effect size [ES] =0.54), step 2 (P=0.0001, ES =0.57), step 4 (P=0.0001, ES =0.53), step 5 (P=0.005, ES =0.65), step 6 (P=0.0001, ES =0.50), and step 7 (P=0.0001, ES =0.70). Similar responses witnessed for trial 2 (P<0.05). Findings suggest that the finite anaerobic capacity was engaged sooner than would normally be anticipated, as a function of an inability to regulate pace. This is proposed to be a consequence of the volume of exposure to the biological and psychological sensations and cognitive developmental status. Given the apparent error in pacing judgment exhibited in this population group, caution should be applied when adopting such tests to monitor training responses with adolescent athletes, and alternate means of modulating pace be investigated. PMID:26346728

  10. Pacing during an ultramarathon running event in hilly terrain

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Wiegand, Aaron N.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km) ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. Methods Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km) carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS) device. Using the GPS data, we determined the speed, relative to average total speed, in level (LEV), uphill (UH) and downhill (DH) gradient categories as a function of total distance, as well as the correlation between overall performance and speed variability, speed loss, and total time stopped. Results There were no significant differences in normality, variances or means in the relative speed in 173-km and 103-km participants. Relative speed decreased in LEV, UH and DH. The main component of speed loss occurred between 5% and 50% of the event distance in LEV, and between 5% and 95% in UH and DH. There were no significant correlations between overall performance and speed loss, the variability of speed, or total time stopped. Conclusions Positive pacing was observed at all gradients, with the main component of speed loss occurring earlier (mixed pacing) in LEV compared to UH and DH. A speed reserve (increased speed in the last section) was observed in LEV and UH. The decrease in speed and variability of speed were more important in LEV and DH than in UH. The absence of a significant correlation between overall performance and descriptors of pacing is novel and indicates that pacing in ultramarathons in trails and hilly terrain differs to other types of running events. PMID:27812406

  11. Improved regional seismic location and confidence bounds using a combined model and empirical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Flanagan, M.; Pasyanos, M.; Schultz, C.

    2003-04-01

    We demonstrate improvement in seismic location using a combined model and empirical approach. We find that no individual earth model provides optimal travel-time prediction everywhere. We have, therefore, adopted an approach whereby travel-time predictions from any number of models and empirical observations are geographically merged to form a travel-time model for each network station. Starting with a set of candidate earth models, which often range from 3-dimensional regional models to radially symmetric global models, we evaluate travel-time prediction for distinct distance ranges and geographic regions. Models are then assigned to each distance/region based on performance of travel-time prediction. In addition to assessing travel-time prediction accuracy we develop non-stationary uncertainty models for each set of travel-time predictions. The multi-model, travel-time predictions and uncertainties are merged to form one travel-time prediction model for each station. We further refine model-based predictions and uncertainties using empirical observations and the Modified Bayesian Kriging method of Schultz et al. (1998). This calibration process results in hypocenter-specific travel time predictions and uncertainties for each station and phase. We test and validate throughout the calibration process. A corner stone of our calibration and validation process is the LLNL database. We refine seismicity catalogs by identifying locations that meet strict network criteria (Bondar et al. 2002). We also include event locations determined using non-seismic techniques, such as InSAR satellite. Arrival-time measurements are directly and statistically validated using detailed review of select waveforms. Using this data set and non-circular statistical test, we measure the improvement of travel-time prediction and validate travel-time prediction uncertainty. Ultimately, we use a set of well-located events that are left out of the calibration process to measure improvement in

  12. Self-paced BCI using multiple SWT-based classifiers.

    PubMed

    Faradji, Farhad; Ward, Rabab K; Birch, Gary E

    2008-01-01

    The presence of false activations inhibits the use of existing self-paced BCIs in real life applications. We present a new design method for a self-paced BCI that yielded 0% false activations using the data of two subjects. This system obtains templates/shapes of the movement related finger flexion patterns. To obtain the templates, the intentional control data are decomposed into 5 levels using the stationary wavelet transform. Then, ensemble averaging is done. These templates are used to train 5 radial basis function neural networks. This is followed by a majority voting classifier.

  13. Centrifugal dryers keep pace with the market

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    New plant design and upgrades create a shift in dewatering strategies. The article describes recent developments. Three major manufacturers supply centrifugal dryers - TEMA, Centrifugal & Mechanical Industries (CMI) and Ludowici. CMI introduced a line of vertical centrifugal dryers. TEMA improved the techniques by developing a horizontal vibratory centrifuge (HVC) which simplified maintenance. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  14. Improved quantification for local regions of interest in preclinical PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cal-González, J.; Moore, S. C.; Park, M.-A.; Herraiz, J. L.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography, there are several causes of quantitative inaccuracy, such as partial volume or spillover effects. The impact of these effects is greater when using radionuclides that have a large positron range, e.g., 68Ga and 124I, which have been increasingly used in the clinic. We have implemented and evaluated a local projection algorithm (LPA), originally evaluated for SPECT, to compensate for both partial-volume and spillover effects in PET. This method is based on the use of a high-resolution CT or MR image, co-registered with a PET image, which permits a high-resolution segmentation of a few tissues within a volume of interest (VOI) centered on a region within which tissue-activity values need to be estimated. The additional boundary information is used to obtain improved activity estimates for each tissue within the VOI, by solving a simple inversion problem. We implemented this algorithm for the preclinical Argus PET/CT scanner and assessed its performance using the radionuclides 18F, 68Ga and 124I. We also evaluated and compared the results obtained when it was applied during the iterative reconstruction, as well as after the reconstruction as a postprocessing procedure. In addition, we studied how LPA can help to reduce the “spillover contamination”, which causes inaccurate quantification of lesions in the immediate neighborhood of large, “hot” sources. Quantification was significantly improved by using LPA, which provided more accurate ratios of lesion-to-background activity concentration for hot and cold regions. For 18F, the contrast was improved from 3.0 to 4.0 in hot lesions (when the true ratio was 4.0) and from 0.16 to 0.06 in cold lesions (true ratio = 0.0), when using the LPA postprocessing. Furthermore, activity values estimated within the VOI using LPA during reconstruction were slightly more accurate than those obtained by post-processing, while also visually improving the image contrast and uniformity within the VOI

  15. Learning from 8 years of regional cyanobacteria observation in Brittany in view of sanitary survey improvement.

    PubMed

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thomas, Olivier; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have been more and more studied during the last decades with regard to environment and health issues. More recently the consequences of climate change reinforced the need for research in view of a better management of cyanobacteria blooms. In this context the exploitation of the water quality survey of 26 recreational lakes in Brittany (north western France) between 2004 and 2011 is reported in this paper in order to encompass spatial and interannual patterns of cyanobacteria development at a regional scale. Starting from weekly data principally acquired during summertime, the links between cyanobacteria cell densities, toxin occurrences and interannual meteorological factors can give insights on the potential evolution of cyanobacterial crisis in the future. This study is part of a project aiming at a better understanding of potentially toxic cyanobacteria crisis occurrences in recreational waters, in order to improve predictive monitoring routines.

  16. Improving reservoir operations modeling for integration in a regional Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Li, H.; Ward, D. L.; Huang, M.; Leung, L.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    In integrated Earth system models (EaSMs), accurate hydrologic information in all of its components including socio-economy, atmosphere, land, and energy infrastructure is needed to represent the interactions between human and Earth system processes. The hydrology processes regulate the water, energy and carbon fluxes in this integrated framework. Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of EaSMs in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies such as integrated assessment activities at regional to global scales. Dynamic programming approaches to optimize operations of reservoir systems have been widely used for water resources management planning at local and regional scales and recently have emerged in global-scale applications; albeit they are performed offline from the EaSMs , and require accurate knowledge of future flow for the upcoming water year. Other emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are more flexible for coupling with EaSMs. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing overall regulated flow at large basin scales. Improved generic operating rules are presented and evaluated across multiple spatial scales and objectives (flow but also storage and supply) over the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System, which is representative of large river systems with increasing competitive reservoir purposes in the future. Challenges due to the difference in time and spatial scales between the physical processes versus reservoir operations and targets (irrigation, flood control, hydropower, environmental flow, navigation) are then discussed in the context of improving hydrology and evapotranspiration fluxes within an integrated EaSM.

  17. Development of a reservoir model to improve evapotranspiration estimates in a regional land atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Li, H.; Huang, M.; Leung, L.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The community land model (CLM) was designed for coupling with atmospheric model to simulate the water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. These fluxes are regulated in various degrees by its hydrologic processes, which have not been vigorously evaluated for applications at watershed or regional scales. In the framework of an integrated regional earth system model being developed, accurate hydrologic information in all of its components including socio-economy, atmosphere, land, and energy infrastructure is needed to represent the interactions between human and earth system processes. Incorporating CLM in this framework requires model evaluation and improvement so that CLM could be used to represent hydrology, soil, managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and biogeochemical processes across scales in a coherent modeling framework. As part of this effort, an irrigation-runoff routing-reservoir model is developed as a relatively simple and generic way to represent water management in CLM, which only deals with natural land surface and hydrologic processes. The objective is to improve evapotranspiration estimates in time and space resulting from human influence, i.e., from irrigation and large reservoir storage. Once fully coupled, it will also allow i) assessing the feedback of increased evapotranspiration in an atmospheric model, ii) investigations of water use and its influence on other human and earth system components. The concept of the preliminary reservoir model is presented over the Columbia River Basin. Challenges due to the differences in time and spatial scales between the physical processes versus reservoir operations and targets (irrigation, flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, environmental flow) are discussed.

  18. Hydrological modelling improvements required in basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; McRobie, Allan; Booij, Martijn

    2016-04-01

    Millions of people rely on river water originating from basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas (HKH), where snow- and ice-melt are significant flow components. One such basin is the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), where snow- and ice-melt can contribute more than 80% of total flow. Containing some of the world's largest alpine glaciers, this basin may be highly susceptible to global warming and climate change, and reliable predictions of future water availability are vital for resource planning for downstream food and energy needs in a changing climate, but depend on significantly improved hydrological modelling. However, a critical assessment of available hydro-climatic data and hydrological modelling in the HKH region has identified five major failings in many published hydro-climatic studies, even those appearing in reputable international journals. The main weaknesses of these studies are: i) incorrect basin areas; ii) under-estimated precipitation; iii) incorrectly-defined glacier boundaries; iv) under-estimated snow-cover data; and v) use of biased melt factors for snow and ice during the summer months. This paper illustrates these limitations, which have either resulted in modelled flows being under-estimates of measured flows, leading to an implied severe water scarcity; or have led to the use of unrealistically high degree-day factors and over-estimates of glacier melt contributions, implying unrealistic melt rates. These effects vary amongst sub-basins. Forecasts obtained from these models cannot be used reliably in policy making or water resource development, and need revision. Detailed critical analysis and improvement of existing hydrological modelling may be equally necessary in other mountain regions across the world.

  19. Brain regions essential for improved lexical access in an aged aphasic patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, Marcus; Flaisch, Tobias; Obleser, Jonas; Assadollahi, Ramin; Djundja, Daniela; Barthel, Gabriela; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Background The relationship between functional recovery after brain injury and concomitant neuroplastic changes is emphasized in recent research. In the present study we aimed to delineate brain regions essential for language performance in aphasia using functional magnetic resonance imaging and acquisition in a temporal sparse sampling procedure, which allows monitoring of overt verbal responses during scanning. Case presentation An 80-year old patient with chronic aphasia (2 years post-onset) was investigated before and after intensive language training using an overt picture naming task. Differential brain activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus for correct word retrieval and errors was found. Improved language performance following therapy was mirrored by increased fronto-thalamic activation while stability in more general measures of attention/concentration and working memory was assured. Three healthy age-matched control subjects did not show behavioral changes or increased activation when tested repeatedly within the same 2-week time interval. Conclusion The results bear significance in that the changes in brain activation reported can unequivocally be attributed to the short-term training program and a language domain-specific plasticity process. Moreover, it further challenges the claim of a limited recovery potential in chronic aphasia, even at very old age. Delineation of brain regions essential for performance on a single case basis might have major implications for treatment using transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:16916464

  20. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ˜16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ˜20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs.

  1. The Deep South Clouds & Aerosols project: Improving the modelling of clouds in the Southern Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; McDonald, Adrian; Harvey, Mike; Davies, Roger; Katurji, Marwan; Varma, Vidya; Williams, Jonny

    2016-04-01

    Southern-Hemisphere climate projections are subject to persistent climate model biases affecting the large majority of contemporary climate models, which degrade the reliability of these projections, particularly at the regional scale. Southern-Hemisphere specific problems include the fact that satellite-based observations comparisons with model output indicate that cloud occurrence above the Southern Ocean is substantially underestimated, with consequences for the radiation balance, sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and the position of storm tracks. The Southern-Ocean and Antarctic region is generally characterized by an acute paucity of surface-based and airborne observations, further complicating the situation. In recognition of this and other Southern-Hemisphere specific problems with climate modelling, the New Zealand Government has launched the Deep South National Science Challenge, whose purpose is to develop a new Earth System Model which reduces these very large radiative forcing problems associated with erroneous clouds. The plan is to conduct a campaign of targeted observations in the Southern Ocean region, leveraging off international measurement campaigns in this area, and using these and existing measurements of cloud and aerosol properties to improve the representation of clouds in the nascent New Zealand Earth System Model. Observations and model development will target aerosol physics and chemistry, particularly sulphate, sea salt, and non-sulphate organic aerosol, its interactions with clouds, and cloud microphysics. The hypothesis is that the cloud schemes in most GCMs are trained on Northern-Hemisphere data characterized by substantial anthropogenic or terrestrial aerosol-related influences which are almost completely absent in the Deep South.

  2. Improved confinement region without large magnetohydrodynamic activity in TPE-RX reversed-field pinch plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Hirano, Yoichi; Sakakita, Hajime; Koguchi, Haruhisa

    2014-11-15

    We found that spontaneous improved confinement was brought about depending on the operating region in the Toroidal Pinch Experiment-Reversed eXperiment (TPE-RX) reversed-field pinch plasma [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)]. Gradual decay of the toroidal magnetic field at plasma surface B{sub tw} reversal makes it possible to realize a prolonged discharge, and the poloidal beta value and energy confinement time increase in the latter half of the discharge, where reversal and pinch parameters become shallow and low, respectively. In the latter half of the discharge, the plasma current and volume-averaged toroidal magnetic field 〈B{sub t}〉 increase again, the electron density slowly decays, the electron temperature and soft X-ray radiation intensity increase, and the magnetic fluctuations are markedly reduced. In this period of improved confinement, the value of (〈B{sub t}〉-B{sub tw})/B{sub pw}, where B{sub pw} is the poloidal magnetic field at the plasma surface, stays almost constant, which indicates that the dynamo action occurs without large magnetohydrodynamic activities.

  3. Improving the understanding and diagnosis of Earth system changes in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    I review key hydrological state variables and fluxes relevant to cold regions, specifically snow, permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, lakes, and wetlands, and comment on the ability of current models to represent the associated processes, and the quality of the data sets upon which model development and diagnosis efforts rest. Although snow processes are relatively well represented in current generation land surface models, at least at large scales for deep mountain snowpacks, the representation of high latitude snow processes remain complicated by the role of snow redistribution, and of sublimation during the shoulder (especially spring) season. Most credible land surface models now include representations of permafrost, some of which perform well when forced with local climate data; however their performance over large areas is limited by spatial variability of key processes, including soil thermal characteristics. Likewise, many land surface models now represent the hydrology and energetics of lakes, which cover a substantial portion of the landscape in many high latitude environs. However, accurate representation of lakes requires knowledge of certain characteristics of their bathymetry and hydrological connectivity, information which is not always available. Likewise, the representation of wetlands in models, although improved in many cases, is limited by topography (and the role of microtopography, even at large scales). Nonetheless, increased attention to high latitude hydrological processes has demonstrably improved the fidelity of land surface representations over the last decade or so.

  4. Improving the understanding and diagnosis of Earth system changes in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2014-12-01

    I review key hydrological state variables and fluxes relevant to cold regions, specifically snow, permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, lakes, and wetlands, and comment on the ability of current models to represent the associated processes, and the quality of the data sets upon which model development and diagnosis efforts rest. Although snow processes are relatively well represented in current generation land surface models, at least at large scales for deep mountain snowpacks, the representation of high latitude snow processes remain complicated by the role of snow redistribution, and of sublimation during the shoulder (especially spring) season. Most credible land surface models now include representations of permafrost, some of which perform well when forced with local climate data; however their performance over large areas is limited by spatial variability of key processes, including soil thermal characteristics. Likewise, many land surface models now represent the hydrology and energetics of lakes, which cover a substantial portion of the landscape in many high latitude environs. However, accurate representation of lakes requires knowledge of certain characteristics of their bathymetry and hydrological connectivity, information which is not always available. Likewise, the representation of wetlands in models, although improved in many cases, is limited by topography (and the role of microtopography, even at large scales). Nonetheless, increased attention to high latitude hydrological processes has demonstrably improved the fidelity of land surface representations over the last decade or so.

  5. Toward Improved Land Surface Initialization in Support of Regional WRF Forecasts at the Kenya Meteorological Department

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case. Jonathan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Kabuchanga, Eric; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding and drought are two key forecasting challenges for the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). Atmospheric processes leading to excessive precipitation and/or prolonged drought can be quite sensitive to the state of the land surface, which interacts with the boundary layer of the atmosphere providing a source of heat and moisture. The development and evolution of precipitation systems are affected by heat and moisture fluxes from the land surface within weakly-sheared environments, such as in the tropics and sub-tropics. These heat and moisture fluxes during the day can be strongly influenced by land cover, vegetation, and soil moisture content. Therefore, it is important to represent the land surface state as accurately as possible in numerical weather prediction models. Enhanced regional modeling capabilities have the potential to improve forecast guidance in support of daily operations and high-end events over east Africa. KMD currently runs a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in real time to support its daily forecasting operations, invoking the Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) dynamical core. They make use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / National Weather Service Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) to manage and produce the WRF-NMM model runs on a 7-km regional grid over eastern Africa. Two organizations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, SERVIR and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, have established a working partnership with KMD for enhancing its regional modeling capabilities. To accomplish this goal, SPoRT and SERVIR will provide experimental land surface initialization datasets and model verification capabilities to KMD. To produce a land-surface initialization more consistent with the resolution of the KMD-WRF runs, the NASA Land Information System (LIS

  6. Translating the potential of hydrological forecasts into improved decision making in African regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; He, X.; Wanders, N.; Wood, E. F.; Ali, A.; Olang, L.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Evans, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological forecasts at local scale and seasonal time scales have the potential to inform decision-making by individuals and institutions to improve management of water resources and enhance food security. Much progress has been made in recent years in understanding climate variability and its predictability over African regions. However, there remain many challenges in translating large-scale evaluations and forecasts into locally relevant information. This is hampered by lack of on the ground data of hydrological and agricultural states, and the generally low skill of climate forecasts at time scales beyond one or two weeks. Additionally, the uptake of forecasts is not prevalent because of lack of capacity, and institutional and cultural barriers to using new and uncertain information. New technologies for monitoring and forecasting relevant hydrological variables, and novel approaches to understanding how this information may be used within decision making processes, have the potential to make substantial progress in addressing these challenges. We present a quasi-operational drought and flood monitoring and forecasting system and its use in understanding the potential of hydrological forecasts for improved decision-making. The system monitors in near real-time the terrestrial water cycle for the African continent based on remote sensing data and land surface hydrological modeling. The monitoring forms initial conditions for hydrological forecasts at short time scale, aimed at flood forecasting, and seasonal scale aimed at drought and crop yield forecasts. The flood forecasts are driven by precipitation and temperature forecasts from the Global Forecast System (GFS). The drought forecasts are driven by climate forecasts from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME). The seasonal forecast skill is modest and seasonally/regionally dependent with part of the skill coming from persistence in initial land surface conditions. We discuss the use of the system

  7. Recreational drug use in the Asia Pacific region: improvement in our understanding of the problem through the UNODC programmes.

    PubMed

    Dargan, P I; Wood, D M

    2012-09-01

    Until recently, there were limited data available on the epidemiology of recreational drug use in the Asia Pacific region. However, in the last few years, a number of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) programmes have improved data collection networks, particularly in East and Southeast Asia. There are still significant data gaps from some countries, including India and China, and data reported from some countries in the region are based on expert estimates on recreational drug use rather than formally collected data. However, the availability of improved epidemiological data has enabled many countries in the region, both individually and through regional UNODC programmes, to start to understand the issues that need to be addressed. We will summarise in this mini-review the data available within the UNODC World Drug Report and from the other UNODC programmes in the region on the production and use of recreational drugs in the Asia Pacific region.

  8. Drought, Fire and Insects in Western US Forests: Observations to Improve Regional Land System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.; Yang, Z.; Berner, L. T.; Hicke, J. A.; Buotte, P.; Hudiburg, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Drought, fire and insects are major disturbances in the western US, and conditions are expected to get warmer and drier in the future. We combine multi-scale observations and modeling with CLM4.5 to examine the effects of these disturbances on forests in the western US. We modified the Community Land Model, CLM4.5, to improve simulated drought-related mortality in forests, and prediction of insect outbreaks under future climate conditions. We examined differences in plant traits that represent species variation in sensitivity to drought, and redefined plant groupings in PFTs. Plant traits, including sapwood area: leaf area ratio and stemwood density were strongly correlated with water availability during the ecohydrologic year. Our database of co-located observations of traits for 30 tree species was used to produce parameterization of the model by species groupings according to similar traits. Burn area predicted by the new fire model in CLM4.5 compares well with recent years of GFED data, but has a positive bias compared with Landsat-based MTBS. Biomass mortality over recent decades increased, and was captured well by the model in general, but missed mortality trends of some species. Comparisons with AmeriFlux data showed that the model with dynamic tree mortality only (no species trait improvements) overestimated GPP in dry years compared with flux data at semi-arid sites, and underestimated GPP at more mesic sites that experience dry summers. Simulations with both dynamic tree mortality and species trait parameters improved estimates of GPP by 17-22%; differences between predicted and observed NEE were larger. Future projections show higher productivity from increased atmospheric CO2 and warming that somewhat offsets drought and fire effects over the next few decades. Challenges include representation of hydraulic failure in models, and availability of species trait and carbon/water process data in disturbance- and drought-impacted regions.

  9. An improved earthquake catalogue in the Marmara Sea region, Turkey, using massive template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    After the 1999 Izmit earthquake, the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) represents a 150 km unruptured segment of the North Anatolian Fault located below the Marmara Sea. One of the principal issue for seismic hazard assessment in the region is to know if the MMF is totally or partially locked and where the nucleation of the major forthcoming event is going to take place. The area is actually one of the best-instrumented fault systems in Europe. Since year 2007, various seismic networks both broadband, short period and OBS stations were deployed in order to monitor continuously the seismicity along the MMF and the related fault systems. A recent analysis of the seismicity recorded during the 2007-2012 period has provided new insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. This analysis was based on events detected with STA/LTA procedure and manually picked P and S wave arrivals times (Schmittbuhl et al., 2015). In order to extend the level of details and to fully take advantage of the dense seismic network we improved the seismic catalog using an automatic earthquake detection technique based on a template matching approach. This approach uses known earthquake seismic signals in order to detect newer events similar to the tested one from waveform cross-correlation. To set-up the methodology and verify the accuracy and the robustness of the results, we initially focused in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea (Cinarcik basin) and compared new detection with those manually identified. Through the massive analysis of cross-correlation based on the template scanning of the continuous recordings, we construct a refined catalog of earthquakes for the Marmara Sea in 2007-2014 period. Our improved earthquake catalog will provide an effective tool to improve the catalog completeness, to monitor and study the fine details of the time-space distribution of events, to characterize the repeating earthquake source processes and to understand the mechanical state of

  10. Application of Suomi-NPP Green Vegetation Fraction and NUCAPS for Improving Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Berndt, Emily B.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA SPoRT Center is working to incorporate Suomi-NPP products into its research and transition activities to improve regional numerical weather prediction (NWP). Specifically, SPoRT seeks to utilize two data products from NOAA/NESDIS: (1) daily global VIIRS green vegetation fraction (GVF), and (2) NOAA Unique CrIS and ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture retrieved profiles. The goal of (1) is to improve the representation of vegetation in the Noah land surface model (LSM) over existing climatological GVF datasets in order to improve the land-atmosphere energy exchanges in NWP models and produce better temperature, moisture, and precipitation forecasts. The goal of (2) is to assimilate NUCAPS retrieved profiles into the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to assess the impact on a summer pre-frontal convection case. Most regional NWP applications make use of a monthly GVF climatology for use in the Noah LSM within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF partitions incoming energy into direct surface heating/evaporation over bare soil versus evapotranspiration processes over vegetated surfaces. Misrepresentations of the fractional coverage of vegetation during anomalous weather/climate regimes (e.g., early/late bloom or freeze; drought) can lead to poor NWP model results when land-atmosphere feedback is important. SPoRT has been producing a daily MODIS GVF product based on the University of Wisconsin Direct Broadcast swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). While positive impacts have been demonstrated in the WRF model for some cases, the reflectances composing these NDVI do not correct for atmospheric aerosols nor satellite view angle, resulting in temporal noisiness at certain locations (especially heavy vegetation). The method behind the NESDIS VIIRS GVF is expected to alleviate the issues seen in the MODIS GVF real-time product, thereby offering a higher-quality dataset for

  11. Regional Center for the Improvement of Instruction in Elementary School Social Studies. Final Report, May, 1969-December, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Robert S.

    This document summarizes, analyzes, and reflects upon the activities of the Southeastern Regional Center for the Improvement of Elementary School Social Studies established at Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida. There are five major parts to the report. Part I contains a narrative summary of regional center activity from 1969 to…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of the Educational Platform--Is There a Connection between School Improvement and Regional Educational Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Lena; Dalin, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This research examined teachers' attitudes in a school development project, The best regional educational system in the world which focuses on regional development and school improvement. The project was performed in counties in Mid Sweden, which have a lower educational level and school achievements and a competence escape compare with other…

  13. The Print and Computer Enlargement System--PACE. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Ronald A.

    The Print and Computer Enlargement (PACE) System is being designed as a portable computerized reading and writing system that enables a low-vision person to read regular print and then create and edit text using large-print computerized output. The design goal was to develop a system that: weighed no more than 12 pounds so it could be easily…

  14. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... risk adjustment model. (5) CMS may adjust the monthly capitation amount to take into account other... or Federal workers' compensation, any no-fault insurance, or any liability insurance policy or plan, including a self-insured plan, the PACE organization may charge any of the following: (i) The...

  15. Curriculum Designs for Tech Prep Clusters. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains descriptions of various Tech Prep programs developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each entry includes general program descriptions, curriculum outlines, and course descriptions. The clusters and their specialty areas described in the booklet are:…

  16. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 37-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Four study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this eighth problems and solutions book used as a part of course assignments. The content is related to magnetic induction, Faraday's law, induced currents, Lenz's law, induced electromotive forces, time-varying magnetic fields, self-inductance, inductors,…

  18. Mixed microprocessor-random logic approach for innovative pacing systems.

    PubMed

    Gaggini, G; Garberoglio, B; Silvestri, L

    1992-11-01

    Modern pacing systems are becoming more and more sophisticated. Conversion of the information supplied by a sensor into suitable parameters for a rate controlling algorithm and the management of complex timing are common tasks for an integrated circuit (IC) in cardiac pacing. An effective solution consists of using a microprocessor to implement algorithms and pacing modes in a flexible way. The key point of using the same hardware resources for different tasks on a time sharing basis allows the design of a less complex IC when compared to a random logic structure with the same performances. The major design problems in a full microprocessor solution are its relatively low operating speed due to the low frequency clock necessary for low current drain, and the sequential structure of the machine itself. This can lead to unacceptable timing inaccuracy in all situations requiring the management of complex decision trees. In order to take full benefit from the advantages of a microprocessor structure without these drawbacks, a mixed microprocessor-random logic approach has been investigated. This architecture uses a microprocessor core to perform all high level nonreal-time operations (setup of the pacing cycle, data reduction and processing, data integrity checks) while a set of random logic peripherals is used for all critical timing aspects.

  19. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  20. Microcomputers in Education: A Self-Paced Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Doris; Carey, Regan

    Designed to serve as a self-paced computer course for education students with no experience using microcomputers, this manual contains instructions for operating an Apple IIe microcomputer, its introductory software, and Bank Street Writer, using the DOS 3.3 System Master. The lessons, which contain illustrations and sample screens, include…

  1. ET-1 levels in cardioischemic patients undergoing atrial pacing.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Tonnarini, G; Alessandri, N; Campana, E; Quaglione, R; Ciccaglioni, A; Giancaspro, G; Pantone, P; Giovanniello, T; Califano, F

    2001-01-01

    Atrial pacing (AP) procedure was carried out in 11 cardioischemic patients to reproduce tachycardia-induced myocardial ischemia. Six control subjects underwent the same procedure until the maximum pacing rate was reached. During the procedure, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasma lactate levels were measured in the coronary sinus and in the aortic root. In all the patients, atrial pacing provoked electrocardiographic signs and metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia and a significant decrease (p<0.001) in left ventricular ejection fraction. At AP-induced ischemia, coronary sinus (17.31 +/- 4.20 pg/mL) and arterial (9.60 +/- 3.31 pg/mL) ET-1 plasma levels were significantly different (p<0.001) in the patients. On the contrary, at maximum pacing rate, no significant difference (p=0.186) emerged between coronary sinus (9.72 +/- 1.09 pg/mL) and arterial (8.95 +/- 0.75 pg/mL) plasma ET-1 levels in the control group. These results suggest that, in cardioischemic patients, tachycardia can induce the coronary endothelium to release significant amounts of ET-1. PMID:11563817

  2. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 28-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Four study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this sixth problems and solutions book used as a part of student course work. The subject matter is related to electric currents, current densities, resistances, Ohm's law, voltages, Joule heating, electromotive forces, single loop circuits, series and parallel…

  3. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 24-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Four study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this fifth problems and solutions book used as a part of student course work. The subject matter is related to work in electric fields, potential differences, parallel plates, electric potential energies, potential gradients, capacitances, and capacitor circuits.…

  4. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 19-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Five study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this fourth problems and solutions book used as a part of student course work. The subject matter is related to electric charges, insulators, Coulomb's law, electric fields, lines of force, solid angles, conductors, motion of charged particles, dipoles, electric flux,…

  5. The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

  6. Library Skills for Teachers: A Self-Paced Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Terrence

    Designed to introduce education students to the basic library resources in the field, this self-paced workbook assumes a basic knowledge of the library and its resources. Each section in the eight-chapter workbook discusses a particular type of reference material and sample entries are provided when appropriate. Eleven assignments (two multiple…

  7. Evaluation of Self-Paced Instructional Materials in Pharmaceutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, James W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The instructional effectiveness of two different presentation methods (lecture and self-paced or modularized) was examined using two groups of pharmacy students. Little or no difference was found in this study of junior and senior students at Oregon State University. (LBH)

  8. A method for permanent transvenous left ventricular pacing.

    PubMed

    Blanc, J J; Benditt, D G; Gilard, M; Etienne, Y; Mansourati, J; Lurie, K G

    1998-11-01

    LV-based pacing has recently been reported to be of benefit in patients with severe cardiac failure and left bundle branch block. LV permanent pacing has been reported using epicardial leads but the surgical mortality is excessive. A transvenous approach is now favored. In this regard, cannulation of the coronary sinus and of one of its tributaries using only the permanent electrode is feasible but technically challenging. We describe a "long guiding sheath" method using catheterization, and a long radiopaque and peelable sheath. Once the coronary sinus is cannulated with the electrophysiological catheter, the long sheath is advanced to the mid-part of the coronary sinus. The permanent pacing electrode is then placed through the sheath and into a tributary of the coronary sinus. This method has been attempted in 10 patients and was successful in 8, with an average lead insertion time of 21 +/- 5.5 minutes and an average fluoroscopic time of 11 +/- 5.5 minutes. In conclusion, although transvenous left ventricular pacing remains a challenge, the "long guiding sheath" approach appears to facilitate this procedure with both a high success rate and an acceptable procedure time. PMID:9826852

  9. PACES: A Model of Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mark D.; Tarabochia, Dawn W.; Koltz, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    School counselors design, deliver, and evaluate comprehensive, developmental school counseling programs that are focused on enhancing student development and success. A model of student well-being, known as PACES, is defined and described that consists of five distinct and interactive domains: physical, affective, cognitive, economic, and social.…

  10. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 11-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Four segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this problems and solutions book for use as the third part of student course work. The subject-matter topics are related to impulses, inelastic and elastic collisions, two-dimensional collision problems, universal constant of gravitation, gravitational acceleration and…

  11. Kentucky's Parent and Child Education (PACE) Program. Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Kevin M.

    A lack of education is a major cause of poverty among many Kentucky citizens. In 1986, Kentucky's dropout rate was the second highest of the 50 states. That same year, Kentucky established the Parent and Child Education (PACE) Program in an effort to combat the problems of insufficient education and poverty that tend to be perpetuated from…

  12. Differential Response to Question Pacing in Learning from Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koran, Mary Lou; Koran, John J., Jr.

    In an experiment designed to explore the interaction of individual differences with question pacing in learning from written materials, 93 college students were administered aptitude tests representing verbal and memory abilities and then randomly assigned to treatments in which questions were placed after every one or four pages or were omitted…

  13. PACE Model Gives Advertising Campaign-Centered Curriculum (Commentary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Describes PACE (Portfolio, Assignments, Content, and Evaluation), an advertising curriculum model in which students work on real advertising campaigns. Explains that students form account groups which locate products needing promotional assistance. Identifies the goals of the curriculum to be competent writing and practical understanding of…

  14. PACE Center: A Mobile Career Information and Exploration Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham County Career Education, Blackfoot, ID.

    An innovative component of the Federally-sponsored Bingham County career education project is the Programed Activities for Career Exploration (PACE) Center, a mobile unit offering programed student activities to assist individual students in career planning. The mobile center visits each high school in the county; the sophomore year is selected as…

  15. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 32-36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Five study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this seventh problems and solutions book used as a part of student course work. The content is related to magnetic fields, magnetic moments, forces on charged particles in magnetic fields, electron volts, cyclotron, electronic charge to mass ratio, current-carrying…

  16. Basic Library Skills: A Self-Paced Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Judith

    This self-paced workbook is designed to introduce college students to the resources and facilities of the library and to providing the knowledge and skills necessary to do basic library research. Two introductory chapters include a library-specific tour with floor plans (the D. Leonard Corgan Library, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) and information…

  17. Self-Pacing Online Technology Approach: The Preservice Teacher Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jay

    This paper describes an online technology course at Middle Tennessee State University that meets the needs of many preservice teachers and models techniques that can be applied in their K-12 classrooms. The first section describes the self-pacing online technology approach, including the following components of the online model: World Wide…

  18. Pacing strategies during a cycling time trial with simulated headwinds and tailwinds.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G; Brunskill, A

    2000-10-01

    increased significantly during the first 8.05 km of the V condition when power outputs were 5% higher than in condition C. Heart rate showed no main effect of pacing strategy (p = 0.80) and the interaction between strategy and race split did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). These results suggest that in a 16.1 km time trial with equal 8.05 km headwind and tailwind sections, riders habitually set off too fast in the first few kilometres and will benefit (10 s improvement) from a constant pacing strategy and, to a slightly greater degree (12 s improvement), from a variable (5% +/- mean) pacing strategy in line with the variations in wind direction during the race. Riders should choose a constant power when external conditions are constant, but when there are hilly or variable wind sections in the race, a variable power strategy should be planned. This strategy would be best monitored with 'power-measuring devices' rather than heart rate or subjective feelings as the sensitivity of these variables to small but meaningful changes in power during a race is low. PMID:11083127

  19. Pacing strategies during a cycling time trial with simulated headwinds and tailwinds.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G; Brunskill, A

    2000-10-01

    increased significantly during the first 8.05 km of the V condition when power outputs were 5% higher than in condition C. Heart rate showed no main effect of pacing strategy (p = 0.80) and the interaction between strategy and race split did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). These results suggest that in a 16.1 km time trial with equal 8.05 km headwind and tailwind sections, riders habitually set off too fast in the first few kilometres and will benefit (10 s improvement) from a constant pacing strategy and, to a slightly greater degree (12 s improvement), from a variable (5% +/- mean) pacing strategy in line with the variations in wind direction during the race. Riders should choose a constant power when external conditions are constant, but when there are hilly or variable wind sections in the race, a variable power strategy should be planned. This strategy would be best monitored with 'power-measuring devices' rather than heart rate or subjective feelings as the sensitivity of these variables to small but meaningful changes in power during a race is low.

  20. Advances in Atmospheric Correction for NASA's PACE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, L. A.; Franz, B. A.; Boss, E.

    2015-12-01

    The PACE (Pre- Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystem) mission is a strategic Climate Continuity mission, included in NASA's 2010 plan: "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space". On a polar orbit, PACE will make climate-quality global measurements that are essential for understanding ocean biology, biogeochemistry, ecology, aerosol and cloud properties. These measurements will be used to help determine how the ocean and atmosphere are influencing and being influenced by a changing climate. At the heart of the PACE mission is a broad spectrum moderate resolution (~1 km nadir) radiometer, called the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI). OCI will provide high spectral resolution (5 nm) from the UV to NIR (350 - 800 nm), with additional spectral bands in the NIR and SWIR to support atmospheric correction, and aerosol and cloud science. Never before has a U.S. space borne instrument measured across such a broad spectral range at such a fine spectral and spatial resolutions on a global scale. The added capability of OCI presents unique new opportunities for oceanic and atmospheric retrievals, but also new challenges, especially for atmospheric correction. These challenges are being met in a variety of creative ways. In addition to OCI, PACE may include a multi-spectral, multi-angle polarimeter that will enhance aerosol and cloud characterization, aid significantly in atmospheric correction for oceanic retrievals, and may offer new insight into characterization of oceanic hydrosols. With these advanced global remote sensing capabilities PACE is expected to: (1) Provide high quality observations for both basic science research, as well as applications; and (2) Extend the current time-series of climate quality data to enable detection of long-term trends.

  1. [Improve the accessibility of essential drugs for the populations of one medical region in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ridde, Valéry; Nitièma, Abdoulaye P; Dadjoari, Moussa

    2005-01-01

    Despite the formulation of the Bamako initiative in 1992 in Burkina Faso, not until 2001 and the launching of a project by a nongovernmental organization was the policy really implemented in a region of the country. One of the goals of this policy is to improve access to health care by using generic essential drugs. The objective of this article is to summarize the results of the evaluation of the project's ability to improve the population's access to drugs. The project lasted three years (2001-2003) and the interventions took place in 41 basic health centres of three districts. According to WHO, improving access to drugs requires consideration of four essential factors: rational use, affordable prices, financial viability, and effectiveness of the distribution. The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription sheet (n = 1061) was 2.4; 93% of the drugs were prescribed by their generic name (international non-proprietary names); 44% of infant diarrheas were treated with oral rehydration salt. National drug prices were respected but not the directives aiming at exempting from payment or subsidizing certain population sub-groups (children, indigents). The average annual cash flow of the basic health centres was 1.2 million F CFA and it increased by 854% compared to the beginning of the project. The cost-recovery scheme for administrative expenses was 106%. The average annual availability of the 10 essential drugs was 89%. Utilization rates increased (0.13 in 1999 to 0.21 in 2003) but not significantly differently than in other basic health centres of the area not supported by the project (p = 0.084). The project succeeded in improving access to these drugs for the overall population but not for the worst-off. The drugs are now geographically available for all and financially accessible for those who can afford to pay. The intervention strategy supported the sustainability of the project's activities but much remains to be done to provide the poorest with

  2. Chest pain associated with moderator band pacing.

    PubMed

    Goli, Anil K; Kaszala, Karoly; Osman, Mohammed N; Lucke, John; Carrillo, Roger

    2014-10-01

    A 65-year-old man was evaluated for chronic chest pain that had been present for 8 years after placement of a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to treat inducible ventricular tachycardia. Previous coronary angiography had revealed nonobstructive coronary artery disease and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.45 to 0.50, consistent with mild idiopathic nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Evaluation with chest radiography and transthoracic echocardiography showed the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead to be embedded within the right ventricle at the moderator band, which had mild calcification. Treatment included extraction of the dual-coil lead and placement of a new single-coil right ventricular lead at the mid septum. The patient had complete relief of symptoms after the procedure. This case shows that chest pain can be associated with the placement of a right ventricular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead in the moderator band and that symptomatic relief can occur after percutaneous lead extraction and the implantation of a new right ventricular lead to the mid septal region.

  3. [Successful treatment of diaphragm pacing-induced obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with nasal CPAP].

    PubMed

    Moue, Y; Kamio, K; Tanigaki, T; Hayashi, Y; Kuwahira, I; Takasaki, Y; Ohta, Y; Yamabayashi, H

    1993-08-01

    We report a 71-year-old female patient with primary alveolar hypoventilation syndrome who received diaphragm pacing (DP) and developed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Application of nCPAP markedly improved her nocturnal hypoxemia. The monitored polygrams before and after the application strongly suggested that the main mechanism of OSAS was an imbalance of activity between upper airway dilator muscles and pump muscles. Moreover, paradoxical movement of the rib cage is not necessarily due to upper airway obstruction. Monitoring of tidal volume and arterial oxygen saturation is essential for the diagnosis of DP-induced OSAS.

  4. Improving intranasal delivery of neurological nanomedicine to the olfactory region using magnetophoretic guidance of microsphere carriers

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Zhang, Ze; Si, Xiuhua A

    2015-01-01

    Background Although direct nose-to-brain drug delivery has multiple advantages, its application is limited by the extremely low delivery efficiency (<1%) to the olfactory region where drugs can enter the brain. It is crucial to developing new methods that can deliver drug particles more effectively to the olfactory region. Materials and methods We introduced a delivery method that used magnetophoresis to improve olfactory delivery efficiency. The performance of the proposed method was assessed numerically in an image-based human nose model. Influences of the magnet layout, magnet strength, drug-release position, and particle diameter on the olfactory dosage were examined. Results and discussion Results showed that particle diameter was a critical factor in controlling the motion of nasally inhaled ferromagnetic drug particles. The optimal particle size was found to be approximately 15 μm for effective magnetophoretic guidance while avoiding loss of particles to the walls in the anterior nose. Olfactory delivery efficiency was shown to be sensitive to the position and strength of magnets and the release position of drug particles. The results of this study showed that clinically significant olfactory doses (up to 45%) were feasible using the optimal combination of magnet layout, selective drug release, and microsphere-carrier diameter. A 64-fold-higher delivery of dosage was predicted in the magnetized nose compared to the control case, which did not have a magnetic field. However, the sensitivity of olfactory dosage to operating conditions and the unstable nature of magnetophoresis make controlled guidance of nasally inhaled aerosols still highly challenging. PMID:25709443

  5. Improvement of surface albedo parameterization within a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Y.; Lü, S.

    2009-03-01

    A parameterization for calculating surface albedo of Solar Zenith Angel (SZA) dependence with coefficient for each vegetation type determined on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) reformed by the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is incorporated within the latest Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3), and evaluated with a high resolution one-way nesting simulation in China using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) data and the observations from the Field Experiment on Interaction between Land and Atmosphere in Arid Region of Northwest China (NWC-ALIEX). The performance of the SZA method modeling surface characteristic is investigated.Results indicate, RegCM with SZA method (RCM_SZA) considerably improve the cold bias of original RegCM (RCM_ORI) in air surface temperature in East Asia with 1.2 degree increased in summer due to the lower albedo produced by SZA method which makes more solar radiation absorbed by the surface and used for heating the atmosphere near to the surface. The simulated diurnal cycle of ground temperature conforms fairly well to the observation in the nesting simulation in Northwest China, especially during the noon time when the SZA has the lowest value. However, the modification can not obviously affect the East Asia summer monsoon precipitation simulation although RCM_SZA produce more evapo-transpiration in surface with more than 2 Wm-2 increases in simulated latent heat fluxes both in East Asia and in Northwest China compared to RCM_ORI.

  6. 42 CFR 460.132 - Quality assessment and performance improvement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.132...

  7. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement §...

  8. 42 CFR 460.132 - Quality assessment and performance improvement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.132...

  9. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement §...

  10. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement §...

  11. 42 CFR 460.132 - Quality assessment and performance improvement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.132...

  12. 42 CFR 460.132 - Quality assessment and performance improvement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.132...

  13. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... performance improvement activities. (1) A PACE organization must ensure that all interdisciplinary team... performance improvement requirements. A PACE organization must do the following: (1) Use a set of outcome... coordinator. A PACE organization must designate an individual to coordinate and oversee implementation...

  14. PACE IV: The Developmental Physical Education Curriculum from Theory to Practice (PACE = Positive Approaches to Children's Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Dept. of Kinesiology.

    The purpose of PACE is to bring together individuals who have been responsible for new, innovative, and exciting developmental physical education programs. The following summaries are included: "Literacy in the Gym" (Tami Benham); "Activity Ideas for Fundamental Movement Skill Development" (Thomas H. Green); "Creative Movement Activities: A…

  15. Significantly Improving Regional Seismic Amplitude Tomography at Higher Frequencies by Determining S -Wave Bandwidth

    DOE PAGES

    Fisk, Mark D.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2016-05-03

    Characterizing regional seismic signals continues to be a difficult problem due to their variability. Calibration of these signals is very important to many aspects of monitoring underground nuclear explosions, including detecting seismic signals, discriminating explosions from earthquakes, and reliably estimating magnitude and yield. Amplitude tomography, which simultaneously inverts for source, propagation, and site effects, is a leading method of calibrating these signals. A major issue in amplitude tomography is the data quality of the input amplitude measurements. Pre-event and prephase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tests are typically used but can frequently include bad signals and exclude good signals. The deficiencies ofmore » SNR criteria, which are demonstrated here, lead to large calibration errors. To ameliorate these issues, we introduce a semi-automated approach to assess the bandwidth of a spectrum where it behaves physically. We determine the maximum frequency (denoted as Fmax) where it deviates from this behavior due to inflections at which noise or spurious signals start to bias the spectra away from the expected decay. We compare two amplitude tomography runs using the SNR and new Fmax criteria and show significant improvements to the stability and accuracy of the tomography output for frequency bands higher than 2 Hz by using our assessments of valid S-wave bandwidth. We compare Q estimates, P/S residuals, and some detailed results to explain the improvements. Lastly, for frequency bands higher than 4 Hz, needed for effective P/S discrimination of explosions from earthquakes, the new bandwidth criteria sufficiently fix the instabilities and errors so that the residuals and calibration terms are useful for application.« less

  16. Update for Users of the Methanol Database: Recent Improvements, Remaining Problems, and More Complicated Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Pearson, J. C.; Drouin, B. J.; Hougen, J. T.

    2009-06-01

    Last year, we published a new global fit for normal methanol covering the first three torsional states (v_t = 0, 1 and 2) for J values up to 30^{[a]}. The global fit of approximately 5600 frequency measurements and 19 000 Fourier transform far infrared (FTFIR) wavenumber measurements to 119 parameters reached the estimated experimental measurement accuracy for the FTFIR transitions, and about twice the estimated experimental measurement accuracy for the microwave, submillimeter-wave and terahertz transitions. Due to a number of complications in that data set, we designated the work as a "living document" and encouraged measurement laboratories represented in the data set to assess carefully how their data were treated, and to partition (if appropriate) their measurements into an optimum set (for which they specify their highest measurement precision) and a less good set (for which they specify a reduced measurement precision). Using the new JPL spectrometer and additional improved measurements, we have recently revisited a large number of transitions. Poor line shapes due either to power saturation or blending were carefully treated with a multi-line peakfinding procedure and assessed with more realistic uncertainties. Assignments were also extended to higher K and J. Several perturbed systems have been identified with complicated networks of interactions. The current data set now contains nearly 9500 frequency measured transitions. While we believe that this represents a substantial improvement on the quantum number coverage of our previous paper^{[a]}, we are also aware of continuing problems in our data fitting. Above all, we are facing challenges moving into a more complicated region with networks of interactions coupling different torsional states. Li-Hong Xu, J. Fisher, R.M. Lees, H.Y. Shi, J.T. Hougen, J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin, G.A. Blake, R. Braakman, 2008, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 251, 305-313.

  17. Tropical pacing of Antarctic sea ice increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    One reason why coupled climate model simulations generally do not reproduce the observed increase in Antarctic sea ice extent may be that their internally generated climate variability does not sync with the observed phases of phenomena like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and ENSO. For example, it is unlikely for a free-running coupled model simulation to capture the shift of the PDO from its positive to negative phase during 1998, and the subsequent ~15 year duration of the negative PDO phase. In previously presented work based on atmospheric models forced by observed tropical SSTs and stratospheric ozone, we demonstrated that tropical variability is key to explaining the wind trends over the Southern Ocean during the past ~35 years, particularly in the Ross, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the regions of the largest trends in sea ice extent and ice season duration. Here, we extend this idea to coupled model simulations with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in which the evolution of SST anomalies in the central and eastern tropical Pacific is constrained to match the observations. This ensemble of 10 "tropical pacemaker" simulations shows a more realistic evolution of Antarctic sea ice anomalies than does its unconstrained counterpart, the CESM Large Ensemble (both sets of runs include stratospheric ozone depletion and other time-dependent radiative forcings). In particular, the pacemaker runs show that increased sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea is associated with a deeper Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) and stronger westerlies over the south Pacific. These circulation patterns in turn are linked with the negative phase of the PDO, characterized by negative SST anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific. The timing of tropical decadal variability with respect to ozone depletion further suggests a strong role for tropical variability in the recent acceleration of the Antarctic sea ice trend, as ozone depletion stabilized by late 1990s, prior to the most

  18. Combining double-difference relocation with regional depth-phase modelling to improve hypocentre accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shutian; Eaton, David W.

    2011-05-01

    Precise and accurate earthquake hypocentres are critical for various fields, such as the study of tectonic process and seismic-hazard assessment. Double-difference relocation methods are widely used and can dramatically improve the precision of event relative locations. In areas of sparse seismic network coverage, however, a significant trade-off exists between focal depth, epicentral location and the origin time. Regional depth-phase modelling (RDPM) is suitable for sparse networks and can provide focal-depth information that is relatively insensitive to uncertainties in epicentral location and independent of errors in the origin time. Here, we propose a hybrid method in which focal depth is determined using RDPM and then treated as a fixed parameter in subsequent double-difference calculations, thus reducing the size of the system of equations and increasing the precision of the hypocentral solutions. Based on examples using small earthquakes from eastern Canada and southwestern USA, we show that the application of this technique yields solutions that appear to be more robust and accurate than those obtained by standard double-difference relocation method alone.

  19. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants’ oral feeding skills

    PubMed Central

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a ‘self-paced’ feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants’ oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). Methods ‘Feeders and growers’ born between 26–29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1–2 and 6–8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants’ RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Results Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). Conclusion The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants’ true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance. PMID:25999776

  20. Improving plot- and regional-scale crop models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, F.; Rötter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and regional-scale models in simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the impacts of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the impacts of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a regional-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated impacts of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the impact mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and impact functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the impact mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the impacts of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate impact assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and regional-scale models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes, as needed for

  1. Effects of pacing magnitudes and forms on bistability width in a modeled ventricular tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xuemei; Zheng, Lixian; Mi, Yuanyuan; Qian, Yu

    2013-07-01

    Bistability in periodically paced cardiac tissue is relevant to cardiac arrhythmias and its control. In the present paper, one-dimensional tissue of the phase I Luo-Rudy model is numerically investigated. The effects of various parameters of pacing signals on bistability width are studied. The following conclusions are obtained: (i) Pacing can be classified into two types: pulsatile and sinusoidal types. Pulsatile pacing reduces bistability width as its magnitude is increased. Sinusoidal pacing increases the width as its amplitude is increased. (ii) In a pacing period the hyperpolarizing part plays a more important role than the depolarizing part. Variations of the hyperpolarizing ratio in a period evidently change the width of bistability and its variation tendency. (iii) A dynamical mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain the phenomena, which reveals the reason for the different effects of pulsatile and sinusoidal pacing on bistability. The methods for changing bistability width by external pacing may help control arrhythmias in cardiology.

  2. 42 CFR 460.150 - Eligibility to enroll in a PACE program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.150 Eligibility to enroll in...

  3. 42 CFR 460.150 - Eligibility to enroll in a PACE program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.150 Eligibility to enroll in...

  4. 42 CFR 460.150 - Eligibility to enroll in a PACE program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.150 Eligibility to enroll in...

  5. 42 CFR 460.150 - Eligibility to enroll in a PACE program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.150 Eligibility to enroll in...

  6. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank; Guizzardi, Diego; Sindelarova, Katerina; Muntean, Marilena; Van Dingenen, Rita; Granier, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3) higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27), demonstrating the large role that technology has

  7. Role of Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Self-Paced Exercise: What are We Actually Measuring?

    PubMed

    Abbiss, Chris R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Meeusen, Romain; Skorski, Sabrina

    2015-09-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and effort are considered extremely important in the regulation of intensity during self-paced physical activity. While effort and exertion are slightly different constructs, these terms are often used interchangeably within the literature. The development of perceptions of both effort and exertion is a complicated process involving numerous neural processes occurring in various regions within the brain. It is widely accepted that perceptions of effort are highly dependent on efferent copies of central drive which are sent from motor to sensory regions of the brain. Additionally, it has been suggested that perceptions of effort and exertion are integrated based on the balance between corollary discharge and actual afferent feedback; however, the involvement of peripheral afferent sensory feedback in the development of such perceptions has been debated. As such, this review examines the possible difference between effort and exertion, and the implications of such differences in understanding the role of such perceptions in the regulation of pace during exercise. PMID:26054383

  8. Microbolometer Terahertz Focal Plane Array and Camera with Improved Sensitivity in the Sub-Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Ishi, Tsutomu; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito

    2015-10-01

    A pixel in an uncooled microbolometer terahertz (THz) focal plane array (FPA) has a suspended structure above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) substrate. An optical cavity structure is formed between a thin metallic layer deposited on the suspended structure and a thick metallic layer deposited on the ROIC surface. The geometrical optical cavity length for our previous pixel structure, 3-4 μm, is extended three times, so that responsivity can be increased in the sub-THz region. This modification is carried out by depositing a thick SiN layer on the thick metallic layer. The modified pixel structure is applied to 640 × 480 and 320 × 240 THz-FPAs with 23.5 μm pixel pitch. Minimum detectable powers per pixel (MDP) are evaluated for these FPAs at 4.3, 2.5, 0.6, and 0.5 THz, and the MDP values are found to be improved by a factor of ten at 0.6 and 0.5 THz. The MDP values of the THz-FPAs developed in this work are compared with those of other THz detectors, such as uncooled antenna-coupled CMOS (complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor) THz-FPAs and cooled bolometer arrays. It is found that our THz-FPAs are more sensitive in the sub-THz region than the CMOS THz-FPAs, while they are much less sensitive than the cooled bolometer arrays. These THz-FPAs are incorporated into a 640 × 480 THz camera and 320 × 240 THz camera, and imaging equipment is developed. The equipment consists of a linearly polarized sub-THz source, a collimator lens, a beam homogenizer, two wire grids, a quarter-wave plate, and two THz cameras, and sub-THz images are demonstrated. It should be mentioned for the equipment that imaging of transmission and reflection is realized by moving only the quarter-wave plate, and the reflection image is taken along a direction normal to a sample surface so that the reflection image is hardly deformed.

  9. A Study of Instructional Methods Used in Fast-Paced Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2006-01-01

    This study involved 15 secondary-level teachers who taught fast-paced classes at a university based summer program and similar regularly paced classes in their local schools in order to examine how teachers differentiate or modify instructional methods and content selections for fast-paced classes. Interviews were conducted with the teachers…

  10. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  11. Society for the Teaching of Psychology and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee: U-Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Society for the Teaching of Psychology and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) partnered to disseminate U-Pace, a technology-enabled instructional model that promotes student success through deeper learning. UWM developed U-Pace in 2006 for an Introduction to Psychology course and, over time, evidence indicates that U-Pace not only…

  12. Unintended Outcomes of University-Community Partnerships: Building Organizational Capacity with PACE International Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Kate; Clark, Lindie; Hammersley, Laura; Baker, Michaela; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; D'ath, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University provides experiential opportunities for students and staff to contribute to more just, inclusive and sustainable societies by engaging in activities with partner organizations. PACE International offers a range of opportunities with partners overseas. Underpinning PACE is a…

  13. What Pace Is Best? Assessing Adults' Learning from Slideshows and Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Kara

    2014-01-01

    When acquiring information from a 2D platform, self-control and/or optimal pacing may help reduce cognitive load and enhance learning outcomes. In the present research, adults viewed novel action sequences via one of four learning media: (1) self-paced slideshows, where viewers advanced through slides at their own pace by clicking a mouse, (2)…

  14. Changes in Mood in New Enrollees at a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Stephanie M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Austin, Shane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine changes in mood after 9 months of enrollment in a Program of All- Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). DESIGN Cohort Study SETTING Alexian Brothers PACE–St. Louis, Missouri PARTICIPANTS Newly enrolled patients aged 55 or older, living in the PACE service area, eligible for nursing home care, and able to live safely in the community with continuous care for at least 9 months (n=182). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15 score at the pre- admission evaluation (PAE) and the 9 month evaluation (9ME). RESULTS Of the 182 patients evaluated, 27% (n=49) met the definition of depression as defined by the GDS-15 score of ≥6 at the PAE. At the 9ME, only 11% of patients met the depression criteria (p<0.001). Of the patients who met the criteria for depression at the PAE, 80% of patients (n=39) no longer met this criteria at the 9ME (p=0.029). Similar findings were observed by age, sex, and race. Greater improvement was observed among those who were depressed at the PAE; the depressed cohort improved by 5.0 points (p<0.001) on the GDS-15 scale from the PAE to the 9ME, whereas the non-depressed cohort improved by 0.6 points (p=0.003). CONCLUSION The use of PACE as an alternative intervention may be a good option to improve mood in older adults. PMID:26260643

  15. Optimal pacing for running 400- and 800-m track races

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, James

    2013-06-01

    We present a toy model of anaerobic glycolysis that utilizes appropriate physiological and mathematical consideration while remaining useful to the athlete. The toy model produces an optimal pacing strategy for 400-m and 800-m races that is analytically calculated via the Euler-Lagrange equation. The calculation of the optimum v(t) is presented in detail, with an emphasis on intuitive arguments in order to serve as a bridge between the basic techniques presented in undergraduate physics textbooks and the more advanced techniques of control theory. Observed pacing strategies in 400-m and 800-m world-record races are found to be well-fit by the toy model, which allows us to draw a new physiological interpretation for the advantages of common weight-training practices.

  16. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, Alexis R

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed “exercise-induced pain”. Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. PMID:25228823

  17. In vivo mechanical study of helical cardiac pacing electrode interacting with canine myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Ma, Nianke; Fan, Hualin; Niu, Guodong; Yang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    Cardiac pacing is a medical device to help human to overcome arrhythmia and to recover the regular beats of heart. A helical configuration of electrode tip is a new type of cardiac pacing lead distal tip. The helical electrode attaches itself to the desired site of heart by screwing its helical tip into the myocardium. In vivo experiments on anesthetized dogs were carried out to measure the acute interactions between helical electrode and myocardium during screw-in and pull-out processes. These data would be helpful for electrode tip design and electrode/myocardium adherence safety evaluation. They also provide reliability data for clinical site choice of human heart to implant and to fix the pacing lead. A special design of the helical tip using strain gauges is instrumented for the measurement of the screw-in and pull-out forces. We obtained the data of screw-in torques and pull-out forces for five different types of helical electrodes at nine designed sites on ten canine hearts. The results indicate that the screw-in torques increased steplike while the torque time curves presente saw-tooth fashion. The maximum torque has a range of 0.3 1.9 N mm. Obvious differences are observed for different types of helical tips and for different test sites. Large pull-out forces are frequently obtained at epicardium of left ventricle and right ventricle lateral wall, and the forces obtained at right ventricle apex and outflow tract of right ventricle are normally small. The differences in pull-out forces are dictated by the geometrical configuration of helix and regional structures of heart muscle.

  18. Simple circuit for pacing hearts of experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G L; Colston, J T

    1992-06-01

    In this paper we describe a simple pacing circuit which can be used to drive the heart over a wide range of rates. The circuit is an astable multivibrator, based on an LM555 integrated circuit. It is powered by a 9-V battery and is small enough for use in rabbits. The circuit is easily constructed and inexpensive, making it attractive for numerous applications in cardiovascular research.

  19. Probe Region Expression Estimation for RNA-Seq Data for Improved Microarray Comparability.

    PubMed

    Uziela, Karolis; Honkela, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing public gene expression databases contain a wealth of data for building an unprecedentedly detailed picture of human biology and disease. This data comes from many diverse measurement platforms that make integrating it all difficult. Although RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is attracting the most attention, at present, the rate of new microarray studies submitted to public databases far exceeds the rate of new RNA-seq studies. There is clearly a need for methods that make it easier to combine data from different technologies. In this paper, we propose a new method for processing RNA-seq data that yields gene expression estimates that are much more similar to corresponding estimates from microarray data, hence greatly improving cross-platform comparability. The method we call PREBS is based on estimating the expression from RNA-seq reads overlapping the microarray probe regions, and processing these estimates with standard microarray summarisation algorithms. Using paired microarray and RNA-seq samples from TCGA LAML data set we show that PREBS expression estimates derived from RNA-seq are more similar to microarray-based expression estimates than those from other RNA-seq processing methods. In an experiment to retrieve paired microarray samples from a database using an RNA-seq query sample, gene signatures defined based on PREBS expression estimates were found to be much more accurate than those from other methods. PREBS also allows new ways of using RNA-seq data, such as expression estimation for microarray probe sets. An implementation of the proposed method is available in the Bioconductor package "prebs."

  20. Data-driven methods to improve baseflow prediction of a regional groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianfang; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2015-12-01

    Physically-based models of groundwater flow are powerful tools for water resources assessment under varying hydrologic, climate and human development conditions. One of the most important topics of investigation is how these conditions will affect the discharge of groundwater to rivers and streams (i.e. baseflow). Groundwater flow models are based upon discretized solution of mass balance equations, and contain important hydrogeological parameters that vary in space and cannot be measured. Common practice is to use least squares regression to estimate parameters and to infer prediction and associated uncertainty. Nevertheless, the unavoidable uncertainty associated with physically-based groundwater models often results in both aleatoric and epistemic model calibration errors, thus violating a key assumption for regression-based parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification. We present a complementary data-driven modeling and uncertainty quantification (DDM-UQ) framework to improve predictive accuracy of physically-based groundwater models and to provide more robust prediction intervals. First, we develop data-driven models (DDMs) based on statistical learning techniques to correct the bias of the calibrated groundwater model. Second, we characterize the aleatoric component of groundwater model residual using both parametric and non-parametric distribution estimation methods. We test the complementary data-driven framework on a real-world case study of the Republican River Basin, where a regional groundwater flow model was developed to assess the impact of groundwater pumping for irrigation. Compared to using only the flow model, DDM-UQ provides more accurate monthly baseflow predictions. In addition, DDM-UQ yields prediction intervals with coverage probability consistent with validation data. The DDM-UQ framework is computationally efficient and is expected to be applicable to many geoscience models for which model structural error is not negligible.

  1. Improving breakdown voltage performance of SOI power device with folded drift region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Hai-Ou, Li; Ping-Jiang, Huang; Gong-Li, Xiao; Nian-Jiong, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) high breakdown voltage (BV) power device with interlaced dielectric trenches (IDT) and N/P pillars is proposed. In the studied structure, the drift region is folded by IDT embedded in the active layer, which results in an increase of length of ionization integral remarkably. The crowding phenomenon of electric field in the corner of IDT is relieved by the N/P pillars. Both traits improve two key factors of BV, the ionization integral length and electric field magnitude, and thus BV is significantly enhanced. The electric field in the dielectric layer is enhanced and a major portion of bias is borne by the oxide layer due to the accumulation of inverse charges (holes) at the corner of IDT. The average value of the lateral electric field of the proposed device reaches 60 V/μm with a 10 μm drift length, which increases by 200% in comparison to the conventional SOI LDMOS, resulting in a breakdown voltage of 607 V. Project supported by the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2013GXNSFAA019335 and 2015GXNSFAA139300), Guangxi Experiment Center of Information Science of China (Grant No. YB1406), Guangxi Key Laboratory of Wireless Wideband Communication and Signal Processing of China, Key Laboratory of Cognitive Radio and Information Processing (Grant No. GXKL061505), Guangxi Key Laboratory of Automobile Components and Vehicle Technology of China (Grant No. 2014KFMS04), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61361011, 61274077, and 61464003).

  2. A better GRACE solution for improving the regional Greenland mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, E.; Xu, Z.

    2012-04-01

    In most GRACE based researches, a variety of smoothing methods is employed to remove alternating bands of positive and negative stripes stretching in the north-south direction. Many studies have suggested to smooth the GRACE maps, on which mass variations are represented as equivalent water height (EWH). Such maps are capable of exposing the redistribution of earth surface mass over time. In Greenland the shrinking of the ice cap becomes significant in the last decade. Our present study confirms that the dominating melting trends are in the east and southeast coastal zones, however, the smoothed signals along the coastline in these areas do not represent the original but averaged measurements from GRACE satellites which means the signal strength indicating that negative mass variations are mixed with some positive signals that are very close to this area. An exact identification of the topographic edge is not possible and visually the EWH maps appear to be blurred. To improve this, we firstly used spherical harmonic coefficients of GRACE level-2 data from CSR-RL04 and produced a smoothed EWH map. Empirical Orthogonal Functions(EOF)/Principal Component Analysis(PCA) have been introduced as well, in order to extract the melting information associated with the recent warming climate. Next, the Greenland area is redefined by 16 basins and the corresponding melting zones are quantified respectively. Least Squares methods are invoked to interpolate the mass distribution function on each basin. In this way we are able to estimate more accurately regional ice melting rate and we sharpen the EWH map. After comparing our results with a hydrological model the combination SMB - D is established which contains the surface mass balance (SMB) and ice-discharge (D). A general agreement can be reached and it turns out this method is capable to enhance our understanding of the shrinking global cryosphere

  3. 640 X 480 Pace HgCdTe FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Lester J.; Bailey, Robert B.; Cabelli, Scott A.; Cooper, Donald E.; McComas, Gail D.; Vural, Kadri; Tennant, William E.

    1992-12-01

    A hybrid HgCdTe 640 X 480 infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) that meets the sensitivity, resolution, and field-of-view requirements of high-performance medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) imaging systems has been developed. The key technology making this large, high sensitivity device producible is the epitaxial growth of HgCdTe on a CdTe-buffered, sapphire substrate (referred to as PACE, for Producible Alternative to CdTe for Epitaxy; PACE-I refers to sapphire). The device offers TV resolution with excellent sensitivity at temperatures below 120 K. Mean NE(Delta) T as low as 13 mK has been achieved at operating temperatures < 130 K, which is about an order of magnitude better than has been achieved with PtSi 640 X 480 FPAs. In addition, the latter require cooling to PACE-I FPA D* at 78 K and background of 1014 photons/cm2-sec is BLIP-limited at 1 X 1012 cm-Hz1/2/W for the typical mean quantum efficiency of 60 - 70%. Imagery having excellent quality has been obtained using simple two-point nonuniformity compensation.

  4. Alternate Pacing of Border-Collision Period-Doubling Bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaopeng; Schaeffer, David G

    2007-11-01

    Unlike classical bifurcations, border-collision bifurcations occur when, for example, a fixed point of a continuous, piecewise C1 map crosses a boundary in state space. Although classical bifurcations have been much studied, border-collision bifurcations are not well understood. This paper considers a particular class of border-collision bifurcations, i.e., border-collision period-doubling bifurcations. We apply a subharmonic perturbation to the bifurcation parameter, which is also known as alternate pacing, and we investigate the response under such pacing near the original bifurcation point. The resulting behavior is characterized quantitatively by a gain, which is the ratio of the response amplitude to the applied perturbation amplitude. The gain in a border-collision period-doubling bifurcation has a qualitatively different dependence on parameters from that of a classical period-doubling bifurcation. Perhaps surprisingly, the differences are more readily apparent if the gain is plotted vs. the perturbation amplitude (with the bifurcation parameter fixed) than if plotted vs. the bifurcation parameter (with the perturbation amplitude fixed). When this observation is exploited, the gain under alternate pacing provides a useful experimental tool to identify a border-collision period-doubling bifurcation.

  5. Utilizing Hierarchical Clustering to improve Efficiency of Self-Organizing Feature Map to Identify Hydrological Homogeneous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsadnia, Farhad; Ghahreman, Bijan

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic homogeneous group identification is considered both fundamental and applied research in hydrology. Clustering methods are among conventional methods to assess the hydrological homogeneous regions. Recently, Self-Organizing feature Map (SOM) method has been applied in some studies. However, the main problem of this method is the interpretation on the output map of this approach. Therefore, SOM is used as input to other clustering algorithms. The aim of this study is to apply a two-level Self-Organizing feature map and Ward hierarchical clustering method to determine the hydrologic homogenous regions in North and Razavi Khorasan provinces. At first by principal component analysis, we reduced SOM input matrix dimension, then the SOM was used to form a two-dimensional features map. To determine homogeneous regions for flood frequency analysis, SOM output nodes were used as input into the Ward method. Generally, the regions identified by the clustering algorithms are not statistically homogeneous. Consequently, they have to be adjusted to improve their homogeneity. After adjustment of the homogeneity regions by L-moment tests, five hydrologic homogeneous regions were identified. Finally, adjusted regions were created by a two-level SOM and then the best regional distribution function and associated parameters were selected by the L-moment approach. The results showed that the combination of self-organizing maps and Ward hierarchical clustering by principal components as input is more effective than the hierarchical method, by principal components or standardized inputs to achieve hydrologic homogeneous regions.

  6. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (REVA) IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING THROUGH CLIENT PARTNERSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReV A) Program is an applied research program t,1at is focusing on using spatial information and model results to support environmental decision-making at regional- down to local-scales. Re VA has developed analysis and assessment methods to...

  7. Improving Teaching and Learning in a Regional University Campus through a Focus on the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Zianian, Tahereh; Evans, Nina; Gillham, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the research process undertaken in a pilot study conducted at the University of South Australia's Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), and reports the feedback collected in relation to this process and the project overall. Academic staff and students from CRE's two sites located in the rural and regional cities of Whyalla and…

  8. Strategic Priorities for Improving Access to Quality Education in the Kurdistan Region--Iraq. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Culbertson, Shelly; Constant, Louay

    2014-01-01

    The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) began an ambitious reform of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI's) kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education system beginning in 2007 in an effort to modernize the curriculum, upgrade school facilities, and raise the quality of instruction. In 2010, RAND was asked to conduct a one-year study to assess…

  9. Utilizing solid impurity granules for ELM pacing in NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunsford, Robert; Roquemore, L.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Maingi, R.; NSTX-U Team

    2015-11-01

    Periodic edge localized modes (ELMs) rapidly transport stored energy from the edge plasma to the divertor. These events result in abrupt heating of the plasma facing components (PFCs) which reduces their effective lifetime as well as generating a strong impurity influx. If the frequency of these ELMs can be increased through controlled triggering, also known as pacing, then the inverse relationship between the peak heat flux and the frequency of the ELMs can be utilized to prevent material damage that could result from otherwise unmitigated ELMs. At NSTX, the ability of small (300 - 1000 micron) impurity granules to trigger and pace these ELMs is being explored. In these experiments, ELMs are triggered by seeding a density perturbation within the edge-pedestal region through low speed injection and ablation of impurity granules, thus generating a localized instability. Granules are dropped from a reservoir and transit a vertical flight tube at which point a rotating impeller imparts horizontal momentum into the falling granules. This drives them into the edge of the discharge at speeds ranging from 50-150 m/s and average injection frequencies of up to 200 Hz depending upon the settings of the injector. Results from the initial laboratory injection tests of lithium, boron carbide (B4C) and vitreous carbon granules and their subsequent implementation in NSTX-U experiments will be discussed. Work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. [Genetic improvement of cotton varieties in Huang-Huai region in China since 1950's. III. Improvement on agronomy properties, disease resistance and stability].

    PubMed

    Jiang, B G; Kong, F L; Zhang, Q Y; Yang, F X; Jiang, R Q

    2000-01-01

    Data from a set of 5-location and 2-year experiments on 10 representative historical cotton varieties and the data of Huang-Huai Regional Cotton Trials from 1973 to 1996 were analyzed to estimate the effects of genetic improvement in agronomy properties, disease resistance and stability of cotton in Huang-Huai Region in China. The results indicated that a great genetic progress of earliness and disease resistance had been achieved by breeding programs since 1950's. The maturity was shortened 3-5 days; The rate of preforst yield was increased about 7 percentages. The problem of resistance to Fususium wilt has been solved and the resistance to Verticillum wilt was improving. Some progress in stability of cotton varieties also has been achieved by breeding programs since 1950.

  11. Improving Public-spending Efficiency in Czech Regions and Municipalities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 499

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ways of ensuring Czech regions and municipalities are fully motivated to make efficiency improvements in public service provision and so help achieve countrywide fiscal sustainability. The very large number of small municipalities in the Czech Republic means that scale economies are difficult to exploit and the policy options…

  12. Integrating fuzzy logic and statistics to improve the reliable delimitation of biogeographic regions and transition zones.

    PubMed

    Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana L; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the amphibian species of the Mediterranean basin to develop a consistent procedure based on fuzzy sets with which biogeographic regions and biotic transition zones can be objectively detected and reliably mapped. Biogeographical regionalizations are abstractions of the geographical organization of life on Earth that provide frameworks for cataloguing species and ecosystems, for answering basic questions in biogeography, evolutionary biology, and systematics, and for assessing priorities for conservation. On the other hand, limits between regions may form sharply defined boundaries along some parts of their borders, whereas elsewhere they may consist of broad transition zones. The fuzzy set approach provides a heuristic way to analyse the complexity of the biota within an area; significantly different regions are detected whose mutual limits are sometimes fuzzy, sometimes clearly crisp. Most of the regionalizations described in the literature for the Mediterranean biogeographical area present a certain degree of convergence when they are compared within the context of fuzzy interpretation, as many of the differences found between regionalizations are located in transition zones, according to our case study. Compared with other classification procedures based on fuzzy sets, the novelty of our method is that both fuzzy logic and statistics are used together in a synergy in order to avoid arbitrary decisions in the definition of biogeographic regions and transition zones. PMID:22744774

  13. Integrating fuzzy logic and statistics to improve the reliable delimitation of biogeographic regions and transition zones.

    PubMed

    Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana L; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the amphibian species of the Mediterranean basin to develop a consistent procedure based on fuzzy sets with which biogeographic regions and biotic transition zones can be objectively detected and reliably mapped. Biogeographical regionalizations are abstractions of the geographical organization of life on Earth that provide frameworks for cataloguing species and ecosystems, for answering basic questions in biogeography, evolutionary biology, and systematics, and for assessing priorities for conservation. On the other hand, limits between regions may form sharply defined boundaries along some parts of their borders, whereas elsewhere they may consist of broad transition zones. The fuzzy set approach provides a heuristic way to analyse the complexity of the biota within an area; significantly different regions are detected whose mutual limits are sometimes fuzzy, sometimes clearly crisp. Most of the regionalizations described in the literature for the Mediterranean biogeographical area present a certain degree of convergence when they are compared within the context of fuzzy interpretation, as many of the differences found between regionalizations are located in transition zones, according to our case study. Compared with other classification procedures based on fuzzy sets, the novelty of our method is that both fuzzy logic and statistics are used together in a synergy in order to avoid arbitrary decisions in the definition of biogeographic regions and transition zones.

  14. Coronal View Ultrasound Imaging of Movement in Different Segments of the Tongue during Paced Recital: Findings from Four Normal Speakers and a Speaker with Partial Glossectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Flowers, Heather; Wong, Willy; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively describe aspects of coronal tongue movement in different anatomical regions of the tongue. Four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy read four repetitions of a metronome-paced poem. Their tongue movement was recorded in four coronal planes using two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound…

  15. A STUDY ON A COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE REGIONAL FIRE FIGHTING VALIDITY -Case Study in Bangkok, Thailand-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripramai, Keerati; Oikawa, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Katada, Toshitaka

    Generally, in order to improve some regional fire fighting validity, indispensable strategies are not only a reinforcement of the governmental fire fighting ability, but also a strengthening of the cooperative relationship between governmental and non-governmental fire fighting ability. However, for practical purposes, the effective strategy should be different depending on the actual situationin the subject area. So, in this study, we grasp the actual state and background of the problems that need to be solved for the improvement of the regional fire fighting validity in Bangkok as a case study, and examine the appropriate solution focusing on the relationship between official and voluntary fire fighting. Through some practicable activities such as interviews, investigati ons, and making the regional fire fighting validity map, it became clear that the problems of uncooperative relationship and the lack of trust between stakeholders should be solved first and foremost.

  16. A refined 2010-based VOC emission inventory and its improvement on modeling regional ozone in the Pearl River Delta Region, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shasha; Zheng, Junyu; Lu, Qing; Yuan, Zibing; Huang, Zhijiong; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and gridded VOC emission inventories are important for improving regional air quality model performance. In this study, a four-level VOC emission source categorization system was proposed. A 2010-based gridded Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional VOC emission inventory was developed with more comprehensive source coverage, latest emission factors, and updated activity data. The total anthropogenic VOC emission was estimated to be about 117.4 × 10(4)t, in which on-road mobile source shared the largest contribution, followed by industrial solvent use and industrial processes sources. Among the industrial solvent use source, furniture manufacturing and shoemaking were major VOC emission contributors. The spatial surrogates of VOC emission were updated for major VOC sources such as industrial sectors and gas stations. Subsector-based temporal characteristics were investigated and their temporal variations were characterized. The impacts of updated VOC emission estimates and spatial surrogates were evaluated by modeling O₃ concentration in the PRD region in the July and October of 2010, respectively. The results indicated that both updated emission estimates and spatial allocations can effectively reduce model bias on O₃ simulation. Further efforts should be made on the refinement of source classification, comprehensive collection of activity data, and spatial-temporal surrogates in order to reduce uncertainty in emission inventory and improve model performance. PMID:25687669

  17. Novel Insights into Structure-Activity Relationships of N-Terminally Modified PACE4 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Ly, Kévin; Beauchemin, Sophie; Desjardins, Roxane; Neugebauer, Witold; Dory, Yves L; Day, Robert

    2016-02-01

    PACE4 plays important roles in prostate cancer cell proliferation. The inhibition of this enzyme has been shown to slow prostate cancer progression and is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy. In previous work, we developed a highly potent and selective PACE4 inhibitor, the multi-Leu (ML) peptide, an octapeptide with the sequence Ac-LLLLRVKR-NH2 . Here, with the objective of developing a useful compound for in vivo administration, we investigate the effect of N-terminal modifications. The inhibitory activity, toxicity, stability, and cell penetration properties of the resulting analogues were studied and compared to the unmodified inhibitor. Our results show that the incorporation of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety leads to a loss of antiproliferative activity, whereas the attachment of a lipid chain preserves or improves it. However, the lipidated peptides are significantly more toxic when compared with their unmodified counterparts. Therefore, the best results were achieved not by the N-terminal extension but by the protection of both ends with the d-Leu residue and 4-amidinobenzylamide, which yielded the most stable inhibitor, with an excellent activity and toxicity profile. PMID:26751825

  18. Can Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model Improve the Simulation of the Interannual Variability of Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L.; Zhou, T.

    2012-12-01

    With the motivation to improve the simulation of interannual variability of western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM), a flexible regional ocean-atmosphere-land system coupled model (FROALS) was developed through the OASIS3.0 coupler. The regionally coupled model is composed of a regional climate model RegCM3 as its atmospheric component, a global climate ocean model (LICOM) as its oceanic component. Impacts of local air-sea interaction on the simulation of interannual variability of WNPSM are investigated by performing regionally ocean-atmosphere coupled and uncoupled simulations, with focus on the El Niño decaying summer. Compared to uncoupled simulation, the regionally coupled simulation exhibits improvements in both the climatology and interannual variability of rainfall over WNP. In El Niño decaying summer, the WNP saw an anomalous anticyclone, less rainfall and enhanced subsidence, which led to an increase in downward shortwave radiation flux, and thereby a warmer SST anomalies. Thus the ocean appears as a slave to atmospheric forcing. But in the uncoupled simulation, the atmosphere is a slave to oceanic SST forcing, the warmer SST anomalies located over east of the Philippines unrealistically produce excessive rainfall. In the regionally coupled run, the un-realistic positive rainfall anomalies and the associated atmospheric circulations over east of the Philippines are significantly improved, highlighting the importance of air-sea coupling in the simulation of interannual variability of WNPSM. One limitation of the model is that the anomalous anticyclone over WNP is weaker than the observation in both the regionally coupled and uncoupled simulations. This is resulted from the weaker simulated climatological summer rainfall intensity over the monsoon trough.

  19. Biventricular stimulation to prevent cardiac desynchronization: rationale, design, and endpoints of the 'Biventricular Pacing for Atrioventricular Block to Prevent Cardiac Desynchronization (BioPace)' study.

    PubMed

    Funck, Reinhard C; Blanc, Jean-Jacques; Mueller, Hans-Helge; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Bailleul, Christophe; Maisch, Bernhard

    2006-08-01

    Despite the deleterious effects of cardiac dyssynchrony and the positive effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy, patients with high-degree atrioventricular block continue to receive desynchronizing right ventricular (RV) pacing systems. Although it is unclear whether the negative effects of RV pacing and left bundle branch block (LBBB) are comparable, and whether they depend on the presence and the degree of structural heart disease, one may hypothesize that RV pacing may have similar effects to LBBB. In the BioPace trial, the long-term effects of RV pacing vs. biventricular pacing will be prospectively compared in 1200 pacemaker patients with high likelihood of mostly paced ventricular events, regardless of whether in sinus rhythm or in atrial fibrillation (AF). After echocardiographic examination of left ventricular (LV) function, patients will be randomly assigned to the implantation of an RV vs. a biventricular pacing system and followed for up to 5 years. Primary study endpoints are survival, quality of life (QoL), and the distance covered in a 6-min hall walk (6-MHW) at 24 months after implantation. Secondary endpoints are QoL and the 6-MHW result at 12 months after implantation, hospitalization rate, LV dimensions, LV ejection fraction, and the development of chronic AF and other adverse events. PMID:16864616

  20. Feasibility of dual-chamber (DDD) pacing via a single-pass (VDD) pacing lead employing a floating atrial ring (dipole): case series, future considerations, and refinements.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, John; Voigt, Louis; Mongwa, Mbu; Reddy, C V R

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of DDD pacing from a standard single-pass VDD pacemaker system. Over the past 2 decades significant advances have been made in the development of single-pass VDD pacing systems. These have been shown in long-term prospective studies to effectively preserve atrioventricular (AV)synchrony in patients with AV block and normal sinus node function. What remains problematic is the development of a single-pass pacing system capable of DDD pacing. Such a lead configuration would be useful in those patients with peripheral venous anomalies and in younger patients with congenital anomalies, which may require lead revisions in the future. In addition, with the increased use of resynchronization (biventricular pacing) therapy, the availability of a reliable single-pass lead will minimize operative time, enhance patient safety, and minimize the amount of hardware within the heart. The feasibility of DDD pacing via a Medtronic Capsure VDD-2 (Model #5038) pacing lead was evaluated. Twenty patients who presented with AV block and normal sinus node function were recruited for this study. Atrial pacing thresholds and sensitivities were assessed intraoperatively in the supine position with various respiratory maneuvers. Five patients who agreed to participate in long-term follow-up received a dual-chamber generator and were evaluated periodically over a 12-month period. Mean atrial sensitivity was 2.35 +/- 0.83 mV at the time of implantation. Effective atrial stimulation was possible in all patients at the time of implantation (mean stimulation threshold 3.08 +/- 1.04 V at 0.5 ms [bipolar], 3.34 +/- 0.95 V at 0.5 ms [unipolar]). Five of the 20 patients received a Kappa KDR701 generator, and atrial electrical properties were followed up over a 1-year period. There was no significant change in atrial pacing threshold or incidence of phrenic nerve stimulation over the 1-year follow-up. A standard single-pass VDD pacing lead

  1. Improving accuracy in shallow-landslide susceptibility analyses at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Rago, Valeria; Frustaci, Francesco; Bruno, Claudia; Giordano, Stefania; Muto, Francesco; Gariano, Stefano L.; Pellegrino, Annamaria D.; Conforti, Massimo; Pascale, Stefania; Distilo, Daniela; Basile, Vincenzo; Soleri, Sergio; Terranova, Oreste G.

    2015-04-01

    Calabria (southern Italy) is particularly exposed to geo-hydrological risk. In the last decades, slope instabilities, mainly related to rainfall-induced landslides, repeatedly affected its territory. Among these, shallow landslides, characterized by abrupt onset and extremely rapid movements, are among the most destructive and dangerous phenomena for people and infrastructures. In this study, a susceptibility analysis to shallow landslides has been performed by refining a method recently applied in Costa Viola - central Calabria (Iovine et al., 2014), and only focusing on landslide source activations (regardless of their possible evolution as debris flows). A multivariate approach has been applied to estimating the presence/absence of sources, based on linear statistical relationships with a set of causal variables. The different classes of numeric causal variables have been determined by means of a data clustering method, designed to determine the best arrangement. A multi-temporal inventory map of sources, mainly obtained from interpretation of air photographs taken in 1954-1955, and in 2000, has been adopted to selecting the training and the validation sets. Due to the wide extend of the territory, the analysis has been iteratively performed by a step-by-step decreasing cell-size approach, by adopting greater spatial resolutions and thematic details (e.g. lithology, land-use, soil, morphometry, rainfall) for high-susceptible sectors. Through a sensitivity analysis, the weight of the considered factors in predisposing shallow landslides has been evaluated. The best set of variables has been identified by iteratively including one variable at a time, and comparing the results in terms of performance. Furthermore, susceptibility evaluations obtained through logistic regression have been compared to those obtained by applying neural networks. Obtained results may be useful to improve land utilization planning, and to select proper mitigation measures in shallow

  2. Monte Carlo study of the transition region in the polar wind: An improved collision model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barghouthi, I. A.; Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1993-10-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation was used to study the steady state flow of the polar wind protons through a background of O+ ions. The simulation region included a collision-dominated region (barosphere), a collisionless region (exosphere), and the transition layer embedded between these two regions. Special attention was given to using an accurate collision model, i.e., the Fokker-Planck expression was used to represent H+-O+ collisions. The model also included the effects of gravity, the polarization electric field, and the divergence of the geomagnetic field. For each simulation, 105 particles were monitored, and the collected data were used to calculate the H+ velocity distribution function fH+, density, drift velocity, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and heat fluxes for parallel and perpendicular energies at different altitudes. The transition region plays a pivotal role in the behavior of the H+ flow. First, the shape of the distribution function is very close to a slowly drifting Maxwellian in the barosphere, while a ``kidney bean'' shape prevails in the exosphere. In the transition region, the shape of fH+ changes in a complicated and rapid manner from Maxwellian to kidney bean. Second, the flow changes from subsonic (in the barosphere) to supersonic (in the exosphere) within the transition region. Third, the H+ parallel and perpendicular temperatures increase with altitude in the barosphere due to frictional heating, while they decrease with altitude in the exosphere due to adiabatic cooling. Both temperatures reach their maximum values in the transition region. Fourth, the heat fluxes of the parallel and perpendicular energies are positive and increase with altitude in the barosphere, and they change rapidly from their maximum (positive) values to their minimum (negative) values within the transition region. The results of this simulation were compared with those found in previous work in which a simple (Maxwell-molecule) collision model was adopted. It

  3. The use of transition region characteristics to improve the numerical simulation of heat transfer in bypass transitional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Frederick F.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for improving the numerical prediction of bypass transition heat transfer on a flat plate in a high-disturbance environment with zero or favorable pressure gradient. The method utilizes low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence models in combination with the characteristic parameters of the transition region. The parameters representing the characteristics of the transition region used are the intermittency, transition length and turbulent spot properties. An analysis is made of the transition length in terms of turbulent spot variables. The nondimensional spot formation rate, required for the prediction of the transition length, is shown by the analysis to be a function of the spot spreading angle, the dimensionless spot velocity ratio and the dimensionless spot area ratio. The intermittency form of the k-epsilon equations were derived from conditionally averaged equations which have been shown to be an improvement over global-time-averaged equations for the numerical calculation of the transition region. The numerical predictions are in general good agreement with the experimental data and indicate the potential use of the method in accelerating flows. Turbulence models of the k-epsilon type are known to underpredict the transition length. The present work demonstrates how incorporating transition region characteristics improves the ability of two-equation turbulence models to simulate bypass transition for flat plates with potential application to turbine vanes and blades.

  4. An improved analytical model of the separation region on boattail nozzles at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, W. M., Jr.; King, R. W.; Buteau, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A practical engineering calculation was developed to model the viscous effects of a separated, reverse flow region on afterbody pressures and drag. This viscous calculation was iteratively coupled with an inviscid flow calculation by means of an aerodynamic interface. A standard boundary layer displacement thickness was used to modify the afterbody shape where the flow was attached. A discriminating streamline calculation was developed to account for displacement effects of the reverse flow in separated regions with and without a flowing jet. The viscous flow calculation was coupled with a potential flow calculation. The analysis accurately predicted afterbody pressures and drag with variations in Reynolds number, Mach number, and afterbody shape.

  5. Higher sympathetic nerve activity during ventricular (VVI) than during dual-chamber (DDD) pacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Morillo, C. A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We determined the short-term effects of single-chamber ventricular pacing and dual-chamber atrioventricular (AV) pacing on directly measured sympathetic nerve activity. BACKGROUND: Dual-chamber AV cardiac pacing results in greater cardiac output and lower systemic vascular resistance than does single-chamber ventricular pacing. However, it is unclear whether these hemodynamic advantages result in less sympathetic nervous system outflow. METHODS: In 13 patients with a dual-chamber pacemaker, we recorded the electrocardiogram, noninvasive arterial pressure (Finapres), respiration and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) during 3 min of underlying basal heart rate and 3 min of ventricular and AV pacing at rates of 60 and 100 beats/min. RESULTS: Arterial pressure was lowest and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was highest at the underlying basal heart rate. Arterial pressure increased with cardiac pacing and was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (change in mean blood pressure +/- SE: 10 +/- 3 vs. 2 +/- 2 mm Hg at 60 beats/min; 21 +/- 5 vs. 14 +/- 2 mm Hg at 100 beats/min; p < 0.05). Sympathetic nerve activity decreased with cardiac pacing and the decline was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (60 beats/min -40 +/- 11% vs. -17 +/- 7%; 100 beats/min -60 +/- 9% vs. -48 +/- 10%; p < 0.05). Although most patients showed a strong inverse relation between arterial pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity, three patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < or = 30%) showed no relation between arterial pressure and sympathetic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term AV pacing results in lower sympathetic nerve activity and higher arterial pressure than does ventricular pacing, indicating that cardiac pacing mode may influence sympathetic outflow simply through arterial baroreflex mechanisms. We speculate that the greater incidence of adverse outcomes in patients treated with single-chamber ventricular

  6. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN LEARNING FROM SELF-PACED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, REPORT 1--STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, INDIVIDUALIZING GROUP INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; KRESS, GERARD C., JR.

    SELF-PACED INSTRUCTION, DETERMINANTS OF A SELF-ADOPTED PACE, AND THE EFFECTS OF THE PACE ADOPTED ON BEHAVIOR WERE STUDIED. THIS REPRESENTED THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF THREE STUDIES, CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACING MODE AND BEHAVIOR. (REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 200, ED 003 201, AND ED 003 202 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THIS…

  7. REGIONAL SCALE EVIDENCE FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY 1990 TO 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main aim of the international UNECE monitoring program ICP Waters under the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to assess, on a regional basis, the degree and geographical extent of the impact of atmospheric pollution, in particular acidification,...

  8. Improving Technical Vocational Education and Training in the Kurdistan Region--Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constant, Louay; Culbertson, Shelly; Stasz, Cathleen; Vernez, Georges

    2014-01-01

    As Iraq's Kurdistan region develops rapidly, it is creating jobs that require a solid education and technical skills. The government has launched an ambitious reform of basic and secondary education to increase its quality and has expanded opportunities for tertiary technical and university education. But expansion of secondary vocational…

  9. Paced QRS duration and myocardial scar amount: predictors of long-term outcome of right ventricular apical pacing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Cha, Myung-Jin; Cho, Youngjin; Oh, Il-Young; Choi, Eue-Keun; Oh, Seil

    2016-07-01

    Long-term right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) is reportedly associated with heart failure (HF) development. However, the predictors of pacing-induced HF (PHF) remained unclear. We retrospectively enrolled 234 patients without structural heart disease who underwent a permanent pacemaker implantation with RVAP between 1982 and 2004. RVAP-induced HF was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction decrease >5 % with HF symptom without other HF development etiology. The QRS duration of a paced beat (pQRSd) and myocardial scar score were analyzed from each patient's 12-lead ECG. During a mean 15.6 years (range 3.3-30.0 years), 48 patients (20.5 %) patients developed RVAP-induced HF. The PHF group patients had a longer pQRSd (192.4 ± 13.5 vs. 175.7 ± 14.7 ms in non-PHF patients, p < 0.001) and a higher myocardial scar score (5.2 ± 1.9 vs. 2.7 ± 1.9, respectively p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, old age at implantation [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95 % confidential interval (CI) 1.22-2.16, p = 0.001], a longer pQRSd (HR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.15-2.05, p = 0.003), a higher myocardial scar score (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.03-1.49, p = 0.037), and a higher percentage of ventricular pacing (HR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.01-1.49, p = 0.010) were independent predictors of PHF. Based on the results of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the pQRSd cutoff was 185 ms (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 66.7 %, specificity 76.3 %) and myocardial scar score cutoff value was 4 (AUC 0.81, sensitivity 81.3 %, specificity 66.1 %). The pQRSd was positively correlated with scar score (r = 0.70, p < 0.001). pQRSd ≥185 ms and/or myocardial scar score ≥4 might be independent long-term prognostic markers of PHF.

  10. The pace of East African monsoon evolution during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, Syee; Menke, Valerie; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    African monsoon precipitation experienced a dramatic change in the course of the Holocene. The pace with which the African monsoon shifted from a strong early to middle to a weak late Holocene is critical for our understanding of climate dynamics, hydroclimate-vegetation interaction, and shifts of prehistoric human settlements, yet it is controversially debated. On the basis of planktonic foraminiferal Ba/Ca time series from the eastern Mediterranean Sea, here we present a proxy record of Nile River runoff that provides a spatially integrated measure of changes in East African monsoon (EAM) precipitation. The runoff record indicates a markedly gradual middle to late Holocene EAM transition that lasted over 3500 years. The timing and pace of runoff change parallels those of insolation and vegetation changes over the Nile basin, indicating orbitally forced variation of insolation as the main EAM forcing and the absence of a nonlinear precipitation-vegetation feedback. A tight correspondence between a threshold level of Nile River runoff and the timing of occupation/abandonment of settlements suggests that along with climate changes in the eastern Sahara, the level of Nile River and intensity of summer floods were likely critical for the habitability of the Nile Valley (Egypt).

  11. The Transfer Functions of Cardiac Tissue during Stochastic Pacing

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Enno; Kucera, Jan P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The restitution properties of cardiac action potential duration (APD) and conduction velocity (CV) are important factors in arrhythmogenesis. They determine alternans, wavebreak, and the patterns of reentrant arrhythmias. We developed a novel approach to characterize restitution using transfer functions. Transfer functions relate an input and an output quantity in terms of gain and phase shift in the complex frequency domain. We derived an analytical expression for the transfer function of interbeat intervals (IBIs) during conduction from one site (input) to another site downstream (output). Transfer functions can be efficiently obtained using a stochastic pacing protocol. Using simulations of conduction and extracellular mapping of strands of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, we show that transfer functions permit the quantification of APD and CV restitution slopes when it is difficult to measure APD directly. We find that the normally positive CV restitution slope attenuates IBI variations. In contrast, a negative CV restitution slope (induced by decreasing extracellular [K+]) amplifies IBI variations with a maximum at the frequency of alternans. Hence, it potentiates alternans and renders conduction unstable, even in the absence of APD restitution. Thus, stochastic pacing and transfer function analysis represent a powerful strategy to evaluate restitution and the stability of conduction. PMID:19134481

  12. Pilot trial of an age-paced parenting newsletter.

    PubMed

    Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; McConachie, Helen; Towner, Elizabeth; Cook, Margaret; Birks, Eileen

    2005-10-01

    Supporting parents in the first three years of a child's life has the potential to produce successful outcomes. Present government initiatives such as Sure Start focus on this age group. An American educational intervention, in the style of a monthly newsletter, was adapted for use in the UK for parents of young children. Topics were presented in an easy-to-read format and focused on infant emotional development, parent interaction and play. Newsletters, called Baby Express were posted at monthly intervals to the family home providing age-paced information which could meet the specific needs of parents at that stage of their child's life. The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of the newsletter to UK parents and evaluate their satisfaction. Sixty home-based interviews were conducted and 95 per cent of mothers reported reading all or part of the newsletter. Changes in parenting style were spontaneously reported by 28 per cent of mothers. This study found that an aged-paced parenting newsletter was an acceptable and useful method of supporting parents in the early months of a child's life and promotes positive changes in parenting behaviour. PMID:16245675

  13. The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verlinde, J.; Harrington, J. Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Yannuzzi, V. T.; Avramov, A.; Greenberg, S.; Johnson, N.; Zhang, G.; Poellot, M. R.; Mather, J. H.; Turner, D. D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Zak, B. D.; Prenni, A. J.; Daniel, J. S.; Kok, G. L.; Tobin, D. C.; Holz, R.; Sassen, K.; Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, P.; Tooman, T. P.; Ivey, M. D.; Richardson, S. J.; Bahramann, C. P.

    2007-01-01

    The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was conducted September 27 through October 22, 2004 on the North Slope of Alaska. The primary objective was to collect a data set suitable to study interactions between microphysics, dynamics and radiative transfer in mixed-phase Arctic clouds. Observations taken during the 1997/1998 Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment revealed that Arctic clouds frequently consist of one (or more) liquid layers precipitating ice. M-PACE sought to investigate the physical processes of these clouds utilizing two aircraft (an in situ aircraft to characterize the microphysical properties of the clouds and a remote sensing aircraft to constraint the upwelling radiation) over the Department of Energy s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) on the North Slope of Alaska. The measurements successfully documented the microphysical structure of Arctic mixed-phase clouds, with multiple in situ profiles collected in both single-layer and multi-layer clouds over two ground-based remote sensing sites. Liquid was found in clouds with temperatures down to -30 C, the coldest cloud top temperature below -40 C sampled by the aircraft. Remote sensing instruments suggest that ice was present in low concentrations, mostly concentrated in precipitation shafts, although there are indications of light ice precipitation present below the optically thick single-layer clouds. The prevalence of liquid down to these low temperatures could potentially be explained by the relatively low measured ice nuclei concentrations.

  14. Pilot trial of an age-paced parenting newsletter.

    PubMed

    Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; McConachie, Helen; Towner, Elizabeth; Cook, Margaret; Birks, Eileen

    2005-10-01

    Supporting parents in the first three years of a child's life has the potential to produce successful outcomes. Present government initiatives such as Sure Start focus on this age group. An American educational intervention, in the style of a monthly newsletter, was adapted for use in the UK for parents of young children. Topics were presented in an easy-to-read format and focused on infant emotional development, parent interaction and play. Newsletters, called Baby Express were posted at monthly intervals to the family home providing age-paced information which could meet the specific needs of parents at that stage of their child's life. The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of the newsletter to UK parents and evaluate their satisfaction. Sixty home-based interviews were conducted and 95 per cent of mothers reported reading all or part of the newsletter. Changes in parenting style were spontaneously reported by 28 per cent of mothers. This study found that an aged-paced parenting newsletter was an acceptable and useful method of supporting parents in the early months of a child's life and promotes positive changes in parenting behaviour.

  15. Data reproducibility of pace strategy in a laboratory test run.

    PubMed

    de França, Elias; Xavier, Ana Paula; Hirota, Vinicius Barroso; Côrrea, Sônia Cavalcanti; Caperuto, Érico Chagas

    2016-06-01

    This data paper contains data related to a reproducibility test for running pacing strategy in an intermittent running test until exhaustion. Ten participants underwent a crossover study (test and retest) with an intermittent running test. The test was composed of three-minute sets (at 1 km/h above Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation) until volitional exhaustion. To assess pace strategy change, in the first test participants chose the rest time interval (RTI) between sets (ranging from 30 to 60 s) and in the second test the maximum RTI values were either the RTI chosen in the first test (maximum RTI value), or less if desired. To verify the reproducibility of the test, rating perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and blood plasma lactate concentration ([La]p) were collected at rest, immediately after each set and at the end of the tests. As results, RTI, RPE, HR, [La]p and time to exhaustion were not statistically different (p>0.05) between test and retest, as well as they demonstrated good intraclass correlation. PMID:27081672

  16. Data reproducibility of pace strategy in a laboratory test run

    PubMed Central

    de França, Elias; Xavier, Ana Paula; Hirota, Vinicius Barroso; Côrrea, Sônia Cavalcanti; Caperuto, Érico Chagas

    2016-01-01

    This data paper contains data related to a reproducibility test for running pacing strategy in an intermittent running test until exhaustion. Ten participants underwent a crossover study (test and retest) with an intermittent running test. The test was composed of three-minute sets (at 1 km/h above Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation) until volitional exhaustion. To assess pace strategy change, in the first test participants chose the rest time interval (RTI) between sets (ranging from 30 to 60 s) and in the second test the maximum RTI values were either the RTI chosen in the first test (maximum RTI value), or less if desired. To verify the reproducibility of the test, rating perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and blood plasma lactate concentration ([La]p) were collected at rest, immediately after each set and at the end of the tests. As results, RTI, RPE, HR, [La]p and time to exhaustion were not statistically different (p>0.05) between test and retest, as well as they demonstrated good intraclass correlation. PMID:27081672

  17. Effects of spironolactone towards rabbit atrial remodeling with rapid pacing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Fa; Gu, Lei; Huang, Meng-Xun; Zhou, Wen-Bing; Li, Hua; Zhang, Bang-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the effects of spironolactone towards the rabbit atrial remodeling with rapid atrial pacing (RAP). 30 rabbits were randomly divided into control group, RAP group and spironolactone group, with 10 rabbits in each group. RAP was performed at the speed of 800 beats/min for 8 h, atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was determined before and at the 1(st), 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th) and 8(th) of the pacing, the expressions of atrial muscular calcium channel α1C subunit and β1 subunit mRNA were performed the RT-PCR detection, and ultrastructural changes of atrial myocytes were observed. AERP of RAP group shortened, with poor frequency adaptability; the expressions of calcium channel α1C subunit and β1 subunit mRNA decreased 22% and 26%, respectively, when compared with the control group; ultrastructure of atrial myocytes changed significantly. AERP of spironotlactone group shortened less that RAP group, and the frequency adaptability was maintained, the decreased expressions of calcium channel α1C subunit and β1 subunit mRNA significantly reduced. RAP could cause atrial remodeling, while spironolactone could inhibit RAP-induced atrial remodeling. PMID:26826809

  18. Toward Improved Land Surface Initialization in Support of Regional WRF Forecasts at the Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Kabuchanga, Eric; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.

    2014-01-01

    SPoRT/SERVIR/RCMRD/KMS Collaboration: Builds off strengths of each organization. SPoRT: Transition of satellite, modeling and verification capabilities; SERVIR-Africa/RCMRD: International capacity-building expertise; KMS: Operational organization with regional weather forecasting expertise in East Africa. Hypothesis: Improved land-surface initialization over Eastern Africa can lead to better temperature, moisture, and ultimately precipitation forecasts in NWP models. KMS currently initializes Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with NCEP/Global Forecast System (GFS) model 0.5-deg initial / boundary condition data. LIS will provide much higher-resolution land-surface data at a scale more representative to regional WRF configuration. Future implementation of real-time NESDIS/VIIRS vegetation fraction to further improve land surface representativeness.

  19. SEA monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure plans - Improvement opportunities identified in practical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, K.; Balfors, B.; Folkeson, L.; Nilsson, M.

    2010-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) requires monitoring in order to identify unforeseen adverse effects and to enable appropriate remedial action to be taken. Guidelines on how to monitor significant environmental impacts have been developed but experience from practice is limited. This paper presents a study of environmental monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure planning. The result shows that essentially no environmental monitoring is currently performed. Monitoring of the plans merely involves checking the implementation of projects and performing an economic account. At present, a new planning period has commenced for the regional transport infrastructure plans. To obtain an iterative SEA process for the new plan with integrated SEA monitoring, the following means are suggested: reinforcement of practitioners' incentives to plan and perform monitoring; integration of monitoring in the SEA process; pre-determined impact thresholds that prompt remedial action; and more efficient use of monitoring results.

  20. Improving regional health care in West Africa using current space systems and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemison, Mae C.; Thomas, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved with establishing an integrated satellite health network in West Africa based on currently available technology. The system proposed makes use of a central national facility capable of transmitting and receiving voice/data and video signals from the entire country. Regional, field and local facilities provides timely epidemiologic information, sharing of medical expertise through telemedical consultations, enhances optimized resource distribution and builds a framework for telecommunications for the entire country.

  1. Improving regional health care in West Africa using current space systems and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemison, Mae C.; Thomas, J. Segun

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved with establishing an integrated satellite health network in West Africa based on currently available technology. The system proposed makes use of a central national facility capable of transmitting and receiving voice/data and video signals from the entire country. Regional, field and local facilities provide timely epidemiologic information, sharing of medical expertise through telemedical consultations, enhance optimized resource distribution and build a framework for telecommunications for the entire country.

  2. On improving cold region hydrological processes in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, Arman; Sushama, Laxmi; Verseghy, Diana; Harvey, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Regional and global climate model simulated streamflows for high-latitude regions show systematic biases, particularly in the timing and magnitude of spring peak flows. Though these biases could be related to the snow water equivalent and spring temperature biases in models, a good part of these biases is due to the unaccounted effects of non-uniform infiltration capacity of the frozen ground and other related processes. In this paper, the treatment of frozen water in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which is used in the Canadian regional and global climate models, is modified to include fractional permeable area, supercooled liquid water and a new formulation for hydraulic conductivity. The impact of these modifications on the regional hydrology, particularly streamflow, is assessed by comparing three simulations performed with the original and two modified versions of CLASS, driven by atmospheric forcing data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for the 1990-2001 period over a northeast Canadian domain. The two modified versions of CLASS differ in the soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations, with one version being based on formulations from a previous study and the other one is newly proposed. Results suggest statistically significant decreases in infiltration and therefore soil moisture during the snowmelt season for the simulation with the new hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations and fractional permeable area concept compared to the original version of CLASS, which is also reflected in the increased spring surface runoff and streamflows in this simulation with modified CLASS over most of the study domain. The simulated spring peaks and their timing in this simulation are also in better agreement to those observed. This study thus demonstrates the importance of treatment of frozen water for realistic simulation of streamflows.

  3. The oil rich Niger Delta region: a framework for improved performance of the Nigerian regulatory process.

    PubMed

    Onu, N Chukemeka Hemanachi

    2003-06-01

    The adoption of this policy framework has the ability to reconcile industry, the environment and community interests, taking into account all factors that are relevant to managing developments that are both sustainable and contributory to the achievement of industrial and community stability. The management of resource development is crucial in sustaining the Niger Delta ecosystem and the human population resident in the Niger Delta region. If these separate bodies are constituted they would have the potential to reduce and discourage: i) the vulnerability of the regulatory body to influential and powerful multinational oil companies; ii) the proclivity for unaccountability to the people of the Niger Delta region, since the people of the Niger Delta would have access to the regulatory body's classified and unclassified information, and are part of the decision-making process; and iii) a reduction in conflict between the oil mining companies and the aggrieved youths of the oil rich Niger Delta region. This policy framework also has the added advantage of producing high quality decisions and more acceptable decisions than those for which the people of the Niger Delta region are excluded from the processes that concern their existence. The agency decision-making could now become a multilateral process and thus promote and enhance the accurate, impartial and rational application of legislative directives to given cases or classes of cases. Most importantly, the Minister of Petroleum Resources should be empowered by legislation to revoke any license or lease in respect of an area designated as marginal if left undeveloped for a period of 5 years and grant a lease or license for the area to a more responsible oil company.

  4. The oil rich Niger Delta region: a framework for improved performance of the Nigerian regulatory process.

    PubMed

    Onu, N Chukemeka Hemanachi

    2003-06-01

    The adoption of this policy framework has the ability to reconcile industry, the environment and community interests, taking into account all factors that are relevant to managing developments that are both sustainable and contributory to the achievement of industrial and community stability. The management of resource development is crucial in sustaining the Niger Delta ecosystem and the human population resident in the Niger Delta region. If these separate bodies are constituted they would have the potential to reduce and discourage: i) the vulnerability of the regulatory body to influential and powerful multinational oil companies; ii) the proclivity for unaccountability to the people of the Niger Delta region, since the people of the Niger Delta would have access to the regulatory body's classified and unclassified information, and are part of the decision-making process; and iii) a reduction in conflict between the oil mining companies and the aggrieved youths of the oil rich Niger Delta region. This policy framework also has the added advantage of producing high quality decisions and more acceptable decisions than those for which the people of the Niger Delta region are excluded from the processes that concern their existence. The agency decision-making could now become a multilateral process and thus promote and enhance the accurate, impartial and rational application of legislative directives to given cases or classes of cases. Most importantly, the Minister of Petroleum Resources should be empowered by legislation to revoke any license or lease in respect of an area designated as marginal if left undeveloped for a period of 5 years and grant a lease or license for the area to a more responsible oil company. PMID:12956601

  5. Improvements to Regional Explosion Identification using Attenuation Models of the Lithosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R

    2009-03-30

    Regional P/S amplitudes have been recognized as an effective discriminant between earthquakes and explosions. While closely spaced earthquake and explosions generally discriminate easily, the application of this technique to broad regions has been hampered by large variations in the amplitude of regional phases due to the attenuation structure of the crust and upper mantle. Making use of a recent P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the lithosphere, we have found that correcting the events using our amplitude methodology significantly reduces the scattering in the earthquake population. We demonstrate an application of this technique to station NIL (Nilore, Pakistan) using broad area earthquakes and the 1998 Indian nuclear explosion recorded at the station using the Pn/Lg discriminant in the 1-2 Hz passband. We find that the explosion, which is lost in the scatter of the earthquakes in the uncorrected discriminant, clearly separates by correcting for the attenuation structure. We see a similar reduction in scatter and separation for the Pn/Sn and Pg/Lg discriminants in the same passband.

  6. Improving Modeling of the Summer Climate of Semi-Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltahir, E.; Marcella, M.

    2009-04-01

    Presented is a study on the importance of certain land surface processes in accurately simulating the summertime climate of Southwest Asia. A nearly 4 degree C bias is simulated in summertime temperatures, by standard Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3). Biases are also found in surface albedo, shortwave incident, and surface vapor pressure. Using satellite data, (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment-ERBE) modifications are introduced to match simulated surface albedo to the ERBE data. In addition, by incorporating RegCM3's dust module with sub-grid variability, surface shortwave incident biases are reduced. Lastly, representing the irrigation and marshlands of Mesopotamia reduces vapor pressure deficits in the region. All of these factors combined, along with errors in observational datasets, account for the 4 degree C warm bias in RegCM3 simulations. We conclude that accurate representations of albedo, irrigation, and dust emissions are important processes to be included for accurate summertime climate modeling in semi-arid regions around the world.

  7. The Heartland Region P-Index Conservation Innovation Grant: protecting water quality through improved phosphorus management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing phosphorus loss from agricultural land is important for improvement and protection of surface water quality. Agricultural models can be used to determine management impacts on P loss and therefore serve as a guide for recommending best management practices. However, the models must be comp...

  8. Pacing a data transfer operation between compute nodes on a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-09-13

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for pacing a data transfer between compute nodes on a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin compute node, a chunk of an application message to a target compute node; sending, by the origin compute node, a pacing request to a target direct memory access (`DMA`) engine on the target compute node using a remote get DMA operation; determining, by the origin compute node, whether a pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine; and transferring, by the origin compute node, a next chunk of the application message if the pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine.

  9. Rational Design of Coumarin Derivatives as CK2 Inhibitors by Improving the Interaction with the Hinge Region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Chen, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongtao; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Design of novel coumarin derivatives as CK2 inhibitors were attempted by targeting the interaction with the hinge region. A set of substituents capable of forming a hydrogen bond or halogen bond with the hinge region were screened in silico, and trifluoromethyl emerges as a promising motif by forming favorable electrostatic interaction and a presumable halogen bond with the hinge region. As proof of concept, three trifluoromethyl derivatives of coumarin were synthesized and tested in vitro. The results indicated that replacement of methyl by trifluoromethyl leads to a modest 5-fold improvement in potency, with the most active compound being 0.4 µM. The newly designed compounds were further screened on one lung cancer cell line A549, showing low micromolar anti-proliferative activity.

  10. GRACE Estimated Terrestrial and Aquifer Storage Change Using An Improved Energy Balance And Regional Gravity Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, K.; Guo, J.; Dai, C.; Duan, J.; Shum, C. K.; Schmidt, M. G.; Bezděk, A.; Klokocnik, J.; Kostelecky, J.; Sebera, J.

    2014-12-01

    Energy Balance Approach (EBA) has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to estimate the regional terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE via in situ geopotential difference observations directly computed using the GRACE Level 1B data. The primary purpose of this study is to overcome several limitations in previous EBA by demonstrating an improved EBA to obtain a more precise estimation of in situ geopotential difference, which would be able to preserve both the low- and high-frequency gravity signals and also improve the temporal resolutions. Consequently, this method would yield a full scale, i.e., both regional and global water storage change, including world's aquifers. To achieve this goal, we developed an innovative approach to incorporate GRACE inter-satellite range-rate observations into energy conservation equation, which is realized by a so-called alignment equation, together with a technique to estimate the reference orbits for the GRACE twin-satellites. We will present our results for both global and regional GRACE solutions using the improved EBA for water storage change estimates with enhanced spatial and temporal resolutions over selected terrestrial hydrologic basins and large aquifers.

  11. Using a Coupled Lake Model with WRF to Improve High-Resolution Regional Climate Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallard, M.; Bullock, R.; Nolte, C. G.; Alapaty, K.; Otte, T.; Gula, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lakes can play a significant role in regional climate by modifying air masses through fluxes of heat and moisture and by modulating inland extremes in temperature. Representing these effects becomes more important as regional climate modeling efforts employ finer grid spacing in order to simulate smaller scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model does not simulate lakes explicitly. Instead, lake points are treated as ocean points, with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) interpolated from the nearest neighboring ocean point in the driving coarse-scale fields. This can result in substantial errors for inland lakes such as the Great Lakes. Although prescribed lake surface temperatures (LSTs) can be used for retrospective modeling applications, this may not be desirable for applications involving downscaling future climate scenarios from a global climate model (GCM). In such downscaling simulations, lakes that impact the regional climate in the area of interest may not be resolved by the coarser global input fields. Explicitly simulating the LST would allow WRF to better represent interannual variability in regions significantly affected by lakes, and the influence of such variability on temperature and precipitation patterns. Therefore, coupling a lake model to WRF may lead to more reliable assessments of the impacts of extreme events on human health and the environment. We employ a version of WRF coupled to the Freshwater Lake model, FLake (Gula and Peltier 2012). FLake is a 1D bulk lake model which provides updated LSTs and ice coverage throughout the integration. This two-layer model uses a temperature-depth profile which includes a homogeneous mixed layer at the surface and a thermocline below. The shape of the thermocline is assumed, based on past theoretical and observational studies. Therefore, additional variables required for FLake to run are minimal, and it does not require tuning for individual lakes. These characteristics are advantageous for a

  12. Towards Improved MODIS Aerosol Retrieval over the US East Coast Region: Re-examining the Aerosol Model and Surface Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.

    2002-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and recently the Aqua platform, produces a set of aerosol products over both ocean and land regions. Previous validation efforts have shown that from a global perspective, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is successfully retrieved from MODIS. Even over coastal regions, the over- land and over-ocean retrievals are consistent with each other, and well matched with ground-based sunphotometer measurements (such as AERONET). However, the East Coast of the United States is one region where there is consistently a discrepancy between land and ocean retrievals. Over the ocean, MODIS AODs are consistent with coastal sunphotometer measurements, but over land, AODs are consistently over- estimated. In this study we use field data from the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites experiment (CLAMS), (held during summer 2001) to determine the aerosol properties at a number of sites. Using the 6-S radiative transfer package, we compute simulated satellite radiances and compare them with observed MODIS radiances. We believe that the AOD over-estimation is not likely due to an incorrect choice of the urban/industrial aerosol models. Using 6-S to do an atmospheric correction for a very low AOD case, we show rather, that the discrepancies are likely a result of incorrect assumptions about the surface reflectance properties. Understanding and improving MODIS retrievals over the East Coast will not only improve the global quality of MODIS, but also would enable the use of MODIS as a tool for monitoring regional aerosol events.

  13. Improving a regional outreach program in a large health system using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Gabbert, John P; Trine, Robert M; Bintz, Marilu

    2012-06-01

    As government-insured populations grow, commercially insured populations decrease, and declining insurance reimbursements pressure cost and revenue. Health systems must strive to improve quality while lowering costs. Large medical centers with rural sites must understand their geography and how distances impede access to services, thereby affecting patient health. Without relevant data, which can be provided through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology, improvement is often delayed. Gundersen Lutheran Health System, a large multi-specialty system with urban and rural sites in 3 states, is developing an evaluative outreach GIS to facilitate understanding of, and response to, rural health needs. Investing in GIS technology furthers the health system's ability to deliver superior, affordable care.

  14. Absence of Q waves after thrombolysis predicts more rapid improvement of regional left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Isselbacher, E M; Siu, S C; Weyman, A E; Picard, M H

    1996-04-01

    Although the natural history of regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI) was well defined in the prethrombolytic era, the functional and structural implications of the absence of Q waves after thrombolysis are less clear. Echocardiography was performed within 48 hours of admission (entry) in 86 patients treated with thrombolysis for their first MI. The extent of abnormal wall motion (AWM; square centimeters) and LV endocardial surface area index (ESA; square centimeters per square meters) were quantified by using a previously validated echocardiographic endocardial surface-mapping technique. Electrocardiography (ECG) performed at 48 hours after thrombolysis was used to classify patients into groups with (Q; n=70) and without (non-Q; n=16) Q waves. All patients in the Q group had regional LV dysfunction on initial echocardiogram compared with 69 percent of those in the non-Q group (p<0.001). When the patients in the non-Q group without AWM were excluded from analysis, there was no significant difference in the extent of AWM between the Q and non-Q groups. Among those patients with AWM on entry, follow-up echocardiography at 6 to 12 weeks demonstrated a significant reduction in extent of AWM for both the Q and non-Q groups. However, the fractional change in AWM was significantly greater in the non-Q than in the Q group (-0.74 +/- 0.28 vs -0.29 +/- 0.44; p<0.02), with a trend toward less AWM at follow-up in the non-Q than in the Q group. The mean ESAi was not significantly different between the two groups at entry or at follow-up. In conclusion, failure to develop Q waves after thrombolysis predicts a lower likelihood of developing regional LV dysfunction and, when such dysfunction is present, predicts a greater degree of recovery. PMID:8721634

  15. Bias correction of the CCSM4 for improved regional climate modeling of the North American monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jonathan D. D.; Jin, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates how a form of bias correction using linear regression improves the limitations of the community climate system model (CCSM) version 4 when it is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the North American monsoon (NAM). Long-term biases in the CCSM dataset were removed using the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) dataset as a baseline, from which a physically consistent set of bias-corrected variables were created. To quantitatively identify the effects of CCSM data on the NAM simulations, three 32-year climatologies were generated with WRF driven by (1) CFSR, (2) original CCSM, and (3) bias-corrected CCSM data. The WRF-CFSR simulations serve as a baseline for comparison. With the bias correction, onset dates simulated by WRF bias-corrected CCSM data were generally within a week of the WRF-CFSR climatology, while WRF using the original CCSM data occur up to 3-4 weeks too early over the core of the NAM. Additionally, bias-correction led to improvements in the mature phase of the NAM, reducing August root-mean-square-error values by 26 % over the core of the NAM and 36 % over the northern periphery. Comparison of the CFSR and the bias-corrected CCSM climatologies showed marked consistency in the general evolution of the NAM system. Dry biases in the NAM precipitation existed in each climatology with the original CCSM performing the poorest when compared to observations. The poor performance of the original CCSM simulations stem from biases in the thermodynamic profile supplied to the model through lateral boundary conditions. Bias-correction improved the excessive capping inversions, and mid-level mixing ratio dry biases (2-3 g kg-1) present in the CCSM simulations. Improvements in the bias-corrected CCSM data resulted in greater convective activity and a more representative seasonal distribution of precipitation.

  16. Improving results on transverse double spin asymmetries in the CNI region at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirida, D.

    2014-01-01

    Double spin effects in polarized pp-elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region are sensitive to small contributions to the nuclear amplitude in addition to Pomeron exchange dominating at high energies. Measurements of double spin asymmetries require external luminosity normalization using collision counts for all spin combinations. Several possible sources of such data from various STAR subsystems were thoroughly analyzed to make the best choice. BBC arrays were found to be free of double spin effects to the level of ˜ 2 × 10-4 thus leading to the systematic uncertainty ˜10-3 in the value of ( A NN + A SS )/2.

  17. Improved computer definition of regions of interest by using a double-cursor method.

    PubMed

    Byrom, E; Pavel, D G

    1978-08-01

    In the computer analysis of radionuclide studies it is often necessary to define a region of interest (ROI) over an organ or part of an organ. The entire organ boundary is not always apparent on a single image. A method for combining the information from two images in entering the ROI has been developed. It is based on the use of a double cursor that moves simultaneously over both images. Programming was done using special FORTRAN-callable subroutines existing in our system for access to the display. The method is now in routine use for the definition of the left-ventricular ROI during processing of radionuclide cardiac studies.

  18. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Black, Jon; Tedesco, John

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.

  19. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Black, Jon; Tedesco, John

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based onmore » state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.« less

  20. Rate-related accelerating (autodecremental) atrial pacing for reversion of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Nathan, A; Hellestrand, K; Ward, D; Spurrell, R; Camm, J

    1982-01-01

    Twenty consecutive patients with paroxysmal intra A-V nodal or atrio-ventricular tachycardia had a new tachycardia reversion pacing modality evaluated during routine electrophysiological study. The pacing was controlled by a micropressor interfaced with a stimulator connected to a right atrial pacing electrode. On detection of tachycardia the first pacing cycle interval is equal to the tachycardia cycle length minus a decrement value D. Each subsequent pacing cycle is further reduced by the same value of D, thus accelerating the pacing burst until a plateau of 100 beats/min faster than tachycardia (with an absolute lower limit of 275 beats/min) is reached. Seven different values of D (2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 34, 50 msec) were assessed in combination with three different durations of pacing P (500, 5000 msec). With P:500, only 2/20 tachycardias were terminated, but with P:1000, 16/20 were terminated. With P:5000 all were terminated and the combination successful in all patients was P:5000 and D:16. No unwanted arrhythmias were induced. In contrast, competitive constant rate overdrive atrial pacing accomplished tachycardia termination in all cases, but in four instances resulted in atrial flutter or fibrillation. Autodecremental pacing, which tends to avoid stimulation in the vulnerable period, allowed safe and successful termination of all tachycardias evaluated in this study. PMID:7069321

  1. Pacing in Olympic track races: competitive tactics versus best performance strategy.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Christian; Foster, Carl; Banzer, Winfried; De Koning, Jos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe pacing strategies in the 800 to 10,000-m Olympic finals. We asked 1) if Olympic finals differed from World Records, 2) how variable the pace was, 3) whether runners faced catastrophic events, and 4) for the winning strategy. Publically available data from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games gathered by four transponder antennae under the 400-m track were analysed to extract descriptors of pacing strategies. Individual pacing patterns of 133 finalists were visualised using speed by distance plots. Six of eight plots differed from the patterns reported for World Records. The coefficient of running speed variation was 3.6-11.4%. In the long distance finals, runners varied their pace every 100 m by a mean 1.6-2.7%. Runners who were 'dropped' from the field achieved a stable running speed and displayed an endspurt. Top contenders used variable pacing strategies to separate themselves from the field. All races were decided during the final lap. Olympic track finalists employ pacing strategies which are different from World Record patterns. The observed micro- and macro-variations of pace may have implications for training programmes. Dropping off the pace of the leading group is an active step, and the result of interactive psychophysiological decision making.

  2. Discriminant analysis of farmers adoption of improved maize varieties in Wa Municipality, Upper West Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Abukari; Salifu, Hussein; Adebanji, Atinuke O

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the quadratic classification function analysis to examine the influence of farmer's socio-demographic and varietal characteristics of maize on adoption of improved maize varieties (IMVs) in the Wa Municipality of the Upper West region of Ghana. The results showed that, farm labour, information availability about the variety, weed resistance, low yielding variety, early maturity and water stress resistance are the major discriminating variables in classifying farmers in the Municipality. The study however revealed that maize experience, low yield, information availability and cost of variety were the most influential discriminating variables between adopters and non-adopters of IMVs. The study recommended the need to improve on the level of farmers' education, ensure steady access to extension services and improvement in varietal characteristics identified in the study. PMID:27652087

  3. Improvement of light penetration based silkworm gender identification with confined regions of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Sa-ngiamsak, Chiranut

    2013-06-01

    Based on our previous work on light penetration-based silkworm gender identification, we find that unwanted optical noises scattering from the surrounding area near the silkworm pupa and the transparent support are sometimes analyzed and misinterpreted leading to incorrect silkworm gender identification. To alleviate this issue, we place a small rectangular hole on a transparent support so that it not only helps the user precisely place the silkworm pupa but also functions as a region of interest (ROI) for blocking unwanted optical noises and for roughly locating the abdomen region in the image for ease of image processing. Apart from the external ROI, we also assign a smaller ROI inside the image in order to remove strong scattering light from all edges of the external ROI and at the same time speed up our image processing operations. With only the external ROI in function, our experiment shows a measured 86% total accuracy in identifying gender of 120 silkworm pupae with a measured average processing time of 38 ms. Combining the external ROI and the image ROI together revamps the total accuracy in identifying the silkworm gender to 95% with a measured faster 18 ms processing time.

  4. Identifying Isotropic Events Using an Improved Regional Moment Tensor Inversion Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R

    2007-07-06

    Using a regional time-domain waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor we calculate the deviatoric and isotropic source components for several explosions at the Nevada Test Site as well as earthquakes, and collapses in the surrounding region of the western US. The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Error in the moment tensor solutions and source parameters is also calculated. We investigate the sensitivity of the moment tensor solutions to Green's functions calculated with imperfect Earth models, inaccurate event locations, and data with a low signal-to-noise ratio. We also test the performance of the method under a range of recording conditions from excellent azimuthal coverage to cases of sparse station availability, as might be expected for smaller events. Finally, we assess the depth and frequency dependence upon event size. This analysis will be used to determine the range where well-constrained solutions can be obtained.

  5. Rapid ventricular pacing-induced postconditioning attenuates reperfusion injury: effects on peroxynitrite, RISK and SAFE pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pipicz, Márton; Varga, Zoltán V; Kupai, Krisztina; Gáspár, Renáta; Kocsis, Gabriella F; Csonka, Csaba; Csont, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) applied before an index ischaemia has anti-ischaemic effects. Here, we investigated whether RVP applied after index ischaemia attenuates reperfusion injury and whether peroxynitrite, reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) and survival activating factor enhancement (SAFE) pathways as well as haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) are involved in the mechanism of RVP-induced postconditioning. Experimental Approach Langendorff perfused rat hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischaemia and 120 min reperfusion with or without ischaemic postconditioning (6 × 10/10 s reperfusion/ischaemia; IPost) or RVP (6 × 10/10 s non-pacing/rapid pacing at 600 bpm) applied at the onset of reperfusion. Key Results Meta-analysis of our previous studies revealed an association between longer reperfusion-induced ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation with decreased infarct size. In the present experiments, we tested whether RVP is cardioprotective and found that both IPost and RVP significantly decreased infarct size; however, only RVP attenuated the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular tachycardia. Both postconditioning methods increased the formation of cardiac 3-nitrotyrosine and superoxide, and non-significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation at the beginning of reperfusion without affecting ERK1/2 and STAT3, while IPost alone induced HO1. Application of brief ischaemia/reperfusion cycles or RVP without preceding index ischaemia also facilitated peroxynitrite formation; nevertheless, only brief RVP increased STAT3 phosphorylation. Conclusions and Implications Short periods of RVP at the onset of reperfusion are cardioprotective and increase peroxynitrite formation similarly to IPost and thus may serve as an alternative postconditioning method. However, downstream mechanisms of the protection elicited by IPost and RVP seem to be partially different. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Conditioning the

  6. Earthquakes in western Iberia: improving the understanding of lithospheric deformation in a slowly deforming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, S.; Dias, N. A.; Carrilho, F.; Góngora, E.; Rio, I.; Marreiros, C.; Morais, I.; Alves, P.; Matias, L.

    2015-10-01

    Mainland Portugal, on the southwestern edge of the European continent, is located directly north of the boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian plates. It lies in a region of slow lithospheric deformation (<5 mm yr-1), which has generated some of the largest earthquakes in Europe, both intraplate (mainland) and interplate (offshore). Some offshore earthquakes are nucleated on old and cold lithospheric mantle, at depths down to 60 km. The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. In this paper, we analyse the instrumental earthquake catalogue for western Iberia, which covers the period between 1961 and 2013. Between 2010 and 2012, the catalogue was enriched with data from dense broad-band deployments. We show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several distributed faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse. Rather, when located using high-quality data, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and lineations. We identify and characterize the most outstanding clusters and lineations of epicentres and correlate them with geophysical and tectonic features (historical seismicity, topography, geologically mapped faults, Moho depth, free-air gravity, magnetic anomalies and geotectonic units). Both onshore and offshore, clusters and lineations of earthquakes are aligned preferentially NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE. Cumulative seismic moment and epicentre density decrease from south to north, with increasing distance from the plate boundary. Only few earthquake lineations coincide with geologically mapped faults. Clusters and lineations that do not match geologically mapped faults may correspond to previously unmapped faults (e.g. blind faults), rheological boundaries or distributed fracturing inside blocks that are more brittle and therefore break more easily than neighbour blocks. The seismicity map

  7. Improving satellite-retrieved surface radiative fluxes in polar regions using a smart sampling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-10-01

    The surface energy budget (SEB) of polar regions is key to understanding the polar amplification of global climate change and its worldwide consequences. However, despite a growing network of ground-based automatic weather stations that measure the radiative components of the SEB, extensive areas remain where no ground-based observations are available. Satellite remote sensing has emerged as a potential solution to retrieve components of the SEB over remote areas, with radar and lidar aboard the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites among the first to enable estimates of surface radiative long-wave (LW) and short-wave (SW) fluxes based on active cloud observations. However, due to the small swath footprints, combined with a return cycle of 16 days, questions arise as to how CloudSat and CALIPSO observations should be optimally sampled in order to retrieve representative fluxes for a given location. Here we present a smart sampling approach to retrieve downwelling surface radiative fluxes from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations for any given land-based point-of-interest (POI) in polar regions. The method comprises a spatial correction that allows the distance between the satellite footprint and the POI to be increased in order to raise the satellite sampling frequency. Sampling frequency is enhanced on average from only two unique satellite overpasses each month for limited-distance sampling < 10 km from the POI, to 35 satellite overpasses for the smart sampling approach. This reduces the root-mean-square errors on monthly mean flux estimates compared to ground-based measurements from 23 to 10 W m-2 (LW) and from 43 to 14 W m-2 (SW). The added value of the smart sampling approach is shown to be largest on finer temporal resolutions, where limited-distance sampling suffers from severely limited sampling frequencies. Finally, the methodology is illustrated for Pine Island Glacier (Antarctica) and the Greenland northern interior. Although few ground-based observations are

  8. Improving alpine-region spectral unmixing with optimal-fit snow endmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Surface albedo and snow-covered-area (SCA) are crucial inputs to the hydrologic and climatologic modeling of alpine and seasonally snow-covered areas. Because the spectral albedo and thermal regime of pure snow depend on grain size, areal distribution of snow grain size is required. Remote sensing has been shown to be an effective (and necessary) means of deriving maps of grain size distribution and snow-covered-area. Developed here is a technique whereby maps of grain size distribution improve estimates of SCA from spectral mixture analysis with AVIRIS data.

  9. Improving microcystin monitoring relevance in recreative waters: A regional case-study (Brittany, Western France, Europe).

    PubMed

    Pitois, Frédéric; Vezie, Chantal; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are known as a health hazard in recreative and distributed waters. Monitoring data from 2004 to 2011 were collected at regional scale to characterize exposition parameters to microcystins in Brittany (Western France). The data show that cyanobacteria populations are experiencing a composition shift leading to a longer duration of cell densities higher than WHO alert levels 2 and 3. Microcystins however appear to be more frequently detected with subacute concentrations in low cell density samples than in high cell density samples or during bloom episodes. Positive relations are described between microcystin concentrations, detection frequencies and cyanobacteria biovolumes, allowing for a novel definition of alert levels and decision framework following WHO recommendations. PMID:26765088

  10. Improving microcystin monitoring relevance in recreative waters: A regional case-study (Brittany, Western France, Europe).

    PubMed

    Pitois, Frédéric; Vezie, Chantal; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are known as a health hazard in recreative and distributed waters. Monitoring data from 2004 to 2011 were collected at regional scale to characterize exposition parameters to microcystins in Brittany (Western France). The data show that cyanobacteria populations are experiencing a composition shift leading to a longer duration of cell densities higher than WHO alert levels 2 and 3. Microcystins however appear to be more frequently detected with subacute concentrations in low cell density samples than in high cell density samples or during bloom episodes. Positive relations are described between microcystin concentrations, detection frequencies and cyanobacteria biovolumes, allowing for a novel definition of alert levels and decision framework following WHO recommendations.

  11. Paeonol Protects Rat Heart by Improving Regional Blood Perfusion during No-Reflow

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Weng, Weiliang; Zhao, Le; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Jinyan; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    No-reflow phenomenon, defined as inadequate perfusion of myocardium without evident artery obstruction, occurs at a high incidence after coronary revascularization. The mechanisms underlying no-reflow is only partially understood. It is commonly caused by the swelling of endothelial cells, neutrophil accumulation, and vasoconstriction, which are all related to acute inflammation. Persistent no-reflow can lead to hospitalization and mortality. However, an effective preventive intervention has not yet been established. We have previously found that paeonol, an active extraction from the root of Paeonia suffruticosa, can benefit the heart function by inhibiting tissue damage after ischemia, reducing inflammation, and inducing vasodilatation. To further investigate the potential cardioprotective action of paeonol on no-reflow, healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury (left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 4 h followed by reperfusion for 8 h), and I/R injury pretreated with paeonol at two different doses. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography was used to monitor regional blood perfusion and cardiac functions. Our data indicated that paeonol treatment significantly reduces myocardial infarct area and no-reflow area (n = 8; p < 0.05). Regional myocardial perfusion (A·β) and cardiac functions such as ejection fraction, stroke volume, and fractional shortening were elevated by paeonol (n = 8; p < 0.05). Paeonol also lowered the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin T, and C-reactive protein, as indices of myocardial injury. Paeonol exerts beneficial effects on attenuating I/R-associated no-reflow injuries, and may be considered as a potential preventive treatment for cardiac diseases or post-coronary revascularization in which no-reflow often occurs. PMID:27493631

  12. Improving runoff estimates from regional climate models: a performance analysis in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Zeas, D.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Sordo-Ward, A.

    2012-06-01

    An important step to assess water availability is to have monthly time series representative of the current situation. In this context, a simple methodology is presented for application in large-scale studies in regions where a properly calibrated hydrologic model is not available, using the output variables simulated by regional climate models (RCMs) of the European project PRUDENCE under current climate conditions (period 1961-1990). The methodology compares different interpolation methods and alternatives to generate annual times series that minimise the bias with respect to observed values. The objective is to identify the best alternative to obtain bias-corrected, monthly runoff time series from the output of RCM simulations. This study uses information from 338 basins in Spain that cover the entire mainland territory and whose observed values of natural runoff have been estimated by the distributed hydrological model SIMPA. Four interpolation methods for downscaling runoff to the basin scale from 10 RCMs are compared with emphasis on the ability of each method to reproduce the observed behaviour of this variable. The alternatives consider the use of the direct runoff of the RCMs and the mean annual runoff calculated using five functional forms of the aridity index, defined as the ratio between potential evapotranspiration and precipitation. In addition, the comparison with respect to the global runoff reference of the UNH/GRDC dataset is evaluated, as a contrast of the "best estimator" of current runoff on a large scale. Results show that the bias is minimised using the direct original interpolation method and the best alternative for bias correction of the monthly direct runoff time series of RCMs is the UNH/GRDC dataset, although the formula proposed by Schreiber (1904) also gives good results.

  13. Improving runoff estimates from regional climate models: a performance analysis in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Zeas, D.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Sordo-Ward, A.

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect to assess the impact of climate change on water availability is to have monthly time series representative of the current situation. In this context, a simple methodology is presented for application in large-scale studies in regions where a properly calibrated hydrologic model is not available, using the output variables simulated by regional climate models (RCMs) of the European project PRUDENCE under current climate conditions (period 1961-1990). The methodology compares different interpolation methods and alternatives to generate annual times series that minimize the bias with respect to observed values. The objective is to identify the best alternative to obtain bias-corrected, monthly runoff time series from the output of RCM simulations. This study uses information from 338 basins in Spain that cover the entire mainland territory and whose observed values of naturalised runoff have been estimated by the distributed hydrological model SIMPA. Four interpolation methods for downscaling runoff to the basin scale from 10 RCMs are compared with emphasis on the ability of each method to reproduce the observed behavior of this variable. The alternatives consider the use of the direct runoff of the RCMs and the mean annual runoff calculated using five functional forms of the aridity index, defined as the ratio between potential evaporation and precipitation. In addition, the comparison with respect to the global runoff reference of the UNH/GRDC dataset is evaluated, as a contrast of the "best estimator" of current runoff on a large scale. Results show that the bias is minimised using the direct original interpolation method and the best alternative for bias correction of the monthly direct runoff time series of RCMs is the UNH/GRDC dataset, although the formula proposed by Schreiber also gives good results.

  14. Pacing and Defibrillators in Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, Henry; O’Neill, Mark; Rosenthal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Device therapy in the complex congenital heart disease (CHD) population is a challenging field. There is a myriad of devices available, but none designed specifically for the CHD patient group, and a scarcity of prospective studies to guide best practice. Baseline cardiac anatomy, prior surgical and interventional procedures, existing tachyarrhythmias and the requirement for future intervention all play a substantial role in decision making. For both pacing systems and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, numerous factors impact on the merits of system location (endovascular versus non-endovascular), lead positioning, device selection and device programming. For those with Fontan circulation and following the atrial switch procedure there are also very specific considerations regarding access and potential complications. This review discusses the published guidelines, device indications and the best available evidence for guidance of device implantation in the complex CHD population. PMID:27403295

  15. Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Menge, B A; Lubchenco, J; Bracken, M E S; Chan, F; Foley, M M; Freidenburg, T L; Gaines, S D; Hudson, G; Krenz, C; Leslie, H; Menge, D N L; Russell, R; Webster, M S

    2003-10-14

    The structure of ecological communities reflects a tension among forces that alter populations. Marine ecologists previously emphasized control by locally operating forces (predation, competition, and disturbance), but newer studies suggest that inputs from large-scale oceanographically modulated subsidies (nutrients, particulates, and propagules) can strongly influence community structure and dynamics. On New Zealand rocky shores, the magnitude of such subsidies differs profoundly between contrasting oceanographic regimes. Community structure, and particularly the pace of community dynamics, differ dramatically between intermittent upwelling regimes compared with relatively persistent down-welling regimes. We suggest that subsidy rates are a key determinant of the intensity of species interactions, and thus of structure in marine systems, and perhaps also nonmarine communities.

  16. Listeners lengthen phrase boundaries in self-paced music.

    PubMed

    Kragness, Haley E; Trainor, Laurel J

    2016-10-01

    Previous work has shown that musicians tend to slow down as they approach phrase boundaries (). In the present experiments, we used a paradigm from the action perception literature, the dwell time paradigm (Hard, Recchia, & Tversky, 2011), to investigate whether participants engage in phrase boundary lengthening when self-pacing through musical sequences. When participants used a key press to produce each successive chord of Bach chorales, they dwelled longer on boundary chords than nonboundary chords in both the original chorales and atonal manipulations of the chorales. When a novel musical sequence was composed that controlled for metrical and melodic contour cues to boundaries, the dwell time difference between boundaries and nonboundaries was greater in the tonal condition than in the atonal condition. Furthermore, similar results were found for a group of nonmusicians, suggesting that phrase-final lengthening in musical production is not dependent on musical training and can be evoked by harmonic cues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27379872

  17. Self-paced freshman physics laboratory and student assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J. R.; Prescott, J. R.

    1980-02-01

    Laboratory work is included as an essential part of any physics course because it teaches the student aspects of physics that are distinct from lecture material and that can be learned in no other way. For the same reason it presents its own problems in assessment, particularly in large first-year university classes. For the last five years we have been putting into practice a form of self-paced laboratory experience and assessment. The laboratory is design oriented. The grade for the course is determined by the aggregation of point values for a variable number of experiments completed in a fixed period of time to a satisfactory standard. The marks feature a degree of discrimination comparable to written theory examinations. Within the limits imposed by class size, the student has a fair degree of freedom of choice.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac pacing devices.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Francisco; Sánchez-Gómez, Juan M; Sancho-Tello, María J; Olagüe, José; Osca, Joaquín; Cano, Oscar; Arnau, Miguel A; Igual, Begoña

    2010-06-01

    Currently, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is contraindicated in patients with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. This study was carried out because the potential risks in this situation need to be clearly defined. This prospective study evaluated clinical and electrical parameters before and after magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 33 patients (five with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and 28 with pacemakers). In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging was considered clinically essential. There were no clinical complications. There was a temporary communication failure in two cases, sensing errors during imaging in two cases, and a safety signal was generated in one pacemaker at the maximum magnetic resonance frequency and output level. There were no technical restrictions on imaging nor were there any permanent changes in the performance of the cardiac pacing device. PMID:20515632

  19. Listeners lengthen phrase boundaries in self-paced music.

    PubMed

    Kragness, Haley E; Trainor, Laurel J

    2016-10-01

    Previous work has shown that musicians tend to slow down as they approach phrase boundaries (). In the present experiments, we used a paradigm from the action perception literature, the dwell time paradigm (Hard, Recchia, & Tversky, 2011), to investigate whether participants engage in phrase boundary lengthening when self-pacing through musical sequences. When participants used a key press to produce each successive chord of Bach chorales, they dwelled longer on boundary chords than nonboundary chords in both the original chorales and atonal manipulations of the chorales. When a novel musical sequence was composed that controlled for metrical and melodic contour cues to boundaries, the dwell time difference between boundaries and nonboundaries was greater in the tonal condition than in the atonal condition. Furthermore, similar results were found for a group of nonmusicians, suggesting that phrase-final lengthening in musical production is not dependent on musical training and can be evoked by harmonic cues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for Improved Regional Weather Prediction and Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g., the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Met Op) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1 km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  1. Improving sub-grid scale accuracy of boundary features in regional finite-difference models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panday, Sorab; Langevin, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to grid refinement, the concept of a ghost node, which was developed for nested grid applications, has been extended towards improving sub-grid scale accuracy of flow to conduits, wells, rivers or other boundary features that interact with a finite-difference groundwater flow model. The formulation is presented for correcting the regular finite-difference groundwater flow equations for confined and unconfined cases, with or without Newton Raphson linearization of the nonlinearities, to include the Ghost Node Correction (GNC) for location displacement. The correction may be applied on the right-hand side vector for a symmetric finite-difference Picard implementation, or on the left-hand side matrix for an implicit but asymmetric implementation. The finite-difference matrix connectivity structure may be maintained for an implicit implementation by only selecting contributing nodes that are a part of the finite-difference connectivity. Proof of concept example problems are provided to demonstrate the improved accuracy that may be achieved through sub-grid scale corrections using the GNC schemes.

  2. The Influence of Collective Behavior on Pacing in Endurance Competitions.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise; Peters, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    A number of theoretical models have been proposed in recent years to explain pacing strategies observed in individual competitive endurance events. These have typically related to the internal regulatory processes that inform the making of decisions relating to muscular work rate. Despite a substantial body of research which has investigated the influence of collective group dynamics on individual behaviors in various animal species, this issue has not been comprehensively studied in individual athletic events. This is somewhat surprising given that athletes often directly compete in close proximity to one another, and that collective behavior has also been observed in other human environments including pedestrian interactions and financial market trading. Whilst the reasons for adopting collective behavior are not fully understood, collective behavior is thought to result from individual agents following simple local rules that result in seemingly complex large systems that act to confer some biological advantage to the collective as a whole. Although such collective behaviors may generally be beneficial, competitive endurance events are complicated by the fact that increasing levels of physiological disruption as activity progresses may compromise the ability of some individuals to continue to interact with other group members. This could result in early fatigue and relative underperformance due to suboptimal utilization of physiological resources by some athletes. Alternatively, engagement with a collective behavior may benefit all due to a reduction in the complexity of decisions to be made and a subsequent reduction in cognitive loading and mental fatigue. This paper seeks evidence for collective behavior in previously published analyses of pacing behavior and proposes mechanisms through which it could potentially be either beneficial, or detrimental to individual performance. It concludes with suggestions for future research to enhance understanding of this

  3. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1–6) and at the end of a season (round 29–34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  4. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer.

    PubMed

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1-6) and at the end of a season (round 29-34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing.

  5. The Influence of Collective Behavior on Pacing in Endurance Competitions

    PubMed Central

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise; Peters, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of theoretical models have been proposed in recent years to explain pacing strategies observed in individual competitive endurance events. These have typically related to the internal regulatory processes that inform the making of decisions relating to muscular work rate. Despite a substantial body of research which has investigated the influence of collective group dynamics on individual behaviors in various animal species, this issue has not been comprehensively studied in individual athletic events. This is somewhat surprising given that athletes often directly compete in close proximity to one another, and that collective behavior has also been observed in other human environments including pedestrian interactions and financial market trading. Whilst the reasons for adopting collective behavior are not fully understood, collective behavior is thought to result from individual agents following simple local rules that result in seemingly complex large systems that act to confer some biological advantage to the collective as a whole. Although such collective behaviors may generally be beneficial, competitive endurance events are complicated by the fact that increasing levels of physiological disruption as activity progresses may compromise the ability of some individuals to continue to interact with other group members. This could result in early fatigue and relative underperformance due to suboptimal utilization of physiological resources by some athletes. Alternatively, engagement with a collective behavior may benefit all due to a reduction in the complexity of decisions to be made and a subsequent reduction in cognitive loading and mental fatigue. This paper seeks evidence for collective behavior in previously published analyses of pacing behavior and proposes mechanisms through which it could potentially be either beneficial, or detrimental to individual performance. It concludes with suggestions for future research to enhance understanding of this

  6. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer.

    PubMed

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1-6) and at the end of a season (round 29-34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  7. Using nudging to improve global-regional dynamic consistency in limited-area climate modeling: What should we nudge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Hiba; Drobinski, Philippe; Dubos, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Regional climate modelling sometimes requires that the regional model be nudged towards the large-scale driving data to avoid the development of inconsistencies between them. These inconsistencies are known to produce large surface temperature and rainfall artefacts. Therefore, it is essential to maintain the synoptic circulation within the simulation domain consistent with the synoptic circulation at the domain boundaries. Nudging techniques, initially developed for data assimilation purposes, are increasingly used in regional climate modeling and offer a workaround to this issue. In this context, several questions on the "optimal" use of nudging are still open. In this study we focus on a specific question which is: What variable should we nudge? in order to maintain the consistencies between the regional model and the driving fields as much as possible. For that, a "Big Brother Experiment", where a reference atmospheric state is known, is conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model over the Euro-Mediterranean region. A set of 22 3-month simulations is performed with different sets of nudged variables and nudging options (no nudging, indiscriminate nudging, spectral nudging) for summer and winter. The results show that nudging clearly improves the model capacity to reproduce the reference fields. However the skill scores depend on the set of variables used to nudge the regional climate simulations. Nudging the tropospheric horizontal wind is by far the key variable to nudge to simulate correctly surface temperature and wind, and rainfall. To a lesser extent, nudging tropospheric temperature also contributes to significantly improve the simulations. Indeed, nudging tropospheric wind or temperature directly impacts the simulation of the tropospheric geopotential height and thus the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation. Nudging moisture improves the precipitation but the impact on the other fields (wind and temperature) is not significant. As

  8. Head-to-head running race simulation alters pacing strategy, performance, and mood state.

    PubMed

    Tomazini, Fabiano; Pasqua, Leonardo A; Damasceno, Mayara V; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; de Oliveira, Fernando R; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the presence and absence of competitors on pacing, overall running performance, and mood state during a self-paced 3-km run. Nine recreational runners participated in this study. They performed the following tests: a) an incremental test to exhaustion to measure the respiratory compensation point (RCP), maximal oxygen uptake, and peak treadmill speed; b) a submaximal speed constant test to measure running economy; and c) two 3-km running time trials performed collectively (COL, head-to-head competition) or individually (IND, performed alone) to establish pacing and running performance. The COL condition was formed of a group of four runners or five runners. Runners were grouped by matched performance times and to retain head-to-head characteristics.A mood state profile questionnaire was completed before and after the 3-km running time trial. The overall performance was better in the COL than in the IND (11.75 ± 0.05 min vs. 12.25 ± 0.06 min, respectively; p = 0.04). The running speeds during the first 500 m were significantly greater in COL (16.8 ± 2.16 km·h−1) than in IND (15.3 ± 2.45 km·h−1) (p = 0.03).The gain in running speed from IND to COL during the first 400 m (i.e. running speed in COL less running speed in IND) was significantly correlated with the RCP (r = 0.88; p = 0.05). The vigor score significantly decreased from pre- to post-running in COL (p=0.05), but not in IND (p=0.20). Additionally, the post running vigor was significantly higher in IND compared to COL (p = 0.03).These findings suggested that the presence of competitors induces a fast start, which results in an improved overall performance and reduced post-exercise vigor scores, compared to an individual run.

  9. Head-to-head running race simulation alters pacing strategy, performance, and mood state.

    PubMed

    Tomazini, Fabiano; Pasqua, Leonardo A; Damasceno, Mayara V; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; de Oliveira, Fernando R; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the presence and absence of competitors on pacing, overall running performance, and mood state during a self-paced 3-km run. Nine recreational runners participated in this study. They performed the following tests: a) an incremental test to exhaustion to measure the respiratory compensation point (RCP), maximal oxygen uptake, and peak treadmill speed; b) a submaximal speed constant test to measure running economy; and c) two 3-km running time trials performed collectively (COL, head-to-head competition) or individually (IND, performed alone) to establish pacing and running performance. The COL condition was formed of a group of four runners or five runners. Runners were grouped by matched performance times and to retain head-to-head characteristics.A mood state profile questionnaire was completed before and after the 3-km running time trial. The overall performance was better in the COL than in the IND (11.75 ± 0.05 min vs. 12.25 ± 0.06 min, respectively; p = 0.04). The running speeds during the first 500 m were significantly greater in COL (16.8 ± 2.16 km·h−1) than in IND (15.3 ± 2.45 km·h−1) (p = 0.03).The gain in running speed from IND to COL during the first 400 m (i.e. running speed in COL less running speed in IND) was significantly correlated with the RCP (r = 0.88; p = 0.05). The vigor score significantly decreased from pre- to post-running in COL (p=0.05), but not in IND (p=0.20). Additionally, the post running vigor was significantly higher in IND compared to COL (p = 0.03).These findings suggested that the presence of competitors induces a fast start, which results in an improved overall performance and reduced post-exercise vigor scores, compared to an individual run. PMID:26013576

  10. Innovative techniques in radiation oncology. Clinical research programs to improve local and regional control in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, L.W.; Markoe, A.M.; Micaily, B.; Fisher, S.A.; Lamm, F.R. )

    1990-02-01

    There is a growing importance in failure analysis in cancer management. In these analyses locoregional failure as the cause of death emerges as a significant problem in many tumor sites, e.g., head and neck cancer, gynecologic cancer, genitourinary cancer. Because of these data, the radiation oncology community has attributed high priority to research efforts to improve locoregional control. These efforts include the following: (1) brachytherapy alone or with external beam radiation therapy or surgery; (2) intraoperative radiation therapy; (3) hyperthermia with radiation therapy; (4) particle irradiation (protons, neutrons, stripped nuclei, and pions); and (5) routes of administration of the treatment, including infusional (intravenous) chemotherapy with radiation therapy, intraarterial monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides, and intraarterial chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Each area of investigation is discussed.

  11. A role for PACE4 in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin protective antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, V M; Rehemtulla, A; Leppla, S H

    1997-01-01

    Several bacterial protein toxins require activation by eukaryotic proteases. Previous studies have shown that anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), and diphtheria toxin (DT) are cleaved by furin C-terminal to the sequences RKKR, RQPR, and RVRR, respectively. Because furin-deficient cells retain some sensitivity to PA and DT, it is evident that other cellular proteases can activate these toxins. Whereas furin has been shown to require arginine residues at positions -1 and -4 for substrate recognition, another protease with an activity which could substitute for furin in toxin activation, the furin-related protease PACE4, requires basic residues in the -1, -2, and -4 positions of the substrate sequence. To examine the relative roles of furin and PACE4 in toxin activation, we used furin-deficient CHO cells (FD11 cells) transfected with either the furin (FD11/furin cells) or PACE4 (FD11/PACE4 cells) gene. Mutant PA proteins containing the cleavage sequence RAAR or KR were cytotoxic toward cells expressing only PACE4. In vitro cleavage data demonstrated that PACE4 can recognize RAAR and, to a much lesser extent, KR and RR. When extracts from PACE4-transfected cells were used as a source of proteases, PACE4 had minimal activity, indicating that it had been partially inactivated or did not remain associated with the cell membranes. Cleavage of iodinated PA containing the sequence RKKR or RAAR was detected on the surface of all cell types tested, but cleavage of a dibasic sequence was detected only intracellularly and only in cells that expressed furin or PACE4. The data provide evidence that PACE4 is present at the exterior of cells, that it plays a role in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin PA, and that PACE4 can activate substrates at the sequence RAAR or KR. PMID:9234799

  12. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  13. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400

  14. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    SciTech Connect

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  15. Improved spectroscopic line list of methyl chloride in the 1900-2600 cm-1 spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. V.; Dmitrieva, T. A.; Gordon, I. E.

    2016-07-01

    Parameters of line positions and line intensities up to 2×10-25 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) for 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl were retrieved from the Fourier transform spectra in the range of 1900-2600 cm-1. Line intensities were scaled with measurements from literature. Measured line positions and intensities were treated using global effective Hamiltonian and dipole moment model. The RMS of intensity fitting was 7.4% for 12CH335Cl and 6.6% for 12CH337Cl. List of positions and intensities were calculated for 22,098 and 21,014 lines between 1900 and 2600 cm-1 for 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl, respectively. Updated intensities allow extending assignments. The new line list of positions and intensities for both isotopologues in this spectral region was calculated. The calculations from the line list of this work have been compared with values from the HITRAN2012 database and PNNL spectra.

  16. On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Nathalie; Li, Hongyi; Ward, Duane L.; Huang, Maoyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-09-30

    Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of earth system models in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies at regional to global scales. Emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are flexible for coupling with earth system models. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing the overall regulated flow at large basin scales. This study investigates the uncertainties of the reservoir models from different implementations of the generic operating rules using the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System in northwestern United States as an example to understand their effects on not only regulated flow but also reservoir storage and fraction of the demand that is met. Numerical experiments are designed to test new generic operating rules that combine storage and releases targets for multi-purpose reservoirs and to compare the use of reservoir usage priorities, withdrawals vs. consumptive demand, as well as natural vs. regulated mean flow for calibrating operating rules. Overall the best performing implementation is the use of the combined priorities (flood control storage targets and irrigation release targets) operating rules calibrated with mean annual natural flow and mean monthly withdrawals. The challenge of not accounting for groundwater withdrawals, or on the contrary, assuming that all remaining demand is met through groundwater extractions, is discussed.

  17. Improving the Knowledge of Summer Monsoon Storm Genesis on the Mumbai Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomazzi, M.; Entekhabi, D.; Pinto, J. G.; Roth, G.; Rudari, R.

    2009-09-01

    Over the Indian Subcontinent, almost 75% of the annual precipitation is expected to fall during the South Asia Monsoon (SAM) season, conventionally defined between June 1 and September 30. While precipitation patterns show a very strong spatial heterogeneity, the maximum annual values (which may exceed 4000 mm) occur in the Western Coast of Indian Peninsula. This is mainly associated with orographic forcing, in particular of the Western Ghats and the Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. Extreme rainfall events during the SAM season may be particularly intense and long-lasting, causing great damages both in terms of life and economic losses. We aim at identifying large-scale meteorological patterns associated with the triggering of extreme rainfall events affecting the Mumbai area (approximately 18-20°N, 72.5-73.5°E), a very highly populated region (around 20 million people), during the SAM season. Seventy years of daily rainfall data are analyzed and compared to a database of damage-causing precipitations. Event days are selected with a twin-threshold function related to daily rainfall height and soil moisture content. To detect typical large-scale features, event days are compared to non-event days by analyzing MSLP, SST, and vertical wind profiles. Further, the storm-related processes are analyzed with moisture sources (via backtracing) and moisture flux convergence fields. First results on selected event days show that they are typically characterized by remote moisture sources (from S-W Arabian Sea) and increased lower level westerly winds which cause enhanced moisture flux convergence, leading to precipitable water’s enhancement.

  18. β-globin matrix attachment region improves stable genomic expression of the Sleeping Beauty transposon.

    PubMed

    Sjeklocha, Lucas; Chen, Yixin; Daly, Meghan C; Steer, Clifford J; Kren, Betsy T

    2011-09-01

    The liver is an attractive target for gene therapy due to its extensive capability for protein production and the numerous diseases resulting from a loss of gene function it normally provides. The Sleeping Beauty Transposon (SB-Tn)(1) system is a non-viral vector capable of delivering and mediating therapeutic transgene(s) insertion into the host genome for long-term expression. A current challenge for this system is the low efficiency of integration of the transgene. In this study we use a human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) and primary human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) to test vectors containing DNA elements to enhance transposition without integrating themselves. We employed the human β-globin matrix attachment region (MAR) and the Simian virus 40 (SV40) nuclear translocation signal to increase the percent of HuH-7 cells persistently expressing a GFP::Zeo reporter construct by ∼50% for each element; while combining both did not show an additive effect. Interestingly, both elements together displayed an additive effect on the number of insertion sites, and in BOECs the SV40 alone appeared to have an inhibitory effect on transposition. In long-term cultures the loss of plasmid DNA, transposase expression and mapping of insertion sites demonstrated bona fide transposition without episomal expression. These results show that addition of the β-globin MAR and potentially other elements to the backbone of SB-Tn system can enhance transposition and expression of therapeutic transgenes. These findings may have a significant influence on the use of SB transgene delivery to liver for the treatment of a wide variety of disorders. PMID:21520245

  19. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Cordelia H.; Radford, Ben T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Stewart, Romola R.; Watts, Matthew E.; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-01-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia–a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation. PMID:27556689

  20. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cordelia H.; Radford, Ben T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Stewart, Romola R.; Watts, Matthew E.; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-08-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia–a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation.

  1. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Cordelia H; Radford, Ben T; Possingham, Hugh P; Heyward, Andrew J; Stewart, Romola R; Watts, Matthew E; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J; Harvey, Euan S; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W; Lowe, Ryan J; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-01-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia-a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation. PMID:27556689

  2. Improving waterfowl production estimates: results of a test in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, P.M.; Cowardin, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in an effort to improve and standardize methods for estimating waterfowl production tested a new technique in the four-county Arrowwood Wetland Management District (WMD) for three years (1982-1984). On 14 randomly selected 10.36 km2 plots, upland and wetland habitat was mapped, classified, and digitized. Waterfowl breeding pairs were counted twice each year and the proportion of wetland basins containing water was determined. Pair numbers and habitat conditions were entered into a computer model developed by Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. That model estimates production on small federally owned wildlife tracts, federal wetland easements, and private land. Results indicate that production estimates were most accurate for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), the species for which the computer model and data base were originally designed. Predictions for the pintail (Anas acuta), gadwall (A. strepa), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and northern shoveler (A. clypeata) were believed to be less accurate. Modeling breeding period dynamics of a waterfowl species and making credible production estimates for a geographic area are possible if the data used in the model are adequate. The process of modeling the breeding period of a species aids in locating areas of insufficient biological knowledge. This process will help direct future research efforts and permit more efficient gathering of field data.

  3. An Improved Method for Soil DNA Extraction to Study the Microbial Assortment within Rhizospheric Region.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Faria; Pathak, Neelam; Rastogi Verma, Smita

    2014-01-01

    The need for identification of soil microbial community mainly depends on direct extraction of DNA from soil, a multifaceted environment that is a major pool for microbial genetic diversity. The soil DNA extraction procedures usually suffer from two major problems, namely, inappropriate rupturing of cells and contamination with humic substances. In the present study, five protocols for single type of rhizospheric soil were investigated and their comparison indicated that the inclusion of 120 mM phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for washing and mannitol in the lysis buffer allowed the processing of soil sample in minimal time with no specific equipment requirement. Furthermore, DNA purity and yield were also improved, which allowed the exploitation of genetic potential of soil microbes within soil sample thereby facilitating the amplification of metagenomic DNA. The effectiveness of methods was analyzed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA. The banding patterns revealed that both the abundance and the composition of indigenous microbial community depend on the DNA recovery method.

  4. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Cordelia H; Radford, Ben T; Possingham, Hugh P; Heyward, Andrew J; Stewart, Romola R; Watts, Matthew E; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J; Harvey, Euan S; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W; Lowe, Ryan J; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-08-24

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia-a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation.

  5. GEBCO and EMODnet-Bathymetry hand in hand: Improving global and regional bathymetric models of European waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, T.; Weatherall, P.

    2014-12-01

    GEBCO (www.gebco.net) provides a unique global Digital Terrain Model (DTM) at 30 arc-second intervals (~1km horizontal resolution). Recognising the importance of regional expertise, GEBCO is collaborating with regional groups to help to continually improve its global model. Thanks to the European initiative EMODnet (www.emodnet-hydrography.eu), data providers from more than 30 organisations are working to build a regional DTM at 1/8th arc-minute (~ 250 meters resolution) for European waters; from the Norwegian and Icelandic Seas, through the Baltic, Celtic and North Seas to the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. With the aim of producing harmonised products and to prevent any duplication of effort, GEBCO and EMODnet are working together to build an authoritative DTM for European waters. This consists of the following steps: The Emodnet group has generated a Digital terrain model (2013 version) for European waters, with gaps between data sources. The EMODnet (2013) DTM has been used to update GEBCO's global grid using the remove-restore procedure involving the generation of a difference grid between the EMODnet 2013 and the initial GEBCO grids, which is then added on top of the initial GEBCO grid. When compiling a new 2014 version of the EMODnet DTM, data gaps are filled with the new GEBCO grid. As a result of this collaboration and the process described above, the latest (2014) versions of both grids show a marked improvement in their precision and continuity. Repeating this procedure for the future releases of EMODnet and GEBCO bathymetric grids will help improve knowledge of the bathymetry of European waters while providing a fit-for-purpose and consistent grid to users.

  6. Integrating mobile technology with routine dietetic practice: the case of myPace for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harricharan, Michelle; Gemen, Raymond; Celemín, Laura Fernández; Fletcher, David; de Looy, Anne E; Wills, Josephine; Barnett, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The field of Mobile health (mHealth), which includes mobile phone applications (apps), is growing rapidly and has the potential to transform healthcare by increasing its quality and efficiency. The present paper focuses particularly on mobile technology for body weight management, including mobile phone apps for weight loss and the available evidence on their effectiveness. Translation of behaviour change theory into weight management strategies, including integration in mobile technology is also discussed. Moreover, the paper presents and discusses the myPace platform as a case in point. There is little clinical evidence on the effectiveness of currently available mobile phone apps in enabling behaviour change and improving health-related outcomes, including sustained body weight loss. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent these apps have been developed in collaboration with health professionals, such as dietitians, and the extent to which apps draw on and operationalise behaviour change techniques has not been explored. Furthermore, presently weight management apps are not built for use as part of dietetic practice, or indeed healthcare more widely, where face-to-face engagement is fundamental for instituting the building blocks for sustained lifestyle change. myPace is an innovative mobile technology for weight management meant to be embedded into and to enhance dietetic practice. Developed out of systematic, iterative stages of engagement with dietitians and consumers, it is uniquely designed to complement and support the trusted health practitioner-patient relationship. Future mHealth technology would benefit if engagement with health professionals and/or targeted patient groups, and behaviour change theory stood as the basis for technology development. Particularly, integrating technology into routine health care practice, rather than replacing one with the other, could be the way forward.

  7. PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators—a novel tool to measure progress in cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Silvia; Brum, Lauren; Sorrow, Kathleen; Thomas, Samuel; Spence, Susan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Goodman, Clifford; Peake, Michael; McVie, Gordon; Geipel, Gary; Li, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising health care costs and the often incremental nature of improvements in health outcomes continue to fuel intense debates about ‘progress’ and ‘value’ in cancer research. In times of tightening fiscal constraints, it is increasingly important for patients and their representatives to define what constitutes ’value’ to them. It is clear that diverse stakeholders have different priorities. Harmonisation of values may be neither possible nor desirable. Stakeholders lack tools to visualise or otherwise express these differences and to track progress in cancer treatments based on variable sets of values. The Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence (PACE) Continuous Innovation Indicators are novel, scientifically rigorous progress trackers that employ a three-step process to quantify progress in cancer treatments: 1) mine the literature to determine the strength of the evidence supporting each treatment; 2) allow users to weight the analysis according to their priorities and values; and 3) calculate Evidence Scores (E-Scores), a novel measure to track progress, based on the strength of the evidence weighted by the assigned value. We herein introduce a novel, flexible value model, show how the values from the model can be used to weight the evidence from the scientific literature to obtain E-Scores, and illustrate how assigning different values to new treatments influences the E-Scores. The Indicators allow users to learn how differing values lead to differing assessments of progress in cancer research and to check whether current incentives for innovation are aligned with their value model. By comparing E-Scores generated by this tool, users are able to visualise the relative pace of innovation across areas of cancer research and how stepwise innovation can contribute to substantial progress against cancer over time. Learning from experience and mapping current unmet needs will help to support a broad audience of stakeholders in their

  8. PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators-a novel tool to measure progress in cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Silvia; Brum, Lauren; Sorrow, Kathleen; Thomas, Samuel; Spence, Susan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Goodman, Clifford; Peake, Michael; McVie, Gordon; Geipel, Gary; Li, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising health care costs and the often incremental nature of improvements in health outcomes continue to fuel intense debates about 'progress' and 'value' in cancer research. In times of tightening fiscal constraints, it is increasingly important for patients and their representatives to define what constitutes 'value' to them. It is clear that diverse stakeholders have different priorities. Harmonisation of values may be neither possible nor desirable. Stakeholders lack tools to visualise or otherwise express these differences and to track progress in cancer treatments based on variable sets of values. The Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence (PACE) Continuous Innovation Indicators are novel, scientifically rigorous progress trackers that employ a three-step process to quantify progress in cancer treatments: 1) mine the literature to determine the strength of the evidence supporting each treatment; 2) allow users to weight the analysis according to their priorities and values; and 3) calculate Evidence Scores (E-Scores), a novel measure to track progress, based on the strength of the evidence weighted by the assigned value. We herein introduce a novel, flexible value model, show how the values from the model can be used to weight the evidence from the scientific literature to obtain E-Scores, and illustrate how assigning different values to new treatments influences the E-Scores. The Indicators allow users to learn how differing values lead to differing assessments of progress in cancer research and to check whether current incentives for innovation are aligned with their value model. By comparing E-Scores generated by this tool, users are able to visualise the relative pace of innovation across areas of cancer research and how stepwise innovation can contribute to substantial progress against cancer over time. Learning from experience and mapping current unmet needs will help to support a broad audience of stakeholders in their efforts to

  9. Beyond a Unitary Conception of Pedagogic Pace: Quantitative Measurement and Ethnographic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Adam; Snell, Julia

    2013-01-01

    English education policy-makers have targeted classroom time as a key area for regulation and intervention, with "brisk pace" widely accepted as a feature of good teaching practice. We problematise this conventional wisdom through an exploration of objective and subjective dimensions of lesson pace in a corpus of 30 Key Stage 2 literacy lessons…

  10. Locating the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 7. Research & Development Series No. 240AB7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on locating a business, the seventh in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  11. Effects of Pacing and Cognitive Style across Dynamic and Non-Dynamic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffler, Tim N.; Schwartz, Ruth N.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of self-pacing versus system-pacing were examined in different versions of a computer-based learning environment (static pictures/animations). The role of cognitive style was also considered. While the variables investigated did not have a direct impact on either learning outcome or cognitive load, significant interaction effects were…

  12. PACE: A test bed for the dynamics and control of flexible multibody systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Smith, Monty J.; Das, Alok

    1993-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory at Edwards AFB has constructed a test bed for the validation and comparison of modeling and control theories for the dynamics and control of flexible multibody systems. This project is called the Planar Articulating Controls Experiment (PACE). This paper presents the experimental apparatus for PACE and the problem formulation. An in-depth analysis on DC motor dynamics was also performed.

  13. Keeping Pace with K-12 Online & Blended Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and Practice, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John; Murin, Amy; Vashaw, Lauren; Gemin, Butch; Rapp, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This is the 10th annual "Keeping Pace" report. "Keeping Pace" has several goals: (1) add to the body of knowledge about online education policy and practice, and make recommendations for advances; (2) serve as a reference source for information about programs and policies across the country, both for policymakers and…

  14. Web 2.0 and Social Media Connecting Learners in Self-Paced Study: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Distance learners determine the time and place for their studies--those engaged in self-paced study may also choose the rate at which they proceed through their courses. However, it is difficult to incorporate purposeful learner-learner interaction into self-paced study. A multiple-case study included three open universities with in-house design…

  15. Which Students Benefit from Self-Paced Mastery Instruction and Why.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinard, Thomas A.; Dolphin, Warren D.

    1981-01-01

    The determinants of achievement were compared under conventional and self-paced mastery examination schedules in an anatomy/physiology course. General scholastic ability did not interact with method, but prior preparation in science did. Students with less science preparation showed greater achievement under self-paced mastery testing than their…

  16. Self-Pacing in a Personalized Psychology Course: Letting Students Set the Deadlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, M. Susan; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two studies which evaluated procedures supplemental to instructor-set and student-set deadlines in a self-paced psychology course. One procedure required students to report their progress on quizzes, while the other required them to meet all deadlines. Concludes that both measures reduced procrastination through increased pacing rates…

  17. Financing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 8. Research & Development Series No. 240AB8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on financing a business, the eighth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  18. Managing the Finances. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 16. Research & Development Series No. 240AB16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on competent financial management, the 16th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  19. EVALUATION OF AN INDIVIDUALLY PACED COURSE FOR AIRBORNE RADIO CODE OPERATORS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; JOHNSON, KIRK A.

    IN THIS STUDY COMPARISONS WERE MADE BETWEEN AN INDIVIDUALLY PACED VERSION OF THE AIRBORNE RADIO CODE OPERATOR (ARCO) COURSE AND TWO VERSIONS OF THE COURSE IN WHICH THE STUDENTS PROGRESSED AT A FIXED PACE. THE ARCO COURSE IS A CLASS C SCHOOL IN WHICH THE STUDENT LEARNS TO SEND AND RECEIVE MILITARY MESSAGES USING THE INTERNATIONAL MORSE CODE. THE…

  20. Application of data assimilation for improving forecast of water levels and residual currents in Singapore regional waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karri, Rama Rao; Badwe, Abhijit; Wang, Xuan; El Serafy, Ghada; Sumihar, Julius; Babovic, Vladan; Gerritsen, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic models are commonly used for predicting water levels and currents in the deep ocean, ocean margins and shelf seas. Their accuracy is typically limited by factors, such as the complexity of the coastal geometry and bathymetry, plus the uncertainty in the flow forcing (deep ocean tide, winds and pressure). In Southeast Asian waters with its strongly hydrodynamic characteristics, the lack of detailed marine observations (bathymetry and tides) for model validation is an additional factor limiting flow representation. This paper deals with the application of ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-based data assimilation with the purpose of improving the deterministic model forecast. The efficacy of the EnKF is analysed via a twin experiment conducted with the 2D barotropic Singapore regional model. The results show that the applied data assimilation can improve the forecasts significantly in this complex flow regime.