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Sample records for pacing improves regional

  1. Improvement of pacing induced regional myocardial ischemia by Solcoseryl in conscious dogs with coronary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Sasayama, S; Takahashi, M; Osakada, G; Kawai, C

    1984-02-01

    The effects of Solcoseryl on regional myocardial function were studied in 5 conscious dogs with partial coronary constriction, in which temporary ischemia was induced by rapid cardiac pacing. During the coronary artery constriction, the percent shortening of the ischemic segment decreased by 9%. When the heart rate was increased by pacing, the percent shortening of the ischemic segments was further reduced by 57%. On cessation of cardiac pacing, the early potentiation of dP/dt and of control segment shortening became evident and was followed by exponential decay in the subsequent several beats. In the ischemic segment, the percent shortening was significantly improved in the first post-pacing beat but was more severely depressed at five seconds. Thirty minutes after administration of Solcoseryl, the cardiac pacing was repeated in the same manner but the pacing-induced hypokinesia of the ischemic segment were less marked, the percent shortening being at an average of 9.1% during control pacing and 12.7% during the second pacing after Solcoseryl (p less than 0.05). Postpacing deterioration of the ischemic segment shortening was also significantly improved from 9.8 to 11.8% at 5 seconds (p less than 0.05). These findings indicate that Solcoseryl exerts protective effects on the ischemic myocardium by promoting a rapid recovery from ischemia, probably due to the improvement of oxygen utility through activated cellular respiration.

  2. Improvement of Right Ventricular Hemodynamics with Left Ventricular Endocardial Pacing during Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    HYDE, EOIN R.; BEHAR, JONATHAN M.; CROZIER, ANDREW; CLARIDGE, SIMON; JACKSON, TOM; SOHAL, MANAV; GILL, JASWINDER S.; O'NEILL, MARK D.; RAZAVI, REZA; RINALDI, CHRISTOPHER A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular epicardial (BV‐CS) or endocardial left ventricular (LV) stimulation (BV‐EN) improves LV hemodynamics. The effect of CRT on right ventricular function is less clear, particularly for BV‐EN. Our objective was to compare the simultaneous acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the right and left ventricles (RV and LV) with BV‐CS and BV‐EN in order to determine the optimal mode of CRT delivery. Methods Nine patients with previously implanted CRT devices successfully underwent a temporary pacing study. Pressure wires measured the simultaneous AHR in both ventricles during different pacing protocols. Conventional epicardial CRT was delivered in LV‐only (LV‐CS) and BV‐CS configurations and compared with BV‐EN pacing in multiple locations using a roving decapolar catheter. Results Best BV‐EN (optimal AHR of all LV endocardial pacing sites) produced a significantly greater RV AHR compared with LV‐CS and BV‐CS pacing (P < 0.05). RV AHR had a significantly increased standard deviation compared to LV AHR (P < 0.05) with a weak correlation between RV and LV AHR (Spearman rs = −0.06). Compromised biventricular optimization, whereby RV AHR was increased at the expense of a smaller decrease in LV AHR, was achieved in 56% of cases, all with BV‐EN pacing. Conclusions BV‐EN pacing produces significant increases in both LV and RV AHR, above that achievable with conventional epicardial pacing. RV AHR cannot be used as a surrogate for optimizing LV AHR; however, compromised biventricular optimization is possible. The beneficial effect of endocardial LV pacing on RV function may have important clinical benefits beyond conventional CRT. PMID:27001004

  3. A Fast-Start Pacing Strategy Speeds Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake Kinetics and Improves Supramaximal Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Turnes, Tiago; Salvador, Amadeo Félix; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fast-start pacing strategy on running performance and pulmonary oxygen uptake () kinetics at the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain. Eleven active male participants (28±10 years, 70±5 kg, 176±6 cm, 57±4 mL/kg/min) visited the laboratory for a series of tests that were performed until exhaustion: 1) an incremental test; 2) three laboratory test sessions performed at 95, 100 and 110% of the maximal aerobic speed; 3) two to four constant speed tests for the determination of the highest constant speed (HS) that still allowed achieving maximal oxygen uptake; and 4) an exercise based on the HS using a higher initial speed followed by a subsequent decrease. To predict equalized performance values for the constant pace, the relationship between time and distance/speed through log-log modelling was used. When a fast-start was utilized, subjects were able to cover a greater distance in a performance of similar duration in comparison with a constant-pace performance (constant pace: 670 m±22%; fast-start: 683 m±22%; P = 0.029); subjects also demonstrated a higher exercise tolerance at a similar average speed when compared with constant-pace performance (constant pace: 114 s±30%; fast-start: 125 s±26%; P = 0.037). Moreover, the mean response time was reduced after a fast start (constant pace: 22.2 s±28%; fast-start: 19.3 s±29%; P = 0.025). In conclusion, middle-distance running performances with a duration of 2–3 min are improved and response time is faster when a fast-start is adopted. PMID:25360744

  4. A fast-start pacing strategy speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and improves supramaximal running performance.

    PubMed

    Turnes, Tiago; Salvador, Amadeo Félix; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fast-start pacing strategy on running performance and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics at the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain. Eleven active male participants (28±10 years, 70±5 kg, 176±6 cm, 57±4 mL/kg/min) visited the laboratory for a series of tests that were performed until exhaustion: 1) an incremental test; 2) three laboratory test sessions performed at 95, 100 and 110% of the maximal aerobic speed; 3) two to four constant speed tests for the determination of the highest constant speed (HS) that still allowed achieving maximal oxygen uptake; and 4) an exercise based on the HS using a higher initial speed followed by a subsequent decrease. To predict equalized performance values for the constant pace, the relationship between time and distance/speed through log-log modelling was used. When a fast-start was utilized, subjects were able to cover a greater distance in a performance of similar duration in comparison with a constant-pace performance (constant pace: 670 m±22%; fast-start: 683 m±22%; P = 0.029); subjects also demonstrated a higher exercise tolerance at a similar average speed when compared with constant-pace performance (constant pace: 114 s±30%; fast-start: 125 s±26%; P = 0.037). Moreover, the mean VO2 response time was reduced after a fast start (constant pace: 22.2 s±28%; fast-start: 19.3 s±29%; P = 0.025). In conclusion, middle-distance running performances with a duration of 2-3 min are improved and VO2 response time is faster when a fast-start is adopted.

  5. Changes in Left Ventricular Global and Regional Longitudinal Strain During Right Ventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Algazzar, Alaa Solaiman; Katta, Azza Ali; Ahmed, Khaled Sayed; Elkenany, Nasima Mohamed; Ibrahim, Maher Abdelaleem

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to demonstrate the short-term impacts of right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) and right ventricular septal pacing (RVSP) on left ventricular (LV) regional longitudinal strain (RLS) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). LV strain and functions may be altered by RVAP. RVSP might be a better alternative. The detrimental effect of right ventricular (RV) pacing may be mediated by regional LV impairment. Methods Sixty-two patients indicated for permanent pacemaker implantation and preserved LV systolic function were included. Dual chamber pacemakers were implanted in all patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to RV lead position: group A (RVAP, n = 32) and group B (RVSP, n = 30). Patients were examined at baseline and after 6 months of implantation for LV systolic functions, global and regional strain by echocardiography and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. Results Paced QRS duration was significantly shorter in group B compared to group A patients (P = 0.02). Regarding ventricular strain, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups at baseline measurements in comparisons of GLS, relative apical longitudinal strain (rALS) and RLS (P > 0.05). In contrast, there was statistically significant difference between both groups in results of GLS (P = 0.01) at 6 months. In addition, RLSs in septal, apical and rALS were affected after 6 months with P values of 0.02, 0.03 and 0.03, respectively. Conclusion RVAP appears to worsen GLS more than RVSP, and the resultant decrease in apical strain is most correlated region to decrease in GLS. PMID:28197264

  6. "U-Pace" Instruction: Improving Student Success by Integrating Content Mastery and Amplified Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Diane M.; Pfeiffer, Heidi M.; Fleming, Raymond; Ports, Katie A.; Pedrick, Laura E.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L.; Jirovec, Danielle L.; Helion, Alicia M.; Swain, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    "U-Pace," an instructional intervention, has potential for widespread implementation because student behavior recorded in any learning management system is used by "U-Pace" instructors to tailor coaching of student learning based on students' strengths and motivations. "U-Pace" utilizes an online learning environment…

  7. In Heart Failure Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Single Lead MultiSpot Left Ventricular Pacing Does Not Improve Acute Hemodynamic Response To Conventional Biventricular Pacing. A Multicenter Prospective, Interventional, Non-Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterliński, Maciej; Sokal, Adam; Lenarczyk, Radosław; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Vanderheyden, Marc; Khalameizer, Vladimir; Francis, Darrel; Heynens, Joeri; Stegemann, Berthold; Cornelussen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent efforts to increase CRT response by multiSPOT pacing (MSP) from multiple bipols on the same left ventricular lead are still inconclusive. Aim The Left Ventricular (LV) MultiSPOTpacing for CRT (iSPOT) study compared the acute hemodynamic response of MSP pacing by using 3 electrodes on a quadripolar lead compared with conventional biventricular pacing (BiV). Methods Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent an acute hemodynamic study to determine the %change in LV+dP/dtmax from baseline atrial pacing compared to the following configurations: BiV pacing with the LV lead in a one of lateral veins, while pacing from the distal, mid, or proximal electrode and all 3 electrodes together (i.e. MSP). All measurements were repeated 4 times at 5 different atrioventricular delays. We also measured QRS-width and individual Q-LV durations. Results Protocol was completed in 24 patients, all with LBBB (QRS width 171±20 ms) and 58% ischemic aetiology. The percentage change in LV+dP/dtmax for MSP pacing was 31.0±3.3% (Mean±SE), which was not significantly superior to any BiV pacing configuration: 28.9±3.2% (LV-distal), 28.3±2.7% (LV-mid), and 29.5±3.0% (LV-prox), respectively. Correlation between LV+dP/dtmax and either QRS-width or Q-LV ratio was poor. Conclusions In patients with LBBB MultiSPOT LV pacing demonstrated comparable improvement in contractility to best conventional BiV pacing. Optimization of atrioventricular delay is important for the best performance for both BiV and MultiSPOT pacing configurations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01883141 PMID:27124724

  8. Right ventricular free wall pacing improves cardiac pump function in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension: a computer simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Lumens, Joost; Arts, Theo; Broers, Bernard; Boomars, Karin A; van Paassen, Pieter; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, Tammo

    2009-12-01

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), duration of myofiber shortening is prolonged in the right ventricular (RV) free wall (RVfw) compared with that in the interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. This interventricular mechanical asynchrony eventually leads to right heart failure. We investigated by computer simulation whether, in PAH, early RVfw pacing may improve interventricular mechanical synchrony and, hence, cardiac pump function. A mathematical model of the human heart and circulation was used to simulate left ventricular and RV pump mechanics and myofiber mechanics. First, we simulated cardiovascular mechanics of a healthy adult at rest. Size and mass of heart and blood vessels were adapted so that mechanical tissue load was normalized. Second, compensated PAH was simulated by increasing mean pulmonary artery pressure to 32 mmHg while applying load adaptation. Third, decompensated PAH was simulated by increasing mean pulmonary artery pressure further to 79 mmHg without further adaptation. Finally, early RVfw pacing was simulated in severely decompensated PAH. Time courses of circumferential strain in the ventricular walls as simulated were similar to the ones measured in healthy subjects (uniform strain patterns) and in PAH patients (prolonged RVfw shortening). When simulating pacing in decompensated PAH, RV pump function was best upon 40-ms RVfw preexcitation, as evidenced by maximal decrease of RV end-diastolic volume, reduced RVfw myofiber work, and most homogeneous distribution of workload over the ventricular walls. Thus our simulations indicate that, in decompensated PAH, RVfw pacing may improve RV pump function and may homogenize workload over the ventricular walls.

  9. Using "U-Pace" Instruction to Improve the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, R.; Stoiber, L. C.; Pfeiffer, H. M.; Kienzler, S. E.; Fleming, R. R.; Pedrick, L. E.; Barth, D. J.; Reddy, D. .

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the student success associated with the "U-Pace" instructional approach, which integrates mastery-based learning with proactive instructor support in an online learning environment, would replicate for both economically disadvantaged students and students who are not economically…

  10. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan C.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L.; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  11. Pacing-induced spatiotemporal dynamics can be exploited to improve reentry termination efficacy.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J

    2009-08-01

    Some potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias may be terminated by a series of premature stimuli. Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which may be modeled as an excitation wave traveling around in a ring, is one such arrhythmia. We investigated the mechanisms and requirements for termination of such reentry using an ionic cardiac ring model. Termination requires conduction block, which in turn is facilitated by spatial dispersion in repolarization and recovery time. When applying short series of two or three stimuli, we found that for conduction block to robustly occur, the magnitude of the spatial gradient in recovery time must exceed a critical value of 20 ms/cm. Importantly, the required spatial gradient can be induced in this homogeneous system by the dynamics of the stimulus-induced waves-we show analytically the necessary conditions. Finally, we introduce a type of pacing protocol, the "aggressive ramp," which increases the termination efficacy by exploiting such pacing-induced heterogeneities. This technique, which is straightforward to implement, may therefore have important clinical implications.

  12. Pacing-induced spatiotemporal dynamics can be exploited to improve reentry termination efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.

    2009-08-01

    Some potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias may be terminated by a series of premature stimuli. Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which may be modeled as an excitation wave traveling around in a ring, is one such arrhythmia. We investigated the mechanisms and requirements for termination of such reentry using an ionic cardiac ring model. Termination requires conduction block, which in turn is facilitated by spatial dispersion in repolarization and recovery time. When applying short series of two or three stimuli, we found that for conduction block to robustly occur, the magnitude of the spatial gradient in recovery time must exceed a critical value of 20 ms/cm. Importantly, the required spatial gradient can be induced in this homogeneous system by the dynamics of the stimulus-induced waves—we show analytically the necessary conditions. Finally, we introduce a type of pacing protocol, the “aggressive ramp,” which increases the termination efficacy by exploiting such pacing-induced heterogeneities. This technique, which is straightforward to implement, may therefore have important clinical implications.

  13. Keeping Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the struggles of two tough moms who team up to start their own company. Fed up with a lack of stylish, properly-fitting shoes for their children with cerebral palsy, they established "Keeping Pace" which currently offers a selection of stylish girls' and boys' athletic sneakers and casual dress shoes for boys, all sold…

  14. Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.; Manohar, M.; Lundeen, G.

    1983-08-01

    To examine the effects of tachycardia on coronary circulation, transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow (MBF, 15-micron diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres) was studied in six healthy adult ponies at rest (heart rate . 60 +/- 7 beats . min-1), during ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1, as well as with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 before and during maximal coronary vasodilatation (iv adenosine infusion; 4 mumole . kg-1 . min-1). Mean aortic pressure and cardiac output were unchanged from control values with ventricular pacing. Whereas ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1 resulted in a progressive uniform increase in transmural MBF and well-maintained endo:epi perfusion ratio, pacing at 250 beats . min-1 did not result in a further increase in MBF compared to pacing at 200 beats . min-1 and the left ventricular (LV) subendocardial:subepicardial (endo:epi) perfusion ratio was significantly less than 1.00 (0.87 +/- 0.05). Blood flow to the LV papillary muscles and subendocardium was significantly less than that recorded at 200 beats . min-1. The LV endo:epi perfusion ratio with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 during adenosine infusion resulted in a decrease in mean aortic pressure (63% of control value) and a marked further reduction in blood flow to the LV papillary muscles as well as the LV subendocardium, while MBF increased dramatically in the LV subepicardium compared to values observed during ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 alone. These data demonstrate that coronary vasomotion functions to maintain LV subendocardial blood flow in the pony myocardium at a heart rate of 200 beats . min-1, while at 250 beats . min-1 exhaustion of coronary vasodilator reserve in the deeper layers limits further increase in MBF.

  15. PACE Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    M., Zimring,; Hoffman, I.; Fuller, M.

    2010-08-11

    The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On July 6, 2010, FHFA and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) concluded that Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs 'present significant safety and soundness concerns' to the housing finance industry. This statement came after a year of discussions with state and federal agencies in which PACE, a novel mechanism for financing energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements, has gone from receiving support from the White House, canonization as one of Scientific American's 'World Changing Ideas' and legislative adoption in 24 states to questionable relevance, at least in the residential sector. Whether PACE resumes its expansion as an innovative tool for financing energy efficiency and clean generation depends on outcomes in each of the three branches of government - discussions on a PACE pilot phase among federal agencies, litigation in federal court, and legislation in Congress - all highly uncertain. This policy brief addresses the practical impacts of these possible outcomes on existing and emerging PACE programs across the United States and potential paths forward.

  16. Pacing stress echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Gligorova, Suzana; Agrusta, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Background High-rate pacing is a valid stress test to be used in conjunction with echocardiography; it is independent of physical exercise and does not require drug administration. There are two main applications of pacing stress in the echo lab: the noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease through induction of a regional transient dysfunction; and the assessment of contractile reserve through peak systolic pressure/ end-systolic volume relationship at increasing heart rates to assess global left ventricular contractility. Methods The pathophysiologic rationale of pacing stress for noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease is obvious, with the stress determined by a controlled increase in heart rate, which is a major determinant of myocardial oxygen demand, and thereby tachycardia may exceed a fixed coronary flow reserve in the presence of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. The use of pacing stress echo to assess left ventricular contractile reserve is less established, but promising. Positive inotropic interventions are mirrored by smaller end-systolic volumes and higher end-systolic pressures. An increased heart rate progressively increases the force of ventricular contraction (Bowditch treppe or staircase phenomenon). To build the force-frequency relationship, the force is determined at different heart rate steps as the ratio of the systolic pressure (cuff sphygmomanometer)/end-systolic volume index (biplane Simpson rule). The heart rate is determined from ECG. Conclusion Two-dimensional echocardiography during pacing is a useful tool in the detection of coronary artery disease. Because of its safety and ease of repeatability noninvasive pacing stress echo can be the first-line stress test in patients with permanent pacemaker. The force-frequency can be defined as up- sloping (normal) when the peak stress pacing systolic pressure/end-systolic volume index is higher than baseline and intermediate stress values, biphasic with an

  17. Project for Program Improvement through the Utilization of Self-Paced Individualized Instruction Concepts Industrial Equipment Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley's Ridge Vocational Technical School, Forrest City, AR.

    The general objectives of an Arkansas technical school's self-paced individualized instruction program were designing, field testing, and disseminating an instructional management system with support materials that identify and justify the need for a program of instruction. Eight specific objectives have been developed to facilitate students'…

  18. Selective pacing sites.

    PubMed

    Coppola, G; La Greca, C; Corrado, E; Ajello, L; Nogara, A; Ciaramitaro, G; Augugliaro, S; Novo, G; Novo, S; Assennato, P

    2015-04-01

    he right ventricular apex (RVA) has always been the most used pacing site, because it is easily accessible and provides a stable lead position with a low dislodgment rate. However, it is well-known that long-term right ventricular apical pacing may have deleterious effects on left ventricular function by inducing a iatrogenic left bundle branch block, which can have strong influences on the left ventricle hemodynamic performances. More specifically, RVA pacing causes abnormal contraction patterns and the consequent dyssynchrony may cause myocardial perfusion defects, histopathological alterations, left ventricular dilation and both systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. All these long-term changes could account for the higher morbidity and mortality rates observe in patients with chronic RVA pacing compared with atrial pacing. This observation led to the reassessment of traditional approaches and to the research of alternative pacing sites, in order to get to more physiological pattern of ventricular activation and to avoid deleterious effects. Then, attempts were made with: right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) pacing, direct His bundle pacing (DHBP), parahisian pacing (PHP) and bifocal (RVA + RVOT) pacing. For example, RVOT pacing, especially in its septal portion, is superior to the RVA pacing and it would determine a contraction pattern very similar to the spontaneous one, not only because the septal portions are the first parts to became depolarized, but also for the proximity to the normal conduction system. RVOT is preferable in terms of safety too. DHBP is an attractive alternative to RVA pacing because it leads to a synchronous depolarization of myocardial cells and, therefore, to an efficient ventricular contraction. So it would be the best technique, however the procedure requires longer average implant times and dedicated instruments and it cannot be carried out in patients affected by His bundle pathologies; furthermore, due to the His

  19. Reversal of Pacing-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Normal QRS Axis Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ju Youn; Kim, Sung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Right ventricular apical pacing has been a commonly used method for placement of permanent pacemaker, but it is known to be associated with ventricular dyssynchrony and may lead to heart failure. Septal pacing could be an alternative method to improve this complication but the results have been conflicting; hence, other strategies are needed. This case is about a patient with pacing-induced cardiomyopathy who showed much improvement after repositioning the leads to a site different from that of normally paced QRS axis. PMID:27275181

  20. Development and evaluation of the feasibility and effects on staff, patients, and families of a new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE), to improve communication and palliative care in intensive care and during clinical uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are widespread concerns about communication and support for patients and families, especially when they face clinical uncertainty, a situation most marked in intensive care units (ICUs). Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate an interventional tool to improve communication and palliative care, using the ICU as an example of where this is difficult. Methods Our design was a phase I-II study following the Medical Research Council Guidance for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions and the (Methods of Researching End-of-life Care (MORECare) statement. In two ICUs, with over 1900 admissions annually, phase I modeled a new intervention comprising implementation training and an assessment tool. We conducted a literature review, qualitative interviews, and focus groups with 40 staff and 13 family members. This resulted in the new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE). Phase II evaluated the feasibility and effects of PACE, using observation, record audit, and surveys of staff and family members. Qualitative data were analyzed using the framework approach. The statistical tests used on quantitative data were t-tests (for normally distributed characteristics), the χ2 or Fisher’s exact test (for non-normally distributed characteristics) and the Mann–Whitney U-test (for experience assessments) to compare the characteristics and experience for cases with and without PACE recorded. Results PACE provides individualized assessments of all patients entering the ICU. It is completed within 24 to 48 hours of admission, and covers five aspects (key relationships, social details and needs, patient preferences, communication and information status, and other concerns), followed by recording of an ongoing communication evaluation. Implementation is supported by a training program with specialist palliative care. A post-implementation survey of 95 ICU staff found that 89% rated PACE assessment as very or

  1. Report: Progress Made, but Improvements Needed at CTS of Asheville Superfund Site in North Carolina to Advance Cleanup Pace and Reduce Potential Exposure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0296, August 31, 2016. EPA Region 4 can accelerate the cleanup and completeness of work, and improve public communications, to better control human exposure to unsafe industrial contamination at the CTS site.

  2. Transferring PACE Assessments Upon Home Sale

    SciTech Connect

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Coughlin, Jason; Fuller, Merrian; Zimring, Mark

    2010-04-12

    A significant barrier to investing in renewable energy and comprehensive energy efficiency improvements to homes across the country is the initial capital cost. Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing this upfront cost issue. Recently, the White House cited PACE programs as an important element of its 'Recovery through Retrofit' plan. The residential PACE model involves the creation of a special clean energy financing district that homeowners elect to opt into. Once opted in, the local government (usually at the city or county level) finances the upfront investment of the renewable energy installation and/or energy efficiency improvements. A special lien is attached to the property and the assessment is paid back as a line item on the property tax bill. As of April 2010, 17 states have passed legislation to allow their local governments to create PACE programs, two already have the authority to set up PACE programs, and over 10 additional states are actively developing enabling legislation. This policy brief analyzes one of the advantages of PACE, which is the transferability of the special assessment from one homeowner to the next when the home is sold. This analysis focuses on the potential for the outstanding lien to impact the sales negotiation process, rather than the legal nature of the lien transfer itself. The goal of this paper is to consider what implications a PACE lien may have on the home sales negotiation process so that it can be addressed upfront rather than risk a future backlash to PACE programs. If PACE programs do expand at a rapid rate, the chances are high that there will be other cases where prospective buyers uses PACE liens to negotiate lower home prices or require repayment of the lien as a condition of sale. As a result, PACE programs should highlight this issue as a potential risk factor for the sake of full disclosure. A good example of this

  3. Self-Paced Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Norma Jean

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of self-paced units. Development suggestions include determining the form of the units, including goals, responsibilities, and definitions of terms; keeping them short; including a variety of activities; and requiring that all lessons be completed at school. Contains sample units on climatology and meteorology, the sun, and…

  4. History Teaching Project: A Project to Improve Productivity in Teaching at Carnegie-Mellon University through the Development of Self-Paced Instruction in Undergraduate History. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Barry K.; And Others

    An experimental, undergraduate African-history course which used self-paced instructional techniques is described and evaluated in this project report. The project was initiated to assess the effectiveness of the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) in undergraduate history instruction. Thirty-two students from Carnegie-Mellon University…

  5. TCP Pacing Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) was conceived and designed to run over a variety of communication links, including wireless and high-bandwidth links. However, with recent technological advances in satellite and fiber-optic networks, researchers are reevaluating the flexibility of TCP. The TCP pacing and packet pair probing implementation may help overcome two of the major obstacles identified for efficient bandwidth utilization over communication links with large delay-bandwidth products.

  6. Acute hemodynamic effects of right ventricular pacing site and pacing mode in patients with congestive heart failure secondary to either ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gold, M R; Brockman, R; Peters, R W; Olsovsky, M R; Shorofsky, S R

    2000-05-01

    The hemodynamic effects of pacing in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) remain controversial. Early studies reported that pacing from the right ventricular (RV) apex improved acute hemodynamic parameters in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, but these findings were not confirmed in subsequent controlled studies. More recently, it has been proposed that pacing from the RV side of the ventricular septum improves hemodynamic function compared with intrinsic conduction or apical pacing. Either dual-chamber or ventricular pacing have been evaluated, again with inconsistent findings. To assess the effects of pacing site and mode on acute hemodynamic function, we evaluated 21 subjects with CHF and intrinsic conduction disease. Hemodynamics were compared in AAI, VVI, and DDD modes with pacing from the RV apex or high septum. The pacing rate was constant in each patient and the order of testing was randomized. In the absence of ventricular pacing (AAI mode), the mean systemic arterial pressure was 85 +/- 11 mm Hg, the right atrial pressure was 11 +/- 4 mm Hg, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 18 +/- 8 mm Hg and the cardiac index was 2.4 +/- 0.7 L/min/m(2). Compared with AAI pacing, there were no improvements in any hemodynamic parameter with DDD pacing from either RV site. Hemodynamic function worsened with VVI pacing from both RV sites. Subgroup analyses of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, with prolonged PR interval, or with significant mitral regurgitation also failed to demonstrate an improvement with pacing. We conclude that pacing mode but not RV pacing site affects acute hemodynamic function. Pacing in the DDD mode prevents the deleterious effects of VVI pacing in this patient population.

  7. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  8. Biventricular Pacing (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Issue In 2002, (before the establishment of the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee), the Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a health technology policy assessment on biventricular (BiV) pacing, also called cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The goal of treatment with BiV pacing is to improve cardiac output for people in heart failure (HF) with conduction defect on ECG (wide QRS interval) by synchronizing ventricular contraction. The Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there was evidence of short (6 months) and longer-term (12 months) effectiveness in terms of cardiac function and quality of life (QoL). More recently, a hospital submitted an application to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee to review CRT, and the Medical Advisory Secretariat subsequently updated its health technology assessment. Background Chronic HF results from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to act as a pump. It is estimated that 1% to 5% of the general population (all ages) in Europe have chronic HF. (1;2) About one-half of the patients with HF are women, and about 40% of men and 60% of women with this condition are aged older than 75 years. The incidence (i.e., the number of new cases in a specified period) of chronic HF is age dependent: from 1 to 5 per 1,000 people each year in the total population, to as high as 30 to 40 per 1,000 people each year in those aged 75 years and older. Hence, in an aging society, the prevalence (i.e., the number of people with a given disease or condition at any time) of HF is increasing, despite a reduction in cardiovascular mortality. A recent study revealed 28,702 patients were hospitalized for first-time HF in Ontario between April 1994 and March 1997. (3) Women comprised 51% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent were aged 65 years or older, and 58% were aged 75 years or older. Patients with chronic HF experience shortness of breath, a limited capacity

  9. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  10. 77 FR 3958 - Mortgage Assets Affected by PACE Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... assumptions on the types of home improvement projects (e.g., home insulation, solar panels, geothermal energy... assets affected by Property Assessed Clean Energy (``PACE'') programs and Notice of Intent (``NOI'') to... property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs.'' In response to and compliance with the...

  11. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Pete; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Marland, Gregg

    2008-06-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global carbon cycle include human utilization of fossil fuels and impacts on less intensively managed systems such as peatlands, wetlands and permafrost. A great deal of knowledge, expertise and data is available within each sector. We describe the contribution of sectoral carbon budgets to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Whilst many sectors exhibit similarities for carbon budgeting, some key differences arise due to differences in goods and services provided, ecology, management practices used, landmanagement personnel responsible, policies affecting land management, data types and availability, and the drivers of change. We review the methods and data sources available for assessing sectoral carbon budgets, and describe some of key data limitations and uncertainties for each sector in different regions of the world. We identify the main gaps in our knowledge/data, show that coverage is better for the developed world for most sectors, and suggest how sectoral carbon budgets could be improved in the future. Research priorities include the development of shared protocols through site networks, a move to full carbon accounting within sectors, and the assessment of full greenhouse gas budgets.

  12. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study †

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Ives, Stephen J.; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O’Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  13. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin J

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  14. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  15. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  16. An Undergraduate Intern Program at PACES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) established the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) in 1995 to conduct basic and applied research that contributes to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. Specifically, PACES provides a repository of remote sensing and other information that supports investigations into an improved understanding of geological, ecological and environmental processes occurring in the southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Approximately 85% of UTEP's students come from El Paso County, a fast growing urban region representative of many large cities in the Southwest that have, or will soon have, a majority of their population composed of groups currently underrepresented in the scientific and technical workforce. UTEP's student population has an ethnic distribution (63% Hispanic, 32% Anglo, 3% African American, 1.5 % Asian American, and less than 1% Native American) that closely matches the demographics of the region it serves. Thus, UTEP has a mission to serve a multicultural population where minority students comprise the majority. Most Hispanic students at UTEP are primarily of Mexican origin. A large number are first or second-generation U.S. citizens. Characteristics that unite Hispanic students, in particular those of Mexican-origin, are a strong sense of family loyalty and a belief that all family members are responsible for contributing to the economic stability and well-being of the family. Most of their families are larger in number than the national average, and a variety of generations live together or share considerable resources. Thus, many young people feel an obligation and a desire to go to work at a young age and to continue working while in college, thereby assisting their parents and other family members. Older siblings understand that they have responsibilities to do household chores, to aid their younger siblings economically, and to assist elderly family members. This "work ethic" within the

  17. Health Information System Simulation. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beth H.; Lacobie, Kevin

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. This volume contains five self-paced modules that allow students to interact with a health…

  18. Improving Education in the Arabian Gulf Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Mohammed A.; Hengst, Herbert R.

    1983-01-01

    Educational development in the seven Arab states of the Gulf region has been stimulated by the Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States (ABEGS), established in 1976. ABEGS has focused on obtaining information on education programs from member states, educating Arabs about their own culture, and establishing a multinational university. (LC)

  19. The Platform-Aware Compilation Environment (PACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    considered several strategies and settled on an implementation of the Cytron, Lowry , and Zadeck algorithm [10]. We began an implementation of this...various code regions. To address this issue, we collaborated with Jim Browne (University of Texas) and Martin Burtcher (Texas State University) to develop...The PACE Project provided full or partial support for the following graduate students: 1. Raj Barik (Rice) 2. Thomas Barr (Rice) 3

  20. Listening to music in the first, but not the last 1.5 km of a 5-km running trial alters pacing strategy and improves performance.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, A E; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Pires, F O; Bertuzzi, R; Oliveira, R S F; Bishop, D

    2012-10-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on attentional focus, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pacing strategy and performance during a simulated 5-km running race. 15 participants performed 2 controlled trials to establish their best baseline time, followed by 2 counterbalanced experimental trials during which they listened to music during the first (M start) or the last (M finish) 1.5 km. The mean running velocity during the first 1.5 km was significantly higher in M start than in the fastest control condition (p<0.05), but there was no difference in velocity between conditions during the last 1.5 km (p>0.05). The faster first 1.5 m in M start was accompanied by a reduction in associative thoughts compared with the fastest control condition. There were no significant differences in RPE between conditions (p>0.05). These results suggest that listening to music at the beginning of a trial may draw the attentional focus away from internal sensations of fatigue to thoughts about the external environment. However, along with the reduction in associative thoughts and the increase in running velocity while listening to music, the RPE increased linearly and similarly under all conditions, suggesting that the change in velocity throughout the race may be to maintain the same rate of RPE increase.

  1. Four chamber pacing in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cazeau, S; Ritter, P; Bakdach, S; Lazarus, A; Limousin, M; Henao, L; Mundler, O; Daubert, J C; Mugica, J

    1994-11-01

    A 54-year-old man received a four chamber pacing system for severe congestive heart failure (NYHA functional Class IV). His ECG showed a left bundle branch block (200-msec QRS duration) with 200-msec PR interval, normal QRS axis, and 90-msec interatrial interval. An acute hemodynamic study with insertion of four temporary leads was performed prior to the implant, which demonstrated a significant increase in cardiac output and decrease of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. A permanent pacemaker was implanted based on the encouraging results of the acute study. The right chamber leads were introduced by cephalic and subclavian approaches. The left atrium was paced with a coronary sinus lead, Medtronic SP 2188-58 model. An epicardial Medtronic 5071 lead was placed on the LV free wall. The four leads were connected to a standard bipolar DDD pacemaker, Chorus 6234. The two atrial leads were connected via a Y-connector to the atrial channel of the pacemaker with a bipolar pacing configuration. The two ventricular leads were connected in a similar fashion to the ventricular channel of the device. The right chamber leads were connected to the distal poles. The left chamber leads were connected to the proximal poles of the pacemaker. Six weeks later, the patient's clinical status improved markedly with a weight loss of 17 kg and disappearance of peripheral edema. His functional class was reduced to NYHA II. Four chamber pacing is technically feasible. In patients with evidence of interventricular dyssynchrony, this original pacing mode probably provides a mechanical activation sequence closer to the natural one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Slow Pace for Race to Top Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Almost two years into the federal Race to the Top program, states are spending their shares of the $4 billion prize at a snail's pace--a reflection of the challenges the 12 winners face as they try to get ambitious education improvement plans off the ground. Through the end of March, the 11 states and the District of Columbia had spent just 14…

  3. Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    PubMed

    Liew, Reginald

    2013-10-01

    Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management. This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

  4. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently the gold standard for cardiac pacing. However, it is invasive and nonspecific for cardiac tissues. We recently developed a noninvasive cardiac pacing technique using optogenetic tools, which are widely used in neuroscience. Optogenetic pacing of the heart provides high spatial and temporal precisions, is specific for cardiac tissues, avoids artifacts associated with electrical stimulation, and therefore promises to be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research. We demonstrated optogenetic control of heart rhythm in a well-established model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. We developed transgenic flies expressing a light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), specifically in their hearts and demonstrated successful optogenetic pacing of ChR2-expressing Drosophila at different developmental stages, including the larva, pupa, and adult stages. A high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy imaging system that is capable of providing images at a rate of 130 frames/s with axial and transverse resolutions of 1.5 and 3.9 μm, respectively, was used to noninvasively monitor Drosophila cardiac function and its response to pacing stimulation. The development of a noninvasive integrated optical pacing and imaging system provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology. PMID:26601299

  5. Improving Regional Groundwater Models with Transmissivity Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic-conductivity estimates in groundwater-flow models typically are constrained by a range for each hydrogeologic unit. These often-times wide ranges are derived from interpretations of many aquifer tests binned by hydrogeologic unit. Uncertainty is added to these ranges where hydraulic-conductivity estimates derived from aquifer tests use contributing thicknesses that differ from simulated thicknesses in a numerical model. Transmissivity observations from individual aquifer tests constrain model calibration better than hydraulic-conductivity ranges assigned to hydrogeologic units because simulated transmissivity and aquifer-test results are compared directly. Transmissivity comparisons require that simulated thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities for the volume investigated by the aquifer test be extracted from a model and integrated into a simulated transmissivity. Transmissivity observations have been ignored primarily because sampling simulated transmissivities is mechanically painful from complex models. A suite of programs called T-COMP has been developed to sample simulated transmissivities easily from regional MODFLOW models. Transmissivities of model cells are sampled where drawdown exceeds a user-defined threshold. Sampled transmissivities of model cells are averaged within a layer and summed between layers. This computationally intensive process occurs in separate programs that are executed prior to model calibration. Simulated transmissivities can be sampled quickly during calibration because nodes and their fractional contributions have been defined.

  6. Differential Effects of Ventricular Pacing Sites of Contraction Synchrony and Global Cardiac Performance

    PubMed Central

    Alhammouri, Mohammed; Kim, Hyung Kook; Mokhtar, Yasser; Cannesson, Maxime; Tanabe, Masaki; Gorcsan, John; Schwartzman, David; Pinsky, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantification of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony allows for objective measures of resynchronization therapy (CRT) effectiveness. We tested the hypothesis that site of LV pacing, fusion beats and baseline contractility alter contraction synchrony as quantified by regional and global measures of LV performance. Methods and Results In 8 open-chested pentobarbital-anesthetized canine preparations we compared the effects of right atrial (RA), RA-high right ventricular (RV) free wall, as a model of left bundle branch block contraction pattern, RA-LV apex (LVa), RA-LV free wall (LVfw), and RA-RV-apical LV (CRTa) and RA-RV-free wall LV (CRTfw), as CRT. LV pressure-volume loops recorded using high-fidelity pressure and conductance catheters and echocardiographic angle-corrected color-coded strain imaging of mid-LV short axis views analyzed radial strain from six segments. To control for contractile state esmolol-induced beta blockage was studied, and in 5 dogs to control for RA and ventricular pacing fusion beat artifacts, repeat studies were done following AV node ablation. RA-RV pacing reduced stroke work (SW) (57±18 to 33±13* mmHg·mL,*p<0.05 vs RA pacing), decreased LV end-diastolic volume and induced marked radial dyssynchrony (maximal time difference between peak segmental strain) from 31±15 to 234±60* ms. Changes in radial dyssynchrony correlated significantly with changes in SW (r=−0.53, p<0.01). Dyssynchrony improved with both CRTa and CRTfw (69*±31 and 98*±63 ms, respectively) while SW only improved with CRTa (62±22* and 37±13 mmHg·mL, respectively * p<0.05 vs RV pacing). CRTa also tended to increased LV end-diastolic volume over RA-RV. Esmolol slowed HR from 118±10 to 108±10 beats/min* and tended to decrease contractility (end-systolic elastance (Ees) from 12.1±7.9 to 8.9±3.9 mmHg/ml, p=0.167) but did not alter the degree of RV-pacing induced dyssynchrony. AV ablation had no effect on the observed apical and free wall contraction

  7. On the effectiveness of self-paced learning.

    PubMed

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2011-02-01

    Metacognitive monitoring and control must be accurate and efficient in order to allow self-guided learners to improve their performance. Yet few examples exist in which allowing learners to control learning produces higher levels of performance than restricting learners' control. Here we investigate the consequences of allowing learners to self-pace study of a list of words on later recognition, and show that learners with control of study-time allocation significantly outperformed subjects with no control, even when the total study time was equated between groups (Experiments 1 and 2). The self-pacing group also outperformed a group for which study time was automatically allocated as a function of normative item difficulty (Experiment 2). The advantage of self-pacing was apparent only in subjects who utilized a discrepancy reduction strategy-that is, who allocated more study time to normatively difficult items. Self-pacing can improve memory performance, but only when appropriate allocation strategies are used.

  8. Diaphragm pacing: the state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Antoine; Arame, Alex; Pricopi, Ciprian; Boucherie, Jean-Claude; Badia, Alain; Panzini, Capucine Morelot

    2016-01-01

    Diaphragm pacing (DP) is an orphan surgical procedure that may be proposed in strictly selected ventilator-dependent patients to get an active diaphragm contraction. The goal is to wean from mechanical ventilation (MV) and restore permanent efficient breathing. The two validated indications, despite the lack of randomised control trials, concern patients with high-level spinal cord injuries (SCI) and central hypoventilation syndromes (CHS). To date, two different techniques exist. The first, intrathoracic diaphragm pacing (IT-DP), based on a radiofrequency method, in which the electrodes are directly placed around the phrenic nerve. The second, intraperitoneal diaphragm pacing (IP-DP) uses intradiaphragmatic electrodes implanted through laparoscopy. In both techniques, the phrenic nerves must be intact and diaphragm reconditioning is always required after implantation. No perioperative mortality has been reported and ventilator-weaning rate is about 72% to 96% in both techniques. Improvement of quality of life, by restoring a more physiological breathing, has been almost constant in patients that could be weaned. Failure or delay in recovery of effective diaphragm contractions could be due to irreversible amyotrophy or chest wall damage. Recent works have evaluated the interest of IP-DP in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). After some short series were reported in the literature, the only multicentric randomized study including 74 ALS patients was prematurely stopped because of excessive mortality in paced patients. Then, another trial analysed the place of IP-DP in peripheral diaphragm dysfunction but, given the multiple biases, the published results cannot validate that indication. Reviewing all available literature as in our experience, shows that DP is an effective method to wean selected patients dependent on ventilator and improve their daily life. Other potential indications will have to be evaluated by randomised control trials. PMID:27195135

  9. Long-term Ventricular Pacing in Treatment of Sinoatrial Block

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, T. J.

    1971-01-01

    Six patients with symptoms due to sinoatrial block are described in whom no relief or improvement in block occurred when they were treated with isoprenaline or ephedrine. All six patients were treated by ventricular cardiac pacing with complete relief of symptoms. Despite the theoretical disadvantages of parasystole and loss of accrochage in treating these patients by ventricular pacing they have survived for periods of 18 months to over five years. PMID:5567769

  10. The PACES Summer Science Trek: A Pre-College Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michelle B.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) received five-year funding to form the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) in July 1995. PACES has as its goals to conduct research contributing to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth and to develop skilled scientists and engineers. PACES seeks to gain a more comprehensive understanding of geological, ecological and environmental processes and changes taking place in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico region. The PACES center has collaborative ties with two NASA field center (Goddard Space Flight Center and Ames Research Center) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The original proposal contained no provision for outreach programs. However, at a meeting in the fall of 1995, Dan Goldin, NASA Administrator, issued the challenge that in order to accomplish NASA's goals to educate more of the citizenry in science and engineering, the Centers should take a broader perspective aimed at younger children.

  11. Presentation Time Concerning System-Paced Multimedia Instructions and the Superiority of Learner Pacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Klaus D.; Petzold, Kirstin; Zinnbauer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The superiority of learner-paced over system-paced instructions was demonstrated in multiple experiments. In these experiments, the system-paced presentations were highly speeded, causing cognitive overload, while the learner-paced instructions allowed adjustments of the presentational flow to the learner's needs by pacing facilities, mostly…

  12. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  13. Improvements in Representations of Cloud Microphysics for BBHRP and Models using Data Collected during M-PACE and TWP-ICE

    SciTech Connect

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2010-02-22

    In our research we proposed to use data collected during the 2004 Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) and the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) to improve retrievals of ice and mixed-phase clouds, to improve our understanding of how cloud and radiative processes affect cloud life cycles, and to develop and test methods for using ARM data more effectively in model. In particular, we proposed to: 1) use MPACE in-situ data to determine how liquid water fraction and cloud ice and liquid effective radius (r{sub ei} and r{sub ew}) vary with temperature, normalized cloud altitude and other variables for Arctic mixed-phase clouds, and to use these data to evaluate the performance of model parameterization schemes and remote sensing retrieval algorithms; 2) calculate rei and size/shape distributions using TWP-ICE in-situ data, investigate their dependence on cirrus type (oceanic or continental anvils or cirrus not directly traced to convection), and develop and test representations for MICROBASE; 3) conduct fundamental research enhancing our understanding of cloud/radiative interactions, concentrating on effects of small crystals and particle shapes and sizes on radiation; and 4) improve representations of microphysical processes for models (fall-out, effective density, mean scattering properties, rei and rew) and provide them to ARM PIs. In the course of our research, we made substantial progress on all four goals.

  14. Pacing in Children's Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, James F., Jr.; Bryant, Jennings

    Following a content analysis, 85 children's programs were assigned a pacing index derived from the following criteria: (1) frequency of camera cuts; (2) frequency of related scene changes; (3) frequency of unrelated scene changes; (4) frequency of auditory changes; (5) percentage of active motion; (6) percentage of active talking; and (7)…

  15. Mathematics Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.; Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Algebra 1, Geometry, Math for Technology, Mathematical Problem Solving, and Pre-Algebra developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace…

  16. Science Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Biology, Chemistry, and Physical Science developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace relationships, learning activities with suggested…

  17. Did recent world record marathon runners employ optimal pacing strategies?

    PubMed

    Angus, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    We apply statistical analysis of high frequency (1 km) split data for the most recent two world-record marathon runs: Run 1 (2:03:59, 28 September 2008) and Run 2 (2:03:38, 25 September 2011). Based on studies in the endurance cycling literature, we develop two principles to approximate 'optimal' pacing in the field marathon. By utilising GPS and weather data, we test, and then de-trend, for each athlete's field response to gradient and headwind on course, recovering standardised proxies for power-based pacing traces. The resultant traces were analysed to ascertain if either runner followed optimal pacing principles; and characterise any deviations from optimality. Whereas gradient was insignificant, headwind was a significant factor in running speed variability for both runners, with Runner 2 targeting the (optimal) parallel variation principle, whilst Runner 1 did not. After adjusting for these responses, neither runner followed the (optimal) 'even' power pacing principle, with Runner 2's macro-pacing strategy fitting a sinusoidal oscillator with exponentially expanding envelope whilst Runner 1 followed a U-shaped, quadratic form. The study suggests that: (a) better pacing strategy could provide elite marathon runners with an economical pathway to significant performance improvements at world-record level; and (b) the data and analysis herein is consistent with a complex-adaptive model of power regulation.

  18. Trust regions in Kriging-based optimization with expected improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regis, Rommel G.

    2016-06-01

    The Kriging-based Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) method works well on many expensive black-box optimization problems. However, it does not seem to perform well on problems with steep and narrow global minimum basins and on high-dimensional problems. This article develops a new Kriging-based optimization method called TRIKE (Trust Region Implementation in Kriging-based optimization with Expected improvement) that implements a trust-region-like approach where each iterate is obtained by maximizing an Expected Improvement (EI) function within some trust region. This trust region is adjusted depending on the ratio of the actual improvement to the EI. This article also develops the Kriging-based CYCLONE (CYClic Local search in OptimizatioN using Expected improvement) method that uses a cyclic pattern to determine the search regions where the EI is maximized. TRIKE and CYCLONE are compared with EGO on 28 test problems with up to 32 dimensions and on a 36-dimensional groundwater bioremediation application in appendices supplied as an online supplement available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305215X.2015.1082350. The results show that both algorithms yield substantial improvements over EGO and they are competitive with a radial basis function method.

  19. Far field pacing supersedes anti-tachycardia pacing in a generic model of excitable media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittihn, Philip; Luther, Gisela; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Krinsky, Valentin; Parlitz, Ulrich; Luther, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Removing anchored spirals from obstacles is an important step in terminating cardiac arrhythmia. Conventional anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) has this ability, but only under very restrictive conditions. In a generic model of excitable media, we demonstrate that for unpinning spiral waves from obstacles this profound limitation of ATP can be overcome by far field pacing (FFP). More specifically, an argument is presented for why FFP includes and thus can only extend the capabilities of ATP in the configurations considered. By numerical simulations, we show that in the model there exists a parameter region in which unpinning is possible by FFP but not by ATP. The relevance of this result regarding clinical applications is discussed.

  20. An Unconventional Route of Left Ventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Varm, Chandra Mohan; Thakur, Ramesh; Krishna, Vinay; Goel, Amit; Kumar, Ashutosh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Mishra, Vikas; Singh Syal, Karandeep

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a rare complication of transvenous right ventricular pacing by temporary pacing wire causing iatrogenic interventricular septal perforation and left ventricular pacing in a 69-year-old man who was referred for recurrent syncope with sinus arrest. PMID:28197251

  1. Pacing in Distance Education: Something for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shale, Doug G.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the concept of pacing as it relates to distance education. Highlights include the relationship of pacing to academic standards, activity scheduling, student independence, student interaction, effective utilization of media, course materials, learning methods, student motivation, drop-out rate, and the cost effectiveness of pacing. (LRW)

  2. Characterization and comparison of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum in China using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Deng, Yong; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Wei, Feng; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Long, Ze-Rong; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-10

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from 51 batches of fruits of L. barbarum (wolfberry) in China were investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partial acid hydrolysis, single and composite enzymatic digestion, followed by polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively. Results showed that multiple PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in China were similar, respectively. In addition, results indicated that β-1,3-glucosidic, α-1,4-galactosiduronic and α-1,5-arabinosidic linkages existed in polysaccharides from L. barbarum collected in China, and the similarity of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China was pretty high, which are helpful for the improvement of the performance of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in functional/health foods area. Furthermore, polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were successfully distinguished from those of L. barbarum based on their PACE fingerprints. These results were beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from L. barabrum and their products, which suggested that saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC analysis could be a routine approach for quality control of polysaccharides.

  3. Improving and Communicating Workforce Skills: A Regional Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Dee

    2011-01-01

    The demand for improved workplace skills in the U.S. is rapidly rising, and U.S. industries, employees, and educational systems are struggling to respond. This paper describes the Skills Advantage program, an effort led by employers and facilitated by Kirkwood Community College to address regional employment needs. This work-ready certificate…

  4. Modeling Medicare Costs of PACE Populations

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James; Karon, Sarita L.

    2000-01-01

    Historically, Medicare has paid PACE providers a monthly capitated rate equal to 95 percent of the site's county AAPCC multiplied by a PACE-specific frailty adjuster of 2.39. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 makes PACE a permanent provider category and mandates that future Medicare payments be based upon the rate structure of the Medicare+Choice payment system, adjusted for the comparative frailty of PACE enrollees and other factors deemed to be appropriate by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. This study revisits the calculation of the PACE frailty adjuster and explores the effect of risk adjustment on that frailty adjuster. PMID:11481753

  5. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  6. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  7. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  8. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  9. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  10. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  11. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  12. 42 CFR 460.34 - Duration of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.34 Duration of PACE program agreement. An agreement...

  13. Dual sensor VVIR mode pacing: is it worth it?

    PubMed

    Sulke, N; Tan, K; Kamalvand, K; Bostock, J; Bucknall, C

    1996-11-01

    Dual sensor ventricular demand rate responsive (VVIR mode) pacing was compared with single sensor rate responsive pacing to assess whether this new development should be more widely incorporated in modern pacemaker devices. A within patient randomized, double-blind crossover study involving ten patients, mean age 67.4 years (70% male), had Medtronic Legend Plus dual sensor VVIR pacemakers implanted for high grade AV block and chronic or persistent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Performance values were compared to 20 healthy control subjects of a similar age and gender. Patients were both subjectively and objectively assessed after 2 weeks of out-of-hospital activity in VVIR mode (minute ventilation sensing), VVIR mode (activity sensing), VVIR mode (dual sensor), and VVI mode (no rate response). All patients were assessed for subjective preference for, and objective improvement in, any pacing modality as assessed by standardized daily activity protocols and graded exercise treadmill testing. Subjective perception of exercise capacity and functional status was significantly lower in VVI mode (P < 0.05) compared to any of the VVIR modes, which did not differ. After completion of the study 70% of patients chose VVIR as their preferred mode, with 30% expressing no preference. Forty percent preferred activity sensor VVIR mode pacing, 30% preferred dual sensor VVIR mode pacing, and 70% found either dual sensor VVIR mode, minute ventilation sensor VVIR mode, or both modalities least acceptable. No patient found activity sensing VVIR mode least acceptable. Graded treadmill testing revealed significantly lower exercise tolerance during VVI mode pacing (P < 0.01) compared to the VVIR modalities, which did not differ. Overall, chronotropic response was best with dual sensor pacing during standardized daily activity protocols and during the standard car journey. The data from this study suggest that there is no marked clinical advantage obtained from the use of dual sensor

  14. Cardiac Pacing - Is Telemonitoring Now Essential?

    PubMed

    Burri, Haran

    2013-11-01

    Modern pacemakers and implantable defibrillators are able to automatically perform tests executed manually during in-office visits; such as measurement of sensing and pacing thresholds. In addition, the devices also record a wealth of diagnostic data that are of clinical relevance. The advent of wireless technology in these devices allows automatic transmission of these data that can be consulted remotely by the physician. There is now solid evidence indicating that remote device follow-up can safely reduce the number of in-office visits, thereby improving convenience for patients and caregivers alike. Remote monitoring with automatic alerts for arrhythmias, heart failure and technical issues, has been shown to dramatically reduce delay to diagnosis of these events compared with standard follow-up; potentially improving patient safety and outcome. For these reasons, remote device management is becoming the standard of care.

  15. Improved regional ventricular function after successful surgical revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, B.H.; Massie, B.M.; Botvinick, E.H.

    1984-04-01

    Left ventricular segments with reversible asynergy at rest demonstrate reversible myocardial perfusion defects on exercise thallium-201 scintigrams. To determine if improved perfusion eliminates asynergy at rest, 23 patients with angina (stable in 21, unstable in 2) were studied before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. All patients underwent exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography and coronary arteriography before and after surgery. Selective graft angiography was performed during the postoperative catheterization to determine graft patency. Segmental ventricular function was quantitated by a regional fraction method. The scintigrams were divided into five regions and compared with the corresponding regions of the ventriculogram. Seventy-one of a possible 142 ventricular segments exhibited exercise-induced perfusion deficits. Preoperative regional ejection fraction was normal in 42 of these segments and abnormal in 29. Postoperatively, in 19 of the abnormal segments, function improved or normalized. All these segments had improved perfusion during exercise after surgery and were supplied by a patent bypass graft. Nine of the 10 segments in which abnormal wall motion persisted postoperatively continued to have exercise-induced perfusion deficits, and 9 of the 10 segments were supplied by an occluded or stenotic graft or one with poor run off. Of the 42 segments with normal wall motion preoperatively, 30 had improved perfusion after surgery and 35 maintained normal function. This study indicates that asynergy at rest is permanently reversed after coronary bypass surgery if improved myocardial perfusion can be documented. These findings are consistent with but do not prove the concept that reversible rest asynergy may reflect chronic ischemia or a prolonged effect from previous ischemic episodes.

  16. Keeping pace with Capitol Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, C.

    2007-01-01

    At the Capitol Hill, the legislative branch of the United States government, the work is always at pace. Working with Congress is a tough job yet, rewarding. The Congress worked hard together to serve the public interest but many big issues are one small part of what Congress does. However, many US news media do not report what the government does instead, the media report what the government argues about. The media reports the conflicts but story is always incomplete. In order for the people know what is happening to the government, contact the congressional representative to know the complete story.

  17. Tools and Trends in Self-Paced Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the PLATO system of the 1960's, CALL (computer assisted language learning) has had a major focus on providing self-paced, auto-correcting exercises for language learners to practice their skills and improve their knowledge of discrete areas of language learning. The computer has been recognized from the beginning as a patient and…

  18. Direct His-bundle pacing: present and future.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Pramod M; Romanyshyn, Mary

    2004-06-01

    Direct His-bundle pacing (DHBP) produces rapid sequential multisite synchronous ventricular activation and, therefore, would be an ideal alternative to right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing. In 54 patients with cardiomyopathy, ejection fraction (EF) 0.23 +/- 0.11, persistent atrial fibrillation, and normal QRS < 120 ms. DHBP was attempted. This was successful in 39 patients. In seven patients, the effect of increasing heart rate on contractility (Treppe effect) was investigated. Twelve patients who also received a RVA lead underwent cardiopulmonary testing. After a mean follow-up of 42 months, 29 patients are still alive with EF improving from 0.23 +/- 0.11 to 0.33 +/- 0.15. Functional class improved from 3.5 to 2.2. DP/dt increased at each pacing site (P < 0.05) as the heart rate increased to 60, 100, and 120 beats/min. Rise in dP/dt by DHBP pacing at 120 beats/min was at least 170 +/- mmHg/s, greater than any other site in the ventricle (P < 0.05). Cardiopulmonary testing revealed longer exercise time (RVA 255 +/- 110 s) (His 280 +/- 104 s) (P < 0.05), higher O2 uptake (RVA 15 +/- 4 mL/kg per minute) (His 16 +/- 4 mL/kg minute) (P < 0.05), and later anaerobic threshold (RVA 126 +/- 71 s) (His 145 +/- 74 s) (P < 0.05) with DHBP compared to RVA pacing. Long-term DHBP is safe and effective in humans. DHBP is associated with a superior Treppe effect and increased cardiopulmonary reserve when compared to RVA pacing.

  19. Adaptation of naturally paced saccades

    PubMed Central

    Blangero, Annabelle; Herman, James P.; Wallman, Josh; Harwood, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    In the natural environment, humans make saccades almost continuously. In many eye movement experiments, however, observers are required to fixate for unnaturally long periods of time. The resulting long and monotonous experimental sessions can become especially problematic when collecting data in a clinical setting, where time can be scarce and subjects easily fatigued. With this in mind, we tested whether the well-studied motor learning process of saccade adaptation could be induced with a dramatically shortened intertrial interval. Observers made saccades to targets that stepped left or right either ∼250 ms or ∼1,600 ms after the saccade landed. In experiment I, we tested baseline saccade parameters to four different target amplitudes (5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°) in the two timing settings. In experiments II and III, we adapted 10° saccades via 2° intrasaccadic steps either backwards or forwards, respectively. Seven subjects performed eight separate adaptation sessions (2 intertrial timings × 2 adaptation direction × 2 session trial lengths). Adaptation proceeded remarkably similarly in both timing conditions across the multiple sessions. In the faster-paced sessions, robust adaptation was achieved in under 2 min, demonstrating the efficacy of our approach to streamlining saccade adaptation experiments. Although saccade amplitudes were similar between conditions, the faster-paced condition unexpectedly resulted in significantly higher peak velocities in all subjects. This surprising finding demonstrates that the stereotyped “main sequence” relationship between saccade amplitude and peak velocity is not as fixed as originally thought. PMID:24623511

  20. Thallium cardiac stressing by esophageal pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.L.; Vacek, J.L.; Preston, D.F.; Robinson, R.G.; Feldkamp, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-three patients were examined with the transesophageal pacing method of cardiac stressing and thallium imaging. Transesophageal cardiac pacing, using a pill electrode or a permanent pacemaker lead, is a safe alternative for patients who are physically unable to exercise. Prior studies suggest that transvenous right atrial pacing with thallium injection is equivalent to physical exercise thallium studies in the detection of coronary artery disease. The esophageal pacing bipolar electrode similarly increases heart rate without the necessity of transvenous pacing or fluoroscopy and without the adverse side effects often seen when using pharmacologic stressing agents (i.e., dipyridamole). The results compare well with cardiac catheterization, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic results. Cardiac paced stress testing requires no sedation, is performed on an out-patient basis, and causes little if any discomfort for the patient.

  1. A decade of nuclear pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Parsonnet, V.; Gilbert, L.; Zucker, I.R.; Werres, R.; Atherley, T.; Manhardt, M.; Cort, J.

    1984-01-01

    In April, 1973, a decade-long study was begun on nuclear-powered pacemakers. The first 15 of these were designed by the Numec Corporation under a contract from the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Altogether 151 units powered by the isotope plutonium 238 were implanted in 131 patients; the pacemakers of 4 different manufacturers were used. The last nuclear pacemaker was implanted in January, 1983. The actuarial survival at 10 years was 92%, meeting the original performance goal of the Commission of 90%. Ninety pulse generators are still in service today; 25 patients have died and 36 pulse generators have been replaced with non-nuclear units. The most common indication for replacement was an inappropriate pacing mode. This high reliability and superior performance suggest that continued use of a radioisotopic power source is justified, particularly if combined with the electronic circuits of today's dual-chambered, multiprogrammable, and multifunctional pacemakers.

  2. Identification and reliability of pacing strategies in outrigger canoeing ergometry.

    PubMed

    Sealey, Rebecca M; Spinks, Warwick L; Leicht, Anthony S; Sinclair, Wade H

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the pacing strategies utilised; and the performance reproducibility during repeated outrigger canoeing ergometer time trials. Trained female outrigger canoeists (N=11) completed four 1000m outrigger canoe ergometer time trials. There was a significant 1.5% improvement in 1000m time in trial four compared to trial one. A fast start strategy was adopted in 36 of the 44 trials (82%) followed by a deceleration during the mid stages. As trials progressed there was an increased adoption of negative pacing (fast finish) between the last two splits, indicating a learning effect of pacing strategy across repeated trials. These results demonstrate that although some performance improvement was evident between the first and fourth time trials, the 1000m outrigger ergometer time trial is a reliable test that may be used as a tool to assist with crew selection and performance monitoring. Further, on account of the variation in pacing strategy noted in the fourth trial, the authors recommend utilising one familiarisation session and one test session when assessing performance such that learning or training adaptations resulting from multiple trials do not impact on results.

  3. Improvements on foF1 estimation at polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Dario; Scotto, Carlo; Sgrigna, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of a sample of polar ionograms reveals that the DuCharme and Petrie empirical formula often fails in the foF1 estimation at polar regions. A study of the discrepancies between modeled and observed foF1 values is presented, using a data set of Antarctic ionograms from different stations. Such discrepancies have been quantitatively evaluated. Based on this study a correction to the DuCharme and Petrie formula is proposed. This correction is performed to be implemented in an improved version of Autoscala software for a particular ionospheric station, in the frame of AUSPICIO (Automatic Interpretation of Polar Ionograms and Cooperative Ionospheric Observations) project.

  4. Quality assurance and improvement: the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network.

    PubMed

    Polaner, David M; Martin, Lynn D

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and improvement (QA/QI) is a critical activity in medicine. The use of large-scale collaborative databases is increasingly essential to obtain enough reports with which to establish standards of practice and define the incidence of complications and risk/benefit ratios for rare events. Such projects can enhance local QA/QI endeavors by enabling institutions to obtain benchmark data against which to compare their performance and can be used for prospective analyses of inter-institutional differences to determine 'best practice'. The pediatric regional anesthesia network (PRAN) is such a project. The first data cohort is currently being analyzed and offers insight into how such data can be used to detect trends in adverse events and improve care.

  5. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  6. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  7. 42 CFR 460.186 - PACE premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false PACE premiums. 460.186 Section 460.186 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  8. Update in cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    PubMed

    García-Bolao, Ignacio; Ruiz-Mateas, Francisco; Bazan, Victor; Berruezo, Antonio; Alcalde, Oscar; Leal del Ojo, Juan; Acosta, Juan; Martínez Sellés, Manuel; Mosquera, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the main advances in cardiac arrhythmias and pacing published between 2013 and 2014. Special attention is given to the interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias, and on advances in cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, with particular reference to the elderly patient.

  9. Web Tools: Keeping Learners on Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosloski, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching technology and engineering is pacing. Some students grasp new technological concepts quickly, while others need repetition and may struggle to keep pace. This poses an obstacle for the technology and engineering teacher, and is particularly true when teaching students to build a website. However, there…

  10. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zhang, X.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    A case study and monthly statistical analysis using sounder data assimilation to improve the Alaska regional weather forecast model are presented. Weather forecast in Alaska faces challenges as well as opportunities. Alaska has a large land with multiple types of topography and coastal area. Weather forecast models must be finely tuned in order to accurately predict weather in Alaska. Being in the high-latitudes provides Alaska greater coverage of polar orbiting satellites for integration into forecasting models than the lower 48. Forecasting marine low stratus clouds is critical to the Alaska aviation and oil industry and is the current focus of the case study. NASA AIRS/CrIS sounder profiles data are used to do data assimilation for the Alaska regional weather forecast model to improve Arctic marine stratus clouds forecast. Choosing physical options for the WRF model is discussed. Preprocess of AIRS/CrIS sounder data for data assimilation is described. Local observation data, satellite data, and global data assimilation data are used to verify and/or evaluate the forecast results by the MET tools Model Evaluation Tools (MET).

  11. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false PACE organizational structure. 460.60 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A PACE... planning a change in organizational structure must notify CMS and the State administering agency,...

  12. Significance of pacing cycle lengths in manifest entrainment of orthodromic circus movement tachycardia by ventricular pacing.

    PubMed

    Zaman, L; Castellanos, A; Saoudi, N C; Stafford, W J; Trohman, R G; Interian, A; Myerburg, R J

    1987-06-01

    The physiology of entrainment of orthodromic circus movement tachycardia (CMT) was studied using ventricular pacing during 18 episodes of induced CMT in 7 patients with atrioventricular (AV) accessory pathways. The first paced impulse was delivered as late as possible in the tachycardia cycle (mean 88 +/- 5% of the spontaneous cycle length [CL]). Entrainment was demonstrated by the following criteria: 1:1 retrograde conduction via the accessory pathway; capture of atrial, ventricular and His bundle electrograms at the pacing rate; and resumption of tachycardia at its previous rate after cessation of pacing. The number of ventricular paced impulses ranged from 5 to 14 (mean 8 +/- 3), and entrainment occurred in 2 to 7 paced cycles (mean 4 +/- 2). Orthodromic activation of a major part of the reentry circuit (manifest entrainment) was demonstrated during 9 episodes by the occurrence of His bundle electrogram preceding the first CMT QRS at the time anticipated from the last paced beat. In the 9 other episodes, persistent retrograde His bundle activation and AV nodal penetration by each paced impulse caused a delay (mean 79 +/- 25 ms) in activation of the His bundle preceding the first CMT QRS after the last paced beat. The mean pacing CL achieving manifest entrainment was 92 +/- 3% of the tachycardia CL, compared with 84 +/- 3% for retrograde AV nodal penetration (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, manifest entrainment of orthodromic CMT can be demonstrated by ventricular pacing at very long CLs; shorter CLs may cause CMT termination due to retrograde AV nodal penetration.

  13. The pace of cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Today, humans inhabit most of the world's terrestrial habitats. This observation has been explained by the fact that we possess a secondary inheritance mechanism, culture, in addition to a genetic system. Because it is assumed that cultural evolution occurs faster than biological evolution, humans can adapt to new ecosystems more rapidly than other animals. This assumption, however, has never been tested empirically. Here, I compare rates of change in human technologies to rates of change in animal morphologies. I find that rates of cultural evolution are inversely correlated with the time interval over which they are measured, which is similar to what is known for biological rates. This correlation explains why the pace of cultural evolution appears faster when measured over recent time periods, where time intervals are often shorter. Controlling for the correlation between rates and time intervals, I show that (1) cultural evolution is faster than biological evolution; (2) this effect holds true even when the generation time of species is controlled for; and (3) culture allows us to evolve over short time scales, which are normally accessible only to short-lived species, while at the same time allowing for us to enjoy the benefits of having a long life history.

  14. The Pace of Cultural Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Today, humans inhabit most of the world’s terrestrial habitats. This observation has been explained by the fact that we possess a secondary inheritance mechanism, culture, in addition to a genetic system. Because it is assumed that cultural evolution occurs faster than biological evolution, humans can adapt to new ecosystems more rapidly than other animals. This assumption, however, has never been tested empirically. Here, I compare rates of change in human technologies to rates of change in animal morphologies. I find that rates of cultural evolution are inversely correlated with the time interval over which they are measured, which is similar to what is known for biological rates. This correlation explains why the pace of cultural evolution appears faster when measured over recent time periods, where time intervals are often shorter. Controlling for the correlation between rates and time intervals, I show that (1) cultural evolution is faster than biological evolution; (2) this effect holds true even when the generation time of species is controlled for; and (3) culture allows us to evolve over short time scales, which are normally accessible only to short-lived species, while at the same time allowing for us to enjoy the benefits of having a long life history. PMID:23024804

  15. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A...

  16. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Payment § 460.180 Medicare payment to PACE organizations. (a) Principle...

  17. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A...

  18. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For...

  19. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Payment § 460.180 Medicare payment to PACE organizations. (a) Principle...

  20. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For...

  1. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.122 PACE organization's appeals process. For...

  2. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A...

  3. 42 CFR 460.170 - Reinstatement in PACE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.170 Reinstatement in PACE. (a) A...

  4. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Payment § 460.180 Medicare payment to PACE organizations. (a) Principle...

  5. An Improved Approach of Mesh Segmentation to Extract Feature Regions

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Minghui; Duan, Liming; Wang, Maolin; Bai, Yang; Shao, Hui; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Fenglin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to extract concave and convex feature regions via segmenting surface mesh of a mechanical part whose surface geometry exhibits drastic variations and concave-convex features are equally important when modeling. Referring to the original approach based on the minima rule (MR) in cognitive science, we have created a revised minima rule (RMR) and presented an improved approach based on RMR in the paper. Using the logarithmic function in terms of the minimum curvatures that are normalized by the expectation and the standard deviation on the vertices of the mesh, we determined the solution formulas for the feature vertices according to RMR. Because only a small range of the threshold parameters was selected from in the determined formulas, an iterative process was implemented to realize the automatic selection of thresholds. Finally according to the obtained feature vertices, the feature edges and facets were obtained by growing neighbors. The improved approach overcomes the inherent inadequacies of the original approach for our objective in the paper, realizes full automation without setting parameters, and obtains better results compared with the latest conventional approaches. We demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of our approach by performing certain experimental comparisons. PMID:26436657

  6. Biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure: a boost toward finer living.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jerry C; Wolbrette, Deborah L; Boehmer, John P; Ulsh, Paula J; Silber, David; Naccarelli, Gerald V

    2002-01-01

    With 550,000 new cases each year, congestive heart failure is a major medical problem. Several medical therapies, including digoxin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and beta-blockers, have reduced the number of re-hospitalizations and slowed the progression of congestive heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, some beta-blockers, and the combination of hydralazine with nitrates have improved survival. Despite these benefits, medical therapy frequently fails to improve quality of life. Biventricular pacing has been introduced to resynchronize mechanical and electrical asynchrony frequently observed in patients with heart failure. The most recent pacing trials show an improvement in quality of life and functional class. Long-term data are needed to determine the effect of biventricular pacing on survival. The acute hemodynamic studies suggest that resynchronization pacing therapy may predict a positive long-term benefit for many patients with congestive heart failure.

  7. Lunar plasma measurement by MAP-PACE onboard KAGUYA (SELENE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi

    Low energy charged particles around the Moon were vigorously observed by Moon orbiting satellites and plasma instrumentation placed on the lunar surface in 1960s and 1970s. Though there were some satellites that explored the Moon afterwards, most of them were dedicated to the global mapping of the lunar surface. KAGUYA(SELENE) is a Japanese lunar orbiter that studies the origin and evolution of the Moon by means of global mapping of element abundances, mineralogical composition, and surface geographical mapping from 100km altitude. KAGUYA was successfully launched on 14 September 2007 by HIIA launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. KAGUYA was inserted into a circular lunar polar orbit of 100km altitude and started continuous observation in mid-December 2007. One of the fourteen science instruments MAP-PACE (MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment - Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment) was developed for the comprehensive three-dimensional plasma measurement around the Moon. MAP-PACE consists of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). ESA-S1 and S2 measure the distribution function of low energy electrons below 15keV. IMA and IEA measure the distribution function of low energy ions below 28keV/q. IMA has an ability to discriminate the ion mass with high mass resolution. PACE sensors have been measuring solar wind, plasmas in the wake region of the Moon and plasmas in the Earth's magnetosphere. ESA sensors have discovered electron heating over magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface. ESA sensors have also observed electrons accelerated from the lunar surface in the wake region. PACE ion sensors have discovered new features of low energy ions around the Moon. IMA has discovered the existence of alkali ions that are originated from the lunar surface or lunar atmosphere and are picked up by the solar wind. IEA and IMA sensors discovered solar wind reflection by the Moon. PACE

  8. Improvement of snowpack simulations in a regional climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, J.; Miller, N.L.

    2011-01-10

    To improve simulations of regional-scale snow processes and related cold-season hydroclimate, the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3), developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), was coupled with the Pennsylvania State University/NCAR fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). CLM3 physically describes the mass and heat transfer within the snowpack using five snow layers that include liquid water and solid ice. The coupled MM5–CLM3 model performance was evaluated for the snowmelt season in the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwestern United States using gridded temperature and precipitation observations, along with station observations. The results from MM5–CLM3 show a significant improvement in the SWE simulation, which has been underestimated in the original version of MM5 coupled with the Noah land-surface model. One important cause for the underestimated SWE in Noah is its unrealistic land-surface structure configuration where vegetation, snow and the topsoil layer are blended when snow is present. This study demonstrates the importance of the sheltering effects of the forest canopy on snow surface energy budgets, which is included in CLM3. Such effects are further seen in the simulations of surface air temperature and precipitation in regional weather and climate models such as MM5. In addition, the snow-season surface albedo overestimated by MM5–Noah is now more accurately predicted by MM5–CLM3 using a more realistic albedo algorithm that intensifies the solar radiation absorption on the land surface, reducing the strong near-surface cold bias in MM5–Noah. The cold bias is further alleviated due to a slower snowmelt rate in MM5–CLM3 during the early snowmelt stage, which is closer to observations than the comparable components of MM5–Noah. In addition, the over-predicted precipitation in the Pacific Northwest as shown in MM5–Noah is significantly decreased in MM5 CLM3 due to the lower evaporation resulting from the

  9. Determinants of Enrollment Among Applicants to PACE

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Carol V.; Massey, Susan; Dorsey, Turahn

    1997-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, a new approach to the integration of acute and long-term care(LTC) services was conceived and refined at On Lok, an organization in the Chinese community of San Francisco. Since then, On Lok and 10 Federal demonstration sites have tested this model which is today called the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). This program has gained considerable political support and as a result, the 1997 Balanced Budget Agreement establishes PACE as a permanent provider under Medicare. The Federal demonstration of PACE was designed as a voluntary program. By exploiting its voluntary enrollment design, this study analyzes the determinants of program participation within a group of screened applicants. Findings of this study support the theory that the capitated payment structure of PACE creates incentives for program staff to avoid costly individuals. However, home ownership and provider attachment also act as important and significant barriers to enrollment. PMID:10345402

  10. Conservation law for self-paced movements

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called “drive,” that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control. PMID:27418602

  11. Altering embryonic cardiac dynamics with optical pacing.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L M; McPheeters, M; Barwick, L; Gu, S; Rollins, A M; Jenkins, M W

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that altering blood flow early in development leads to congenital heart defects. In these studies the perturbations to hemodynamics were very gross manipulations (vessel ligation, conotruncal banding, etc.) that would be inappropriate for probing the delicate mechanisms responsible for mechanically-transduced signaling. Also, these perturbations lacked feedback from a monitoring system to determine the exact degree of alteration and the location of its effect. Here, we employed optical pacing (OP) to alter the heart rate in quail embryos and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the resultant shear forces on the endocardium. OP is a new technique utilizing pulsed 1.851 µm infrared laser light to noninvasively capture the heart rate to the pulse frequency of the laser without the use of exogenous agents. To measure shear stress on the endocardium, we extended our previous OCT algorithms to enable the production of 4-D shear maps. 4-D shear maps allowed observation of the spatial and temporal distribution of shear stress. Employing both OCT and OP, we were able to develop perturbation protocols that increase regurgitant flow and greatly modify the oscillatory shear index (OSI) in a region of the heart tube where future valves will develop. Regurgitant flow has been linked with valve development and precise perturbations may allow one to determine the role of hemodynamics in valvulogenesis.

  12. Effect of Adaptive Paced Cardiolocomotor Synchronization During Running: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Bill; Jin, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiolocomotor synchronization (CLS) has been well established for individuals engaged in rhythmic activity, such as walking, running, or cycling. When frequency of the activity is at or near the heart rate, entrainment occurs. CLS has been shown in many cases to improve the efficiency of locomotor activity, improving stroke volume, reducing blood pressure variability, and lowering the oxygen uptake (VO2). Instead of a 1:1 frequency ratio of activity to heart rate, an investigation was performed to determine if different harmonic coupling at other simple integer ratios (e.g. 1:2, 2:3, 3:2) could achieve any performance benefits. CLS was ensured by pacing the stride rate according to the measured heartbeat (i.e., adaptive paced CLS, or forced CLS). An algorithm was designed that determined the simplest ratio (lowest denominator) that, when multiplied by the heart rate will fall within an individualized, predetermined comfortable pacing range for the user. The algorithm was implemented on an iPhone 4, which generated a ‘tick-tock’ sound through the iPhone’s headphones. A sham-controlled crossover study was performed with 15 volunteers of various fitness levels. Subjects ran a 3 mile (4.83 km) simulated training run at their normal pace on two consecutive days (randomized one adaptive pacing, one sham). Adaptive pacing resulted in faster runs run times, with subjects running an average of 26:03 ± 3:23 for adaptive pacing and 26:38 ± 3:31 for sham (F = 5.46, p < 0.05). The increase in heart rate from the start of the race as estimated by an exponential time constant was significantly longer during adaptive pacing, τ = 0.99 ± 0.30, compared to sham, τ = 1.53 ± 0.34 (t = -6.62, p < 0.01). Eighty-seven percent of runners found it easy to adjust their stride length to match the pacing signal with seventy-nine percent reporting that pacing helped their performance. These results suggest that adaptive paced CLS may have a beneficial effect on running performance

  13. Update on arrhythmias and cardiac pacing 2013.

    PubMed

    Almendral, Jesús; Pombo, Marta; Martínez-Alday, Jesús; González-Rebollo, José M; Rodríguez-Font, Enrique; Martínez-Ferrer, José; Castellanos, Eduardo; García-Fernández, F Javier; Ruiz-Mateas, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    This report discusses a selection of the most relevant articles on cardiac arrhythmias and pacing published in 2013. The first section discusses arrhythmias, classified as regular paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias, together with their treatment by means of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The next section reviews cardiac pacing, subdivided into resynchronization therapy, remote monitoring of implantable devices, and pacemakers. The final section discusses syncope.

  14. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  15. Sawtooth Pacing by Real-Time Auxiliary Power Control in a Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.; Graves, J. P.

    2011-06-17

    In the standard scenario of tokamak plasma operation, sawtooth crashes are the main perturbations that can trigger performance-degrading, and potentially disruption-generating, neoclassical tearing modes. This Letter demonstrates sawtooth pacing by real-time control of the auxiliary power. It is shown that the sawtooth crash takes place in a reproducible manner shortly after the removal of that power, and this can be used to precisely prescribe, i.e., pace, the individual sawteeth. In combination with preemptive stabilization of the neoclassical tearing modes, sawtooth pacing provides a new sawtooth control paradigm for improved performance in burning plasmas.

  16. The Manipulation of Pace within Endurance Sport

    PubMed Central

    Skorski, Sabrina; Abbiss, Chris R.

    2017-01-01

    In any athletic event, the ability to appropriately distribute energy is essential to prevent premature fatigue prior to the completion of the event. In sport science literature this is termed “pacing.” Within the past decade, research aiming to better understand the underlying mechanisms influencing the selection of an athlete's pacing during exercise has dramatically increased. It is suggested that pacing is a combination of anticipation, knowledge of the end-point, prior experience and sensory feedback. In order to better understand the role each of these factors have in the regulation of pace, studies have often manipulated various conditions known to influence performance such as the feedback provided to participants, the starting strategy or environmental conditions. As with all research there are several factors that should be considered in the interpretation of results from these studies. Thus, this review aims at discussing the pacing literature examining the manipulation of: (i) energy expenditure and pacing strategies, (ii) kinematics or biomechanics, (iii) exercise environment, and (iv) fatigue development. PMID:28289392

  17. High-resolution entrainment mapping of gastric pacing: a new analytical tool.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Lammers, Wim J E P; Egbuji, John U; Mithraratne, Pulasthi; Chen, Jiande D Z; Cheng, Leo K; Windsor, John A; Pullan, Andrew J

    2010-02-01

    Gastric pacing has been investigated as a potential treatment for gastroparesis. New pacing protocols are required to improve symptom and motility outcomes; however, research progress has been constrained by a limited understanding of the effects of electrical stimulation on slow-wave activity. This study introduces high-resolution (HR) "entrainment mapping" for the analysis of gastric pacing and presents four demonstrations. Gastric pacing was initiated in a porcine model (typical amplitude 4 mA, pulse width 400 ms, period 17 s). Entrainment mapping was performed using flexible multielectrode arrays (paced propagation was found to be anisotropic (longitudinal 2.6 +/- 1.7 vs. circumferential 4.5 +/- 0.6 mm/s; P < 0.001). In the third demonstration, a dysrhythmic episode that occurred during pacing was mapped in HR, revealing an ectopic slow-wave focus and uncoupled propagations. In the fourth demonstration, differences were observed between paced and native slow-wave amplitudes (0.24 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.38 +/- 0.14 mV; P < 0.001), velocities (6.2 +/- 2.8 vs. 11.5 +/- 4.7 mm/s; P < 0.001), and activated areas (20.6 +/- 1.9 vs. 32.8 +/- 2.6 cm(2); P < 0.001). Entrainment mapping enables an accurate quantification of the effects of gastric pacing on slow-wave activity, offering an improved method to assess whether pacing protocols are likely to achieve physiologically and clinically useful outcomes.

  18. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  19. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  20. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... planning a change in organizational structure must notify CMS and the State administering agency, in... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PACE organizational structure. 460.60 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A...

  1. Left ventricular guidewire pacing for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Guérios, Enio E; Wenaweser, Peter; Meier, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports prove the safety and efficacy of cardiac pacing employing a guidewire in the left ventricle as unipolar pacing electrode. We describe the use of left ventricular guidewire pacing as an alternative to conventional transvenous temporary right ventricular pacing in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

  2. A Simulation Study of Paced TCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulik, Joanna; Coulter, Robert; Rockwell, Dennis; Partridge, Craig

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of paced TCP, a modified version of TCP designed especially for high delay- bandwidth networks. In typical networks, TCP optimizes its send-rate by transmitting increasingly large bursts, or windows, of packets, one burst per round-trip time, until it reaches a maximum window-size, which corresponds to the full capacity of the network. In a network with a high delay-bandwidth product, however, Transmission Control Protocol's (TCPs) maximum window-size may be larger than the queue size of the intermediate routers, and routers will begin to drop packets as soon as the windows become too large for the router queues. The TCP sender then concludes that the bottleneck capacity of the network has been reached, and it limits its send-rate accordingly. Partridge proposed paced TCP as a means of solving the problem of queueing bottlenecks. A sender using paced TCP would release packets in multiple, small bursts during a round-trip time in which ordinary TCP would release a single, large burst of packets. This approach allows the sender to increase its send-rate to the maximum window size without encountering queueing bottlenecks. This paper describes the performance of paced TCP in a simulated network and discusses implementation details that can affect the performance of paced TCP.

  3. Assessment of a Regional Transportation Education Alliance To Improve Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Beverly T.

    This report examines issues related to transportation education, with the objective of developing and packaging transportation-related materials for use in college and university transportation education programs. The study was conducted by the Southwest Region University Transportation Center (SWUTC) region, but it is expected that the results…

  4. The formation of bronchocutaneous fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Patris, Vasileios; Argiriou, Michalis; Salem, Agni-Leila; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Charitos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Temporary epicardial pacing wires during open-heart surgery are routinely used both for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In complicated cases where patients are unstable or the wires are difficult to remove, the pacing wires are cut at the skin level and allowed to retract by themselves. This procedure rarely causes complications. However, there have been cases reporting that retained pacing wires are linked to the formation of sterno-bronchial fistulae, which may present a while after the date of operation and are usually infected. This review aims to study the cases presenting sterno-bronchial fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires and to highlight the important factors associated with these. It is important to note these complications, as fistulae may cause a variety of problems to the patient if undiagnosed and left untreated. With the aid of scans such as fistulography, fistulae can be identified and treated and will improve the patients’ health dramatically. PMID:27716700

  5. Evaluation of Long Term Effect of RV Apical Pacing on Global LV Function by Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Tilkar, Mahendra; Jain, Siddhant; Mondal, Subrata; Sarkar, Piyabi; Modi, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We very often face pacemaker implanted patients during follow-up with shortness of breath and effort intolerance inspite of normal clinical parameters. Aim The aim of our study is to evaluate the cause of effort intolerance and probable cause of sub-clinical Congestive Cardiac Failure (CCF) in a case of long term Right Ventricular (RV) apical pacing on global Left Ventricular (LV) function non- invasively by echocardiography. Materials and Methods We studied 54 patients (Male 42, Female 12) of complete heart block (CHB) with RV apical pacing (40 VVI and 14 DCP). Mean duration of pacing was 58+4 months. All patients underwent 24 hours Holter monitoring to determine the percentage of ventricular pacing beats. 2-D Echocardiography was done to assess the regional wall motion of abnormality and global LV ejection fraction by modified Simpson’s rule. These methods were coupled with the Doppler derived Myocardial Performance Index (MPI), tissue Doppler imaging, and mechanical regional dyssynchrony with 3-D Echocardiography. Data were analysed from 54 RV- apical paced patients and compared with age and body surface area of 60 controlled subjects (Male 46, Female 14). Results Evaluation of LV function in 54 patients demonstrated regional wall motion abnormality and Doppler study revealed both LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction compare with control subjects (regional wall motion abnormality 80±6% vs 30±3% with p-value<0.0001) which is proportional to the percentage of ventricular pacing beats (mean paced beat 78%). Global LVEF 50±4% vs 60±2% (p-valve <0.0001) and MPI 0.46 ±0.12 v/s 0.36±0.09 (p-value <0.0001). Conclusion RV–apical pacing induces iatrogenic electrical dyssynchrony which leads to remodeling of LV and produces mechanical dyssynchrony which is responsible for LV dysfunction. Alternate site of RV pacing and/or biventricular pacing should be done to maintain biventricular electrical synchrony which will preserve the LV function. PMID

  6. PACES Participation in Educational Outreach Programs at the University of Texas at El Paso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Rebecca L.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is involved in several initiatives to improve science education within the El Paso area public schools. These include outreach efforts into the K- 12 classrooms; training programs for in-service teachers; and the introduction of a strong science core curricula within the College of Education. The Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES), a NASA-funded University Research Center, will leverage off the goals of these existing initiatives to provide curriculum support materials at all levels. We will use currently available Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) materials as well as new materials developed specifically for this region, in an effort to introduce the Earth System Science perspective into these programs. In addition, we are developing curriculum support materials and classes within the Geology and Computer Departments, to provide education in the area of remote sensing and GIS applications at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  7. Report: Region 6 Needs to Improve Oversight Practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0100, April 14, 2010. Region 6’s documentation of its oversight was not sufficient to determine whether CANM’s allegations had merit or whether NMED’s actions and decisions with regard to the MWL monitoring wells were technically sound.

  8. Suggested References. PACE I.D. Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergson, Rita

    During the course of the PACE I.D. Center Project, 1966-1969, staff members recorded references that they felt contributed to the general knowledge of the prevention of learning and behavior problems. More specifically, those references that implied concern for the child in his total environment were considered most relevant. The references are…

  9. Developmental Math, Flipped and Self-Paced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Pangyen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a developmental math course design that uses flipped instruction and self-paced learning. The design was created and taught at Metropolitan State University, where most students are returning adult students with little preparation in mathematics. The author argues that this design suits the students well: the learning…

  10. PACE Yourself: A Handbook for ESL Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalle, Teresa S.; Young, Laurel L.

    2003-01-01

    "PACE Yourself" is for inexperienced or volunteer tutors of ESL. This handbook does not aim to make overnight experts of novices. Rather, the authors provide an easy-to-follow guide for people who want to tutor small groups of nonnative speakers of English but do not know how. Reproducible forms, appendixes of resources, terminology, ESL…

  11. Self-Paced Physics, Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Samples of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this collection for dissemination purposes. Descriptions are included of course objectives, characteristics, structures, and content. As a two-semester course of study for science and engineering sophomores, most topics are on a level comparable to that of classical physics by…

  12. Transcriptional regulation of subtilisin-like proprotein convertase PACE4 by E2F: possible role of E2F-mediated upregulation of PACE4 in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Keizo; Suzue, Kaori; Nagahama, Masami; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Tsuji, Akihiko

    2007-11-01

    PACE4, a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, is expressed at high levels in certain tumor cells and plays a role in metastatic progression through activation of matrix metalloproteinases. The mechanism leading to overexpression of PACE4 in tumor cells remains unclear. In this study, we show that the E2F1 transcription factor, which is implicated in carcinoma invasiveness, upregulates the expression of PACE4. HT1080 (highly tumorigenic and invasive) cells expressed much higher levels of PACE4 and E2F family (E2F1 and E2F2) transcripts than IMR90 (normal fibroblast) cells. Expression levels of other SPCs (furin and PC6) remained unchanged in these cells. Promoter analysis indicated that two E2F consensus binding sites (-117/-110 and -86/-79) in the 5'-flanking region of the human PACE4 gene function as positive regulatory elements. Mutation of these sites abolished PACE4 promoter response to E2F1 as well as binding of E2F1 in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays. Other E2F members, E2F2 and E2F3, also activated PACE4 expression, as in the case of E2F1. These results indicate a novel mechanism for E2F family-mediated promotion of carcinoma invasiveness through PACE4.

  13. Suppressing arrhythmias in cardiac models using overdrive pacing and calcium channel blockers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamp, A. T.; Osipov, G. V.; Collins, J. J.

    2002-09-01

    Recent findings indicate that ventricular fibrillation might arise from spiral wave chaos. Our objective in this computational study was to investigate wave interactions in excitable media and to explore the feasibility of using overdrive pacing to suppress spiral wave chaos. This work is based on the finding that in excitable media, propagating waves with the highest excitation frequency eventually overtake all other waves. We analyzed the effects of low-amplitude, high-frequency pacing in one-dimensional and two-dimensional networks of coupled, excitable cells governed by the Luo-Rudy model. In the one-dimensional cardiac model, we found narrow high-frequency regions of 1:1 synchronization between the input stimulus and the system's response. The frequencies in this region were higher than the intrinsic spiral wave frequency of cardiac tissue. When we paced the two-dimensional cardiac model with frequencies from this region, we found that spiral wave chaos could, in some cases, be suppressed. When we coupled the overdrive pacing with calcium channel blockers, we found that spiral wave chaos could be suppressed in all cases. These findings suggest that low-amplitude, high-frequency overdrive pacing, in combination with calcium channel inhibitors (e.g., class II or class IV antiarrhythmic drugs), may be useful for eliminating fibrillation.

  14. Toward a More Efficient Implementation of Antifibrillation Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We devise a methodology to determine an optimal pattern of inputs to synchronize firing patterns of cardiac cells which only requires the ability to measure action potential durations in individual cells. In numerical bidomain simulations, the resulting synchronizing inputs are shown to terminate spiral waves with a higher probability than comparable inputs that do not synchronize the cells as strongly. These results suggest that designing stimuli which promote synchronization in cardiac tissue could improve the success rate of defibrillation, and point towards novel strategies for optimizing antifibrillation pacing. PMID:27391010

  15. Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, M

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory (LANL) worked on the Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) intensive operational period (IOP). PACE’s primary goal was to demonstrate routine Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) field operations and improve instrumental and operational performance. LANL operated the instruments efficiently and effectively with remote guidance by the instrument mentors. This was the first time a complex suite of instruments had been operated under the ARM model and it proved to be a very successful and cost-effective model to build upon.

  16. Improving SLCF Science in the Himalayan Region: ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, A. K.; Pradhan, B. B.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    What fraction of the black carbon arriving on Yala Glacier in Langtang, Nepal, is from cooking fires in the houses in the valley below? What fraction is from elsewhere in rural Nepal? What fraction is from industrial and transport sources in Kathmandu? What fraction is from northern India and beyond? What fraction is from the high altitude forest fires that take place during March or April? Effectively mitigating the impacts of black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers requires detailed understanding not just of emissions and impacts, but also of the atmospheric transport pathways that connect the two. In mountainous areas of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya detailed quantitative knowledge about emissions, atmospheric processes, and impacts is still largely missing. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental organization covering Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. ICIMOD's recently established Atmosphere Initiative not only assesses mitigation options and contributes to policy and capacity building in the region, but also works actively to promote collaboration among researchers in the region, while building up an in-house team whose research will address key questions about SLCF. In Spring 2013 ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative, in collaboration with the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany, carried out the largest field campaign to date in Nepal, hosting instruments belonging to dozens of institutions around the world, at nine field site within and upwind of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The dataset that has been collected gives unprecedented insights into the emissions and atmospheric processes taking place downwind of and within the largest urban agglomeration in the Himalaya region. Meanwhile, in collaboration with national partner institutions, ICIMOD is in the process of setting up one atmospheric observatory each in Bhutan and in

  17. Improving a regional model using reduced complexity and parameter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelson, Victor A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Haitjema, Henk M.

    2002-01-01

    The availability of powerful desktop computers and graphical user interfaces for ground water flow models makes possible the construction of ever more complex models. A proposed copper-zinc sulfide mine in northern Wisconsin offers a unique case in which the same hydrologic system has been modeled using a variety of techniques covering a wide range of sophistication and complexity. Early in the permitting process, simple numerical models were used to evaluate the necessary amount of water to be pumped from the mine, reductions in streamflow, and the drawdowns in the regional aquifer. More complex models have subsequently been used in an attempt to refine the predictions. Even after so much modeling effort, questions regarding the accuracy and reliability of the predictions remain. We have performed a new analysis of the proposed mine using the two-dimensional analytic element code GFLOW coupled with the nonlinear parameter estimation code UCODE. The new model is parsimonious, containing fewer than 10 parameters, and covers a region several times larger in areal extent than any of the previous models. The model demonstrates the suitability of analytic element codes for use with parameter estimation codes. The simplified model results are similar to the more complex models; predicted mine inflows and UCODE-derived 95% confidence intervals are consistent with the previous predictions. More important, the large areal extent of the model allowed us to examine hydrological features not included in the previous models, resulting in new insights about the effects that far-field boundary conditions can have on near-field model calibration and parameterization. In this case, the addition of surface water runoff into a lake in the headwaters of a stream while holding recharge constant moved a regional ground watershed divide and resulted in some of the added water being captured by the adjoining basin. Finally, a simple analytical solution was used to clarify the GFLOW model

  18. Biophysical Modelling to Simulate the Response to Multisite Left Ventricular Stimulation using a Quadripolar Pacing Lead

    PubMed Central

    Niederer, SA; Shetty, AK; Plank, G; Bostock, J; Razavi, R; Smith, NP; Rinaldi, CA

    2016-01-01

    Background Response to Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT) is reduced in patients with postero-lateral scar. Multipolar pacing leads offer the ability to select desirable pacing sites and/or stimulate from multiple pacing sites concurrently using a single lead position. Despite this potential, the clinical evaluation and identification of metrics for optimisation of multisite CRT (MCRT) has not been performed. Methods The efficacy of MCRT via a quadripolar lead with two LV pacing sites in conjunction with RV pacing was compared with single site LV pacing using a coupled electro-mechanical biophysical model of the human heart with no, mild or severe scar in the LV postero-lateral wall. Result The maximum dP/dtmax improvement from baseline was 21%, 23%, 21% for standard CRT vs 22%, 24%, 25% for MCRT for no, mild and severe scar, respectively. In the presence of severe scar there was an incremental benefit of multisite vs standard CRT (25% vs 21%, 19% relative improvement). Minimizing total activation time (analogous to QRS duration) or minimizing the activation time of short axis slices of the heart did not correlate with CRT response. The peak electrical activation wave area in the LV corresponded with CRT response with an R2 value between 0.42-0.75. Conclusion Biophysical modelling predicts that in the presence of postero-lateral scar MCRT offers an improved response over conventional CRT. Maximising the activation wave area in the LV had the most consistent correlation with CRT response, independent of pacing protocol, scar size or lead location. PMID:22040178

  19. The Pace of Perceivable Extreme Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.; Gan, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    When will the signal of obvious changes in extreme climate emerge over climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key question for planning and implementing measures to mitigate the potential impact of climate change to natural and human systems that are generally adapted to potential changes from current variability. We estimated ToEs for the magnitude, duration and frequency of global extreme climate represented by 24 extreme climate indices (16 for temperature and 8 for precipitation) with different thresholds of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio based on projections of CMIP5 global climate models under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 for the 21st century. The uncertainty of ToE is assessed by using 3 different methods to calculate S/N for each extreme index. Results show that ToEs of the projected extreme climate indices based on the RCP4.5 climate scenarios are generally projected to happen about 20 years later than that for the RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Under RCP8.5, the projected magnitude, duration and frequency of extreme temperature on Earth will all exceed 2 standard deviations by 2100, and the empirical 50th percentile of the global ToE for the frequency and magnitude of hot (cold) extreme are about 2040 and 2054 (2064 and 2054) for S/N > 2, respectively. The 50th percentile of global ToE for the intensity of extreme precipitation is about 2030 and 2058 for S/N >0.5 and S/N >1, respectively. We further evaluated the exposure of ecosystems and human societies to the pace of extreme climate change by determining the year of ToE for various extreme climate indices projected to occur over terrestrial biomes, marine realms and major urban areas with large populations. This was done by overlaying terrestrial, ecoregions and population maps with maps of ToE derived, to extract ToEs for these regions. Possible relationships between GDP per person and ToE are also investigated by relating the mean ToE for each country and its average value of GDP per person.

  20. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  1. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  2. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  3. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  4. 42 CFR 460.50 - Termination of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.50 Termination of...

  5. Regionalization of services improves access to emergency vascular surgical care.

    PubMed

    Roche-Nagle, G; Bachynski, K; Nathens, A B; Angoulvant, D; Rubin, B B

    2013-04-01

    Management of vascular surgical emergencies requires rapid access to a vascular surgeon and hospital with the infrastructure necessary to manage vascular emergencies. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of regionalization of vascular surgery services in Toronto to University Health Network (UHN) and St Michael's Hospital (SMH) on the ability of CritiCall Ontario to transfer patients with life- and limb-threatening vascular emergencies for definitive care. A retrospective review of the CritiCall Ontario database was used to assess the outcome of all calls to CritiCall regarding patients with vascular disease from April 2003 to March 2010. The number of patients with vascular emergencies referred via CritiCall and accepted in transfer by the vascular centers at UHN or SMH increased 500% between 1 April 2003-31 December 2005 and 1 January 2006-31 March 2010. Together, the vascular centers at UHN and SMH accepted 94.8% of the 1002 vascular surgery patients referred via CritiCall from other hospitals between 1 January 2006 and 31 March 2010, and 72% of these patients originated in hospitals outside of the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Across Ontario, the number of physicians contacted before a patient was accepted in transfer fell from 2.9 ± 0.4 before to 1.7 ± 0.3 after the vascular centers opened. In conclusion, the vascular surgery centers at UHN and SMH have become provincial resources that enable the efficient transfer of patients with vascular surgical emergencies from across Ontario. Regionalization of services is a viable model to increase access to emergent care.

  6. Improved Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization for regional infrasound

    DOE PAGES

    Blom, Philip S.; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2015-10-20

    The Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) methodology is examined and simplified providing a generalized method of estimating the source location and time for an infrasonic event and the mathematical framework is used therein. The likelihood function describing an infrasonic detection used in BISL has been redefined to include the von Mises distribution developed in directional statistics and propagation-based, physically derived celerity-range and azimuth deviation models. Frameworks for constructing propagation-based celerity-range and azimuth deviation statistics are presented to demonstrate how stochastic propagation modelling methods can be used to improve the precision and accuracy of the posterior probability density function describing themore » source localization. Infrasonic signals recorded at a number of arrays in the western United States produced by rocket motor detonations at the Utah Test and Training Range are used to demonstrate the application of the new mathematical framework and to quantify the improvement obtained by using the stochastic propagation modelling methods. Moreover, using propagation-based priors, the spatial and temporal confidence bounds of the source decreased by more than 40 per cent in all cases and by as much as 80 per cent in one case. Further, the accuracy of the estimates remained high, keeping the ground truth within the 99 per cent confidence bounds for all cases.« less

  7. Improved Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization for regional infrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Philip S.; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2015-10-20

    The Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) methodology is examined and simplified providing a generalized method of estimating the source location and time for an infrasonic event and the mathematical framework is used therein. The likelihood function describing an infrasonic detection used in BISL has been redefined to include the von Mises distribution developed in directional statistics and propagation-based, physically derived celerity-range and azimuth deviation models. Frameworks for constructing propagation-based celerity-range and azimuth deviation statistics are presented to demonstrate how stochastic propagation modelling methods can be used to improve the precision and accuracy of the posterior probability density function describing the source localization. Infrasonic signals recorded at a number of arrays in the western United States produced by rocket motor detonations at the Utah Test and Training Range are used to demonstrate the application of the new mathematical framework and to quantify the improvement obtained by using the stochastic propagation modelling methods. Moreover, using propagation-based priors, the spatial and temporal confidence bounds of the source decreased by more than 40 per cent in all cases and by as much as 80 per cent in one case. Further, the accuracy of the estimates remained high, keeping the ground truth within the 99 per cent confidence bounds for all cases.

  8. Applying 20/20 Hindsight to Self-Pacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleberger, Gary E.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several suggestions for the maintenance of a science self-paced classroom. Topics include the use of computers for student self-assessment, teachers and students roles in the self-paced classroom, and laboratory setup and packaging in the self-paced science laboratory. (Author/DS)

  9. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) PACE organization's written appeals process. The PACE organization must have a formal written appeals... process must include written procedures for the following: (1) Timely preparation and processing of a... writing. (e) Services furnished during appeals process. During the appeals process, the PACE...

  10. Pacing, Pixels, and Paper: Flexibility in Learning Words from Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Kara; Rausch, Joseph; Quirk, Abigail; Halladay, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on how self-control over pace might help learners successfully extract information from digital learning aids. Past research has indicated that too much control over pace can be overwhelming, but too little control over pace can be ineffective. Within the popular self-testing domain of flashcards, we sought to elucidate…

  11. State of the art of leadless pacing

    PubMed Central

    Sperzel, Johannes; Burri, Haran; Gras, Daniel; Tjong, Fleur V.Y.; Knops, Reinoud E.; Hindricks, Gerhard; Steinwender, Clemens; Defaye, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Despite undisputable benefits, conventional pacemaker therapy is associated with specific complications related to the subcutaneous device and the transvenous leads. Recently, two miniaturized leadless pacemakers, Nanostim™ (St. Jude Medical) and Micra™ (Medtronic), which can be completely implanted inside the right ventricle using steerable delivery systems, entered clinical application. The WiCS™-cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) system (wireless cardiac stimulation for CRT, EBR Systems) delivers leadless left ventricular endocardial stimulation for cardiac resynchronization. In addition to obvious cosmetic benefits, leadless pacing systems may have the potential to overcome some complications of conventional pacing. However, acute and long-term complications still remains to be determined, as well as the feasibility of device explantation years after device placement. PMID:26024918

  12. Multi-Leu PACE4 Inhibitor Retention within Cells Is PACE4 Dependent and a Prerequisite for Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Couture, Frédéric; Ly, Kévin; Levesque, Christine; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Desjardins, Roxane; Guérin, Brigitte; Day, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression as well as the critical implication of the proprotein convertase PACE4 in prostate cancer progression has been previously reported and supported the development of peptide inhibitors. The multi-Leu peptide, a PACE4-specific inhibitor, was further generated and its capability to be uptaken by tumor xenograft was demonstrated with regard to its PACE4 expression status. To investigate whether the uptake of this inhibitor was directly dependent of PACE4 levels, uptake and efflux from cancer cells were evaluated and correlations were established with PACE4 contents on both wild type and PACE4-knockdown cell lines. PACE4-knockdown associated growth deficiencies were established on the knockdown HepG2, Huh7, and HT1080 cells as well as the antiproliferative effects of the multi-Leu peptide supporting the growth capabilities of PACE4 in cancer cells.

  13. Multi-Leu PACE4 Inhibitor Retention within Cells Is PACE4 Dependent and a Prerequisite for Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Kévin; Levesque, Christine; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Desjardins, Roxane; Guérin, Brigitte; Day, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression as well as the critical implication of the proprotein convertase PACE4 in prostate cancer progression has been previously reported and supported the development of peptide inhibitors. The multi-Leu peptide, a PACE4-specific inhibitor, was further generated and its capability to be uptaken by tumor xenograft was demonstrated with regard to its PACE4 expression status. To investigate whether the uptake of this inhibitor was directly dependent of PACE4 levels, uptake and efflux from cancer cells were evaluated and correlations were established with PACE4 contents on both wild type and PACE4-knockdown cell lines. PACE4-knockdown associated growth deficiencies were established on the knockdown HepG2, Huh7, and HT1080 cells as well as the antiproliferative effects of the multi-Leu peptide supporting the growth capabilities of PACE4 in cancer cells. PMID:26114115

  14. Improved construction materials for polar regions using microcellular thermoplastic foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Microcellular polymer foams (MCF) are thermoplastic foams with very small cell diameters, less than 10 microns, and very large cell densities, 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 15) cells per cubic centimeter of unfoamed material. The concept of foaming polymers with microcellular voids was conceived to reduce the amount of material used for mass-produced items without compromising the mechanical properties. The reasoning behind this concept was that if voids smaller than the critical flaw size pre-existing in polymers were introduced into the matrix, they would not affect the overall strength of the product. MCF polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were examined to determine the effects of the microstructure towards the mechanical properties of the materials at room and arctic temperatures. Batch process parameters were discovered for these materials and foamed samples of three densities were produced for each material. To quantify the toughness and strength of these polymers, the tensile yield strength, tensile toughness, and impact resistance were measured at room and arctic temperatures. The feasibility of MCF polymers has been demonstrated by the consistent and repeatable MCF microstructures formed, but the improvements in the mechanical properties were not conclusive. Therefore the usefulness of the MCF polymers to replace other materials in arctic environments is questionable.

  15. Short Period Surface Wave Dispersion Across the Mediterranean Region: Improvements Using Regional Seismic Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Italy, the North Sea Basin, the Silesian Basin in northern Germany and Poland, the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Basins surrounding Italy, and the...Turkey and Northern Anatolian Fault (ANF) experiments in Turkey, as well as other temporary deployments such as the Mid- Sea Experiment and the...goal is to improve data coverage in the Mediterranean Sea , North Africa, and parts of the Middle East.We plan to continue to improve the data set in

  16. Bi-Regional Educational Improvement Forum (Atlanta, Georgia, November 19-20, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    The Bi-Regional Educational Improvement Forum in Atlanta, Georgia (November 1979) considered three areas of school improvement, including State Department of Education (SEA) delivery systems and the use of technology to improve schooling. The three forum articles concerned with delivery systems treat the transformation of policies emanating from…

  17. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a...

  18. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement....

  19. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement....

  20. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a...

  1. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a...

  2. 42 CFR 460.90 - PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.90 PACE benefits under Medicare and Medicaid. If a...

  3. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement....

  4. 42 CFR 460.32 - Content and terms of PACE program agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Program Agreement § 460.32 Content and terms of PACE program agreement....

  5. Southern Regional Action Plan To Improve the Quality of Early Care and Education. Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    This booklet presents the action plan developed by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care for improving the quality of early care and education (ECE) in southern states. Also included in the booklet are tables that represent data collected from 16 participating states and the District of Columbia on state child care quality standards and…

  6. A biophysically-based finite state machine model for analysing gastric experimental entrainment and pacing recordings

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, Shameer; Trew, Mark L.; Du, Peng; O’ Grady, Greg; Cheng, Leo K.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal motility is coordinated by slow waves (SWs) generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Experimental studies have shown that SWs spontaneously activate at different intrinsic frequencies in isolated tissue, whereas in intact tissues they are entrained to a single frequency. Gastric pacing has been used in an attempt to improve motility in disorders such as gastroparesis by modulating entrainment, but the optimal methods of pacing are currently unknown. Computational models can aid in the interpretation of complex in-vivo recordings and help to determine optical pacing strategies. However, previous computational models of SW entrainment are limited to the intrinsic pacing frequency as the primary determinant of the conduction velocity, and are not able to accurately represent the effects of external stimuli and electrical anisotropies. In this paper, we present a novel computationally efficient method for modelling SW propagation through the ICC network while accounting for conductivity parameters and fiber orientations. The method successfully reproduced experimental recordings of entrainment following gastric transection and the effects of gastric pacing on SW activity. It provides a reliable new tool for investigating gastric electrophysiology in normal and diseased states, and to guide and focus future experimental studies. PMID:24276722

  7. Provenance Context Entity (PaCE): Scalable Provenance Tracking for Scientific RDF Data.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Bodenreider, Olivier; Hitzler, Pascal; Sheth, Amit; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) format is being used by a large number of scientific applications to store and disseminate their datasets. The provenance information, describing the source or lineage of the datasets, is playing an increasingly significant role in ensuring data quality, computing trust value of the datasets, and ranking query results. Current provenance tracking approaches using the RDF reification vocabulary suffer from a number of known issues, including lack of formal semantics, use of blank nodes, and application-dependent interpretation of reified RDF triples. In this paper, we introduce a new approach called Provenance Context Entity (PaCE) that uses the notion of provenance context to create provenance-aware RDF triples. We also define the formal semantics of PaCE through a simple extension of the existing RDF(S) semantics that ensures compatibility of PaCE with existing Semantic Web tools and implementations. We have implemented the PaCE approach in the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR) project at the US National Library of Medicine. The evaluations demonstrate a minimum of 49% reduction in total number of provenance-specific RDF triples generated using the PaCE approach as compared to RDF reification. In addition, performance for complex queries improves by three orders of magnitude and remains comparable to the RDF reification approach for simpler provenance queries.

  8. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Resende, Letícia de S; Pedretti Gomes, Karla C; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson; Remy, Gabriella L; Almeida Ramos, Valdir de

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. Proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. The addition of cinnamon reduced the proportion of pacing during and after enrichment (Wilcoxon: Z = 3.16, p < .001; Z = 3.16, p < .001, respectively), indicating a prolonged effect of the enrichment on the animals' behavior. Catnip appears to have elicited no significant difference in the stereotypic pacing before, during, or after the enrichment (Friedman: X(2) = 2.69; p = .260). The results highlight the potential use of cinnamon as a method of environmental enrichment for small captive-housed cats.

  9. Report: Agency-Wide Application of Region 7 NPDES Program Process Improvements Could Increase EPA Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #11-P-0315, July 6, 2011. Although Region 7 NPDES Kaizen event participants continued to follow up on the commitments and action items identified, no single authority was responsible for tracking the process improvement outcomes.

  10. Characteristics of Midwest Region School Districts Identified for Improvement. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 121

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ploeg, Arie; Wan, Yinmei; Garcia, Alicia N.; Wraight, Sara; Burke, Matthew; Norbury, Heather; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    This report presents statistical profiles for the Midwest Region states of school districts designated as "in improvement" for school year 2009/10 under accountability provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and compares the prevalence and characteristics of these districts and those of districts not in improvement. It also…

  11. Sex differences in pacing during ‘Ultraman Hawaii’

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ held between 1983 and 2015. Methods Within each sex, participants were grouped in quartiles (i.e., Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) with Q1 being the fastest (i.e., lowest overall time) and Q4 the slowest (i.e., highest overall time). To compare performance among events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running), race time in each event was converted in z score and this value was used for further analysis. Results A between-within subjects ANOVA showed a large sex × event (p = 0.015, η2 = 0.014) and a medium performance group × event interaction (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.012). No main effect of event on performance was observed (p = 0.174, η2 = 0.007). With regard to the sex × event interaction, three female performance groups (i.e., Q2, Q3 and Q4) increased race time from swimming to cycling 1, whereas only one male performance group (Q4) revealed a similar trend. From cycling 1 to cycling 2, the two slower female groups (Q3 and Q4) and the slowest male group (Q4) increased raced time. In women, the fastest group decreased (i.e., improved) race time from swimming to cycling 1 and thereafter, maintained performance, whereas in men, the fastest group decreased race time till cycling 2 and increased it in the running. Conclusion In summary, women pace differently than men during ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ where the fastest women decreased performance on day 1 and could then maintain on day 2 and 3, whereas the fastest men worsened performance on day 1 and 2 but improved on day 3. PMID:27703854

  12. Positional Scanning Identifies the Molecular Determinants of a High Affinity Multi-Leucine Inhibitor for Furin and PACE4.

    PubMed

    Małuch, Izabela; Levesque, Christine; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Ly, Kévin; Desjardins, Roxane; Neugebauer, Witold A; Prahl, Adam; Day, Robert

    2017-03-24

    The proprotein convertase family of enzymes includes seven endoproteases with significant redundancy in their cleavage activity. We previously described the peptide Ac-LLLLRVK-Amba that displays potent inhibitory effects on both PACE4 and prostate cancer cell lines proliferation. Herein, the molecular determinants for PACE4 and furin inhibition were investigated by positional scanning using peptide libraries that substituted its leucine core with each natural amino acid. We determined that the incorporation of basic amino acids led to analogues with improved inhibitory potency toward both enzymes, whereas negatively charged residues significantly reduced it. All the remaining amino acids were in general well tolerated, with the exemption of the P6 position. However, not all of the potent PACE4 inhibitors displayed antiproliferative activity. The best analogues were obtained by the incorporation of the Ile residue at the P5 and P6 positions. These substitutions led to inhibitors with increased PACE4 selectivity and potent antiproliferative effects.

  13. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume I. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume I contains materials for a three-hour course. A student course syllabus provides this…

  14. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume II. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume II contains materials for three one-hour courses on word processing applications, spreadsheet…

  15. Achievement Monitoring of Individually Paced Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsky, Paul D.

    A study was made to monitor achievement of individually paced instruction. The project concentrated on designing testing procedures in group paced instructional programs to provide information to student, teachers, parents and administrators which could be used in both a formative and summative evaluation. The three objectives of the project were:…

  16. Self-Paced Learning in Civil E.T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharples, Kent

    1977-01-01

    Briefly reports on the structure and evaluation of an individually-paced, two year civil engineering technology curriculum sponsored by a National Science Foundation grant. The written modules progress linearly with support media presentations. Students in the self-paced program generally outperformed lecture-based students on cognitive…

  17. Social Interaction in Self-Paced Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Upton, Lorne; Dron, Jon; Malone, Judi; Poelhuber, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a case study of a self-paced university course that was originally designed to support independent, self-paced study at distance. We developed a social media intervention, in design-based research terms, that allows these independent students to contribute archived content to enhance the course, to engage in discussions…

  18. Is Self-Paced Instruction Really Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, J. A.; Crowe, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a self-paced, learning-for-mastery course in undergraduate fluid mechanics. Includes the method of course assessment, method of student evaluation, and a description of the instructor's role and work load. Summarizes aspects of self-paced instruction considered favorable and unfavorable. (GS)

  19. Prediction of Procrastination in a Self-Pacing Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald D.; Hampton, John D.

    The objective of the study was to predict potential procrastinators in a self-pacing instructional system. Seventy-five entering college freshmen were randomly selected to participate in a large scale individually-paced program. Those students (25) who procrastinated were classified as "no-start-procrastinators" (NSP); the remainder (52) were…

  20. Accelerating the "Pace" against Illiteracy: Parent and Child Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Roger

    1989-01-01

    In 1980, Kentucky reported the nation's lowest percentage of adults, aged 25 and older, who had graduated from high school. Legislators were inundated with recommendations for reform. The result was the enactment of the Parent and Child Education (PACE) pilot program (1986). In the PACE program, parents without high school diplomas attend classes…

  1. Pro-region engineering for improved yeast display and secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Puguh, Arthya; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V

    2016-03-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of neurological diseases. However, it is difficult to produce as a recombinant protein. In its native mammalian context, BDNF is first produced as a pro-protein with subsequent proteolytic removal of the pro-region to yield mature BDNF protein. Therefore, in an attempt to improve yeast as a host for heterologous BDNF production, the BDNF pro-region was first evaluated for its effects on BDNF surface display and secretion. Addition of the wild-type pro-region to yeast BDNF production constructs improved BDNF folding both as a surface-displayed and secreted protein in terms of binding its natural receptors TrkB and p75, but titers remained low. Looking to further enhance the chaperone-like functions provided by the pro-region, two rounds of directed evolution were performed, yielding mutated pro-regions that further improved the display and secretion properties of BDNF. Subsequent optimization of the protease recognition site was used to control whether the produced protein was in pro- or mature BDNF forms. Taken together, we have demonstrated an effective strategy for improving BDNF compatibility with yeast protein engineering and secretion platforms.

  2. Improving integrated waste management at the regional level: the case of Lombardia.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Lucia; Falbo, Alida; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The article summarises the main results of the 'Gestione Rifiuti in Lombardia: Analisi del ciclo di vita' (Waste management in Lombardia region: Life cycle assessment; GERLA) project. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been selected by Regione Lombardia as a strategic decision support tool in the drafting of its new waste management programme. The goal was to use the life cycle thinking approach to assess the current regional situation and thus to give useful strategic indications for the future waste management. The first phase of the study consisted of the LCA of the current management of municipal waste in the Lombardia region (reference year: 2009). The interpretation of such results has allowed the definition of four possible waste management scenarios for the year 2020, with the final goal being to improve the environmental performance of the regional system. The results showed that the current integrated waste management of Lombardia region is already characterised by good energy and environmental performances. However, there is still room for further improvement: actions based, on the one hand, on a further increase in recycling rates and, on the other hand, on a series of technological modifications, especially in food waste and residual waste management, can be undertaken to improve the overall system.

  3. Utility of High-Output His Pacing during Difficult AV Node Ablation. An Underutilized Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kanjwal, Khalil; Grubb, Blair P

    2016-06-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) node ablation is a commonly performed procedure for patients with chronic drug refractory atrial fibrillation (AF) with episodes of rapid ventricular response. We report on a 72-year-old man who had difficulty managing chronic drug refractory AFs with frequent hospitalizations for rapid ventricular rate. The patient was taken to the electrophysiology laboratory for AV node ablation. Extensive mapping and localization techniques of the compact AV node and ablation in the region were unsuccessful. Subsequently, high-output His bundle pacing using 20 mA at 2 ms of output energy was performed in an attempt to localize the His bundle in areas where high-output pacing resulted in a narrower QRS complex. Further ablations in the areas where pacing produced a narrower QRS complex resulted in complete heart block. This case highlights the importance of using this simple pacing maneuver to achieve complete heart block in patients in whom standard strategies to localize and ablate the compact AV node are unsuccessful.

  4. Augmentation of Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System to Improve Dilution of Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Achanta D.; Sultana, Quddusa; Srinivas, Vemuri Satya

    The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is an autonomous and independent navigational system being developed by India. IRNSS will provide position, navigation and timing services for national applications. To improve accuracy, it can be augmented using GPS and pseudolites (pseudo-satellites). In this paper, the effect on DOP (Dilution of Precision) due to augmentation of the proposed constellation of IRNSS with pseudolites is investigated. GDOP is reduced to 163 (max) due to augmentation of IRNSS with two airport pseudolites (APLs). Due to augmentation of IRNSS with GPS, GDOP is reduced to 265 (max). The regional effect on DOP due to IRNSS is also investigated at different locations in the Indian region.

  5. Diaphragm Pacing as a Rehabilitative Tool for Patients With Pompe Disease Who Are Ventilator-Dependent: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, David D.; Martin, A. Daniel; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Islam, Saleem; Lawson, Lee Ann; Onders, Raymond P.; Byrne, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pompe disease is an inherited disorder notable for severe, progressive ventilatory compromise. Although ventilatory failure has been attributed to myofiber dysfunction secondary to diaphragmatic glycogen accumulation, neural involvement of the phrenic motor system is also a prominent feature. Direct diaphragm pacing supplements respiratory function in other disorders of the phrenic motor system. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that augmented neuromuscular activity via diaphragm pacing would promote weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with Pompe disease who are unresponsive to conventional, muscle-directed treatments. Case Description Three patients with Pompe disease developed diaphragm paresis that resulted in chronic mechanical ventilation dependence. After preoperative inspiratory muscle strengthening exercises failed to improve function, fine-wire pacing electrodes were laparoscopically implanted into the diaphragm. Diaphragm conditioning was initiated the first postoperative week and consisted of gradual increases in stimulation parameters, lengthening of stimulation sessions, and ventilator weaning. Ventilation and intramuscular electromyographic activity were recorded periodically during conditioning to quantify diaphragm neuromuscular function. Outcomes During paced breathing without mechanical ventilation, tidal volumes increased, and 2 patients were weaned from daytime ventilator dependence within the first 3 months of pacing, which has been sustained over the long-term. A third patient reduced reliance on daytime ventilation, but weaning was delayed by malacia of the large airways. In all patients, pacing appeared to facilitate spontaneous phrenic motor unit activity during independent breathing without ventilator or pacer support. Discussion The findings are consistent with the view that diaphragm pacing has potential rehabilitative value to reduce reliance on mechanical ventilation in people with Pompe disease, but

  6. Improving Smallholder Farmer Biosecurity in the Mekong Region Through Change Management.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; Evans-Kocinski, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases including foot-and-mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia remain a major constraint for improving smallholder large ruminant productivity in the Mekong region, producing negative impacts on rural livelihoods and compromising efforts to reduce poverty and food insecurity. The traditional husbandry practices of smallholders largely exclude preventive health measures, increasing risks of disease transmission. Although significant efforts have been made to understand the social aspects of change development in agricultural production, attention to improving the adoption of biosecurity has been limited. This study reviews smallholder biosecurity risk factors identified in the peer-reviewed literature and from field research observations conducted in Cambodia and Laos during 2006-2013, considering these in the context of a change management perspective aimed at improving adoption of biosecurity measures. Motivation for change, resistance to change, knowledge management, cultural dimensions, systems theory and leadership are discussed. Due to geographical, physical and resource variability, the implementation of biosecurity interventions suitable for smallholders is not a 'one size fits all'. Smallholders should be educated in biosecurity principles and empowered to make personal decisions rather than adopt prescribed pre-defined interventions. Biosecurity interventions should be aligned with smallholder farmer motivations, preferably offering clear short-term risk management benefits that elicit interest from smallholders. Linking biosecurity and disease control with improved livestock productivity provides opportunities for sustainable improvements in livelihoods. Participatory research and extension that improves farmer knowledge and practices offers a pathway to elicit sustainable broad-scale social change. However, examples of successes need to be communicated both at the 'evidence-based level' to influence regional policy

  7. Improved Phase Characterization of Far-Regional Body Wave Arrivals in Central Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    contains triplicated arrivals from upper-mantle discontinuities that, when properly identified, can improve seismic monitoring functions. However...templates are further analyzed in a non-linear fashion by comparing them with the synthetic seismograms, looking for quantitative explanations for... seismic monitoring functions. However, far-regional seismograms are typically under-utilized because along-path heterogeneity and phase interactions

  8. Pushing the Pace of Tree Species Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; McGill, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. PMID:25162663

  9. The evolution of pace in popular movies.

    PubMed

    Cutting, James E

    2016-01-01

    Movies have changed dramatically over the last 100 years. Several of these changes in popular English-language filmmaking practice are reflected in patterns of film style as distributed over the length of movies. In particular, arrangements of shot durations, motion, and luminance have altered and come to reflect aspects of the narrative form. Narrative form, on the other hand, appears to have been relatively unchanged over that time and is often characterized as having four more or less equal duration parts, sometimes called acts - setup, complication, development, and climax. The altered patterns in film style found here affect a movie's pace: increasing shot durations and decreasing motion in the setup, darkening across the complication and development followed by brightening across the climax, decreasing shot durations and increasing motion during the first part of the climax followed by increasing shot durations and decreasing motion at the end of the climax. Decreasing shot durations mean more cuts; more cuts mean potentially more saccades that drive attention; more motion also captures attention; and brighter and darker images are associated with positive and negative emotions. Coupled with narrative form, all of these may serve to increase the engagement of the movie viewer.

  10. Interaction between spiral and paced waves in cardiac tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agladze, Konstantin; Kay, Matthew W.; Krinsky, Valentin; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of lethal arrhythmias, patients at risk receive implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, which use high-frequency antitachycardia pacing (ATP) to convert tachycardias to a normal rhythm. One of the suggested ATP mechanisms involves paced-induced drift of rotating waves followed by their collision with the boundary of excitable tissue. This study provides direct experimental evidence of this mechanism. In monolayers of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in which rotating waves of activity were initiated by premature stimuli, we used the Ca2+-sensitive indicator fluo 4 to observe propagating wave patterns. The interaction of the spiral tip with a paced wave was then monitored at a high spatial resolution. In the course of the experiments, we observed spiral wave pinning to local heterogeneities within the myocyte layer. High-frequency pacing led, in a majority of cases, to successful termination of spiral activity. Our data show that 1) stable spiral waves in cardiac monolayers tend to be pinned to local heterogeneities or areas of altered conduction, 2) overdrive pacing can shift a rotating wave from its original site, and 3) the wave break, formed as a result of interaction between the spiral tip and a paced wave front, moves by a paced-induced drift mechanism to an area where it may become unstable or collide with a boundary. The data were complemented by numerical simulations, which was used to further analyze experimentally observed behavior. PMID:17384124

  11. Interaction between spiral and paced waves in cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Agladze, Konstantin; Kay, Matthew W; Krinsky, Valentin; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2007-07-01

    For prevention of lethal arrhythmias, patients at risk receive implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, which use high-frequency antitachycardia pacing (ATP) to convert tachycardias to a normal rhythm. One of the suggested ATP mechanisms involves paced-induced drift of rotating waves followed by their collision with the boundary of excitable tissue. This study provides direct experimental evidence of this mechanism. In monolayers of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in which rotating waves of activity were initiated by premature stimuli, we used the Ca(2+)-sensitive indicator fluo 4 to observe propagating wave patterns. The interaction of the spiral tip with a paced wave was then monitored at a high spatial resolution. In the course of the experiments, we observed spiral wave pinning to local heterogeneities within the myocyte layer. High-frequency pacing led, in a majority of cases, to successful termination of spiral activity. Our data show that 1) stable spiral waves in cardiac monolayers tend to be pinned to local heterogeneities or areas of altered conduction, 2) overdrive pacing can shift a rotating wave from its original site, and 3) the wave break, formed as a result of interaction between the spiral tip and a paced wave front, moves by a paced-induced drift mechanism to an area where it may become unstable or collide with a boundary. The data were complemented by numerical simulations, which was used to further analyze experimentally observed behavior.

  12. The road to right ventricular septal pacing: techniques and tools.

    PubMed

    Mond, Harry G

    2010-07-01

    Prolonged right ventricular (RV) apical pacing is associated with progressive left ventricular dysfunction due to dysynchronous ventricular activation and contraction. RV septal pacing allows a narrower QRS compared to RV apical pacing, which might reflect a more physiological and synchronous ventricular activation. Previous clinical studies, which did not consistently achieve RV septal pacing, were not confirmatory and need to be repeated. This review summarizes the anatomy of the RV septum, the radiographic appearances of pacing leads in the RV, the electrocardiograph correlates of RV septal lead positioning, and the techniques and tools required for implantation of an active-fixation lead onto the RV septum. Using the described techniques and tools, conventional active-fixation leads can now be reliably secured to either the RV outflow tract septum or mid-RV septum with very low complication rates and good long-term performance. Even though physiologic and hemodynamic studies on true RV septal pacing have not been completed, the detrimental effects of long-term RV apical pacing are significant enough to suggest that it is now time to leave the RV apex and secure all RV leads onto the septum.

  13. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  14. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  15. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  16. 42 CFR 460.24 - Limit on number of PACE program agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.24 Limit on number...

  17. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  18. Improving GHG inventories by regional information exchange: a report from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Umemiya, Chisa

    2006-01-01

    Background The Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to develop and report a national inventory of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. In the Asia region, "Workshops on Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Asia (WGIA)" have been organised annually since 2003 under the support of the government of Japan. WGIAs promote information exchange in the region to support countries' efforts to improve the quality of greenhouse gas inventories. This paper reports the major outcomes of the WGIAs and discusses the key aspects of information exchange in the region for the improvement of inventories. Results The major outcomes of WGIAs intended to help countries improve GHG inventories, can be summarised as follows: (1) identification of common issues and possible solutions by sector, (2) reporting country inventory practices, and (3) verification of the UNFCCC reporting requirements. Conclusion The workshops provided the opportunity for countries to share common issues and constraints pertinent to GHG inventories and to exchange information regarding possible solutions for those issues based on their own experience. The relevance of information exchange is determined due to emission sources, emitting mechanisms from sources, and technologies used. Information exchange about emission sources that are unique to Asia, like those of the agriculture sector, contributes significantly to the accumulation of knowledge at the regional and global levels. Enabling countries to verify their national circumstances with the reporting requirements under UNFCCC is also an essential part of the WGIA information exchange activities. PMID:16930465

  19. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  20. Reshaping Rural Schools in the Northwest Region: Lessons from Federal School Improvement Grant Implementation. REL 2016-107

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caitlin; Ostler, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The five states in the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northwest Region have many rural schools that have been designated as in need of improvement. And all five states had rural schools in the first cohort of federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) recipients. To address school improvement, the majority of those schools implemented the…

  1. Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 064

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, Timothy; Saifer, Steffen; Forehand, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report, "Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region." Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) spells out parent involvement requirements for schools in need of improvement, the majority of the Northwest Region school improvement plans…

  2. AV delay optimization and management of DDD paced patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Guardigli, G; Ansani, L; Percoco, G F; Toselli, T; Spisani, P; Braggion, G; Antonioli, G E

    1994-11-01

    Ten DDD paced patients, suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy in the NYHA functional classes III or IV were studied by means of Doppler echocardiography at different programmed values of atrioventricular (AV) delay (200, 150, 120, 100, and 80 msec). The following variables were evaluated: LV diameter, ejection fraction, mitral and aortic flow velocity integrals, and stroke volume. During VDD pacing, a resting AV delay associated with the best diastolic filling and systolic function was identified and programmed individually. Shortening of the AV delay to about 100 msec was associated with a gradual and progressive improvement. Further decrease caused an impairment of systolic function. The patients were clinically and hemodynamically reevaluated after 2 months of follow-up. A reduction of NYHA class and an improvement of LV function were consistently found. The reported data suggest that programming of an optimal AV delay may improve myocardial function in DDD paced patients with congestive heart failure. This result may be the consequence of an optimization of left ventricular filling and a better use of the Frank-Starling law.

  3. Using Individualized Self-Paced Instruction When Teaching Elementary Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Glenna D.; Echord, Barbara S.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to see if junior college and high school students do as well in learning elementary accounting through an individualized self-paced approach as through the traditional teacher-led method. (CT)

  4. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE... risk adjustment model. (5) CMS may adjust the monthly capitation amount to take into account...

  5. Critical role of inhomogeneities in pacing termination of cardiac reentry.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Stein, Kenneth M.; Christini, David J.

    2002-09-01

    Reentry around nonconducting ventricular scar tissue, a cause of lethal arrhythmias, is typically treated by rapid electrical stimulation from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, the dynamical mechanisms of termination (success and failure) are poorly understood. To elucidate such mechanisms, we study the dynamics of pacing in one- and two-dimensional models of anatomical reentry. In a crucial realistic difference from previous studies of such systems, we have placed the pacing site away from the reentry circuit. Our model-independent results suggest that with such off-circuit pacing, the existence of inhomogeneity in the reentry circuit is essential for successful termination of tachycardia under certain conditions. Considering the critical role of such inhomogeneities may lead to more effective pacing algorithms. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Critical role of inhomogeneities in pacing termination of cardiac reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Stein, Kenneth M.; Christini, David J.

    2002-09-01

    Reentry around nonconducting ventricular scar tissue, a cause of lethal arrhythmias, is typically treated by rapid electrical stimulation from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, the dynamical mechanisms of termination (success and failure) are poorly understood. To elucidate such mechanisms, we study the dynamics of pacing in one- and two-dimensional models of anatomical reentry. In a crucial realistic difference from previous studies of such systems, we have placed the pacing site away from the reentry circuit. Our model-independent results suggest that with such off-circuit pacing, the existence of inhomogeneity in the reentry circuit is essential for successful termination of tachycardia under certain conditions. Considering the critical role of such inhomogeneities may lead to more effective pacing algorithms.

  7. Combined networked switching output feedback control with ?-region stability for performance improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, George; Dritsas, Leonidas; Delshad, Saleh S.

    2014-06-01

    In this article, a combined networked switching output feedback control scheme, with a ?-region stability performance improvement module is presented. The network induced time delays, that are considered to be time varying and integer multiples of the sampling period, are being embedded in the system model, by state augmentation. The resulting model of the overall networked closed-loop system is switching, with the current measured round-trip time delay acting as the switching rule. Based on this modelling approach, a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) tuned switching output feedback controller is designed. The proposed approach establishes robustness against time delays and is able to guarantee the overall stability of the switching closed-loop system. Integrated in the controlled synthesis phase, an LMI tuned performance improvement module is being introduced, based on ?-region stability. Multiple simulation results are being presented that prove the efficacy of the proposed scheme.

  8. Regional Seismic Travel-Time Prediction, Uncertainty, and Location Improvement in Western Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, M. P.; Myers, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate our ability to improve regional travel-time prediction and seismic event location using an a priori, three-dimensional velocity model of Western Eurasia and North Africa: WENA1.0 [Pasyanos et al., 2004]. Our objective is to improve the accuracy of seismic location estimates and calculate representative location uncertainty estimates. As we focus on the geographic region of Western Eurasia, the Middle East, and North Africa, we develop, test, and validate 3D model-based travel-time prediction models for 30 stations in the study region. Three principal results are presented. First, the 3D WENA1.0 velocity model improves travel-time prediction over the iasp91 model, as measured by variance reduction, for regional Pg, Pn, and P phases recorded at the 30 stations. Second, a distance-dependent uncertainty model is developed and tested for the WENA1.0 model. Third, an end-to-end validation test based on 500 event relocations demonstrates improved location performance over the 1-dimensional iasp91 model. Validation of the 3D model is based on a comparison of approximately 11,000 Pg, Pn, and P travel-time predictions and empirical observations from ground truth (GT) events. Ray coverage for the validation dataset is chosen to provide representative, regional-distance sampling across Eurasia and North Africa. The WENA1.0 model markedly improves travel-time predictions for most stations with an average variance reduction of 25% for all ray paths. We find that improvement is station dependent, with some stations benefiting greatly from WENA1.0 predictions (52% at APA, 33% at BKR, and 32% at NIL), some stations showing moderate improvement (12% at KEV, 14% at BOM, and 12% at TAM), some benefiting only slightly (6% at MOX, and 4% at SVE), and some are degraded (-6% at MLR and -18% at QUE). We further test WENA1.0 by comparing location accuracy with results obtained using the iasp91 model. Again, relocation of these events is dependent on ray paths that evenly

  9. A New Model of Orbital Pacing for Pliocene Glaciations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, T.; Dowsett, H. J.; Caballero-Gill, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The earth's climate system has gone through major changes over time that serve as natural experiments to test our understanding of linkages and feedbacks that may come into play if the Earth continues to warm, as expected from greenhouse gas forcing. Our project investigates patterns of climate change between the northern and southern hemispheres during the mid-Pliocene epoch (~3-4 Myr ago) when the overall climate state was warmer than today. Critically, evidence suggests that the amount of ice on Antarctica was similar to today, but that there was little or no permanent ice on land in the northern hemisphere. Most climate scientists have therefore supposed that orbitally-paced climate change would initiate in the region around the Antarctic, and be driven primarily by the 41,000 year obliquity cycle. Using distributed data sets on both sea surface temperature and the combination of deep sea temperature and global ice volume recorded by ð18O, we find a pervasive influence of eccentricity/precession on Pliocene paleoclimate that has been under-appreciated. We tentatively constrain the phase of the climate response by calibrating temperature patterns to the precessional "clock" of the Mediterranean sapropel sequence. Large Pliocene glacial events were paced by precession, and coincide with minimum northern hemisphere summer insolation. This mode is in many ways the opposite of the late Pleistocene, where climate positively follows the envelope of northern hemisphere precession. In the Pliocene case, glacial periods instead followed the lower envelope of precession and nodes of low precessional variance supported peak interglacial conditions. The observations can be explained by positing that during the warmer Pliocene, the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere could only support cryosphere expansion during times of minimal summer insolation. While the presence of ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic and North Pacific unambiguously confirm a northern

  10. Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative puts new spin on improving healthcare quality.

    PubMed

    2002-11-01

    For nearly 4 years, the Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) has been working to improve the way healthcare is delivered in southwestern Pennsylvania by combining the voices and resources of hospitals, providers, the business community, insurers, health plans, and federal agencies. As one example of borrowing from business, the PRHI has created a new learning and management system, called Perfecting Patient Care, which is based on the Toyota Production System model and is now being used successfully in hospitals.

  11. The Efficacy of Self-Paced Study in Multitrial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jonge, Mario; Tabbers, Huib K.; Pecher, Diane; Jang, Yoonhee; Zeelenberg, René

    2015-01-01

    In 2 experiments we investigated the efficacy of self-paced study in multitrial learning. In Experiment 1, native speakers of English studied lists of Dutch-English word pairs under 1 of 4 imposed fixed presentation rate conditions (24 × 1 s, 12 × 2 s, 6 × 4 s, or 3 × 8 s) and a self-paced study condition. Total study time per list was equated for…

  12. Improving Renal Cell Carcinoma Classification by Automatic Region of Interest Selection

    PubMed Central

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Sharma, Yachna; Young, Andrew N.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved automated system for classification of pathological image data of renal cell carcinoma. The task of analyzing tissue biopsies, generally performed manually by expert pathologists, is extremely challenging due to the variability in the tissue morphology, the preparation of tissue specimen, and the image acquisition process. Due to the complexity of this task and heterogeneity of patient tissue, this process suffers from inter-observer and intra-observer variability. In continuation of our previous work, which proposed a knowledge-based automated system, we observe that real life clinical biopsy images which contain necrotic regions and glands significantly degrade the classification process. Following the pathologist’s technique of focusing on selected region of interest (ROI), we propose a simple ROI selection process which automatically rejects the glands and necrotic regions thereby improving the classification accuracy. We were able to improve the classification accuracy from 90% to 95% on a significantly heterogeneous image data set using our technique.

  13. Improving Regional Forecast by Assimilating Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles into WRF Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background type, and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are derived from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators were used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for each profile location and pressure level. The analyses were then used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impacts of AIRS profiles on forecast were assessed against verifying NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  14. Feasibility of Leadless Cardiac Pacing Using Injectable Magnetic Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Menahem Y.; Gabay, Hovav; Etzion, Yoram; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    A noninvasive, effective approach for immediate and painless heart pacing would have invaluable implications in several clinical scenarios. Here we present a novel strategy that utilizes the well-known mechano-electric feedback of the heart to evoke cardiac pacing, while relying on magnetic microparticles as leadless mechanical stimulators. We demonstrate that after localizing intravenously-injected magnetic microparticles in the right ventricular cavity using an external electromagnet, the application of magnetic pulses generates mechanical stimulation that provokes ventricular overdrive pacing in the rat heart. This temporary pacing consistently managed to revert drug-induced bradycardia, but could only last up to several seconds in the rat model, most likely due to escape of the particles between the applied pulses using our current experimental setting. In a pig model with open chest, MEF-based pacing was induced by banging magnetic particles and has lasted for a longer time. Due to overheating of the electromagnet, we intentionally terminated the experiments after 2 min. Our results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of external leadless temporary pacing, using injectable magnetic microparticles that are manipulated by an external electromagnet. This new approach can have important utilities in clinical settings in which immediate and painless control of cardiac rhythm is required. PMID:27091192

  15. PACE and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA)

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2010-03-17

    The FHFA regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On June 18, 2009, James B. Lockhart III, then Director of FHFA, released a letter expressing concern about the negative impact of energy loan tax assessment programs (ELTAPs) - also known as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs - on both the housing finance system and homeowner program participants. Subsequently, a number of PACE proponents responded to the concerns laid out in the FHFA letter. In early Fall 2009, word circulated that FHFA was planning to follow its June letter with guidance to other agencies, possibly including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, discouraging them from buying loans on properties subject to PACE-type assessment liens. This triggered a second round of stakeholder letters, several of which were addressed to President Obama. On October 18, 2009, the White House, in what some believe was an attempt to obviate the need for FHFA guidance, released a Policy Framework for PACE Financing Programs that outlined best practices guidance for homeowner and lender protection. As of February 2010, FHFA and the GSEs have agreed to monitor PACE programs and work with stakeholders and the Administration to consider additional guidance beyond the Policy Framework and to collect more information on PACE program efficacy and risks. A summary of the communications timeline and highlights of the communications are provided.

  16. Instructor-paced vs. self-paced skiing modes in older recreational alpine skiers.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Peter; Seifert, John G; Müller, Erich

    2011-04-01

    Parallel ski steering (PSS), carving in long radii (CLR), and individual technique (IT) skiing modes are mainly used throughout instructor-guided skiing of older recreational skiers. The aims of this study were (a) to determine differences in the physiologic response of older skiers to PSS, CLR, and IT skiing modes, (b) to quantify correlations between rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and the physiologic response, and (c) to analyze the relationship between aerobic capacity, skiing skills, and the blood lactate (LA) response during instructor-guided skiing. Twenty recreational skiers (61.1 ± 5.6 years) performed instructor-paced (PSS and CLR) and self-paced (IT) skiing modes. Heart rate (HR), LA, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and RPE were determined during skiing. Skiers skiing skills were judged by expert ski instructors. The aerobic capacity was tested by a physical work capacity test (PWC130) test. Heart rate was lower for PSS (106 ± 15 b · min(-1)), compared to CLR (118 ± 16 b · min(-1)) and IT (120 ± 15 b · min(-1)) skiing modes, both p < 0.001. Lactate levels were 1.45 ± 0.50 mmol · L(-1) for PSS, 1.67 ± 0.61 mmol · L(-1) for CLR, and 2.00 ± 0.74 mmol · L(-1) for IT skiing modes, all p < 0.004. Individual reductions in LA concentrations from 3.9 to 2.6 mmol · L were found, for IT and PSS skiing modes, respectively. No significant correlations were determined between any physiologic variable and RPE. Weak correlations were found between LA and PWC130 results (R2 < 0.114) and between LA and skiing skills (R2 < 0.132). In conclusion, significant reductions in the physiologic response were determined for PSS and CLR, compared with IT skiing modes. Instructor-paced skiing modes may minimize the risk of premature fatigue of skiers with high physiological responses. Those skiers may not perceive their disproportionate higher stress compared with skiers on the low end.

  17. The World Health Organization African region laboratory accreditation process: improving the quality of laboratory systems in the African region.

    PubMed

    Gershy-Damet, Guy-Michel; Rotz, Philip; Cross, David; Belabbes, El Hadj; Cham, Fatim; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Fine, Glen; Zeh, Clement; Njukeng, Patrick A; Mboup, Souleymane; Sesse, Daniel E; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Birx, Deborah L; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    Few developing countries have established laboratory quality standards that are affordable and easy to implement and monitor. To address this challenge, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) established a stepwise approach, using a 0- to 5-star scale, to the recognition of evolving fulfillment of the ISO 15189 standard rather than pass-fail grading. Laboratories that fail to achieve an assessment score of at least 55% will not be awarded a star ranking. Laboratories that achieve 95% or more will receive a 5-star rating. This stepwise approach acknowledges to laboratories where they stand, supports them with a series of evaluations to use to demonstrate improvement, and recognizes and rewards their progress. WHO AFRO's accreditation process is not intended to replace established ISO 15189 accreditation schemes, but rather to provide an interim pathway to the realization of international laboratory standards. Laboratories that demonstrate outstanding performance in the WHO-AFRO process will be strongly encouraged to enroll in an established ISO 15189 accreditation scheme. We believe that the WHO-AFRO approach for laboratory accreditation is affordable, sustainable, effective, and scalable.

  18. Semirational Directed Evolution of Loop Regions in Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase for Improved Fructooligosaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Trollope, K. M.; Görgens, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    The Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase catalyzes the industrially important biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. Operating at high substrate loading and temperatures between 50 and 60°C, the enzyme activity is negatively influenced by glucose product inhibition and thermal instability. To address these limitations, the solvent-exposed loop regions of the β-fructofuranosidase were engineered using a combined crystal structure- and evolutionary-guided approach. This semirational approach yielded a functionally enriched first-round library of 36 single-amino-acid-substitution variants with 58% retaining activity, and of these, 71% displayed improved activities compared to the parent. The substitutions yielding the five most improved variants subsequently were exhaustively combined and evaluated. A four-substitution combination variant was identified as the most improved and reduced the time to completion of an efficient industrial-like reaction by 22%. Characterization of the top five combination variants by isothermal denaturation assays indicated that these variants displayed improved thermostability, with the most thermostable variant displaying a 5.7°C increased melting temperature. The variants displayed uniquely altered, concentration-dependent substrate and product binding as determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The altered catalytic activity was evidenced by increased specific activities of all five variants, with the most improved variant doubling that of the parent. Variant homology modeling and computational analyses were used to rationalize the effects of amino acid changes lacking direct interaction with substrates. Data indicated that targeting substitutions to loop regions resulted in improved enzyme thermostability, specific activity, and relief from product inhibition. PMID:26253664

  19. The pace of past climate change vs. potential bird distributions and land use in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, Brooke L.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Radeloff, Volker C.; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may drastically alter patterns of species distributions and richness, but predicting future species patterns in occurrence is challenging. Significant shifts in distributions have already been observed, and understanding these recent changes can improve our understanding of potential future changes. We assessed how past climate change affected potential breeding distributions for landbird species in the conterminous United States. We quantified the bioclimatic velocity of potential breeding distributions, that is, the pace and direction of change for each species’ suitable climate space over the past 60 years. We found that potential breeding distributions for landbirds have shifted substantially with an average velocity of 1.27 km yr−1, about double the pace of prior distribution shift estimates across terrestrial systems globally (0.61 km yr−1). The direction of shifts was not uniform. The majority of species’ distributions shifted west, northwest, and north. Multidirectional shifts suggest that changes in climate conditions beyond mean temperature were influencing distributional changes. Indeed, precipitation variables that were proxies for extreme conditions were important variables across all models. There were winners and losers in terms of the area of distributions; many species experienced contractions along west and east distribution edges, and expansions along northern distribution edges. Changes were also reflected in the potential species richness, with some regions potentially gaining species (Midwest, East) and other areas potentially losing species (Southwest). However, the degree to which changes in potential breeding distributions are manifested in actual species richness depends on landcover. Areas that have become increasingly suitable for breeding birds due to changing climate are often those attractive to humans for agriculture and development. This suggests that many areas might have supported more breeding bird

  20. The pace of past climate change vs. potential bird distributions and land use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Brooke L; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Vavrus, Stephen J; Heglund, Patricia J

    2016-03-01

    Climate change may drastically alter patterns of species distributions and richness, but predicting future species patterns in occurrence is challenging. Significant shifts in distributions have already been observed, and understanding these recent changes can improve our understanding of potential future changes. We assessed how past climate change affected potential breeding distributions for landbird species in the conterminous United States. We quantified the bioclimatic velocity of potential breeding distributions, that is, the pace and direction of change for each species' suitable climate space over the past 60 years. We found that potential breeding distributions for landbirds have shifted substantially with an average velocity of 1.27 km yr(-1) , about double the pace of prior distribution shift estimates across terrestrial systems globally (0.61 km yr(-1) ). The direction of shifts was not uniform. The majority of species' distributions shifted west, northwest, and north. Multidirectional shifts suggest that changes in climate conditions beyond mean temperature were influencing distributional changes. Indeed, precipitation variables that were proxies for extreme conditions were important variables across all models. There were winners and losers in terms of the area of distributions; many species experienced contractions along west and east distribution edges, and expansions along northern distribution edges. Changes were also reflected in the potential species richness, with some regions potentially gaining species (Midwest, East) and other areas potentially losing species (Southwest). However, the degree to which changes in potential breeding distributions are manifested in actual species richness depends on landcover. Areas that have become increasingly suitable for breeding birds due to changing climate are often those attractive to humans for agriculture and development. This suggests that many areas might have supported more breeding bird

  1. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of a potent PACE4 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Ly, Kévin; Desjardins, Roxane; Beauchemin, Sophie; Prahl, Adam; Lammek, Bernard; Neugebauer, Witold; Dory, Yves L; Day, Robert

    2014-01-09

    PACE4 plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer and is an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitor-based tumor therapies. We previously reported the design and synthesis of a novel, potent, and relatively selective PACE4 inhibitor known as a Multi-Leu (ML) peptide. In the present work, we examined the ML peptide through detailed structure-activity relationship studies. A variety of ML-peptide analogues modified at the P8-P5 positions with leucine isomers (Nle, DLeu, and DNle) or substituted at the P1 position with arginine mimetics were tested for their inhibitory activity, specificity, stability, and antiproliferative effect. By incorporating d isomers at the P8 position or a decarboxylated arginine mimetic, we obtained analogues with an improved stability profile and excellent antiproliferative properties. The DLeu or DNle residue also has improved specificity toward PACE4, whereas specificity was reduced for a peptide modified with the arginine mimetic, such as 4-amidinobenzylamide.

  2. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking

    PubMed Central

    Buhmann, Jeska; Desmet, Frank; Moens, Bart; Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended) synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous) synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities. PMID:27167064

  3. The effect of three recovery protocols on blood lactate clearance after race-paced swimming.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of 3 recovery protocols on blood lactate clearance after maximal intensity swimming. Thirty-three regional standard swimmers were tested throughout the course a year and were required to complete a race-paced 200-m swim in their main stroke or individual medley. After the race-paced swim, swimmers were assigned a self-paced continuous steady rate swim of 20 minutes (self-prescribed); a 20-minute coach-administered modified warm-up consisting of various swimming modes, intensities, and rest intervals (coach prescribed); or a 20-minute land-based recovery consisting of light-intensity walking, skipping, and stretching (land based). Blood lactate concentration was measured from the fingertip before and after the race-paced swim and after the recovery activity. The concentration of blood lactate was higher (p < 0.01) after race-paced swimming (range of 10.5-11.0 mmol·L(-1)) compared with baseline (range 1.3-1.4 mmol·L(-1)). However, there were no differences (p > 0.05) between the groups (recovery protocols) at these time points. Conversely, differences were observed between groups after the recovery activities (p < 0.01). Specifically, blood lactate concentration was higher after the land-based activity (3.7 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)) than either the self-prescribed (2.0 ± 1.2 mmol·L(-1)) or coach-prescribed (1.8 ± 0.9 mmol·L(-1)) swimming protocols. The results of the present study suggest that it does not matter whether a self-paced continuous steady rate swimming velocity or a swimming recovery consisting of various strokes, intensities, and rest intervals is adopted as a recovery activity. As both swimming recoveries removed more blood lactate than the land-based recovery, swimmers should therefore be advised to undertake a swimming-based recovery rather than a land-based recovery.

  4. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. In this study, we assess current compliance with performance standards and model improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean region since the first meeting of the UNESCO ICG-Caribe EWS in 2006. The three measures of network capability modeled in this study are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) P-wave detection time of an automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location uncertainty. By modeling three measures of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and

  5. Wiener filtering improves quantification of regional myocardial perfusion with thallium-201 SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Links, J.M.; Jeremy, R.W.; Dyer, S.M.; Frank, T.L.; Becker, L.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Quantitation of myocardial perfusion with thallium-201 (201Tl) SPECT is limited by finite resolution and image noise. This study examined whether Wiener filtering could improve quantitation of the severity of myocardial perfusion deficits. In 19 anesthetized dogs, adjustable stenoses were placed on the left anterior descending (LAD, n = 12) or circumflex (LCx, n = 7) arteries. Thallium-201 SPECT images were acquired during maximal coronary vasodilation with dipyridamole, and simultaneous measurements of myocardial blood flow were made with microspheres. The relationship between SPECT and microsphere flow deficits in the LAD region was significantly better (p less than 0.05) with Wiener filtering (Y = 0.90X + 0.03, r = 0.78) than with conventional Hanning filtering (Y = 0.66X + 0.34, r = 0.61). Similarly, in the LCx region the relationship between SPECT and microsphere perfusion deficits was better (p less than 0.01) with the Wiener filter (Y = 0.91X + 0.07, r = 0.66) than with the Hanning filter (Y = 0.36X + 0.50, r = 0.40). Wiener filtering improves quantitation of the severity of regional myocardial perfusion deficits, allowing better assessment of the functional significance of coronary artery stenoses.

  6. Quantifying 10 years of improved earthquake-monitoring performance in the Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Lynch, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and adjacent regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. Were a great tsunamigenic earthquake to occur in the Caribbean region today, the effects would potentially be catastrophic due to an increasingly vulnerable region that has seen significant population increases in the past 40–50 years and currently hosts an estimated 500,000 daily beach visitors from North America and Europe, a majority of whom are not likely aware of tsunami and earthquake hazards. Following the magnitude 9.1 Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Early Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE‐EWS) was established and developed minimum performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes. In this study, we model earthquake‐magnitude detection threshold and P‐wave detection time and demonstrate that the requirements established by the UNESCO ICG CARIBE‐EWS are met with 100% of the network operating. We demonstrate that earthquake‐monitoring performance in the Caribbean Sea region has improved significantly in the past decade as the number of real‐time seismic stations available to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami warning centers have increased. We also identify weaknesses in the current international network and provide guidance for selecting the optimal distribution of seismic stations contributed from existing real‐time broadband national networks in the region.

  7. Rapid Recovery in Sub-Optimal Readers in Wales through a Self-Paced Computer-Based Reading Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Hughes, Antony; Phillips, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Basic literacy skills underlie much future adult functioning, and are targeted in children through a variety of means. Children with identified special needs in reading were exposed to a self-paced computer-based reading programme that focused on improving phonetic ability. Exposure was limited to three, 40-minute sessions a week, for 10 weeks.…

  8. Improving Snow Measurement Technology to Better Parameterise Cold Regions Hydrometeorology Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J.; Debeer, C.; Ellis, C.; Essery, R.; Helgason, W.; Kinar, N.; Link, T.; MacDonald, J.

    2008-12-01

    Marmot Creek Research Basin, in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada constitutes a long term cold regions hydrometeorological observatory with over 45 years of intensive observations in alpine and forested zones. Recently, novel combinations of measurement technology to snow have been deployed in Marmot Creek to advance the understanding of snow processes and to improve hydrometeorological models of streamflow and atmospheric variables. One advance has been the development and application of portable acoustic reflectometry to measure the density and structure of seasonal snowpacks using an audible sound wave. This has permitted the non-invasive measurement of snow water equivalent for both stationary and snow survey applications. Another advance has been the use of oblique time-lapse digital photography which is corrected for elevation and view angle from a LiDAR DEM to produce daily orthogonal snow covered area images of the alpine zone. These images are used to calculate snowcovered area and to develop and test improved snowcover melt and depletion algorithms. Deployment of 3-axis ultrasonic anemometers and fast hygrometers with collection of 10 Hz data and full correction for non-stationarity, axis rotation and other effects has shown that horizontal turbulence is often advected into mountain clearings and causes failure of traditional bulk transfer calculations of latent and sensible heat. For forest snow a hanging, weighed spruce tree and hanging, weighed sub-canopy troughs are used to capture intercepted snow load and unloaded snow fluxes respectively. These quantities provide the information needed to test detailed models of the snow interception and unloading processes. To quantify variations in sub-canopy energy for snowmelt, infrared imaging radiometers and narrow beam radiometers are used to measure thermal radiation exitance from needles, stems and trunks in forests of varying structure. These measurements are being used to develop improved models of

  9. Development and Implementation of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems in Midwest Region States. REL 2016-143

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Ann-Marie; Greenberg, Ariela; Hawkinson, Laura; Metzger, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This report describes common and unique approaches that Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest Region states have adopted in developing and implementing their quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs). A QRIS is a method for assessing, improving, and communicating the quality of early childhood education and care providers. The study…

  10. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Zhang, X.; Gong, S.; Wang, Y.; Xue, M.

    2015-06-01

    A comprehensive aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction (ACI) scheme has been developed under CMA chemical weather modeling system GRAPES/CUACE. Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is fed online interactively into a two-moment cloud scheme (WDM6) and a convective parameterization to drive the cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred. The results show that interactive aerosols with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentrations while decrease the mean diameter of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive micro-physical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24 to 48% enhancements of TS scoring for 6 h precipitation in almost all regions. The interactive aerosols with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3 °C.

  11. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Zhang, X.; Gong, S.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction (ACI) scheme has been developed under CMA chemical weather modeling system GRAPES/CUACE. Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is fed online interactively into a two-moment cloud scheme (WDM6) and a convective parameterization to drive the cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred. The results show that interactive aerosols with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentrations while decrease the mean diameter of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive micro-physical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24% to 48% enhancements of TS scoring for 6-h precipitation in almost all regions. The interactive aerosols with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3°C.

  12. Improving the coordination of patients' medication management: a regional Finnish development project.

    PubMed

    Kivekäs, Eija; Luukkonen, Irmeli; Mykkänen, Juha; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of activities and results from a regional development project in Finland. The aim in this project was to analyze how healthcare providers produce and receive information on a patient's medication, and to identify opportunities to improve the quality, effectiveness, availability and collaboration of social and healthcare services in relation to medication information. The project focused on the most important points in patients' medication management such as home care and care transitions. In a regional development project, data was gathered by interviews and a multi professional workshop. The study revealed that medication information reached only some professionals and lay caregivers despite electronic patient record (EPR) systems and tools. Differences in work processes related to medication reconciliation and information management were discussed in the group meeting and were regarded as a considerable risk for patient safety.

  13. Non-invasive cardiac pacing with image-guided focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Fabrice; Bour, Pierre; Vaillant, Fanny; Amraoui, Sana; Dubois, Rémi; Ritter, Philippe; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Hocini, Mélèze; Bernus, Olivier; Quesson, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Currently, no non-invasive cardiac pacing device acceptable for prolonged use in conscious patients exists. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used to perform remote pacing using reversibility of electromechanical coupling of cardiomyocytes. Here we described an extracorporeal cardiac stimulation device and study its efficacy and safety. We conducted experiments ex vivo and in vivo in a large animal model (pig) to evaluate clinical potential of such a technique. The stimulation threshold was determined in 10 different ex vivo hearts and different clinically relevant electrical effects such as consecutive stimulations of different heart chambers with a single ultrasonic probe, continuous pacing or the inducibility of ventricular tachycardia were shown. Using ultrasonic contrast agent, consistent cardiac stimulation was achievable in vivo for up to 1 hour sessions in 4 different animals. No damage was observed in inversion-recovery MR sequences performed in vivo in the 4 animals. Histological analysis revealed no differences between stimulated and control regions, for all ex vivo and in vivo cases. PMID:27827415

  14. Non-invasive cardiac pacing with image-guided focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquet, Fabrice; Bour, Pierre; Vaillant, Fanny; Amraoui, Sana; Dubois, Rémi; Ritter, Philippe; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Hocini, Mélèze; Bernus, Olivier; Quesson, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Currently, no non-invasive cardiac pacing device acceptable for prolonged use in conscious patients exists. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used to perform remote pacing using reversibility of electromechanical coupling of cardiomyocytes. Here we described an extracorporeal cardiac stimulation device and study its efficacy and safety. We conducted experiments ex vivo and in vivo in a large animal model (pig) to evaluate clinical potential of such a technique. The stimulation threshold was determined in 10 different ex vivo hearts and different clinically relevant electrical effects such as consecutive stimulations of different heart chambers with a single ultrasonic probe, continuous pacing or the inducibility of ventricular tachycardia were shown. Using ultrasonic contrast agent, consistent cardiac stimulation was achievable in vivo for up to 1 hour sessions in 4 different animals. No damage was observed in inversion-recovery MR sequences performed in vivo in the 4 animals. Histological analysis revealed no differences between stimulated and control regions, for all ex vivo and in vivo cases.

  15. Improved saliency toolbox/Itti model for region of interest extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dong-Jian; Liu, Shang-Wang; Liang, Xin-Hong; Cai, Cheng

    2011-09-01

    The saliency toolbox (STB)/Itti model is an outstanding computational selective visual attention model. In this paper, we propose an improved STB/Itti model to overcome the drawback of STB/Itti--its output ``saliency map'' is not large enough for region of interest (ROI) extraction. First, we employ a simplified pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) with a special input image, and more importantly, the PCNN does not require iterations. Subsequently, the PCNN takes the place of the winner-take-all network in STB/Itti. Experimental results show that the improved STB/Itti model works well for ROI extraction, with the mean area under the curve value of 0.8306 and robustness against noise and geometric attacks. The proposed model can greatly enhance the performances of both STB/Itti and PCNN model in image processing.

  16. Interindividual comparison of different sensor principles for rate adaptive pacing.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K

    1998-11-01

    In recent years a multitude of rate adaptive sensor systems based on different sensor signals have been developed to adapt the pacing rate to the physical load of the patient. In contrast to those systems the closed loop stimulation (CLS) represents a new concept, which regards the pacemaker as part of the cardiocirculatory system. The pacemaker converts the regulating information of the circulatory center into a heart rate. This study compares the closed loop stimulation and the different sensor systems that evaluate external parameters for rate adaptive pacing with a control group. To this end, 27 patients and 15 patients with a healthy sinus node (control group) were subjected to physical and mental stress tests. The recorded results were analyzed with regard to the maximum rates reached during stress. The results show that none of the studied sensor-controlled systems was able to determine an adequate pacing rate under all of the various load states. The dual sensor systems experience problems in balancing the input of the two sensor signals when calculating the pacing rate. The evaluation of a single external parameter, such as the acceleration of the upper body with the accelerometer, also failed to provide an adequate pacing rate in many stress situations. In contrast to all sensor systems, CLS achieved a heart rate in agreement with those of the reference group in all physical and mental stress situations.

  17. T wave alternans during exercise and atrial pacing in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohnloser, S. H.; Klingenheben, T.; Zabel, M.; Li, Y. G.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence is accumulating that microvolt T wave alternans (TWA) is a marker of increased risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Initially, atrial pacing was used to elevate heart rate and elicit TWA. More recently, a noninvasive approach has been developed that elevates heart rate using exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 30 consecutive patients with a history of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the spectral method was used to detect TWA during both atrial pacing and submaximal exercise testing. The concordance rate for the presence or absence of TWA using the two measurement methods was 84%. There was a patient-specific heart rate threshold for the detection of TWA that averaged 100 +/- 14 beats/min during exercise compared with 97 +/- 9 beats/min during right atrial pacing (P = NS). Beyond this threshold, there was a significant and comparable increase in level of TWA with decreasing pacing cycle length and increasing exercise heart rates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to demonstrate that microvolt TWA can be assessed reliably and noninvasively during exercise stress. There is a patient-specific heart rate threshold beyond which TWA continues to increase with increasing heart rates. Heart rate thresholds for the onset of TWA measured during atrial pacing and exercise stress were comparable, indicating that heart rate alone appears to be the main factor of determining the onset of TWA during submaximal exercise stress.

  18. Regional Body-Wave Corrections and Surface-Wave Tomography Models to Improve Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Pasyanos, M E; Rodgers, A J; Meyeda, K M; Sicherman, A

    2003-07-18

    Our identification research for the past several years has focused on the problem of correctly discriminating small-magnitude explosions from a background of earthquakes, mining tremors, and other events. Small magnitudes lead to an emphasis on regional waveforms. The goal is to reduce the variance within the population of each type of event, while increasing the separation between the explosions and the other event types. We address this problem for both broad categories of seismic waves, body waves, and surface waves. First, we map out the effects of propagation and source size in advance so that they can be accounted for and removed from observed events. This can dramatically reduce the population variance. Second, we try to optimize the measurement process to improve the separation between population types. For body waves we focus on the identification power of the short-period regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg, and coda that can often be detected down to very small magnitudes. It is now well established that particular ratios of these phases, such as 6- to 8-Hz Pn/Lg, can effectively discriminate between closely located explosions and earthquakes. To extend this discrimination power over broad areas, we developed a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC2) procedure (Walter and Taylor, 2002). This joint source and path model fits the observed spectra and removes magnitude and distance trends from the data. It allows for the possibility of variable apparent stress scaling in earthquakes, an unresolved issue that is the subject of investigation under separate funding. The MDACZ procedure makes use of the extremely stable coda estimates of Mw for source magnitude and can also use independent Q tomography to help reduce trade-offs in fitting spectra. We can then apply the kriging operation to the MDAC2 residuals to provide full 2-D path corrections by phase and frequency band. These corrections allow the exploration of all possible ratios and

  19. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Zhang, X.; Gong, S.; Wang, Y.; Xue, M.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction (ACI) scheme has been developed under a China Meteorological Administration (CMA) chemical weather modeling system, GRAPES/CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System, CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment). Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are interactively fed online into a two-moment cloud scheme (WRF Double-Moment 6-class scheme - WDM6) and a convective parameterization to drive cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred.

    The results show that aerosols that interact with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content, and cloud droplet number concentrations, while decreasing the mean diameters of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive microphysical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24 to 48 % enhancements of threat score for 6 h precipitation in almost all regions. The aerosols that interact with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3 °C.

  20. Limb Correction of Infrared Imagery in Cloudy Regions for the Improved Interpretation of RGB Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Nicholas J.; Berndt, Emily; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites (EUMETSAT User Services 2009) combine information from several channels into a single composite image. RGB composites contain the same information as the original channels, but presents the information in a more efficient manner. However, RGB composites derived from infrared imagery of both polar-orbiting and geostationary sensors are adversely affected by the limb effect, which interferes with the qualitative interpretation of RGB composites at large viewing zenith angles. The limb effect, or limb-cooling, is a result of an increase in optical path length of the absorbing atmosphere as viewing zenith angle increases (Goldberg et al. 2001; Joyce et al. 2001; Liu and Weng 2007). As a result, greater atmospheric absorption occurs at the limb, causing the sensor to observe anomalously cooler brightness temperatures. Figure 1 illustrates this effect. In general, limb-cooling results in a 4-11 K decrease in measured brightness temperature (Liu and Weng 2007) depending on the infrared band. For example, water vapor and ozone absorption channels display much larger limb-cooling than infrared window channels. Consequently, RGB composites created from infrared imagery not corrected for limb effects can only be reliably interpreted close to nadir, which reduces the spatial coverage of the available imagery. Elmer (2015) developed a reliable, operational limb correction technique for clear regions. However, many RGB composites are intended to be used and interpreted in cloudy regions, so a limb correction methodology valid for both clear and cloudy regions is needed. This paper presents a limb correction technique valid for both clear and cloudy regions, which is described in Section 2. Section 3 presents several RGB case studies demonstrating the improved functionality of limb-corrected RGBs in both clear and cloudy regions, and Section 4 summarizes and presents the key conclusions of this work.

  1. Beta-blockade improves adjacent regional sympathetic innervation during postinfarction remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kramer, C M; Nicol, P D; Rogers, W J; Seibel, P S; Park, C S; Reichek, N

    1999-10-01

    The effect of beta-blockade on left ventricular (LV) remodeling, when added to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) after anterior myocardial infarction (MI), is incompletely understood. On day 2 after coronary ligation-induced anteroapical infarction, 17 sheep were randomized to ramipril (ACEI, n = 8) or ramipril and metoprolol (ACEI-beta, n = 9). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and 8 wk after MI to measure changes in LV end-diastolic, end-systolic, and stroke volume indexes, LV mass index, ejection fraction (EF), and regional percent intramyocardial circumferential shortening. (123)I-labeled m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and fluorescent microspheres before and after adenosine were infused before death at 8 wk post-MI for quantitation of sympathetic innervation, blood flow, and blood flow reserve in adjacent and remote noninfarcted regions. Infarct size, regional blood flow, blood flow reserve, and the increase in LV mass and LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes were similar between groups. However, EF fell less over the 8-wk study period in the ACEI-beta group (-13 +/- 11 vs. -22 +/- 4% in ACEI, P < 0.05). The ratio of adjacent to remote region (123)I-MIBG uptake was greater in ACEI-beta animals than in the ACEI group (0.93 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.86 +/- 0.07, P < 0.04). When added to ACE inhibition after transmural anteroapical MI, beta-blockade improves EF and adjacent regional sympathetic innervation but does not alter LV size.

  2. Sputter-deposited TiN electrode coatings for superior sensing and pacing performance.

    PubMed

    Schaldach, M; Hubmann, M; Weikl, A; Hardt, R

    1990-12-01

    The sensing and pacing performance of pacemaker electrodes is characterized by the electrochemical properties of the electrode/tissue interface affecting tissue reactions and the kinetics of the ionic exchange. The usually smooth metallic electrode surface results in a high pass filter characteristic. To better match the electrode's filter characteristic to the spectral content of the depolarization signal, various combinations of electrode shape, material and surface structure have been researched. The electrode with sputter-deposited TiN coating presented in this report has been designed to meet the demand for low acute as well as chronic thresholds and superior sensing performance not only with respect to spontaneous activity but also regarding the detection of the evoked response. The clinical results obtained with this electrode prove the excellent pacing and sensing properties resulting from minimized polarization losses and optimized filtering of the signal to be detected, respectively. The acute and chronic clinical advantages over previous concepts are attributed mainly to the biocompatibility of the material used and the microcrystalline surface structure achieved by the coating process. The design concept of the new electrode is presented together with the clinical results obtained. While the advancements in microelectronics and battery technology have certainly formed the basis for the development of pulse generators featuring an ever increasing versatility of functions at the same or even smaller pacemaker dimensions, from a point of view of pacing system performance the development of improved electrode concepts as the one presented must be regarded as equally indispensable.

  3. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  4. Pacing strategy during the initial phase of the run in triathlon: influence on overall performance.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Le Meur, Yann; Bieuzen, Francois; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Bernard, Thierry

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the best pacing strategy to adopt during the initial phase of a short distance triathlon run for highly trained triathletes. Ten highly trained male triathletes completed an incremental running test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, a 10-km control run at free pace and three individual time-trial triathlons (1.5-km swimming, 40-km cycling, 10-km running) in a randomised order. Swimming and cycling speeds were imposed as identical to the first triathlon performed and the first run kilometre was done alternatively 5% faster (Tri-Run(+5%)), 5% slower (Tri-Run(-5%)) and 10% slower (Tri-Run(-10%)) than the control run (C-Run). The subjects were instructed to finish the 9 remaining kilometres as quickly as possible at a free self-pace. Tri-Run(-5%) resulted in a significantly faster overall 10-km performance than Tri-Run(+5%) and Tri-Run(-10%) (p < 0.05) but no significant difference was observed with C-Run (p > 0.05) (2,028 +/- 78 s vs. 2,000 +/- 72 s, 2,178 +/- 121 s and 2,087 +/- 88 s, for Tri-Run(-5%), C-Run, Tri-Run(+5%) and Tri-Run(-10%), respectively). Tri-Run(+5%) strategy elicited higher values for oxygen uptake, ventilation, heart rate and blood lactate at the end of the first kilometre than the three other conditions. After 5 and 9.5 km, these values were higher for Tri-Run(-5%) (p < 0.05). The present results showed that the running speed achieved during the cycle-to-run transition is crucial for the improvement of the running phase as a whole. Triathletes would benefit to automate a pace 5% slower than their 10-km control running speed as both 5% faster and 10% slower running speeds over the first kilometre involved weaker overall performances.

  5. Level Set Based Hippocampus Segmentation in MR Images with Improved Initialization Using Region Growing

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhaozhong; Ding, Xiaokang; Deng, Xiaolei; Zou, Ling; Li, Bailin

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus has been known as one of the most important structures referred to as Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. However, segmentation of the hippocampus from MR images is still a challenging task due to its small size, complex shape, low contrast, and discontinuous boundaries. For the accurate and efficient detection of the hippocampus, a new image segmentation method based on adaptive region growing and level set algorithm is proposed. Firstly, adaptive region growing and morphological operations are performed in the target regions and its output is used for the initial contour of level set evolution method. Then, an improved edge-based level set method utilizing global Gaussian distributions with different means and variances is developed to implement the accurate segmentation. Finally, gradient descent method is adopted to get the minimization of the energy equation. As proved by experiment results, the proposed method can ideally extract the contours of the hippocampus that are very close to manual segmentation drawn by specialists. PMID:28191031

  6. Towards improving the representation of polar regions in global reanalyses at the NASA GMAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullather, R. I.; Zhao, B.; Nowicki, S.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Suarez, M.; Putman, W.; Shuman, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric reanalyses have been employed in a wide variety of studies investigating processes in the changing Arctic and Antarctic. However reanalyses underperform in polar regions due in part to limitations in the background model, which are associated with spatial resolution and with inadequate representations of physical processes. Some chronic issues include the use of incorrect topography over ice sheets, persistent temperature biases, and discontinuities in time series due to abrupt changes to the observing system. These limitations provoke caution in the use of global reanalyses in polar regions, but also call into question their general applicability to evolving polar climate topics. For example, the assessment of conditions over Greenland and Antarctica in the most recent IPCC report relied heavily on limited area models rather than global reanalyses. The performance of contemporary reanalyses over the north and south polar caps are reviewed with emphasis on differences in atmospheric energy and moisture budgets. In particular, the recently released MERRA-2 reanalysis is critically assessed. Significant changes that are relevant to polar regions in MERRA-2 over the previous MERRA version include an improved representation of glaciated land surfaces and sea ice albedo. Ongoing work to address issues of increased spatial resolution and the introduction of more complex physical processes related to surface hydrology over polar ice sheets will be described.

  7. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant

  8. Improving mb:Ms discrimination using phase matched filters derived from regional group velocity tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Hazler, S; Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R

    1999-07-23

    This study reports on the ongoing investigation of surface wave group velocity dispersion across the Middle East and North Africa. Using broadband data gathered from various sources, we have measured group velocity using a multiple narrow-band filter method. To date, we have examined over 13,500 seismograms and made quality measurements for about 6500 Rayleigh and 3500 Love wave paths. A conjugate gradient method is used to perform the group velocity tomography at several periods. There is excellent agreement between short period structure and large known sedimentary features. Longer period structure is sensitive to crustal thickness, particularly the contrast between continental and oceanic regions and thicker crusts found beneath erogenic zones. We also find slow upper mantle velocities along rift systems. Correlation between the inversion results and known major tectonic features gives us confidence in our surface wave group velocities. Accurate group velocity maps can be used to construct phase matched filters. The filters can improve weak surface waves by compressing the dispersed signal. We are particularly interested in using the filters to calculate regionally determined M{sub s} measurements, which we hope can be used to extend the threshold of m{sub b}:M{sub s} discriminants to lower magnitude levels. A preliminary analysis of surface wave data processed using phase matched filters indicates a significant improvement in increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and improving magnitude estimates. Where signal-to-noise is very poor, phase matched filtering can still be useful in lowering the upper bound on M{sub s} measurements. We propose a series of tests in order to analyze the utility of phase matched filters. Goals of the study include determining at what distance and magnitude ranges we can expect to see improvement using the filters and the overall effect of the filters on discrimination capability. We also propose to look at seismic velocity models of

  9. Improved sequence-based prediction of disordered regions with multilayer fusion of multiple information sources

    PubMed Central

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Stach, Wojciech; Chen, Ke; Kedarisetti, Kanaka Durga; Disfani, Fatemeh Miri; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Intrinsically disordered proteins play a crucial role in numerous regulatory processes. Their abundance and ubiquity combined with a relatively low quantity of their annotations motivate research toward the development of computational models that predict disordered regions from protein sequences. Although the prediction quality of these methods continues to rise, novel and improved predictors are urgently needed. Results: We propose a novel method, named MFDp (Multilayered Fusion-based Disorder predictor), that aims to improve over the current disorder predictors. MFDp is as an ensemble of 3 Support Vector Machines specialized for the prediction of short, long and generic disordered regions. It combines three complementary disorder predictors, sequence, sequence profiles, predicted secondary structure, solvent accessibility, backbone dihedral torsion angles, residue flexibility and B-factors. Our method utilizes a custom-designed set of features that are based on raw predictions and aggregated raw values and recognizes various types of disorder. The MFDp is compared at the residue level on two datasets against eight recent disorder predictors and top-performing methods from the most recent CASP8 experiment. In spite of using training chains with ≤25% similarity to the test sequences, our method consistently and significantly outperforms the other methods based on the MCC index. The MFDp outperforms modern disorder predictors for the binary disorder assignment and provides competitive real-valued predictions. The MFDp's outputs are also shown to outperform the other methods in the identification of proteins with long disordered regions. Availability: http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/MFDp.html Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: lkurgan@ece.ualberta.ca PMID:20823312

  10. Pacing during an ultramarathon running event in hilly terrain

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Wiegand, Aaron N.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km) ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. Methods Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km) carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS) device. Using the GPS data, we determined the speed, relative to average total speed, in level (LEV), uphill (UH) and downhill (DH) gradient categories as a function of total distance, as well as the correlation between overall performance and speed variability, speed loss, and total time stopped. Results There were no significant differences in normality, variances or means in the relative speed in 173-km and 103-km participants. Relative speed decreased in LEV, UH and DH. The main component of speed loss occurred between 5% and 50% of the event distance in LEV, and between 5% and 95% in UH and DH. There were no significant correlations between overall performance and speed loss, the variability of speed, or total time stopped. Conclusions Positive pacing was observed at all gradients, with the main component of speed loss occurring earlier (mixed pacing) in LEV compared to UH and DH. A speed reserve (increased speed in the last section) was observed in LEV and UH. The decrease in speed and variability of speed were more important in LEV and DH than in UH. The absence of a significant correlation between overall performance and descriptors of pacing is novel and indicates that pacing in ultramarathons in trails and hilly terrain differs to other types of running events. PMID:27812406

  11. Indicators of improved water access in the context of schistosomiasis transmission in rural Eastern Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Plummer, Jeanine D; Durant, John L; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Adjei, Michael N; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Gute, David M; Naumova, Elena N

    2017-02-01

    Populations with poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure are disproportionately affected by the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). As a result, WASH has gained increasing prominence in integrated control and elimination of NTDs, including schistosomiasis. In order to identify underserved populations, relevant measures of access to WASH infrastructure at sub-national or local levels are needed. We conducted a field survey of all public water sources in 74 rural communities in the Eastern Region of Ghana and computed indicators of water access using two methods: one based on the design capacity and another on the spatial distribution of water sources. The spatial method was applied to improved and surface water sources. According to the spatial method, improved water sources in the study area were well-distributed within communities with 95% (CI95%: 91, 98) of the population having access within 500m when all, and 87% (CI95%: 81, 93) when only functional water sources were considered. According to the design capacity-based method, indicator values were lower: 63% (CI95%: 57, 69) for all and 49% (CI95%: 43, 55) for only functional sources. Surface water access was substantial with 62% (CI95%: 54, 71) of the population located within 500m of a perennial surface water source. A negative relationship was observed between functional improved water access and surface water access within 300m. In this context, perceived water quality of the improved sources was also important, with a 17% increase in surface water access in towns with one reported water quality problem as compared to towns with no problems. Our study offers a potential methodology to use water point mapping data to identify communities in need of improved water access to achieve schistosomiasis risk reduction.

  12. Enhancement of the double flexible pace search threshold determination for change vector analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, S. A.; Vidal, A.; Bentounes, H. A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the most reliable ways to monitor land use and land cover change of large areas. On the other hand, satellite images from different agencies are becoming accessible due to the new user dissemination policies. For that reason, interpretation of remotely sensed data in a spatiotemporal context is becoming a valuable research topic. In the present day, a map of change has a great significant for scientific purposes or planning and management applications. However, it is difficult to extract useful visual information from the large collection of available satellite images. For that reason, automatic or semi-automatic exploration is needed. One of the key stages in the change detection methods is threshold selection. This threshold determination problem has been addressed by several recent techniques based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). Thus, this work provides a simple semi-automatic procedure that defines the change/no change condition and a comparative study will be involved together with the previous existing method called Double Flexible Pace Search (DFPS). This study uses Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes acquired on different dates in an Algerian region. First, some training data sets containing all possible classes of change are required and their respective supervised posterior probability maps for each scene are obtained. The selected supervised classifier is based on the Maximum Likelihood method. Then four training sets (two sets from each date) are chosen from their corresponding probability maps based on their spatial location in the original images. The optimal average will be obtained as an average of the thresholds obtained at every set. This work verifies that the proposed approach is effective on the selected area, providing improved change map results.

  13. Permanent pacemaker malfunction: diagnostic aspects of temporary pacing.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, N D

    1980-01-01

    A temporary pacing electrode can function as a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic tool. This is illustrated in two patients whose permanent pacemakers unexpectedly failed. In the first patient a demand pacemaker was inhibited by a magnet rather than converting to the asynchronous mode. In the second the pacemaker appeared to be producing low-voltage potentials not detectable on the surface electrocardiogram. The presence of a temporary pacing electrode can be useful for defining the cause of pacemaker failure and the nature of any associated arrhythmias. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 PMID:7260759

  14. Removal of epicardial pacing wires: an expanded role for nurses.

    PubMed

    Wollan, D L

    1995-01-01

    Temporary epicardial pacing wire removal (EPWR) is a procedure performed postoperatively on open heart surgery patients once the cardiac rhythm is stable. Historically, EPWR is performed by the cardiovascular surgeon, however policies of certain institutions permit nurses to carry out this procedure. In the last twelve months at Sioux Valley Hospital (SVH), a team of five telemetry nurses have been removing epicardial pacing wires (EPW) safely and effectively. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses how to safely remove EPWs postoperatively. In addition, a Standard of Care (SOC) describes the nurse's role in EPWR.

  15. DiPALS: Diaphragm Pacing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Christopher J; Bradburn, Mike J; Maguire, Chin; Cooper, Cindy L; Baird, Wendy O; Baxter, Susan K; Cohen, Judith; Cantrill, Hannah; Dixon, Simon; Ackroyd, Roger; Baudouin, Simon; Bentley, Andrew; Berrisford, Richard; Bianchi, Stephen; Bourke, Stephen C; Darlison, Roy; Ealing, John; Elliott, Mark; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Galloway, Simon; Hamdalla, Hisham; Hanemann, C Oliver; Hughes, Philip; Imam, Ibrahim; Karat, Dayalan; Leek, Roger; Maynard, Nick; Orrell, Richard W; Sarela, Abeezar; Stradling, John; Talbot, Kevin; Taylor, Lyn; Turner, Martin; Simonds, Anita K; Williams, Tim; Wedzicha, Wisia; Young, Carolyn; Shaw, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in death, usually from respiratory failure, within 2-3 years of symptom onset. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a treatment that when given to patients in respiratory failure leads to improved survival and quality of life. Diaphragm pacing (DP), using the NeuRx/4(®) diaphragm pacing system (DPS)™ (Synapse Biomedical, Oberlin, OH, USA), is a new technique that may offer additional or alternative benefits to patients with ALS who are in respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE The Diaphragm Pacing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (DiPALS) trial evaluated the effect of DP on survival over the study duration in patients with ALS with respiratory failure. DESIGN The DiPALS trial was a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic analyses and a qualitative longitudinal substudy. PARTICIPANTS Eligible participants had a diagnosis of ALS (ALS laboratory-supported probable, clinically probable or clinically definite according to the World Federation of Neurology revised El Escorial criteria), had been stabilised on riluzole for 30 days, were aged ≥ 18 years and were in respiratory failure. We planned to recruit 108 patients from seven UK-based specialist ALS or respiratory centres. Allocation was performed using 1 : 1 non-deterministic minimisation. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomised to either standard care (NIV alone) or standard care (NIV) plus DP using the NeuRX/4 DPS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation to death from any cause. Secondary outcomes were patient quality of life [assessed by European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, three levels (EQ-5D-3L), Short Form questionnaire-36 items and Sleep Apnoea Quality of Life Index questionnaire]; carer quality of life (EQ-5D-3L and Caregiver Burden Inventory); cost-utility analysis and health

  16. Regional analgesia for improvement of long-term functional outcome after elective large joint replacement

    PubMed Central

    Atchabahian, Arthur; Schwartz, Gary; Hall, Charles B; Lajam, Claudette M; Andreae, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Background Regional analgesia is more effective than conventional analgesia for controlling pain and may facilitate rehabilitation after large joint replacement in the short term. It remains unclear if regional anaesthesia improves functional outcomes after joint replacement beyond three months after surgery. Objectives To assess the effects of regional anaesthesia and analgesia on long-term functional outcomes 3, 6 and 12 months after elective major joint (knee, shoulder and hip) replacement surgery. Search methods We performed an electronic search of several databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL), and handsearched reference lists and conference abstracts. We updated our search in June 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing regional analgesia versus conventional analgesia in patients undergoing total shoulder, hip or knee replacement. We included studies that reported a functional outcome with a follow-up of at least three months after surgery. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We contacted study authors for additional information. Main results We included six studies with 350 participants followed for at least three months. All of these studies enrolled participants undergoing total knee replacement. Studies were at least partially blinded. Three studies had a high risk of performance bias and one a high risk of attrition bias, but the risk of bias was otherwise unclear or low. Only one study assessed joint function using a global score. Due to heterogeneity in outcome and reporting, we could only pool three out of six RCTs, with range of motion assessed at three months after surgery used as a surrogate for joint function. All studies had a high risk of detection bias. Using the random-effects model, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups (mean difference 3.99 degrees, 95% confidence interval (CI)

  17. Centrifugal dryers keep pace with the market

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    New plant design and upgrades create a shift in dewatering strategies. The article describes recent developments. Three major manufacturers supply centrifugal dryers - TEMA, Centrifugal & Mechanical Industries (CMI) and Ludowici. CMI introduced a line of vertical centrifugal dryers. TEMA improved the techniques by developing a horizontal vibratory centrifuge (HVC) which simplified maintenance. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  18. Different horse's paces during hippotherapy on spatio-temporal parameters of gait in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Fabiane Nunes; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Kleiner, Ana Francisca Rozin; Salazar, Ana Paula; Eltz, Giovana Duarte; de Oliveira Junior, Alcyr Alves; Cechetti, Fernanda; Galli, Manuela; Pagnussat, Aline Souza

    2016-12-01

    Hippotherapy is often carried out for the rehabilitation of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), with the horse riding at a walking pace. This study aimed to explore the immediate effects of a hippotherapy protocol using a walk-trot pace on spatio-temporal gait parameters and muscle tone in children with Bilateral Spastic CP (BS-CP). Ten children diagnosed with BS-CP and 10 healthy aged-matched children (reference group) took part in this study. The children with BS-CP underwent two sessions of hippotherapy for one week of washout between them. Two protocols (lasting 30min) were applied on separate days: Protocol 1: the horse's pace was a walking pace; and Protocol 2: the horse's pace was a walk-trot pace. Children from the reference group were not subjected to treatment. A wireless inertial measurement unit measured gait spatio-temporal parameters before and after each session. The Modified Ashworth Scale was applied for muscle tone measurement of hip adductors. The participants underwent the gait assessment on a path with surface irregularities (ecological context). The comparisons between BS-CP and the reference group found differences in all spatio-temporal parameters, except for gait velocity. Within-group analysis of children with BS-CP showed that the swing phase did not change after the walk pace and after the walk-trot pace. The percentage of rolling phase and double support improved after the walk-trot. The spasticity of the hip adductors was significantly reduced as an immediate result of both protocols, but this decrease was more evident after the walk-trot. The walk-trot protocol is feasible and is able to induce an immediate effect that improves the gait spatio-temporal parameters and the hip adductors spasticity.

  19. Improved precipitation extremes and climatology in a regional coupled model simulation over CORDEX south Asia domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sein, D.; Cabos, W.; Jacob, D.

    2014-12-01

    The South Asian continents are densely populated and their economy is largely dependent on agriculture which primarily depends on the summer monsoon (June-September). The region is highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. It has been well established that the SST anomalies in the Indian and the Pacific Ocean attributes to the monsoon interannual as well as intraseasonal variability. Most of the CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models have difficulty in simulating the mean climate over South Asia. Regional Climate Models (RCMs) however simulate orographic induced precipitation better, but show limited ability to simulate mean precipitation over land and an overestimation over ocean more generally. These systematic differences between climate models and observation's may be related to poorly represented ocean dynamics and SST.For the first time a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model is developed to study the monsoon climatology over the CORDEX South Asia domain. The REgional atmosphere MOdel REMO with 50km horizontal resolution is coupled via Oasis coupler to the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global ocean - sea ice model MPIOM with increased resolution over the Indian Ocean (up to 20 km). Hereafter this coupled system will be called as ROM. For this study, four simulations for the period 1958-2001 are performed (i) REMO forced with ECMWF ERA40 reanalysis (ii) ROM forced with ECMWF ERA40 reanalysis (iii) REMO forced with MPI-ESM-LR CMIP5 historical simulation (iv) ROM forced with MPI-ESM-LR CMIP5 historical simulation. Differences in coupled and un-coupled RCM simulations are analyzed to investigate the effect of coupling on simulated climate, especially precipitation daily annual cycles and monthly spatial patterns. It has been observed that simulated feedback of ocean SST has positive influence on precipitation simulation of ROM both over land and ocean. The intensity of tropical cyclone is well simulated by the model ROM which improves the monsoon

  20. Improved quantification for local regions of interest in preclinical PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cal-González, J.; Moore, S. C.; Park, M.-A.; Herraiz, J. L.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography, there are several causes of quantitative inaccuracy, such as partial volume or spillover effects. The impact of these effects is greater when using radionuclides that have a large positron range, e.g., 68Ga and 124I, which have been increasingly used in the clinic. We have implemented and evaluated a local projection algorithm (LPA), originally evaluated for SPECT, to compensate for both partial-volume and spillover effects in PET. This method is based on the use of a high-resolution CT or MR image, co-registered with a PET image, which permits a high-resolution segmentation of a few tissues within a volume of interest (VOI) centered on a region within which tissue-activity values need to be estimated. The additional boundary information is used to obtain improved activity estimates for each tissue within the VOI, by solving a simple inversion problem. We implemented this algorithm for the preclinical Argus PET/CT scanner and assessed its performance using the radionuclides 18F, 68Ga and 124I. We also evaluated and compared the results obtained when it was applied during the iterative reconstruction, as well as after the reconstruction as a postprocessing procedure. In addition, we studied how LPA can help to reduce the “spillover contamination”, which causes inaccurate quantification of lesions in the immediate neighborhood of large, “hot” sources. Quantification was significantly improved by using LPA, which provided more accurate ratios of lesion-to-background activity concentration for hot and cold regions. For 18F, the contrast was improved from 3.0 to 4.0 in hot lesions (when the true ratio was 4.0) and from 0.16 to 0.06 in cold lesions (true ratio = 0.0), when using the LPA postprocessing. Furthermore, activity values estimated within the VOI using LPA during reconstruction were slightly more accurate than those obtained by post-processing, while also visually improving the image contrast and uniformity within the VOI

  1. Improved quantification for local regions of interest in preclinical PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cal-González, J.; Moore, S. C.; Park, M.-A.; Herraiz, J. L.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography, there are several causes of quantitative inaccuracy, such as partial volume or spillover effects. The impact of these effects is greater when using radionuclides that have a large positron range, e.g. 68Ga and 124I, which have been increasingly used in the clinic. We have implemented and evaluated a local projection algorithm (LPA), originally evaluated for SPECT, to compensate for both partial-volume and spillover effects in PET. This method is based on the use of a high-resolution CT or MR image, co-registered with a PET image, which permits a high-resolution segmentation of a few tissues within a volume of interest (VOI) centered on a region within which tissue-activity values need to be estimated. The additional boundary information is used to obtain improved activity estimates for each tissue within the VOI, by solving a simple inversion problem. We implemented this algorithm for the preclinical Argus PET/CT scanner and assessed its performance using the radionuclides 18F, 68Ga and 124I. We also evaluated and compared the results obtained when it was applied during the iterative reconstruction, as well as after the reconstruction as a postprocessing procedure. In addition, we studied how LPA can help to reduce the ‘spillover contamination’, which causes inaccurate quantification of lesions in the immediate neighborhood of large, ‘hot’ sources. Quantification was significantly improved by using LPA, which provided more accurate ratios of lesion-to-background activity concentration for hot and cold regions. For 18F, the contrast was improved from 3.0 to 4.0 in hot lesions (when the true ratio was 4.0) and from 0.16 to 0.06 in cold lesions (true ratio  =  0.0), when using the LPA postprocessing. Furthermore, activity values estimated within the VOI using LPA during reconstruction were slightly more accurate than those obtained by post-processing, while also visually improving the image contrast and uniformity

  2. Perceptions of control over work: psychophysiological responses to self-paced and externally-paced tasks in an adult population sample.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Evans, O; Fieldman, G

    1997-04-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that perceptions of control over work pace would modulate cardiovascular reactions to mental stress tests. One hundred and thirty two adults aged 30-65 years (64 men and 68 women) were randomized to self-paced and externally-paced task conditions. The self-paced group carried out visual matrix problem solving and mirror tracing tasks at their own pace. Work pace requirements were imposed on the externally-paced group, with performance requirements being set to equate those in the self-paced condition. This was done to equate work demands. Blood pressure (assessed with the Finapres), heart rate, cardiac baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, skin conductance, respiration rate and tidal volume were monitored. Behavioural performance of the mirror tracing task was comparable in the two conditions, but the externally-paced group attempted more problems and made more errors on the visual matrix task. Systolic blood pressure reactions to mirror drawing were greater in the external than self-paced conditions (mean increases of 27.5 +/- 16.1 vs. 23.1 +/- 18.5 mmHg, P < 0.025), and electrodermal responsivity was also heightened in the externally-paced group (P < 0.05). No differences were recorded in diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, baroreflex sensitivity or respiratory parameters. Results are discussed in relation to the literature on control and physiological stress responsivity, and their implications for understanding the health consequences of lack of control at work are considered.

  3. Engineering a regulatory region of jadomycin gene cluster to improve jadomycin B production in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Ting; Wang, Sheng-Lan; Yang, Ke-Qian

    2007-09-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 produces a group of jadomycin congeners with cytotoxic activities. To improve jadomycin fermentation process, a genetic engineering strategy was designed to replace a 3.4-kb regulatory region of jad gene cluster that contains four regulatory genes (3' end 272 bp of jadW2, jadW3, jadR2, and jadR1) and the native promoter upstream of jadJ (P(J)) with the ermEp* promoter sequence so that ermEp* drives the expression of the jadomycin biosynthetic genes from jadJ in the engineered strain. As expected, the mutant strain produced jadomycin B without ethanol treatment, and the yield increased to about twofold that of the stressed wild-type. These results indicated that manipulation of the regulation of a biosynthetic gene cluster is an effective strategy to increase product yield.

  4. [Drug release of coated dental implant neck region to improve tissue integration].

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jens; Sternberg, Katrin; Behrend, Detlef; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; von Schwanewede, Heinrich

    2009-08-01

    In order to improve tissue integration, the neck region of dental implants was coated with the biodegradable polymer poly (L-lactide) incorporating tetracycline, ibuprofen and the combination of both drugs using a solvent dip-coating process. Metallographic analysis, light microscopy and electron microscopy were used to detect the thickness range and the surface characteristics of the coatings. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the tetrazolium colorimetric method with the fibroblast cell line L929. The in vitro drug release was measured in isotonic sodium chloride solution by UV spectroscopy. To explore if drug release is concentration-dependent, the total amount of drug was varied in the coating (20% wt, 30% wt and 40% wt). The results showed a continuous release of the embedded drugs in relevant dosage over a period of 6 months. In contrast to high tetracycline concentrations, high ibuprofen concentrations resulted in a decreased metabolic activity of the L929 fibroblasts.

  5. Learning from 8 years of regional cyanobacteria observation in Brittany in view of sanitary survey improvement.

    PubMed

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thomas, Olivier; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have been more and more studied during the last decades with regard to environment and health issues. More recently the consequences of climate change reinforced the need for research in view of a better management of cyanobacteria blooms. In this context the exploitation of the water quality survey of 26 recreational lakes in Brittany (north western France) between 2004 and 2011 is reported in this paper in order to encompass spatial and interannual patterns of cyanobacteria development at a regional scale. Starting from weekly data principally acquired during summertime, the links between cyanobacteria cell densities, toxin occurrences and interannual meteorological factors can give insights on the potential evolution of cyanobacterial crisis in the future. This study is part of a project aiming at a better understanding of potentially toxic cyanobacteria crisis occurrences in recreational waters, in order to improve predictive monitoring routines.

  6. Improving Shade Modelling in a Regional River Temperature Model Using Fine-Scale LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, D. M.; Loicq, P.; Moatar, F.; Beaufort, A.; Melin, E.; Jullian, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Air temperature is often considered as a proxy of the stream temperature to model the distribution areas of aquatic species water temperature is not available at a regional scale. To simulate the water temperature at a regional scale (105 km²), a physically-based model using the equilibrium temperature concept and including upstream-downstream propagation of the thermal signal was developed and applied to the entire Loire basin (Beaufort et al., submitted). This model, called T-NET (Temperature-NETwork) is based on a hydrographical network topology. Computations are made hourly on 52,000 reaches which average 1.7 km long in the Loire drainage basin. The model gives a median Root Mean Square Error of 1.8°C at hourly time step on the basis of 128 water temperature stations (2008-2012). In that version of the model, tree shadings is modelled by a constant factor proportional to the vegetation cover on 10 meters sides the river reaches. According to sensitivity analysis, improving the shade representation would enhance T-NET accuracy, especially for the maximum daily temperatures, which are currently not very well modelized. This study evaluates the most efficient way (accuracy/computing time) to improve the shade model thanks to 1-m resolution LIDAR data available on tributary of the LoireRiver (317 km long and an area of 8280 km²). Two methods are tested and compared: the first one is a spatially explicit computation of the cast shadow for every LIDAR pixel. The second is based on averaged vegetation cover characteristics of buffers and reaches of variable size. Validation of the water temperature model is made against 4 temperature sensors well spread along the stream, as well as two airborne thermal infrared imageries acquired in summer 2014 and winter 2015 over a 80 km reach. The poster will present the optimal length- and crosswise scale to characterize the vegetation from LIDAR data.

  7. Hydrological modelling improvements required in basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; McRobie, Allan; Booij, Martijn

    2016-04-01

    Millions of people rely on river water originating from basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas (HKH), where snow- and ice-melt are significant flow components. One such basin is the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), where snow- and ice-melt can contribute more than 80% of total flow. Containing some of the world's largest alpine glaciers, this basin may be highly susceptible to global warming and climate change, and reliable predictions of future water availability are vital for resource planning for downstream food and energy needs in a changing climate, but depend on significantly improved hydrological modelling. However, a critical assessment of available hydro-climatic data and hydrological modelling in the HKH region has identified five major failings in many published hydro-climatic studies, even those appearing in reputable international journals. The main weaknesses of these studies are: i) incorrect basin areas; ii) under-estimated precipitation; iii) incorrectly-defined glacier boundaries; iv) under-estimated snow-cover data; and v) use of biased melt factors for snow and ice during the summer months. This paper illustrates these limitations, which have either resulted in modelled flows being under-estimates of measured flows, leading to an implied severe water scarcity; or have led to the use of unrealistically high degree-day factors and over-estimates of glacier melt contributions, implying unrealistic melt rates. These effects vary amongst sub-basins. Forecasts obtained from these models cannot be used reliably in policy making or water resource development, and need revision. Detailed critical analysis and improvement of existing hydrological modelling may be equally necessary in other mountain regions across the world.

  8. The expression of proprotein convertase PACE4 is highly regulated by Hash-2 in placenta: possible role of placenta-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, human achaete-scute homologue-2.

    PubMed

    Koide, Shizuyo; Yoshida, Ichiro; Tsuji, Akihiko; Matsuda, Yoshiko

    2003-09-01

    PACE4 is a member of the mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, which contribute to the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta family proteins. We previously reported that PACE4 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts of human placenta [Tsuji et al. (2003) BIOCHIM: Biophys. Acta 1645, 95-104]. In this study, the regulatory mechanism for PACE4 expression in placenta was analyzed using a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. Promoter analysis indicated that an E-box cluster (E4-E9) in the 5'-flanking region of the PACE4 gene acts as a negative regulatory element. The binding of human achaete-scute homologue 2 (Hash-2) to the E-box cluster was shown by gel mobility-shift assay. The overexpression of Hash-2 caused a marked decrease in PACE4 gene expression. When BeWo cells were grown under low oxygen (2%) conditions, the expression of Hash-2 decreased, while that of PACE4 increased. In both cases, other SPCs, such as furin, PC5/6, and PC7/8, were not affected. Further, PACE4 expression was found to be developmentally regulated in rat placenta. By in situ hybridization, Mash-2 (mammalian achaete-scute homologue 2) mRNA was found to be expressed in the spongiotrophoblast layer where PACE4 was not expressed. In contrast, the PACE4 mRNA was expressed mainly in the labyrinthine layer where Mash-2 was not detected. These results suggest that PACE4 expression is down-regulated by Hash-2/Mash-2 in both human and rat placenta and that many bioactive proteins might be regulated by PACE4 activity.

  9. The Deep South Clouds & Aerosols project: Improving the modelling of clouds in the Southern Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; McDonald, Adrian; Harvey, Mike; Davies, Roger; Katurji, Marwan; Varma, Vidya; Williams, Jonny

    2016-04-01

    Southern-Hemisphere climate projections are subject to persistent climate model biases affecting the large majority of contemporary climate models, which degrade the reliability of these projections, particularly at the regional scale. Southern-Hemisphere specific problems include the fact that satellite-based observations comparisons with model output indicate that cloud occurrence above the Southern Ocean is substantially underestimated, with consequences for the radiation balance, sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and the position of storm tracks. The Southern-Ocean and Antarctic region is generally characterized by an acute paucity of surface-based and airborne observations, further complicating the situation. In recognition of this and other Southern-Hemisphere specific problems with climate modelling, the New Zealand Government has launched the Deep South National Science Challenge, whose purpose is to develop a new Earth System Model which reduces these very large radiative forcing problems associated with erroneous clouds. The plan is to conduct a campaign of targeted observations in the Southern Ocean region, leveraging off international measurement campaigns in this area, and using these and existing measurements of cloud and aerosol properties to improve the representation of clouds in the nascent New Zealand Earth System Model. Observations and model development will target aerosol physics and chemistry, particularly sulphate, sea salt, and non-sulphate organic aerosol, its interactions with clouds, and cloud microphysics. The hypothesis is that the cloud schemes in most GCMs are trained on Northern-Hemisphere data characterized by substantial anthropogenic or terrestrial aerosol-related influences which are almost completely absent in the Deep South.

  10. Individualized Self-Pacing (ISP)--A Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, Melvin R.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Fullerton College's individualized self-pacing (ISP) program. Reviews twelve ISP objectives including provision of enrollment/scheduling flexibility; lists twenty-two class offerings, including basic business math, business English, and business machines. Compares costs, learning, and course completion in ISP and traditional programs.…

  11. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 19-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Five study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this fourth problems and solutions book used as a part of student course work. The subject matter is related to electric charges, insulators, Coulomb's law, electric fields, lines of force, solid angles, conductors, motion of charged particles, dipoles, electric flux,…

  12. Design Recommendations for Self-Paced Online Faculty Development Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzuto, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    An increased need for self-paced, online professional development opportunities in higher education has emerged from a variety of factors including dispersed geographic locations of faculty, full teaching loads, and institutional evaluation requirements. This article is a report of the examination of the design and evaluation of a self-paced…

  13. Computers Help 2000 Students Self-Pace Their Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael A.

    Illinois State University operates a self-paced, competency-based teacher education program known as the Professional Sequence. It is based on the General Model of Instruction used at other universities and is organized around a series of self-instructional packages. Student progress is charted by a set of computer programs called the Surveillance…

  14. The Print and Computer Enlargement System--PACE. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Ronald A.

    The Print and Computer Enlargement (PACE) System is being designed as a portable computerized reading and writing system that enables a low-vision person to read regular print and then create and edit text using large-print computerized output. The design goal was to develop a system that: weighed no more than 12 pounds so it could be easily…

  15. Self-Paced Physics [Talking Book Cassette Tapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As one of three audiovisual media in the U. S. Naval Academy Self-Paced Physics Course, 16 cassette tapes relating to lectures of mechanics, electricity, and magnetism are prepared for enriching and supplementary purposes. The material is designed to be used in combination with the talking book where illustrations, formulas, behavioral objectives,…

  16. The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

  17. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 11-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Four segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this problems and solutions book for use as the third part of student course work. The subject-matter topics are related to impulses, inelastic and elastic collisions, two-dimensional collision problems, universal constant of gravitation, gravitational acceleration and…

  18. PACE Model Gives Advertising Campaign-Centered Curriculum (Commentary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Describes PACE (Portfolio, Assignments, Content, and Evaluation), an advertising curriculum model in which students work on real advertising campaigns. Explains that students form account groups which locate products needing promotional assistance. Identifies the goals of the curriculum to be competent writing and practical understanding of…

  19. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Five segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this problems and solutions book for use as the second part of student course work. The subject-matter topics are related to circular motion, work, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, conservative forces, conservation of energy, spring problems, center of mass, and…

  20. Self-Paced Instruction in SPSS with Multitutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wides, Jeffrey W.

    More than a dozen CAI modules which teach the uninitiated user how to use the interactive Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) are described. The modules are based on the principle of incrementally increasing difficulty, self pacing, and student involvement. The first half of the set introduces the student to interactive computing,…

  1. A Self-Paced Program in Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, William E.

    Developed in response to the heterogeneous student population of a two-year, open door college, a self-paced freshman English course at Brazosport College (Texas) still operates within the traditional contact hour and three semester hours credit requirements, but serves students in unique, individual ways. Students may enroll only if placed by…

  2. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 32-36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Five study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this seventh problems and solutions book used as a part of student course work. The content is related to magnetic fields, magnetic moments, forces on charged particles in magnetic fields, electron volts, cyclotron, electronic charge to mass ratio, current-carrying…

  3. The Effects of Self-Paced Blended Learning of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balentyne, Phoebe; Varga, Mary Alice

    2016-01-01

    As online and blended learning gain more popularity in education, it becomes more important to understand their effects on student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of self-paced blended learning of mathematics on the attitudes and achievement of 26 high ability middle school students, and investigate the relationship…

  4. Library Skills for Teachers: A Self-Paced Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Terrence

    Designed to introduce education students to the basic library resources in the field, this self-paced workbook assumes a basic knowledge of the library and its resources. Each section in the eight-chapter workbook discusses a particular type of reference material and sample entries are provided when appropriate. Eleven assignments (two multiple…

  5. Basic Library Skills: A Self-Paced Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Judith

    This self-paced workbook is designed to introduce college students to the resources and facilities of the library and to providing the knowledge and skills necessary to do basic library research. Two introductory chapters include a library-specific tour with floor plans (the D. Leonard Corgan Library, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) and information…

  6. Immediate emergency department external cardiac pacing for prehospital bradyasystolic arrest.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Nowak, R M; Martin, G B; Best, R; Carden, D L; Tomlanovich, M C

    1985-04-01

    Approximately 25% of patients in prehospital cardiac arrest present in bradyasystolic rhythms, and their long-term prognosis is very poor. Our study was undertaken to determine the utility of immediate emergency department (ED) external cardiac pacing in this situation. Twenty patients presenting with bradyasystolic prehospital cardiac arrest were entered in the study. All received the usual advanced cardiac life support therapy, but also were externally paced immediately using an automated external defibrillator and pacemaker (AEDP). Only two of 20 patients showed evidence of electrical capture, and none developed pulses with pacing. Four of the 20 patients developed a sinus rhythm and blood pressure during resuscitation. Three survived to leave the ED, but none survived to leave the hospital. An increase in the rate of bradycardia and pulseless idioventricular rhythms that was independent of electrical capture or pharmacologic therapy was noted occasionally. Although survival was not enhanced using the AEDP, the device was reliable, easy to use, and free of complications. External cardiac pacing warrants further investigation in the prehospital setting.

  7. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. PACES: A Model of Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mark D.; Tarabochia, Dawn W.; Koltz, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    School counselors design, deliver, and evaluate comprehensive, developmental school counseling programs that are focused on enhancing student development and success. A model of student well-being, known as PACES, is defined and described that consists of five distinct and interactive domains: physical, affective, cognitive, economic, and social.…

  9. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 28-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Four study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this sixth problems and solutions book used as a part of student course work. The subject matter is related to electric currents, current densities, resistances, Ohm's law, voltages, Joule heating, electromotive forces, single loop circuits, series and parallel…

  10. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 24-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Four study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this fifth problems and solutions book used as a part of student course work. The subject matter is related to work in electric fields, potential differences, parallel plates, electric potential energies, potential gradients, capacitances, and capacitor circuits.…

  11. Self-Paced Physics, Segments 37-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    Four study segments of the Self-Paced Physics Course materials are presented in this eighth problems and solutions book used as a part of course assignments. The content is related to magnetic induction, Faraday's law, induced currents, Lenz's law, induced electromotive forces, time-varying magnetic fields, self-inductance, inductors,…

  12. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  13. Attendance at Lectures and Films in Self-Paced Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, K. Anthony

    Attendance at guest lectures, instructor lectures, and films in self-paced introductory psychology courses was examined in two experiments with 180 students in an introductory psychology class at Utah State University. In the first experiment, students were given no points, one point credit toward interviews, or one point credit toward the final…

  14. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and atrial overdrive pacing for the treatment of central sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Lüthje, Lars; Renner, Bernd; Kessels, Roger; Vollmann, Dirk; Raupach, Tobias; Gerritse, Bart; Tasci, Selcuk; Schwab, Jörg O.; Zabel, Markus; Zenker, Dieter; Schott, Peter; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Unterberg-Buchwald, Christina; Andreas, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Aims The combined therapeutic impact of atrial overdrive pacing (AOP) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on central sleep apnoea (CSA) in chronic heart failure (CHF) so far has not been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CRT alone and CRT + AOP on CSA in CHF patients and to compare the influence of CRT on CHF between CSA positive and CSA negative patients. Methods and results Thirty patients with CRT indication underwent full night polysomnography, echocardiography, exercise testing, and neurohumoral evaluation before and 3 months after CRT implantation. In CSA positive patients (60%), two additional sleep studies were conducted after 3 months of CRT, with CRT alone or CRT + AOP, in random order. Cardiac resynchronization therapy resulted in significant improvements of NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, VO2max, and quality of life irrespective of the presence of CSA. Cardiac resynchronization therapy also reduced the central apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) (33.6 ± 14.3 vs. 23.8 ± 16.9 h−1; P < 0.01) and central apnoea index (17.3 ± 14.1 vs. 10.9 ± 13.9 h−1; P < 0.01) without altering sleep stages. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with atrial overdrive pacing resulted in a small but significant additional decrease of the central AHI (23.8 ± 16.9 vs. 21.5 ± 16.9 h−1; P < 0.01). Conclusion In this study, CRT significantly improved CSA without altering sleep stages. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with atrial overdrive pacing resulted in a significant but minor additional improvement of CSA. Positive effects of CRT were irrespective of the presence of CSA. PMID:19147446

  15. Improved confinement region without large magnetohydrodynamic activity in TPE-RX reversed-field pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Hirano, Yoichi; Sakakita, Hajime; Koguchi, Haruhisa

    2014-11-01

    We found that spontaneous improved confinement was brought about depending on the operating region in the Toroidal Pinch Experiment-Reversed eXperiment (TPE-RX) reversed-field pinch plasma [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)]. Gradual decay of the toroidal magnetic field at plasma surface Btw reversal makes it possible to realize a prolonged discharge, and the poloidal beta value and energy confinement time increase in the latter half of the discharge, where reversal and pinch parameters become shallow and low, respectively. In the latter half of the discharge, the plasma current and volume-averaged toroidal magnetic field increase again, the electron density slowly decays, the electron temperature and soft X-ray radiation intensity increase, and the magnetic fluctuations are markedly reduced. In this period of improved confinement, the value of (-Btw)/Bpw, where Bpw is the poloidal magnetic field at the plasma surface, stays almost constant, which indicates that the dynamo action occurs without large magnetohydrodynamic activities.

  16. Improved confinement region without large magnetohydrodynamic activity in TPE-RX reversed-field pinch plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Hirano, Yoichi; Sakakita, Hajime; Koguchi, Haruhisa

    2014-11-15

    We found that spontaneous improved confinement was brought about depending on the operating region in the Toroidal Pinch Experiment-Reversed eXperiment (TPE-RX) reversed-field pinch plasma [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)]. Gradual decay of the toroidal magnetic field at plasma surface B{sub tw} reversal makes it possible to realize a prolonged discharge, and the poloidal beta value and energy confinement time increase in the latter half of the discharge, where reversal and pinch parameters become shallow and low, respectively. In the latter half of the discharge, the plasma current and volume-averaged toroidal magnetic field 〈B{sub t}〉 increase again, the electron density slowly decays, the electron temperature and soft X-ray radiation intensity increase, and the magnetic fluctuations are markedly reduced. In this period of improved confinement, the value of (〈B{sub t}〉-B{sub tw})/B{sub pw}, where B{sub pw} is the poloidal magnetic field at the plasma surface, stays almost constant, which indicates that the dynamo action occurs without large magnetohydrodynamic activities.

  17. Improving the understanding and diagnosis of Earth system changes in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    I review key hydrological state variables and fluxes relevant to cold regions, specifically snow, permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, lakes, and wetlands, and comment on the ability of current models to represent the associated processes, and the quality of the data sets upon which model development and diagnosis efforts rest. Although snow processes are relatively well represented in current generation land surface models, at least at large scales for deep mountain snowpacks, the representation of high latitude snow processes remain complicated by the role of snow redistribution, and of sublimation during the shoulder (especially spring) season. Most credible land surface models now include representations of permafrost, some of which perform well when forced with local climate data; however their performance over large areas is limited by spatial variability of key processes, including soil thermal characteristics. Likewise, many land surface models now represent the hydrology and energetics of lakes, which cover a substantial portion of the landscape in many high latitude environs. However, accurate representation of lakes requires knowledge of certain characteristics of their bathymetry and hydrological connectivity, information which is not always available. Likewise, the representation of wetlands in models, although improved in many cases, is limited by topography (and the role of microtopography, even at large scales). Nonetheless, increased attention to high latitude hydrological processes has demonstrably improved the fidelity of land surface representations over the last decade or so.

  18. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging.

  19. Translating the potential of hydrological forecasts into improved decision making in African regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; He, X.; Wanders, N.; Wood, E. F.; Ali, A.; Olang, L.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Evans, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological forecasts at local scale and seasonal time scales have the potential to inform decision-making by individuals and institutions to improve management of water resources and enhance food security. Much progress has been made in recent years in understanding climate variability and its predictability over African regions. However, there remain many challenges in translating large-scale evaluations and forecasts into locally relevant information. This is hampered by lack of on the ground data of hydrological and agricultural states, and the generally low skill of climate forecasts at time scales beyond one or two weeks. Additionally, the uptake of forecasts is not prevalent because of lack of capacity, and institutional and cultural barriers to using new and uncertain information. New technologies for monitoring and forecasting relevant hydrological variables, and novel approaches to understanding how this information may be used within decision making processes, have the potential to make substantial progress in addressing these challenges. We present a quasi-operational drought and flood monitoring and forecasting system and its use in understanding the potential of hydrological forecasts for improved decision-making. The system monitors in near real-time the terrestrial water cycle for the African continent based on remote sensing data and land surface hydrological modeling. The monitoring forms initial conditions for hydrological forecasts at short time scale, aimed at flood forecasting, and seasonal scale aimed at drought and crop yield forecasts. The flood forecasts are driven by precipitation and temperature forecasts from the Global Forecast System (GFS). The drought forecasts are driven by climate forecasts from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME). The seasonal forecast skill is modest and seasonally/regionally dependent with part of the skill coming from persistence in initial land surface conditions. We discuss the use of the system

  20. Toward Improved Land Surface Initialization in Support of Regional WRF Forecasts at the Kenya Meteorological Department

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case. Jonathan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Kabuchanga, Eric; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding and drought are two key forecasting challenges for the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). Atmospheric processes leading to excessive precipitation and/or prolonged drought can be quite sensitive to the state of the land surface, which interacts with the boundary layer of the atmosphere providing a source of heat and moisture. The development and evolution of precipitation systems are affected by heat and moisture fluxes from the land surface within weakly-sheared environments, such as in the tropics and sub-tropics. These heat and moisture fluxes during the day can be strongly influenced by land cover, vegetation, and soil moisture content. Therefore, it is important to represent the land surface state as accurately as possible in numerical weather prediction models. Enhanced regional modeling capabilities have the potential to improve forecast guidance in support of daily operations and high-end events over east Africa. KMD currently runs a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in real time to support its daily forecasting operations, invoking the Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) dynamical core. They make use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / National Weather Service Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) to manage and produce the WRF-NMM model runs on a 7-km regional grid over eastern Africa. Two organizations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, SERVIR and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, have established a working partnership with KMD for enhancing its regional modeling capabilities. To accomplish this goal, SPoRT and SERVIR will provide experimental land surface initialization datasets and model verification capabilities to KMD. To produce a land-surface initialization more consistent with the resolution of the KMD-WRF runs, the NASA Land Information System (LIS

  1. Application of Suomi-NPP Green Vegetation Fraction and NUCAPS for Improving Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Berndt, Emily B.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA SPoRT Center is working to incorporate Suomi-NPP products into its research and transition activities to improve regional numerical weather prediction (NWP). Specifically, SPoRT seeks to utilize two data products from NOAA/NESDIS: (1) daily global VIIRS green vegetation fraction (GVF), and (2) NOAA Unique CrIS and ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture retrieved profiles. The goal of (1) is to improve the representation of vegetation in the Noah land surface model (LSM) over existing climatological GVF datasets in order to improve the land-atmosphere energy exchanges in NWP models and produce better temperature, moisture, and precipitation forecasts. The goal of (2) is to assimilate NUCAPS retrieved profiles into the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to assess the impact on a summer pre-frontal convection case. Most regional NWP applications make use of a monthly GVF climatology for use in the Noah LSM within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF partitions incoming energy into direct surface heating/evaporation over bare soil versus evapotranspiration processes over vegetated surfaces. Misrepresentations of the fractional coverage of vegetation during anomalous weather/climate regimes (e.g., early/late bloom or freeze; drought) can lead to poor NWP model results when land-atmosphere feedback is important. SPoRT has been producing a daily MODIS GVF product based on the University of Wisconsin Direct Broadcast swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). While positive impacts have been demonstrated in the WRF model for some cases, the reflectances composing these NDVI do not correct for atmospheric aerosols nor satellite view angle, resulting in temporal noisiness at certain locations (especially heavy vegetation). The method behind the NESDIS VIIRS GVF is expected to alleviate the issues seen in the MODIS GVF real-time product, thereby offering a higher-quality dataset for

  2. An improved earthquake catalogue in the Marmara Sea region, Turkey, using massive template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Bouchon, Michel

    2016-04-01

    After the 1999 Izmit earthquake, the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) represents a 150 km unruptured segment of the North Anatolian Fault located below the Marmara Sea. One of the principal issue for seismic hazard assessment in the region is to know if the MMF is totally or partially locked and where the nucleation of the major forthcoming event is going to take place. The area is actually one of the best-instrumented fault systems in Europe. Since year 2007, various seismic networks both broadband, short period and OBS stations were deployed in order to monitor continuously the seismicity along the MMF and the related fault systems. A recent analysis of the seismicity recorded during the 2007-2012 period has provided new insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. This analysis was based on events detected with STA/LTA procedure and manually picked P and S wave arrivals times (Schmittbuhl et al., 2015). In order to extend the level of details and to fully take advantage of the dense seismic network we improved the seismic catalog using an automatic earthquake detection technique based on a template matching approach. This approach uses known earthquake seismic signals in order to detect newer events similar to the tested one from waveform cross-correlation. To set-up the methodology and verify the accuracy and the robustness of the results, we initially focused in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea (Cinarcik basin) and compared new detection with those manually identified. Through the massive analysis of cross-correlation based on the template scanning of the continuous recordings, we construct a refined catalog of earthquakes for the Marmara Sea in 2007-2014 period. Our improved earthquake catalog will provide an effective tool to improve the catalog completeness, to monitor and study the fine details of the time-space distribution of events, to characterize the repeating earthquake source processes and to understand the mechanical state of

  3. Drought, Fire and Insects in Western US Forests: Observations to Improve Regional Land System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.; Yang, Z.; Berner, L. T.; Hicke, J. A.; Buotte, P.; Hudiburg, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Drought, fire and insects are major disturbances in the western US, and conditions are expected to get warmer and drier in the future. We combine multi-scale observations and modeling with CLM4.5 to examine the effects of these disturbances on forests in the western US. We modified the Community Land Model, CLM4.5, to improve simulated drought-related mortality in forests, and prediction of insect outbreaks under future climate conditions. We examined differences in plant traits that represent species variation in sensitivity to drought, and redefined plant groupings in PFTs. Plant traits, including sapwood area: leaf area ratio and stemwood density were strongly correlated with water availability during the ecohydrologic year. Our database of co-located observations of traits for 30 tree species was used to produce parameterization of the model by species groupings according to similar traits. Burn area predicted by the new fire model in CLM4.5 compares well with recent years of GFED data, but has a positive bias compared with Landsat-based MTBS. Biomass mortality over recent decades increased, and was captured well by the model in general, but missed mortality trends of some species. Comparisons with AmeriFlux data showed that the model with dynamic tree mortality only (no species trait improvements) overestimated GPP in dry years compared with flux data at semi-arid sites, and underestimated GPP at more mesic sites that experience dry summers. Simulations with both dynamic tree mortality and species trait parameters improved estimates of GPP by 17-22%; differences between predicted and observed NEE were larger. Future projections show higher productivity from increased atmospheric CO2 and warming that somewhat offsets drought and fire effects over the next few decades. Challenges include representation of hydraulic failure in models, and availability of species trait and carbon/water process data in disturbance- and drought-impacted regions.

  4. Pacing control of sawtooth and ELM oscillations in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauret, M.; Lennholm, M.; de Baar, M. R.; Heemels, W. P. M. H.

    2016-12-01

    In tokamak plasmas, the sawtooth oscillation (ST) and the edge-localized-mode (ELM) are characterized by a phase of a slow evolution of the plasma conditions, followed by a crash-like instability that resets the plasma conditions when certain criteria of the plasma conditions are satisfied. Typically, the crashes induce losses of heat and energetic particles and may also trigger secondary instabilities. As the amplitude of the crash-like perturbation scales with the period between two crashes, period control of these oscillations is important for operations of large fusion facilities such as ITER and DEMO. In several present-day experimental facilities, a pacing control algorithm has been successfully applied for controlling the sawtooth period and the ELM period. However, a formal analysis has been lacking so far, which therefore forms the objective of the present paper. For this purpose, a reset model for the sawtooth period is introduced and, after a proper transformation a nonlinear discrete-time system is obtained, which is used for the formal analysis of pacing control. By representing the model in a Lur’e (or Lurie) form, we can derive conditions under which global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop (pacing) period control system is guaranteed. Moreover, we will show that the controller exhibits inherent robustness for model uncertainties. We envision that the analytical results in the area of pacing control of the sawtooth are also applicable to pacing period control of the ELM oscillation period. The presented reset model also explains why in recent experiments the sawtooth period locks with a periodically modulated power.

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of the Educational Platform--Is There a Connection between School Improvement and Regional Educational Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Lena; Dalin, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This research examined teachers' attitudes in a school development project, The best regional educational system in the world which focuses on regional development and school improvement. The project was performed in counties in Mid Sweden, which have a lower educational level and school achievements and a competence escape compare with other…

  6. Regional anaesthesia to improve pain outcomes in paediatric surgical patients: a qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S; Schaldenbrand, K; Wallis, B; De Oliveira, G S

    2014-09-01

    Summary The development of analgesic interventions in paediatric surgical patients is often limited by the inherent difficulties of conducting large randomized clinical trials to test interventions in those patients. Regional anaesthesia is a valid strategy to improve postoperative pain in the adult surgical population, but the effects of regional anaesthesia on postoperative pain outcomes in paediatric patients are currently not well defined. The main objective of the current review was to systematically evaluate the use of regional anaesthesia techniques to minimize postoperative pain in paediatric patients. A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of the regional anaesthesia techniques on postoperative pain outcomes in paediatric surgical patients' procedures. Seventy-three studies on 5125 paediatric patients were evaluated. Only few surgical procedures had more than one small randomized controlled trial favouring the use of regional anaesthesia to minimize postoperative pain (ophthalmological surgery, cleft lip repair, inguinal hernia, and urological procedures). Additional evidence is required to support the use of specific regional anaesthesia techniques to improve postoperative pain for several surgical procedures (craniectomy, adenotonsillectomy, appendectomy, cardiac surgery, umbilical hernia repair, upper and lower extremity) in paediatric patients. Currently, only a very limited number of regional anaesthesia techniques have demonstrated significant improvement on postoperative pain outcomes for a restricted number of surgical procedures. More studies are needed in order to establish regional anaesthesia as a valid strategy to improve analgesia in the paediatric surgical population.

  7. Acarbose improves glycemic control and reduces body weight: Subanalysis data of South Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S; Sahay, R K; Schnell, O; Sheu, W H H; Grzeszczak, W; Watada, H; Soegondo, S; Yamamoto, N; Weng, J; Rathod, R

    2013-10-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycaemia. However, data from South Asia region is very limited. In order to examine the effect of AGI in real-life setting, 10 PMS/NIS from all over the world from the launch of acarbose to date were pooled in one database and exploratory analysis was performed for glycemic parameters and weight. In total 62,905 patients were pooled from 21 countries and regions. Mean follow up (± SD) was 12.2 ± 4.8 weeks (range 0.1-108.9). From South Asia region (India and Pakistan), 8,738 Asian patients were enrolled. Mean PPG decreased from 240.0 and 261.1 mg/dl at baseline by 70.26 ± 65.10 and 82.96 ± 56.59 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 53,883; n = 7,991, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean FPG decreased from 171.6 and 176.5 mg/dl at baseline by 38.48 ± 47.83 and 49.59 ± 41.41 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 56,672; n = 7,837, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean HbA1c decreased from 8.4 and 8.4% at baseline by 1.11 ± 1.31% and 0.91 ± 0.93% at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 38,843; n = 2,343, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean relative reduction of body weight (BW) was 1.40 ± 3.28% and 1.10 ± 3.39% at the last visit for mean baseline BW 73.6 and 74.2 kg in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 54,760; n = 7,718, P < 0.0001 for both). Consistent with RCT meta-analyses, post-hoc analysis of real-life data showed acarbose treatment improved glycaemic control and reduced the BW. Acarbose treatment in real life setting showed significant reductions in all glycemic parameters and BW in Asian patients from South Asia region.

  8. The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE): an innovative long-term care model in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mui, A C

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the long-term care service system in the United States, its problems, and an improved long-term care model. Problematic quality of care in institutional settings and fragmentation of service coordination in community-based settings are two major issues in the traditional long-term care system. The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) has been emerging since the 1970s to address these issues, particularly because most frail elders prefer community-based to institutional care. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 made PACE a permanent provider type under Medicare and granted states the option of paying a capitation rate for PACE services under Medicaid. The PACE model is a managed long-term care system that provides frail elders alternatives to nursing home life. The PACE program's primary goals are to maximize each frail elderly participant's autonomy and continued community residence, and to provide quality care at a lower cost than Medicare, Medicaid, and private-pay participants, who pay in the traditional fee-for-service system. In exchange for Medicare and Medicaid fixed monthly payments for each participating frail elder, PACE service systems provide a continuum of long-term care services, including hospital and nursing home care, and bear full financial risk. Integration of acute and long-term care services in the PACE model allows care of frail elders with multiple problems by a single service organization that can provide a full range of services. PACE's range of services and organizational features are discussed.

  9. DDDR pacing for symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, H.J.; Scheffer, M.G.; van Mechelen, R.; Kofflard, M.J.M.; ten Cate, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is a primary cardiac disorder with a heterogeneous expression. When medical therapy fails in patients with symptomatic HOCM, three additional therapeutic strategies exist: ventricular septal myectomy, alcohol-induced percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) of the first septal branch of the anterior descending artery and pacemaker implantation. In this paper we present the results of seven patients in whom a dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted to reduce the gradient in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and to relieve their symptoms. Methods In patients with drug refractory symptomatic HOCM, not eligible for surgery, pacemaker therapy was recommended. Symptomatic HOCM was defined as symptoms of angina and dyspnoea, functional class NYHA 3-4 and a resting LVOT gradient during Doppler echocardiography of more than 2.75 m/s (30 mmHg). In these patients, a dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted with a right ventricular lead positioned in the right ventricular apex and an atrial lead positioned in the right atrial appendage. In all patients the AV setting was programmed between 50 and 100 ms, using Doppler echocardiography to determine the optimal filling and to ensure ventricular capture. Results A statistically significant reduction of the LVOT gradient was observed in all patients. The pre-implantation gradient in the LVOT measured by Doppler echocardiography varied from 3-5.8 m/s with a mean of 4.7±1.1 m/s. The post-implantation gradient varied from 1.4-2.6 m/s with a mean of 1.9±0.4 m/s (p<0.001). Symptomatic improvement was present in all patients. NYHA functional class went from 3-4 (mean 3.1±0.5) pre-implantation to 1-2 mean (1.3±0.4) after implantation (p<0.001). During a mean follow-up of 2.3±1.1 years, the improvement in functional class was maintained. Conclusion Our preliminary results demonstrate that dual-chamber pacing is an effective and safe treatment for

  10. Effect of Environmental and Feedback Interventions on Pacing Profiles in Cycling: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J.; Clark, Bradley; Welvaert, Marijke; Skorski, Sabrina; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Saunders, Philo; Thompson, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    In search of their optimal performance athletes will alter their pacing strategy according to intrinsic and extrinsic physiological, psychological and environmental factors. However, the effect of some of these variables on pacing and exercise performance remains somewhat unclear. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an overview as to how manipulation of different extrinsic factors affects pacing strategy and exercise performance. Only self-paced exercise studies that provided control and intervention group(s), reported trial variance for power output, disclosed the type of feedback received or withheld, and where time-trial power output data could be segmented into start, middle and end sections; were included in the meta-analysis. Studies with similar themes were grouped together to determine the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between control and intervention trials for: hypoxia, hyperoxia, heat-stress, pre-cooling, and various forms of feedback. A total of 26 studies with cycling as the exercise modality were included in the meta-analysis. Of these, four studies manipulated oxygen availability, eleven manipulated heat-stress, four implemented pre-cooling interventions and seven studies manipulated various forms of feedback. Mean power output (MPO) was significantly reduced in the middle and end sections (p < 0.05), but not the start section of hypoxia and heat-stress trials compared to the control trials. In contrast, there was no significant change in trial or section MPO for hyperoxic or pre-cooling conditions compared to the control condition (p > 0.05). Negative feedback improved overall trial MPO and MPO in the middle section of trials (p < 0.05), while informed feedback improved overall trial MPO (p < 0.05). However, positive, neutral and no feedback had no significant effect on overall trial or section MPO (p > 0.05). The available data suggests exercise regulation in hypoxia and heat-stress is delayed in the

  11. 42 CFR 460.132 - Quality assessment and performance improvement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.132...

  12. 42 CFR 460.132 - Quality assessment and performance improvement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.132...

  13. 42 CFR 460.132 - Quality assessment and performance improvement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.132...

  14. Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 064

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, Timothy; Saifer, Steffen; Forehand, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) spells out parent involvement requirements for schools in need of improvement, the majority of the Northwest Region school improvement plans reviewed failed to include such provisions. Reported findings include: (1) Despite a wide range of parent involvement practices discussed in legislation…

  15. [Medication administration practices in elderly residential facilities in Ile de France Region in 2014: findings and room for improvement].

    PubMed

    de Saunière, Anne; Bonneau, Laetitia; Donio, Valérie; Godinot, Valérie; Flouzat, Jean-Philippe; Bensasson, Géraldine; Code, Christelle; Galay, Guillaume; Pige, Dominique

    2016-11-25

    The institutions expressed great interest in medication administration systems and tools designed to monitor all stages of medication administration. A dozen simple and pragmatic improvement actions were identified and listed in the Ile-de-France Regional Health Agency action plan to improve medication administration management of in EHPAD..

  16. Improvements to Optical Track Association with the Direct Bayesian Admissible Region Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Scheeres, D. J.; Herzog, J.; Schildknecht, T.

    2013-09-01

    The direct Bayesian admissible region approach proposed by Fujimoto and Scheeres is an a priori state free measurement association and initial orbit determination (IOD) technique. Given a short-arc series of optical measurements, or a tracklet, a compact region in the range / range-rate space is defined based on a set of physical constraints such that all likely and relevant orbits are contained within it. The admissible region (AR) is a uniform probability density function (pdf) whose support is this compact region. Multiple ARs may be propagated to a common epoch and an a posteriori pdf directly computed based on Bayes' rule. When the direct Bayesian approach was initially applied to tracklets from a survey of geostationary (GEO) objects taken at the Zimmerwald Observatory of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern, two difficulties arose. The first were false associations due to the ambiguity in the number of revolutions made between observations. The second were missed associations due to the nominal assumption that the observation errors were small enough to be ignored. Consequently, a "hybrid"method was implemented, where the direct Bayesian results were passed to a least squares batch filter. Although the second difficulty was well addressed with this new method, not all multi-rev solutions were removed, casting light on the fundamental limits of conducting tracklet association based solely on astrometrical and dynamical information. Furthermore, it was noted that the direct Bayesian approach would allow one to reevaluate future observational strategies in order to minimize false positive / negative association solutions. It addressed the association of tracklets in a much more probabilistically straightforward way than other IOD techniques, and thus any changes to the current strategy would directly affect the a posteriori pdf in the state space without the need to assume an observation geometry, dynamical system, or the type of errors

  17. Tropical pacing of Antarctic sea ice increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    One reason why coupled climate model simulations generally do not reproduce the observed increase in Antarctic sea ice extent may be that their internally generated climate variability does not sync with the observed phases of phenomena like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and ENSO. For example, it is unlikely for a free-running coupled model simulation to capture the shift of the PDO from its positive to negative phase during 1998, and the subsequent ~15 year duration of the negative PDO phase. In previously presented work based on atmospheric models forced by observed tropical SSTs and stratospheric ozone, we demonstrated that tropical variability is key to explaining the wind trends over the Southern Ocean during the past ~35 years, particularly in the Ross, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the regions of the largest trends in sea ice extent and ice season duration. Here, we extend this idea to coupled model simulations with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in which the evolution of SST anomalies in the central and eastern tropical Pacific is constrained to match the observations. This ensemble of 10 "tropical pacemaker" simulations shows a more realistic evolution of Antarctic sea ice anomalies than does its unconstrained counterpart, the CESM Large Ensemble (both sets of runs include stratospheric ozone depletion and other time-dependent radiative forcings). In particular, the pacemaker runs show that increased sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea is associated with a deeper Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) and stronger westerlies over the south Pacific. These circulation patterns in turn are linked with the negative phase of the PDO, characterized by negative SST anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific. The timing of tropical decadal variability with respect to ozone depletion further suggests a strong role for tropical variability in the recent acceleration of the Antarctic sea ice trend, as ozone depletion stabilized by late 1990s, prior to the most

  18. Assessing the Effects of Dust Loading of Snow on Regional Hydroclimatology Using an Improved Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaida, C. M.; Xue, Y.; Painter, T.; Flanner, M. G.; De Sales, F.

    2012-12-01

    Radiative processes play an important role on both global and regional scales. This study focuses on their effects over snow-covered surfaces due to dust loading. Studies have shown that dust emissions from the Colorado Plateau have increased 5-7 fold in the last century and a half due to grazing and agricultural practices, which decreases snow albedo and enhances solar radiation absorption. In an offline study, Painter et al. (2007) have shown that snow cover was shortened by 18 to 35 days due to dust radiative forcing in snow in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Our present study will quantitatively assess dust's influence on radiative forcing and runoff timing in mountain snow packs using a physically comprehensive regional climate model. For this study, we employ NCAR's WRF ARW model, which is coupled with a land surface model, Simplified Simple Biosphere version 3 (SSiB3). We have modified the original WRF-SSiB3 framework to include a snow-radiative transfer model, Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiative (SNICAR) model. SNICAR considers the effects of snow grain size and aerosol on snow albedo evolution. Snow grain size and growth is important in snow albedo feedbacks, especially when aerosols in snow are considered, because larger snow grains decrease snow albedo, and in the presence of dust, grain growth rates increase, decreasing snow reflectance even further than if the snow was pure. In the original WRF-SSiB3, albedo was empirically adjusted during snow melt. Implementing SNICAR allows us to have a more physically based process to represent changes in albedo due to snow metamorphism as well as those due to impurities in snow, which makes the regional climate model capable of realistically simulating radiative forcing on snow covered areas with aerosol loading. The model was further modified to account for the presence of aerosols in snow in terms of the distribution of these impurities as well as their scavenging by melt water throughout the snow layers We

  19. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy improves loco-regional recurrence of head and neck mucosal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wushou, Alimujiang; Hou, Jing; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Miao, Xin-chao

    2015-05-01

    Primary head and neck mucosal melanoma (HNMM) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Controversy remains as to whether postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (PORT) achieves a significant benefit in HNMM treatment. Because of the lack of available conclusive prospective data, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant available studies to clarify the benefits of PORT. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases was conducted to collect relevant studies until April 30, 2014. Studies published in the English language comparing surgery alone and surgery plus PORT for HNMM were included, with more than 15 study populations. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 12.0. A total of 423 patients were available from eight studies and the median sample size was 53 cases. The median follow-up time was 38.2 months (range 18.3-65.2 months). There was a positive association between PORT and loco-regional recurrence of HNMM (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22-0.60, P = 0.000). No associations were found between the PORT and 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.94-2.09, P = 0.093 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.70-1.61, P = 0.161, respectively). PORT had no impact on 3-year and 5-year OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.80-1.61, P = 0.472 and HR = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.97-1.85, P = 0.227, respectively). PORT improved loco-regional recurrence of HNMM independent of OS.

  20. A synthetic luciferin improves in vivo bioluminescence imaging of gene expression in cardiovascular brain regions.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Hayk; Hurr, Chansol; Young, Colin N

    2016-10-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is an effective tool for in vivo investigation of molecular processes. We have demonstrated the applicability of bioluminescence imaging to spatiotemporally monitor gene expression in cardioregulatory brain nuclei during the development of cardiovascular disease, via incorporation of firefly luciferase into living animals, combined with exogenous d-luciferin substrate administration. Nevertheless, d-luciferin uptake into the brain tissue is low, which decreases the sensitivity of bioluminescence detection, particularly when considering small changes in gene expression in tiny central areas. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a synthetic luciferin, cyclic alkylaminoluciferin (CycLuc1), would be superior to d-luciferin for in vivo bioluminescence imaging in cardiovascular brain regions. Male C57B1/6 mice underwent targeted delivery of an adenovirus encoding the luciferase gene downstream of the CMV promoter to the subfornical organ (SFO) or paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), two crucial cardioregulatory neural regions. While bioluminescent signals could be obtained following d-luciferin injection (150 mg/kg), CycLuc1 administration resulted in a three- to fourfold greater bioluminescent emission from the SFO and PVN, at 10- to 20-fold lower substrate concentrations (7.5-15 mg/kg). This CycLuc1-mediated enhancement in bioluminescent emission was evident early following substrate administration (i.e., 6-10 min) and persisted for up to 1 h. When the exposure time was reduced from 60 s to 1,500 ms, minimal signal in the PVN was detectable with d-luciferin, whereas bioluminescent images could be reliably captured with CycLuc1. These findings demonstrate that bioluminescent imaging with the synthetic luciferin CycLuc1 provides an improved physiological genomics tool to investigate molecular events in discrete cardioregulatory brain nuclei.

  1. Improvement of surface albedo parameterization within a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Y.; Lü, S.

    2009-03-01

    A parameterization for calculating surface albedo of Solar Zenith Angel (SZA) dependence with coefficient for each vegetation type determined on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) reformed by the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is incorporated within the latest Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3), and evaluated with a high resolution one-way nesting simulation in China using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) data and the observations from the Field Experiment on Interaction between Land and Atmosphere in Arid Region of Northwest China (NWC-ALIEX). The performance of the SZA method modeling surface characteristic is investigated.Results indicate, RegCM with SZA method (RCM_SZA) considerably improve the cold bias of original RegCM (RCM_ORI) in air surface temperature in East Asia with 1.2 degree increased in summer due to the lower albedo produced by SZA method which makes more solar radiation absorbed by the surface and used for heating the atmosphere near to the surface. The simulated diurnal cycle of ground temperature conforms fairly well to the observation in the nesting simulation in Northwest China, especially during the noon time when the SZA has the lowest value. However, the modification can not obviously affect the East Asia summer monsoon precipitation simulation although RCM_SZA produce more evapo-transpiration in surface with more than 2 Wm-2 increases in simulated latent heat fluxes both in East Asia and in Northwest China compared to RCM_ORI.

  2. Continuous renal replacement therapy. Keeping pace with changes in technology and technique.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ian

    2002-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of new technologies and techniques in acute health care means it can be difficult keeping pace. Most facilities, large or small, are usually in continuous evaluation of a new technology. Published reviews and professional group guidelines can assist the process of change for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) technologies and techniques. The current techniques and technologies are a mixed application of old and new technologies providing a combination of convective and diffusive solute clearance methods. There are a variety of anticoagulation approaches. New, purpose-built CRRT machines offer many advantages over old technology but their costs can be prohibitive and users do not always meet them with rapid behavioral change. Reading journal publications and texts, scientific meetings, education and training, Internet web site review/participation, quality improvement activities and an accurate local data base are the keys to keeping pace with changes and identifying whether a benefit can be anticipated and demonstrated. Possible changes for the future of techniques and technologies may be in the areas of modified approaches to continuous therapy with tailored approaches for specific patient care settings. Improved membrane characteristics for wider indications and the bio-artificial kidney are emerging along with blood pump and circuit design improvements, with new machine/operator interfaces.

  3. Contribution of ultraviolet and shortwave infrared observations to atmospheric correction of PACE ocean-color imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert J.; Gross-Colzy, Lydwine S.

    2016-05-01

    The Pre-Aerosol, Cloud, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission will carry into space a spectrometer measuring at 5 nm resolution in the ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) and at lower resolution in spectral bands in the NIR and shortwave infrared (SWIR). These observations have great potential for improving estimates of marine reflectance in the post-EOS era. In view of this, we evaluate, using simulations with a coupled radiation transfer code, the gain in marine reflectance accuracy expected by including observations in the UV and SWIR compared with just using observations in the visible to NIR. The study is performed for the PACE threshold aggregate bands with respect to the standard set of bands used to generate ocean color products. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) signal measured by the PACE spectrometer is simulated for a variety of realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The TOA reflectance and the marine reflectance of the simulated ensemble are decomposed into principal components, and the components of the TOA reflectance sensitive to the ocean signal identified. Inverse models are constructed to retrieve the principal components of the marine reflectance, allowing a reconstruction, therefore an estimation of the marine reflectance. Theoretical performance is quantified as a function of angular geometry, aerosol properties, and water type, showing a significant improvement in retrieval accuracy when using the extended spectral range. On average over all the situations considered (including sun glint), the RMS error is reduced from 0.0037 to 0.0024 at 412 nm, from 0.0013 to 0.0007 at 665 nm, and from 0.0010 to 0.0004 at 865 nm (Case 2 waters are better handled). The performance is degraded at large zenith angles and aerosol optical thickness, is better at scattering angles around 120-130 degrees, and exhibits little dependence on aerosol single scattering albedo and aerosol scale height.

  4. 42 CFR 460.150 - Eligibility to enroll in a PACE program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.150 Eligibility to enroll in...

  5. 42 CFR 460.150 - Eligibility to enroll in a PACE program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.150 Eligibility to enroll in...

  6. 42 CFR 460.150 - Eligibility to enroll in a PACE program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.150 Eligibility to enroll in...

  7. 42 CFR 460.150 - Eligibility to enroll in a PACE program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.150 Eligibility to enroll in...

  8. Effects of pacing magnitudes and forms on bistability width in a modeled ventricular tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xuemei; Zheng, Lixian; Mi, Yuanyuan; Qian, Yu

    2013-07-01

    Bistability in periodically paced cardiac tissue is relevant to cardiac arrhythmias and its control. In the present paper, one-dimensional tissue of the phase I Luo-Rudy model is numerically investigated. The effects of various parameters of pacing signals on bistability width are studied. The following conclusions are obtained: (i) Pacing can be classified into two types: pulsatile and sinusoidal types. Pulsatile pacing reduces bistability width as its magnitude is increased. Sinusoidal pacing increases the width as its amplitude is increased. (ii) In a pacing period the hyperpolarizing part plays a more important role than the depolarizing part. Variations of the hyperpolarizing ratio in a period evidently change the width of bistability and its variation tendency. (iii) A dynamical mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain the phenomena, which reveals the reason for the different effects of pulsatile and sinusoidal pacing on bistability. The methods for changing bistability width by external pacing may help control arrhythmias in cardiology.

  9. Evaluation of regional HIV provider quality groups to improve care for people living with HIV served in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Karen L; Agins, Bruce D; Ng, Darryl W; Monserrate, Joan M; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2012-08-01

    HIVQUAL-US is a capacity-building quality initiative for federally-funded HIV primary care clinics. Since 2004, HIVQUAL-US has supported the formation of regional groups, geographically-clustered clinics that build quality management capacity through collective learning about quality improvement. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine members' experiences participating in groups and their self-reported quality management and improvement outcomes related to HIV primary care. Interviews were conducted with a sample of three HIVQUAL-US coaches who facilitated 11 regional groups and with nine of the clinic representatives participating in the regional groups. The regional groups were heterogeneous in composition, focus and style, but shared common activities. Benefits included implementation of group quality improvement projects and opportunities for sharing activities and challenges. Improved performance in targeted areas, enhanced understanding/use of improvement methods, and increased quality management capacity were reported outcomes. Regional groups can effectively promote peer-to-peer learning, develop leadership, strengthen quality management capacity, and improve quality of care for the HIV population.

  10. Improving regional seismic event location through calibration of the international monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M; Hanley, W; M; Myers, S C; Pasyanos; Schultz, C; Swenson, J

    1999-07-27

    accurately known (Myers and Schultz., SSA 1999). Finally, the sixth component is the development of location uncertainty maps, demonstrating how calibration is helping to improve location accuracy across both seismically active and aseismic regions. Together, these components help us to ensure the accurate location of events, and just as important, help to ensure the accurate representation of bias uncertainty and random uncertainty in the predicted error ellipses.

  11. Development, implementation, and process evaluation of a regional palliative care quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Dudgeon, Deborah J; Knott, Christine; Chapman, Cheryl; Coulson, Kathy; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Preston, Sharon; Eichholz, Mary; Van Dijk, Janice P; Smith, Anne

    2009-10-01

    The delivery of optimal palliative care requires an integrated and coordinated approach of many health care providers across the continuum of care. In response to identified gaps in the region, the Palliative Care Integration Project (PCIP) was developed to improve continuity and decrease variability of care to palliative patients with cancer. The infrastructure for the project included multi-institutional and multisectoral representation on the Steering Committee and on the Development, Implementation and Evaluation Working Groups. After review of the literature, five Collaborative Care Plans and Symptom Management Guidelines were developed and integrated with validated assessment tools (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System and Palliative Performance Scale). These project resources were implemented in the community, the palliative care unit, and the cancer center. Surveys were completed by frontline health professionals (defined as health professionals providing direct care), and two independent focus groups were conducted to capture information regarding: 1) the development of the project and 2) the processes of implementation and usefulness of the different components of the project. Over 90 individuals from more than 30 organizations were involved in the development, implementation, and evaluation of the PCIP. Approximately 600 regulated health professionals and allied health professionals who provided direct care, and over 200 family physicians and medical residents, received education/training on the use of the PCIP resources. Despite unanticipated challenges, frontline health professionals reported that the PCIP added value to their practice, particularly in the community sector. The PCIP showed that a network in which each organization had ownership and where no organization lost its autonomy, was an effective way to improve integration and coordination of care delivery.

  12. Significantly Improving Regional Seismic Amplitude Tomography at Higher Frequencies by Determining S -Wave Bandwidth

    DOE PAGES

    Fisk, Mark D.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2016-05-03

    Characterizing regional seismic signals continues to be a difficult problem due to their variability. Calibration of these signals is very important to many aspects of monitoring underground nuclear explosions, including detecting seismic signals, discriminating explosions from earthquakes, and reliably estimating magnitude and yield. Amplitude tomography, which simultaneously inverts for source, propagation, and site effects, is a leading method of calibrating these signals. A major issue in amplitude tomography is the data quality of the input amplitude measurements. Pre-event and prephase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tests are typically used but can frequently include bad signals and exclude good signals. The deficiencies ofmore » SNR criteria, which are demonstrated here, lead to large calibration errors. To ameliorate these issues, we introduce a semi-automated approach to assess the bandwidth of a spectrum where it behaves physically. We determine the maximum frequency (denoted as Fmax) where it deviates from this behavior due to inflections at which noise or spurious signals start to bias the spectra away from the expected decay. We compare two amplitude tomography runs using the SNR and new Fmax criteria and show significant improvements to the stability and accuracy of the tomography output for frequency bands higher than 2 Hz by using our assessments of valid S-wave bandwidth. We compare Q estimates, P/S residuals, and some detailed results to explain the improvements. Lastly, for frequency bands higher than 4 Hz, needed for effective P/S discrimination of explosions from earthquakes, the new bandwidth criteria sufficiently fix the instabilities and errors so that the residuals and calibration terms are useful for application.« less

  13. Improving image accuracy of region-of-interest in cone-beam CT using prior image.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Jin Sung; Cho, Seungryong

    2014-03-06

    In diagnostic follow-ups of diseases, such as calcium scoring in kidney or fat content assessment in liver using repeated CT scans, quantitatively accurate and consistent CT values are desirable at a low cost of radiation dose to the patient. Region of-interest (ROI) imaging technique is considered a reasonable dose reduction method in CT scans for its shielding geometry outside the ROI. However, image artifacts in the reconstructed images caused by missing data outside the ROI may degrade overall image quality and, more importantly, can decrease image accuracy of the ROI substantially. In this study, we propose a method to increase image accuracy of the ROI and to reduce imaging radiation dose via utilizing the outside ROI data from prior scans in the repeated CT applications. We performed both numerical and experimental studies to validate our proposed method. In a numerical study, we used an XCAT phantom with its liver and stomach changing their sizes from one scan to another. Image accuracy of the liver has been improved as the error decreased from 44.4 HU to -0.1 HU by the proposed method, compared to an existing method of data extrapolation to compensate for the missing data outside the ROI. Repeated cone-beam CT (CBCT) images of a patient who went through daily CBCT scans for radiation therapy were also used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method experimentally. The results showed improved image accuracy inside the ROI. The magnitude of error decreased from -73.2 HU to 18 HU, and effectively reduced image artifacts throughout the entire image.

  14. Improving the chi-squared approximation for bivariate normal tolerance regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.

    1993-01-01

    Let X be a two-dimensional random variable distributed according to N2(mu,Sigma) and let bar-X and S be the respective sample mean and covariance matrix calculated from N observations of X. Given a containment probability beta and a level of confidence gamma, we seek a number c, depending only on N, beta, and gamma such that the ellipsoid R = (x: (x - bar-X)'S(exp -1) (x - bar-X) less than or = c) is a tolerance region of content beta and level gamma; i.e., R has probability gamma of containing at least 100 beta percent of the distribution of X. Various approximations for c exist in the literature, but one of the simplest to compute -- a multiple of the ratio of certain chi-squared percentage points -- is badly biased for small N. For the bivariate normal case, most of the bias can be removed by simple adjustment using a factor A which depends on beta and gamma. This paper provides values of A for various beta and gamma so that the simple approximation for c can be made viable for any reasonable sample size. The methodology provides an illustrative example of how a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and simple regression modelling can be used to improve an existing approximation.

  15. Improvements in the supervision of mining areas and seismoactive regions by measurements of antiparallel tilts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, D.

    1992-02-01

    Two arrangements where antiparallel tilts are used for survey problems were checked. Arrangement 1 measure the loading variations of the pillars in salt mines. Here the tilt meters were installed at both sides of the pillars in the same direction, approximately perpendicular to the walls. For the calibration (at a neighbouring pillar), parallel records from a commercial pressure sensor were used. The measuring threshold reached by arrangement 1 was 10 1 Pa. This is 10 4 times smaller than those of the commercial pressure sensors, for instance the pressure cushion sensor of Kessels, Flentge and Kolditz (Patent DD 228 348/1985). Arrangement 2 was installed to control horizontal strain variations measured in the usual way in order to identify and eliminate instrumental effects. The reliability of the strain meter records is of special interest in seismoactive regions. Here the tilt meters measure at both sides of a man-made vertical slot 10 m long and 1 m deep. The tilt meters and the strain meter had the same measuring direction. The tilt effects of such a slot, which were measured with arrangement 2, were of the same order of magnitude as the tidal tilt effects recorded before the drilling of the slot. The measuring threshold of this arrangement for strain effects is 10 -10. Compared with known survey methods, the use of antiparallel tilts improves the sensitivity (arrangement 1) and the SNR (both arrangements) and enlarges the reliability of the measuring results by mutual controls (arrangement 2).

  16. RNA interference improves myopathic phenotypes in mice over-expressing FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lindsay M; Garwick-Coppens, Sara E; Tupler, Rossella; Harper, Scott Q

    2011-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies, and other diseases of muscle, arise from recessive and dominant gene mutations. Gene replacement strategies may be beneficial for the former, while gene silencing approaches may provide treatment for the latter. In the last two decades, muscle-directed gene therapies were primarily focused on treating recessive disorders. This disparity at least partly arose because feasible mechanisms to silence dominant disease genes lagged behind gene replacement strategies. With the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) and its subsequent development as a promising new gene silencing tool, the landscape has changed. In this study, our objective was to demonstrate proof-of-principle for RNAi therapy of a dominant myopathy in vivo. We tested the potential of adeno-associated viral (AAV)-delivered therapeutic microRNAs, targeting the human Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) region gene 1 (FRG1), to correct myopathic features in mice expressing toxic levels of human FRG1 (FRG1(-high) mice). We found that FRG1 gene silencing improved muscle mass, strength, and histopathological abnormalities associated with muscular dystrophy in FRG1(-high) mice, thereby demonstrating therapeutic promise for treatment of dominantly inherited myopathies using RNAi. This approach potentially applies to as many as 29 different gene mutations responsible for myopathies inherited as dominant disorders.

  17. Improving plot- and regional-scale crop models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, F.; Rötter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and regional-scale models in simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the impacts of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the impacts of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a regional-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated impacts of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the impact mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and impact functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the impact mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the impacts of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate impact assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and regional-scale models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes, as needed for

  18. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank; Guizzardi, Diego; Sindelarova, Katerina; Muntean, Marilena; Van Dingenen, Rita; Granier, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3) higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27), demonstrating the large role that technology has

  19. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  20. A Study of Instructional Methods Used in Fast-Paced Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2006-01-01

    This study involved 15 secondary-level teachers who taught fast-paced classes at a university based summer program and similar regularly paced classes in their local schools in order to examine how teachers differentiate or modify instructional methods and content selections for fast-paced classes. Interviews were conducted with the teachers…

  1. Unintended Outcomes of University-Community Partnerships: Building Organizational Capacity with PACE International Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Kate; Clark, Lindie; Hammersley, Laura; Baker, Michaela; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; D'ath, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University provides experiential opportunities for students and staff to contribute to more just, inclusive and sustainable societies by engaging in activities with partner organizations. PACE International offers a range of opportunities with partners overseas. Underpinning PACE is a…

  2. What Pace Is Best? Assessing Adults' Learning from Slideshows and Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Kara

    2014-01-01

    When acquiring information from a 2D platform, self-control and/or optimal pacing may help reduce cognitive load and enhance learning outcomes. In the present research, adults viewed novel action sequences via one of four learning media: (1) self-paced slideshows, where viewers advanced through slides at their own pace by clicking a mouse, (2)…

  3. Society for the Teaching of Psychology and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee: U-Pace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Society for the Teaching of Psychology and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) partnered to disseminate U-Pace, a technology-enabled instructional model that promotes student success through deeper learning. UWM developed U-Pace in 2006 for an Introduction to Psychology course and, over time, evidence indicates that U-Pace not only…

  4. Time to Learn: Pacing and the External Framing of Teachers' Work 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula

    2003-01-01

    The article reports research in two South African grade 3 classrooms, one located within a disadvantaged school and one in an affluent suburban school. The research examines the pacing rules of different transmission practices: weak pacing (a slower rate of transmission) is associated with pedagogy in the working-class school, and strong pacing (a…

  5. In vivo mechanical study of helical cardiac pacing electrode interacting with canine myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Ma, Nianke; Fan, Hualin; Niu, Guodong; Yang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    Cardiac pacing is a medical device to help human to overcome arrhythmia and to recover the regular beats of heart. A helical configuration of electrode tip is a new type of cardiac pacing lead distal tip. The helical electrode attaches itself to the desired site of heart by screwing its helical tip into the myocardium. In vivo experiments on anesthetized dogs were carried out to measure the acute interactions between helical electrode and myocardium during screw-in and pull-out processes. These data would be helpful for electrode tip design and electrode/myocardium adherence safety evaluation. They also provide reliability data for clinical site choice of human heart to implant and to fix the pacing lead. A special design of the helical tip using strain gauges is instrumented for the measurement of the screw-in and pull-out forces. We obtained the data of screw-in torques and pull-out forces for five different types of helical electrodes at nine designed sites on ten canine hearts. The results indicate that the screw-in torques increased steplike while the torque time curves presente saw-tooth fashion. The maximum torque has a range of 0.3 1.9 N mm. Obvious differences are observed for different types of helical tips and for different test sites. Large pull-out forces are frequently obtained at epicardium of left ventricle and right ventricle lateral wall, and the forces obtained at right ventricle apex and outflow tract of right ventricle are normally small. The differences in pull-out forces are dictated by the geometrical configuration of helix and regional structures of heart muscle.

  6. Changes in Mood in New Enrollees at a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Stephanie M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Austin, Shane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine changes in mood after 9 months of enrollment in a Program of All- Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). DESIGN Cohort Study SETTING Alexian Brothers PACE–St. Louis, Missouri PARTICIPANTS Newly enrolled patients aged 55 or older, living in the PACE service area, eligible for nursing home care, and able to live safely in the community with continuous care for at least 9 months (n=182). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15 score at the pre- admission evaluation (PAE) and the 9 month evaluation (9ME). RESULTS Of the 182 patients evaluated, 27% (n=49) met the definition of depression as defined by the GDS-15 score of ≥6 at the PAE. At the 9ME, only 11% of patients met the depression criteria (p<0.001). Of the patients who met the criteria for depression at the PAE, 80% of patients (n=39) no longer met this criteria at the 9ME (p=0.029). Similar findings were observed by age, sex, and race. Greater improvement was observed among those who were depressed at the PAE; the depressed cohort improved by 5.0 points (p<0.001) on the GDS-15 scale from the PAE to the 9ME, whereas the non-depressed cohort improved by 0.6 points (p=0.003). CONCLUSION The use of PACE as an alternative intervention may be a good option to improve mood in older adults. PMID:26260643

  7. Optimal pacing for running 400- and 800-m track races

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, James

    2013-06-01

    We present a toy model of anaerobic glycolysis that utilizes appropriate physiological and mathematical consideration while remaining useful to the athlete. The toy model produces an optimal pacing strategy for 400-m and 800-m races that is analytically calculated via the Euler-Lagrange equation. The calculation of the optimum v(t) is presented in detail, with an emphasis on intuitive arguments in order to serve as a bridge between the basic techniques presented in undergraduate physics textbooks and the more advanced techniques of control theory. Observed pacing strategies in 400-m and 800-m world-record races are found to be well-fit by the toy model, which allows us to draw a new physiological interpretation for the advantages of common weight-training practices.

  8. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, Alexis R

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed “exercise-induced pain”. Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. PMID:25228823

  9. Pacing a chaotic plasma with a music signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, W. B.; Rosa, E.; Ticos, C. M.; Walkenstein, J. A.; Monti, M.

    2001-06-01

    An experimental plasma system is driven with a music signal output from a cd player. With the plasma in the periodic regime, optical detection of the light discharge allows the music to be heard from a loudspeaker. That does not happen when the plasma is chaotic, in which case we hear a noise-like hiss typical of chaos. Modulation is observed in the periodic paced plasma, but is not so obvious when the plasma is chaotic.

  10. What skills are tested in the new PACES examination?

    PubMed

    Elder, Andrew; McManus, Chris; McAlpine, Lawrence; Dacre, Jane

    2011-03-01

    The MRCP(UK) PACES examination has been sat by almost 40,000 candidates in 10 countries around the world since its introduction in 2001. The examination assesses skills of relevance to the practice and delivery of high quality clinical care and is the leading international postgraduate summative assessment of this kind. In 2009, the examination was revised, and this article describes those revisions, focussing on the clinical skills assessed.

  11. Systemic venous atrium stimulation in transvenous pacing after mustard procedure

    PubMed Central

    Puntrello, Calogero; Lucà, Fabiana; Rubino, Gaspare; Rao, Carmelo Massimiliano; Gelsomino, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young woman corrected with a Mustard procedure undergoing successful transvenous double chamber pacemaker implantation with the atrial lead placed in the systemic venous channel. The case presented demonstrates that, when the systemic venous atrium is separate from the left atrial appendage, the lead can be easily and safely placed in the systemic venous left atrium gaining satisfactory sensing and pacing thresholds despite consisting partially of pericardial tissue. PMID:25276305

  12. A new orthogonal lead for P synchronous pacing.

    PubMed

    Goldreyer, B N; Olive, A L; Leslie, J; Cannom, D S; Wyman, M G

    1981-11-01

    P synchronous pacing has long been identified as advantageous for patients with atrioventricular conduction defects and intact sinus node function. Prior endocavitary systems have been infrequently employed, because of unreliable P wave sensing from standard ring electrodes in the atrium or the requirement for a second atrial sensing lead. A single endocardial lead employing a unipolar ventricular stimulating electrode and an orthogonal P wave sensing design was developed and tested in 22 patients undergoing electrophysiologic study or pacemaker implantation. Thirteen centimeters from the stimulating tip of a standard permanent pacing lead, three or four electrodes with a surface area of one millimeter squared, equidistant from the tip, were placed circumferentially about the catheter. With the catheter tip normally placed in the right ventricular apex, atrial sensing electrodes were positioned in the mid-high lateral right atrium, adjacent to, but not affixed to, the right atrial wall. Bipolar orthogonal leads X and Y were obtained. In 22 patients, during sinus rhythm, atrial electrogram voltages in the X axis of 2.47 plus or minus 1.6 millivolts and 2.32 plus or minus 1.6 millivolts in the Y axis were recorded. QRS voltages of 0.078 millivolts and 0.073 millivolts, respectively, allowed dramatic ability to discriminate P from QRS complexes (P/QRS equals 32/1). There was no change in QRS or unipolar ventricular pacing. A single catheter designed for P synchronous pacing employing circumferentially placed atrial sensing electrodes has demonstrated unique atrial sensing voltages with excellent QRS signal rejection.

  13. The Regional Laboratory Connection. Improving Educational Practices Through Systematic Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Larry

    To examine the contributions and procedures of regional educational laboratories, the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) compiled a history of its own development and compared its approaches in several critical areas to those of seven other regional laboratories. A section on the purpose and development of the laboratories provides…

  14. Solar thermal electricity in 1998: An IEA/SolarPACES summary of status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Kolb, G.J.; Meinecke, W.; Trieb, F.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development activities sponsored by countries within the International Energy Agency`s solar thermal working group. SolarPACES, have helped reduce the cost of solar thermal systems to one-fifth that of the early pilot plants. Continued technological improvements are currently being proven in next-generation demonstration plants. These advances, along with cost reductions made possible by scale-up to larger production and construction of a succession of power plants, have made solar thermal systems the lowest-cost solar energy in the world and promise cost-competitiveness with fossil-fuel plants in the future. Solar thermal technologies are appropriate for a wide range of applications, including dispatchable central-station power plants where they can meet peak-load to near-base-load needs of a utility, and distributed, modular power plants for both remote and grid-connected applications. In this paper, the authors present the collective position of the SolarPACES community on solar electricity-generating technology. They discuss the current status of the technology and likely near-term improvements; the needs of target markets; and important technical and financial issues that must be resolved for success in near-term global markets.

  15. Combined obliquity and precession pacing of late Pleistocene deglaciations.

    PubMed

    Huybers, Peter

    2011-12-08

    Milankovitch proposed that Earth resides in an interglacial state when its spin axis both tilts to a high obliquity and precesses to align the Northern Hemisphere summer with Earth's nearest approach to the Sun. This general concept has been elaborated into hypotheses that precession, obliquity or combinations of both could pace deglaciations during the late Pleistocene. Earlier tests have shown that obliquity paces the late Pleistocene glacial cycles but have been inconclusive with regard to precession, whose shorter period of about 20,000 years makes phasing more sensitive to timing errors. No quantitative test has provided firm evidence for a dual effect. Here I show that both obliquity and precession pace late Pleistocene glacial cycles. Deficiencies in time control that have long stymied efforts to establish orbital effects on deglaciation are overcome using a new statistical test that focuses on maxima in orbital forcing. The results are fully consistent with Milankovitch's proposal but also admit the possibility that long Southern Hemisphere summers contribute to deglaciation.

  16. Unilateral Laryngeal Pacing System and Its Functional Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiping; Peng, Weiwei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Baker Y.

    2017-01-01

    Goal. To establish a reliable instrumental system for synchronized reactivation of a unilaterally paralyzed vocal fold and evaluate its functional feasibility. Methods. Unilateral vocal fold paralysis model was induced by destruction of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in anesthetized dogs. With a micro controller-based electronic system, electromyography (EMG) signals from cricothyroid (CT) muscle on the ipsilateral side were recorded and used to trigger pacing of paralyzed vocalis muscles. The dynamic movement of vocal folds was continuously monitored using an endoscope, and the opening and closing of the glottis were quantified with customized imaging processing software. Results. The recorded video images showed that left side vocal fold was obviously paralyzed after destructing the RLN. Using the pacing system with feedback triggering EMG signals from the ipsilateral CT muscle, the paralyzed vocal fold was successfully reactivated, and its movement was shown to be synchronized with the healthy side. Significance. The developed unilateral laryngeal pacing system triggered by EMG from the ipsilateral side CT muscle could be successfully used in unilateral vocal fold paralysis with the advantage of avoiding disturbance to the healthy side muscles. PMID:28203464

  17. Speed, pacing strategy and aerodynamic drafting in Thoroughbred horse racing.

    PubMed

    Spence, Andrew J; Thurman, Andrew S; Maher, Michael J; Wilson, Alan M

    2012-08-23

    Choice of pacing strategy and the benefit of aerodynamic drafting are thought to be key determinants of racing performance. These effects have largely been analysed without reference to final outcome, in small datasets with low temporal resolution, and a focus on human swimming, cycling and running. Here, we determined the position and speed of 44,803 racehorses, once per second, in 3,357 races ranging in length from 1006 to 4225 m (50.9-292.9 seconds duration) using a validated radio tracking system. We find that aerodynamic drafting has a marked effect on horse performance, and hence racing outcome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that race length-dependent pacing strategies are correlated with the fastest racing times, with some horses reaching a maximum speed in excess of 19 m s(-1). The higher speeds seen with certain pacing strategies may arise due to the nature of pack racing itself, or may be a reflection of individual capabilities, that is, corresponding to horses that perform well in roles suited to their 'front-running' or 'chaser' personality traits.

  18. Tropical birds have a slow pace of life

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Popko; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Walker, Amy; Williams, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    Tropical birds are relatively long-lived and produce few offspring, which develop slowly and mature relatively late in life, the slow end of the life-history axis, whereas temperate birds lie at the opposite end of this continuum. We tested the hypothesis that tropical birds have evolved a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR). We measured BMR of 69 species of tropical birds, the largest data set amassed on metabolic rates of tropical birds, and compared these measurements with 59 estimates of BMR for temperate birds. Our analyses included conventional least squares regression, regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts, and a comparison of BMR of 13 phylogenetically matched pairs, one species from the tropics and one from northerly temperate areas. Our triptych showed that tropical birds had a reduced BMR, compelling evidence for a connection between the life history of tropical birds and a slow pace of life. Further, tropical migrants breeding in temperate habitats had a lower BMR than did temperate residents, suggesting that these migrants have physiological traits consistent with a slow pace of life. In addition, we determined that tropical birds had a lower cold-induced peak metabolic rate and thermogenic metabolic scope than temperate species, a finding that is consistent with the hypothesis that their environment has not selected for high levels of thermogenesis, or alternatively, that a slow pace of life may be incompatible with high thermogenic capacity. We conclude that physiological function correlates with the suite of life-history traits. PMID:17517640

  19. Microbolometer Terahertz Focal Plane Array and Camera with Improved Sensitivity in the Sub-Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Ishi, Tsutomu; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito

    2015-10-01

    A pixel in an uncooled microbolometer terahertz (THz) focal plane array (FPA) has a suspended structure above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) substrate. An optical cavity structure is formed between a thin metallic layer deposited on the suspended structure and a thick metallic layer deposited on the ROIC surface. The geometrical optical cavity length for our previous pixel structure, 3-4 μm, is extended three times, so that responsivity can be increased in the sub-THz region. This modification is carried out by depositing a thick SiN layer on the thick metallic layer. The modified pixel structure is applied to 640 × 480 and 320 × 240 THz-FPAs with 23.5 μm pixel pitch. Minimum detectable powers per pixel (MDP) are evaluated for these FPAs at 4.3, 2.5, 0.6, and 0.5 THz, and the MDP values are found to be improved by a factor of ten at 0.6 and 0.5 THz. The MDP values of the THz-FPAs developed in this work are compared with those of other THz detectors, such as uncooled antenna-coupled CMOS (complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor) THz-FPAs and cooled bolometer arrays. It is found that our THz-FPAs are more sensitive in the sub-THz region than the CMOS THz-FPAs, while they are much less sensitive than the cooled bolometer arrays. These THz-FPAs are incorporated into a 640 × 480 THz camera and 320 × 240 THz camera, and imaging equipment is developed. The equipment consists of a linearly polarized sub-THz source, a collimator lens, a beam homogenizer, two wire grids, a quarter-wave plate, and two THz cameras, and sub-THz images are demonstrated. It should be mentioned for the equipment that imaging of transmission and reflection is realized by moving only the quarter-wave plate, and the reflection image is taken along a direction normal to a sample surface so that the reflection image is hardly deformed.

  20. Effectiveness of paced walking to music at home for patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chiung-Fang; Maa, Suh-Hwa; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Lai, Yu-Te; Hung, Tsung-Chieh; Chen, Hao-Cheng

    2012-08-01

    The use of rhythmic music is beneficial in assisting with the exercise intensity at home. This paper investigated the effects of paced walking to music at home with an 80% VO(2) peak for patients with COPD. A prospective randomized clinical trial consisting of a treatment group (n = 20) assigned to a 12-week period of paced walking to music at home, while the patients in the control group (n = 21) were only given educational information. The treatment response was measured based on the patient's score in the maximal exercise capacity test using the incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT), lung function, health- related quality of life (HRQOL) using the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and their health care utilization during baseline, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. The treatment group increased their distance in the ISWT from 243.5 ± 135.4 at baseline to 16 weeks (306.0 ± 107.3, p < 0.001), Borg RPE-D decreased from 2.2 ± 1.3 at baseline to 0.8 ± 1.1 (p < 0.001) at 16 weeks, and Borg RPE-L decreased from 1.2 ± 1.4 at baseline to 0.3 ± 0.7 (p < 0.05) at 16 weeks, and improved all of the domains of the SGRQ, compared to the control group. The paced walking to music at home program helps patients to achieve a higher-intensity exercise. It is easily incorporated into the care of COPD patients, providing them with a convenient, safe and enjoyable exercise.

  1. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  2. Operational improvement of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on SiC substrate with the amended depletion region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Majid; Orouji, Ali A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a high performance AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) on SiC substrates is presented to improve the electrical operation with the amended depletion region using a multiple recessed gate (MRG-HEMT). The basic idea is to change the gate depletion region and a better distribution of the electric field in the channel and improve the device breakdown voltage. The proposed gate consists of lower and upper gate to control the channel thickness. Also, the charge of the depletion region will change due to the optimized gate. In addition, a metal between the gate and drain including the horizontal and vertical parts is used to better control the thickness of the channel. The breakdown voltage, maximum output power density, cut-off frequency, maximum oscillation frequency, minimum noise figure, maximum available gain (MAG), and maximum stable gain (MSG) are some parameters for designers which are considered and are improved in this paper.

  3. Improving breakdown voltage performance of SOI power device with folded drift region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Hai-Ou, Li; Ping-Jiang, Huang; Gong-Li, Xiao; Nian-Jiong, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) high breakdown voltage (BV) power device with interlaced dielectric trenches (IDT) and N/P pillars is proposed. In the studied structure, the drift region is folded by IDT embedded in the active layer, which results in an increase of length of ionization integral remarkably. The crowding phenomenon of electric field in the corner of IDT is relieved by the N/P pillars. Both traits improve two key factors of BV, the ionization integral length and electric field magnitude, and thus BV is significantly enhanced. The electric field in the dielectric layer is enhanced and a major portion of bias is borne by the oxide layer due to the accumulation of inverse charges (holes) at the corner of IDT. The average value of the lateral electric field of the proposed device reaches 60 V/μm with a 10 μm drift length, which increases by 200% in comparison to the conventional SOI LDMOS, resulting in a breakdown voltage of 607 V. Project supported by the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2013GXNSFAA019335 and 2015GXNSFAA139300), Guangxi Experiment Center of Information Science of China (Grant No. YB1406), Guangxi Key Laboratory of Wireless Wideband Communication and Signal Processing of China, Key Laboratory of Cognitive Radio and Information Processing (Grant No. GXKL061505), Guangxi Key Laboratory of Automobile Components and Vehicle Technology of China (Grant No. 2014KFMS04), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61361011, 61274077, and 61464003).

  4. Probe Region Expression Estimation for RNA-Seq Data for Improved Microarray Comparability.

    PubMed

    Uziela, Karolis; Honkela, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing public gene expression databases contain a wealth of data for building an unprecedentedly detailed picture of human biology and disease. This data comes from many diverse measurement platforms that make integrating it all difficult. Although RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is attracting the most attention, at present, the rate of new microarray studies submitted to public databases far exceeds the rate of new RNA-seq studies. There is clearly a need for methods that make it easier to combine data from different technologies. In this paper, we propose a new method for processing RNA-seq data that yields gene expression estimates that are much more similar to corresponding estimates from microarray data, hence greatly improving cross-platform comparability. The method we call PREBS is based on estimating the expression from RNA-seq reads overlapping the microarray probe regions, and processing these estimates with standard microarray summarisation algorithms. Using paired microarray and RNA-seq samples from TCGA LAML data set we show that PREBS expression estimates derived from RNA-seq are more similar to microarray-based expression estimates than those from other RNA-seq processing methods. In an experiment to retrieve paired microarray samples from a database using an RNA-seq query sample, gene signatures defined based on PREBS expression estimates were found to be much more accurate than those from other methods. PREBS also allows new ways of using RNA-seq data, such as expression estimation for microarray probe sets. An implementation of the proposed method is available in the Bioconductor package "prebs."

  5. Data-driven methods to improve baseflow prediction of a regional groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianfang; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2015-12-01

    Physically-based models of groundwater flow are powerful tools for water resources assessment under varying hydrologic, climate and human development conditions. One of the most important topics of investigation is how these conditions will affect the discharge of groundwater to rivers and streams (i.e. baseflow). Groundwater flow models are based upon discretized solution of mass balance equations, and contain important hydrogeological parameters that vary in space and cannot be measured. Common practice is to use least squares regression to estimate parameters and to infer prediction and associated uncertainty. Nevertheless, the unavoidable uncertainty associated with physically-based groundwater models often results in both aleatoric and epistemic model calibration errors, thus violating a key assumption for regression-based parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification. We present a complementary data-driven modeling and uncertainty quantification (DDM-UQ) framework to improve predictive accuracy of physically-based groundwater models and to provide more robust prediction intervals. First, we develop data-driven models (DDMs) based on statistical learning techniques to correct the bias of the calibrated groundwater model. Second, we characterize the aleatoric component of groundwater model residual using both parametric and non-parametric distribution estimation methods. We test the complementary data-driven framework on a real-world case study of the Republican River Basin, where a regional groundwater flow model was developed to assess the impact of groundwater pumping for irrigation. Compared to using only the flow model, DDM-UQ provides more accurate monthly baseflow predictions. In addition, DDM-UQ yields prediction intervals with coverage probability consistent with validation data. The DDM-UQ framework is computationally efficient and is expected to be applicable to many geoscience models for which model structural error is not negligible.

  6. The developmental expression in the rat CNS and peripheral tissues of proteases PC5 and PACE4 mRNAs: comparison with other proprotein processing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, M; Seidah, N G; Pintar, J E

    1997-01-15

    Many peptides modulating cellular growth and differentiation in development are first synthesized as precursors that require proteolytic processing by the "prohormone convertase" (PC) family of endoproteases. Using in situ hybridization, we have here determined that two recently identified PC members, PC5 and PACE4, are expressed prenatally in spatial and temporal patterns that are each unique and distinct from those of previously characterized PCs. PC5 mRNA is first detected at e9 in highly restricted regions of the neural tube, in caudal myotomes, and at the materno-embryonic junction of the uterus. At e10, restricted PC5 mRNA expression is detected in the optic and otic vesicles, the roof of midbrain, and trunk myotomes. By midgestation (e13-e16), PC5 mRNA expression in the developing nervous system has expanded to multiple regions including hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord. By midgestational stages, PACE4 mRNA is expressed in multiple regions of the developing nervous system, generally distinct from PC5, and including a uniquely high level of expression in the ventricular zone of the hippocampus. In several peripheral organ systems, including lung and gut, we observed remarkably complementary patterns of PC5 and PACE4 expression. In addition, PACE4 transcripts are expressed in the heart and liver, whereas PC5 is expressed in the adrenal and kidney primordia. These results suggest that both PC5 and PACE4 may be involved in neuropeptide precursor processing in the developing nervous system and peripheral tissues with the general nonoverlapping expression patterns suggesting that PC5 and PACE4 may process distinct sets of proprotein substrates.

  7. Coronal View Ultrasound Imaging of Movement in Different Segments of the Tongue during Paced Recital: Findings from Four Normal Speakers and a Speaker with Partial Glossectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Flowers, Heather; Wong, Willy; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively describe aspects of coronal tongue movement in different anatomical regions of the tongue. Four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy read four repetitions of a metronome-paced poem. Their tongue movement was recorded in four coronal planes using two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound…

  8. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (REVA) IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING THROUGH CLIENT PARTNERSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReV A) Program is an applied research program t,1at is focusing on using spatial information and model results to support environmental decision-making at regional- down to local-scales. Re VA has developed analysis and assessment methods to...

  9. Improving Teaching and Learning in a Regional University Campus through a Focus on the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Zianian, Tahereh; Evans, Nina; Gillham, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the research process undertaken in a pilot study conducted at the University of South Australia's Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), and reports the feedback collected in relation to this process and the project overall. Academic staff and students from CRE's two sites located in the rural and regional cities of Whyalla and…

  10. Strategic Priorities for Improving Access to Quality Education in the Kurdistan Region--Iraq. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Culbertson, Shelly; Constant, Louay

    2014-01-01

    The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) began an ambitious reform of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI's) kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education system beginning in 2007 in an effort to modernize the curriculum, upgrade school facilities, and raise the quality of instruction. In 2010, RAND was asked to conduct a one-year study to assess…

  11. Improved Phase Characterization of Far-Regional Body Wave Arrivals in Central Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    extending from the Hindu Kush region of Pakistan/Afghanistan to the Makran coast and Zagros Mountains of Iran. The grooming removes everything...from 104 earthquakes that extend from the Hindu Kush region of Pakistan/Afghanistan to the Makran coast and Zagros mountains of Iran. Figure 6 shows a

  12. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation-induced regional blood flow responses correlate with improvement of motor signs in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M; Golchin, N; Tabbal, S D; Hershey, T; Videen, T O; Wu, J; Usche, J W M; Revilla, F J; Hartlein, J M; Wernle, A R; Mink, J W; Perlmutter, J S

    2008-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, yet the mechanism of action remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that STN DBS increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in immediate downstream targets but does not reveal which brain regions may have functional changes associated with improved motor manifestations. We studied 48 patients with STN DBS who withheld medication overnight and underwent PET scans to measure rCBF responses to bilateral STN DBS. PET scans were performed with bilateral DBS OFF and ON in a counterbalanced order followed by clinical ratings of motor manifestations using Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale 3 (UPDRS 3). We investigated whether improvement in UPDRS 3 scores in rigidity, bradykinesia, postural stability and gait correlate with rCBF responses in a priori determined regions. These regions were selected based on a previous study showing significant STN DBS-induced rCBF change in the thalamus, midbrain and supplementary motor area (SMA). We also chose the pedunculopontine nucleus region (PPN) due to mounting evidence of its involvement in locomotion. In the current study, bilateral STN DBS improved rigidity (62%), bradykinesia (44%), gait (49%) and postural stability (56%) (paired t-tests: P < 0.001). As expected, bilateral STN DBS also increased rCBF in the bilateral thalami, right midbrain, and decreased rCBF in the right premotor cortex (P < 0.05, corrected). There were significant correlations between improvement of rigidity and decreased rCBF in the SMA (r(s) = -0.4, P < 0.02) and between improvement in bradykinesia and increased rCBF in the thalamus (r(s) = 0.31, P < 0.05). In addition, improved postural reflexes correlated with decreased rCBF in the PPN (r(s) = -0.38, P < 0.03). These modest correlations between selective motor manifestations and rCBF in specific regions suggest possible regional selectivity for improvement of different motor

  13. Novel Insights into Structure-Activity Relationships of N-Terminally Modified PACE4 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Ly, Kévin; Beauchemin, Sophie; Desjardins, Roxane; Neugebauer, Witold; Dory, Yves L; Day, Robert

    2016-02-04

    PACE4 plays important roles in prostate cancer cell proliferation. The inhibition of this enzyme has been shown to slow prostate cancer progression and is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy. In previous work, we developed a highly potent and selective PACE4 inhibitor, the multi-Leu (ML) peptide, an octapeptide with the sequence Ac-LLLLRVKR-NH2 . Here, with the objective of developing a useful compound for in vivo administration, we investigate the effect of N-terminal modifications. The inhibitory activity, toxicity, stability, and cell penetration properties of the resulting analogues were studied and compared to the unmodified inhibitor. Our results show that the incorporation of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety leads to a loss of antiproliferative activity, whereas the attachment of a lipid chain preserves or improves it. However, the lipidated peptides are significantly more toxic when compared with their unmodified counterparts. Therefore, the best results were achieved not by the N-terminal extension but by the protection of both ends with the d-Leu residue and 4-amidinobenzylamide, which yielded the most stable inhibitor, with an excellent activity and toxicity profile.

  14. Is Conventional Cardiac Pacing Harmful in Patients with Normal Ventricular Function?

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Luiz Antonio Batista; Rassi, Salvador; Batista, Márcia Andery Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    Background Right ventricular pacing may be deleterious in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, but in patients with normal function the impact of this stimulation triggering clinically relevant ventricular dysfunction is not fully established. Objectives To evaluate the clinical, echocardiographic findings of patients with previously normal left ventricular function underwent implantation of a pacemaker. Methods Observational, cross-sectional study with 20 patients, who underwent implantation of pacemaker, prospectively followed-up, with the following inclusion criteria: normal left ventricular function defined by echocardiography and ventricular pacing higher than 90%. Were evaluated functional class (FC) (New York Heart Association), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), echocardiographic assessment (conventional and dyssynchrony parameters), and quality of life questionnaire (QLQ) (SF-36). The assessment was performed at ten days (t1), four months (t2), eight months (t3), 12 months (t4) and 24 months (t5). Results Conventional echocardiographic parameters and dyssynchrony parameters showed statistically significant variation over time. The 6MWT, FC, and BNP showed worsening at the end of two years. QLQ showed initial improvement and worsening at the end of two years. Conclusion The implantation of conventional pacemaker was associated with worsening in functional class, worsening in walk test, increased BNP levels, increased duration of QRS, and worsening in some domains of the QLQ at the end of two years. There were no changes in echocardiography measurements (conventional and asynchrony measures). PMID:24145393

  15. Event-related potential practice effects on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeffrey M.; Fox, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Practice can change the nature and quality of a stimulus-response relationship. The current study observed the effects of repeated administration of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in 12 healthy individuals, in an effort to establish distinct profiles associated with novel and practiced processing. Over four training sessions the mean number of correct responses on this demanding test of attention significantly improved and was approaching ceiling for most task conditions. Behavioural improvements were associated with significantly reduced amplitude of late Processing Negativity, a frontally distributed component of the event-related potential waveform associated with voluntary, limited-capacity activity within higher-order attentional systems. These results suggest that PASAT performance became more efficient as practice seemingly eased the strategic planning and coordination requirements the task places on frontally-mediated executive attention resources. The findings of the current study extend our understanding of the functional and behavioural mechanisms underlying the effects of practice. PMID:23717344

  16. Integrating fuzzy logic and statistics to improve the reliable delimitation of biogeographic regions and transition zones.

    PubMed

    Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana L; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the amphibian species of the Mediterranean basin to develop a consistent procedure based on fuzzy sets with which biogeographic regions and biotic transition zones can be objectively detected and reliably mapped. Biogeographical regionalizations are abstractions of the geographical organization of life on Earth that provide frameworks for cataloguing species and ecosystems, for answering basic questions in biogeography, evolutionary biology, and systematics, and for assessing priorities for conservation. On the other hand, limits between regions may form sharply defined boundaries along some parts of their borders, whereas elsewhere they may consist of broad transition zones. The fuzzy set approach provides a heuristic way to analyse the complexity of the biota within an area; significantly different regions are detected whose mutual limits are sometimes fuzzy, sometimes clearly crisp. Most of the regionalizations described in the literature for the Mediterranean biogeographical area present a certain degree of convergence when they are compared within the context of fuzzy interpretation, as many of the differences found between regionalizations are located in transition zones, according to our case study. Compared with other classification procedures based on fuzzy sets, the novelty of our method is that both fuzzy logic and statistics are used together in a synergy in order to avoid arbitrary decisions in the definition of biogeographic regions and transition zones.

  17. Levers for Change: Southeast Region State Initiatives to Improve High Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 024

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.; McColskey, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive report examines the strategies of the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) to improve high school graduation rates and student achievement and to increase the number of students leaving high school with the skills and knowledge necessary for the twenty-first…

  18. Improving Public-spending Efficiency in Czech Regions and Municipalities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 499

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ways of ensuring Czech regions and municipalities are fully motivated to make efficiency improvements in public service provision and so help achieve countrywide fiscal sustainability. The very large number of small municipalities in the Czech Republic means that scale economies are difficult to exploit and the policy options…

  19. A STUDY ON A COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE REGIONAL FIRE FIGHTING VALIDITY -Case Study in Bangkok, Thailand-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripramai, Keerati; Oikawa, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Katada, Toshitaka

    Generally, in order to improve some regional fire fighting validity, indispensable strategies are not only a reinforcement of the governmental fire fighting ability, but also a strengthening of the cooperative relationship between governmental and non-governmental fire fighting ability. However, for practical purposes, the effective strategy should be different depending on the actual situationin the subject area. So, in this study, we grasp the actual state and background of the problems that need to be solved for the improvement of the regional fire fighting validity in Bangkok as a case study, and examine the appropriate solution focusing on the relationship between official and voluntary fire fighting. Through some practicable activities such as interviews, investigati ons, and making the regional fire fighting validity map, it became clear that the problems of uncooperative relationship and the lack of trust between stakeholders should be solved first and foremost.

  20. Optimization of Density and Radiated Power Evolution Control using Magnetic ELM Pace-making in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Canik, John; Maingi, Rajesh; Sontag, Aaron C; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kugel, H.; LaBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown that lithium coating of the plasma facing components leads to improved energy confinement, and also the complete suppression of edge-localized modes (ELMs). Due to the lack of ELMs, however, such plasmas suffer from density and radiated power that increase throughout the discharge, often leading to a radiative collapse. Previous experiments have shown that ELMs can be controllably restored into these lithium-conditioned discharges using 3D magnetic perturbations, which reduces impurity accumulation. The use of magnetic ELM pace-making has been optimized to control the evolution of the density and impurity content. Short duration large amplitude 3D field pulses are used, so that the threshold field for destabilization is reached and ELMs triggered quickly, and the field is then removed. A second improvement was made by adding a negative-going pulse to each of the triggering pulses to counteract the vessel eddy currents and reduce time-averaged rotation braking. With these improvements to the triggering waveform, the frequency of the triggered ELMs was increased to over 60 Hz, reducing the average ELM size. The optimum frequency for attaining impurity control while minimizing energy confinement reduction was determined: fairly low frequency ELMs (20 Hz triggering) are sufficient to keep the total radiation fraction below 25% throughout the discharge and avoid radiative collapse, with little reduction in the plasma stored energy. When combined with improved particle fueling, the ELM-pacing technique has been successful in achieving stationary conditions in the line-averaged electron density and total radiated power.

  1. Evaluation of the RSTN (Regional Seismic Test Network) Network and Further Improvement to Automatic Association.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-30

    received at CSS and partly recorded at SCARS. A description of RSTN station localities is contained in Taylor and Qualheim (1983). All RSTN stations...Laboratory, Alexandria, Va. Taylor, S. R. and B. J. Qualheim (1983). Regional Seismic Test Network Site Descriptions , Lawrence Livermore Laboratory...RD-A146 395 EVALUATION OF THE RSTN (REGIONAL SEISMIC TEST NETWORK) 1/ NET44ORK AND FURTHE (U) TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA LABS R R

  2. An Autopsy Case of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Diaphragm Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hisashi; Kamei, Tetsumasa; Odake, Sanae; Nakano, Masayuki; Okeda, Riki; Kohriki, Shunsaku; Kawachi, Jun; Onders, Raymond P.; Yoshii, Fumihito

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a critical problem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We herein present the case of an autopsied patient with sporadic ALS who underwent diaphragm pacing (DP). The pathology showed several localized adhesions with a markedly atrophied diaphragm. A marked loss of motor neurons with Bunina bodies and phosphorylated TDP-43 positive inclusions was found in the spinal cord and primary motor cortex. Mild hyalinization and a few multinucleated giant cells were present around the electrode tracks in the diaphragm. However, no infiltration of inflammatory cells was detected. Our findings suggest that full-time DP might not cause severe damage to adjacent diaphragm tissue. PMID:27904119

  3. Dual-demand pacing for reciprocating atrioventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed Central

    Krikler, D; Curry, P; Buffet, J

    1976-01-01

    By using programmed electrical stimulation of the heart and studying the initiation and termination of reciprocating atrioventricular tachycardia two patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome were shown to respond rapidly and consistently to fixed-rate pacing. A demand pacemaker was implanted in each patient, having been modified so as to switch into the fixed-rate mode whenever the tachycardia began, thereby terminating the arrhythmia. This appears to be a promising form of treatment in patients with otherwise intractable paroxysmal tachycardia who have been shown by careful study to respond in this way. PMID:1268586

  4. An Autopsy Case of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Diaphragm Pacing.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hisashi; Kamei, Tetsumasa; Odake, Sanae; Nakano, Masayuki; Okeda, Riki; Kohriki, Shunsaku; Kawachi, Jun; Onders, Raymond P; Yoshii, Fumihito

    Respiratory insufficiency is a critical problem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We herein present the case of an autopsied patient with sporadic ALS who underwent diaphragm pacing (DP). The pathology showed several localized adhesions with a markedly atrophied diaphragm. A marked loss of motor neurons with Bunina bodies and phosphorylated TDP-43 positive inclusions was found in the spinal cord and primary motor cortex. Mild hyalinization and a few multinucleated giant cells were present around the electrode tracks in the diaphragm. However, no infiltration of inflammatory cells was detected. Our findings suggest that full-time DP might not cause severe damage to adjacent diaphragm tissue.

  5. Finding the sweet spot for non-apical RV pacing - "love's labor's lost or much ado about nothing:" a new angiographic technique to accomplish accurate physiological RV septal pacing in under 5 minutes from venous cannulation (or bust).

    PubMed

    Srivatsa, Sanjay S

    2014-03-01

    Right ventricular septal pacing has been long touted as a more physiologic alternative to right ventricular apical pacing. This article reviews the physiologic and clinical evidence for right ventricular septal versus apical pacing, and presents a novel angiographic technique for efficient attainment of the optimal septal pacing site. The reasons for equivocal clinical findings in septal versus apical pacing studies are discussed, and a new strategy for non-apical pacing clinical trial design utilizing comparative anatomic assessment of septal pacing site versus clinical outcome is proposed.

  6. Improving regions of deviation gait symmetry analysis with pointwise T tests.

    PubMed

    DiBerardino, Louis A; Ragetly, Chantal A; Hong, Sungjin; Griffon, Dominique J; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2012-05-01

    The regions of deviation method has been proposed as a technique for identifying regions of the gait cycle where joint motion deviates from normal (Shorter et al., 2008). The original statistical analysis distinguished only peak values during stance and swing. In the current article, we extend the approach by examining deviations from normal throughout the entire gait cycle using pointwise t tests. These methods were demonstrated on hind-limb joint angles of 21 Labrador Retrievers without and with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Results were compared with peak difference analysis previously performed on these subjects. All points in the gait cycle where symmetry deviations were significantly affected by cranial cruciate ligament disease (via pointwise t tests) were defined as regions of deviation from symmetry. Discriminant function analysis was used to consider single subjects and validate that these regions were truly areas of difference between groups. Regions of deviation encompassed previously determined significant peak differences, while extending analysis to additional areas of asymmetry. Discriminant function analysis suggested that the region of deviation method is a viable approach for distinguishing motion pattern differences. This enhanced method may help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind lameness and compensation.

  7. Proprotein convertase PACE4 is down-regulated by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor hASH-1 and MASH-1.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, I; Koide, S; Hasegawa, S I; Nakagawara, A; Tsuji, A; Matsuda, Y

    2001-12-15

    PACE4 is a mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase that activates transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-related proteins such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), BMP4 and Nodal and exhibits a dynamic expression pattern during embryogenesis. We recently determined that the 1 kb 5'-upstream region of the PACE4 gene contains 12 E-box (E1-E12) elements and that an E-box cluster (E4-E9) acts as a negative regulator [Tsuji, Yoshida, Hasegawa, Bando, Yoshida, Koide, Mori and Matsuda (1999) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 126, 494-502]. It is known that the mammalian achaete-scute homologue 1 (MASH-1) binds specifically to an E-box (CACCTG) sequence in collaboration with E47, a ubiquitously expressed basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor. To identify the roles of the bHLH factor and E-box elements in regulating PACE4 gene expression in neural development, we analysed the effects of human achaete-scute homologue 1 (hASH-1) on PACE4 gene expression with various neuroblastoma cell lines. The expressions of PACE4 and hASH-1 are correlated inversely in these cell lines. The overexpression of hASH-1 or MASH-1 causes a marked decrease in endogenous PACE4 gene expression but has no effect on the expression of other subtilisin-like proprotein convertases such as furin, PC5/6 and PC7/8. In contrast, other neural bHLH factors (MATH-1, MATH-2, neurogenin 1, neurogenin 2, neurogenin 3 and E47) did not affect PACE4 gene expression. Furthermore, an E-box cluster was a negative regulatory element for the promoter activity in NBL-S cells expressing hASH-1 at high level as determined by a luciferase assay. Binding of hASH-1 to the E-box cluster was confirmed by gel mobility-shift assay. In the present study we identified the PACE4 gene as one of the targets of hASH-1, which is a key factor in the initiation of neural differentiation. These results suggest that the alteration of PACE4 gene expression by hASH-1 causes rapid changes in the biological activities of TGF-beta-related proteins via

  8. Diastolic Function in Paced Children with Cardiac Defects: Septum vs Apex

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Michel Cabrera; Morejon, Adel Eladio Gonzalez; Serrano, Giselle Ricardo; Ramos, Dunia Barbara Benitez

    2015-01-01

    In children with structural congenital heart disease (CHD), the effects of chronic ventricular pacing on diastolic function are not well known. On the other hand, the beneficial effect of septal pacing over apical pacing is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different right ventricular (RV) pacing site on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in children with cardiac defects. Twenty-nine pediatric patients with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and CHD undergoing permanent pacing were prospectively studied. Pacing sites were RV apex (n = 16) and RV septum (n = 13). Echocardiographic assessment was performed before pacemaker implantation and after it, during a mean follow‑up of 4.9 years. Compared to RV septum, transmitral E-wave was significantly affected in RV apical pacing (95.38 ± 9.19 vs 83 ± 18.75, p = 0.038). Likewise, parameters at the lateral annular tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were significantly affected in children paced at the RV apex. The E´ wave correlated inversely with TDI lateral myocardial performance index (Tei index) (R2= 0.9849, p ≤ 0.001). RV apex pacing (Odds ratio, 0.648; confidence interval, 0.067-0.652; p = 0.003) and TDI lateral Tei index (Odds ratio, 31.21; confidence interval, 54.6-177.4; p = 0.025) predicted significantly decreased LV diastolic function. Of the two sites studied, RV septum prevents pacing-induced reduction of LV diastolic function. PMID:26352178

  9. Effects of continuous low-frequency pacing on immature canine diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Marzocchi, M; Brouillette, R T; Klemka-Walden, L M; Heller, S L; Weese-Mayer, D E; Brozanski, B S; Caliendo, J; Daood, M; Ilbawi, M N; Hunt, C E

    1990-09-01

    Although diaphragm pacing has been shown to be a practical method of supporting ventilation in children, its usefulness has been limited because of concern that continuous (24 h/day) diaphragm pacing would fatigue and damage the diaphragm. We examined the functional and structural effects of continuous low-frequency diaphragm pacing on the left hemidiaphragm of five immature dogs aged 65 +/- 2 (SD) days at onset of pacing. Stimulus parameters approximated those required to pace infants: frequency 11.1 Hz, inspiratory time 810 ms, and respiratory rate 20 breaths/min. Animals were paced 24 h/day for 24-28 days. Paced tidal volumes and airway occlusion pressures were unchanged at low (less than 15 Hz) stimulus frequencies but were reduced at high (greater than 20 Hz) stimulus frequencies. Although histologically the paced hemidiaphragms appeared normal, histochemical studies showed a conversion from a mixture of type I (54%) and type II (46%) fibers to a uniform population of type I fibers with high oxidative enzyme activity. Transformation of muscle type was also demonstrated by pyrophosphate gel electrophoresis; fast and slow isomyosin bands were noted in control specimens, whereas only slow isomyosin was identified in paced specimens. Thus, in immature dogs, continuous low-frequency pacing affects both function and structure of the diaphragm.

  10. Higher sympathetic nerve activity during ventricular (VVI) than during dual-chamber (DDD) pacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Morillo, C. A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We determined the short-term effects of single-chamber ventricular pacing and dual-chamber atrioventricular (AV) pacing on directly measured sympathetic nerve activity. BACKGROUND: Dual-chamber AV cardiac pacing results in greater cardiac output and lower systemic vascular resistance than does single-chamber ventricular pacing. However, it is unclear whether these hemodynamic advantages result in less sympathetic nervous system outflow. METHODS: In 13 patients with a dual-chamber pacemaker, we recorded the electrocardiogram, noninvasive arterial pressure (Finapres), respiration and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) during 3 min of underlying basal heart rate and 3 min of ventricular and AV pacing at rates of 60 and 100 beats/min. RESULTS: Arterial pressure was lowest and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was highest at the underlying basal heart rate. Arterial pressure increased with cardiac pacing and was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (change in mean blood pressure +/- SE: 10 +/- 3 vs. 2 +/- 2 mm Hg at 60 beats/min; 21 +/- 5 vs. 14 +/- 2 mm Hg at 100 beats/min; p < 0.05). Sympathetic nerve activity decreased with cardiac pacing and the decline was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (60 beats/min -40 +/- 11% vs. -17 +/- 7%; 100 beats/min -60 +/- 9% vs. -48 +/- 10%; p < 0.05). Although most patients showed a strong inverse relation between arterial pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity, three patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < or = 30%) showed no relation between arterial pressure and sympathetic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term AV pacing results in lower sympathetic nerve activity and higher arterial pressure than does ventricular pacing, indicating that cardiac pacing mode may influence sympathetic outflow simply through arterial baroreflex mechanisms. We speculate that the greater incidence of adverse outcomes in patients treated with single-chamber ventricular

  11. Improving accuracy in shallow-landslide susceptibility analyses at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Rago, Valeria; Frustaci, Francesco; Bruno, Claudia; Giordano, Stefania; Muto, Francesco; Gariano, Stefano L.; Pellegrino, Annamaria D.; Conforti, Massimo; Pascale, Stefania; Distilo, Daniela; Basile, Vincenzo; Soleri, Sergio; Terranova, Oreste G.

    2015-04-01

    Calabria (southern Italy) is particularly exposed to geo-hydrological risk. In the last decades, slope instabilities, mainly related to rainfall-induced landslides, repeatedly affected its territory. Among these, shallow landslides, characterized by abrupt onset and extremely rapid movements, are among the most destructive and dangerous phenomena for people and infrastructures. In this study, a susceptibility analysis to shallow landslides has been performed by refining a method recently applied in Costa Viola - central Calabria (Iovine et al., 2014), and only focusing on landslide source activations (regardless of their possible evolution as debris flows). A multivariate approach has been applied to estimating the presence/absence of sources, based on linear statistical relationships with a set of causal variables. The different classes of numeric causal variables have been determined by means of a data clustering method, designed to determine the best arrangement. A multi-temporal inventory map of sources, mainly obtained from interpretation of air photographs taken in 1954-1955, and in 2000, has been adopted to selecting the training and the validation sets. Due to the wide extend of the territory, the analysis has been iteratively performed by a step-by-step decreasing cell-size approach, by adopting greater spatial resolutions and thematic details (e.g. lithology, land-use, soil, morphometry, rainfall) for high-susceptible sectors. Through a sensitivity analysis, the weight of the considered factors in predisposing shallow landslides has been evaluated. The best set of variables has been identified by iteratively including one variable at a time, and comparing the results in terms of performance. Furthermore, susceptibility evaluations obtained through logistic regression have been compared to those obtained by applying neural networks. Obtained results may be useful to improve land utilization planning, and to select proper mitigation measures in shallow

  12. Improving Global Forecast System of extreme precipitation events with regional statistical model: Application of quantile-based probabilistic forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Hiteshri; Ghosh, Subimal; Karmakar, Subhankar

    2017-02-01

    Forecasting of extreme precipitation events at a regional scale is of high importance due to their severe impacts on society. The impacts are stronger in urban regions due to high flood potential as well high population density leading to high vulnerability. Although significant scientific improvements took place in the global models for weather forecasting, they are still not adequate at a regional scale (e.g., for an urban region) with high false alarms and low detection. There has been a need to improve the weather forecast skill at a local scale with probabilistic outcome. Here we develop a methodology with quantile regression, where the reliably simulated variables from Global Forecast System are used as predictors and different quantiles of rainfall are generated corresponding to that set of predictors. We apply this method to a flood-prone coastal city of India, Mumbai, which has experienced severe floods in recent years. We find significant improvements in the forecast with high detection and skill scores. We apply the methodology to 10 ensemble members of Global Ensemble Forecast System and find a reduction in ensemble uncertainty of precipitation across realizations with respect to that of original precipitation forecasts. We validate our model for the monsoon season of 2006 and 2007, which are independent of the training/calibration data set used in the study. We find promising results and emphasize to implement such data-driven methods for a better probabilistic forecast at an urban scale primarily for an early flood warning.

  13. Improving cervical region of interest by eliminating vaginal walls and cotton-swabs for automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Sankar; Li, Wenjing

    2008-03-01

    Image analysis for automated diagnosis of cervical cancer has attained high prominence in the last decade. Automated image analysis at all levels requires a basic segmentation of the region of interest (ROI) within a given image. The precision of the diagnosis is often reflected by the precision in detecting the initial region of interest, especially when some features outside the ROI mimic the ones within the same. Work described here discusses algorithms that are used to improve the cervical region of interest as a part of automated cervical image diagnosis. A vital visual aid in diagnosing cervical cancer is the aceto-whitening of the cervix after the application of acetic acid. Color and texture are used to segment acetowhite regions within the cervical ROI. Vaginal walls along with cottonswabs sometimes mimic these essential features leading to several false positives. Work presented here is focused towards detecting in-focus vaginal wall boundaries and then extrapolating them to exclude vaginal walls from the cervical ROI. In addition, discussed here is a marker-controlled watershed segmentation that is used to detect cottonswabs from the cervical ROI. A dataset comprising 50 high resolution images of the cervix acquired after 60 seconds of acetic acid application were used to test the algorithm. Out of the 50 images, 27 benefited from a new cervical ROI. Significant improvement in overall diagnosis was observed in these images as false positives caused by features outside the actual ROI mimicking acetowhite region were eliminated.

  14. The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verlinde, J.; Harrington, J. Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Yannuzzi, V. T.; Avramov, A.; Greenberg, S.; Johnson, N.; Zhang, G.; Poellot, M. R.; Mather, J. H.; Turner, D. D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Zak, B. D.; Prenni, A. J.; Daniel, J. S.; Kok, G. L.; Tobin, D. C.; Holz, R.; Sassen, K.; Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, P.; Tooman, T. P.; Ivey, M. D.; Richardson, S. J.; Bahramann, C. P.

    2007-01-01

    The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was conducted September 27 through October 22, 2004 on the North Slope of Alaska. The primary objective was to collect a data set suitable to study interactions between microphysics, dynamics and radiative transfer in mixed-phase Arctic clouds. Observations taken during the 1997/1998 Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment revealed that Arctic clouds frequently consist of one (or more) liquid layers precipitating ice. M-PACE sought to investigate the physical processes of these clouds utilizing two aircraft (an in situ aircraft to characterize the microphysical properties of the clouds and a remote sensing aircraft to constraint the upwelling radiation) over the Department of Energy s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) on the North Slope of Alaska. The measurements successfully documented the microphysical structure of Arctic mixed-phase clouds, with multiple in situ profiles collected in both single-layer and multi-layer clouds over two ground-based remote sensing sites. Liquid was found in clouds with temperatures down to -30 C, the coldest cloud top temperature below -40 C sampled by the aircraft. Remote sensing instruments suggest that ice was present in low concentrations, mostly concentrated in precipitation shafts, although there are indications of light ice precipitation present below the optically thick single-layer clouds. The prevalence of liquid down to these low temperatures could potentially be explained by the relatively low measured ice nuclei concentrations.

  15. The Transfer Functions of Cardiac Tissue during Stochastic Pacing

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Enno; Kucera, Jan P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The restitution properties of cardiac action potential duration (APD) and conduction velocity (CV) are important factors in arrhythmogenesis. They determine alternans, wavebreak, and the patterns of reentrant arrhythmias. We developed a novel approach to characterize restitution using transfer functions. Transfer functions relate an input and an output quantity in terms of gain and phase shift in the complex frequency domain. We derived an analytical expression for the transfer function of interbeat intervals (IBIs) during conduction from one site (input) to another site downstream (output). Transfer functions can be efficiently obtained using a stochastic pacing protocol. Using simulations of conduction and extracellular mapping of strands of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, we show that transfer functions permit the quantification of APD and CV restitution slopes when it is difficult to measure APD directly. We find that the normally positive CV restitution slope attenuates IBI variations. In contrast, a negative CV restitution slope (induced by decreasing extracellular [K+]) amplifies IBI variations with a maximum at the frequency of alternans. Hence, it potentiates alternans and renders conduction unstable, even in the absence of APD restitution. Thus, stochastic pacing and transfer function analysis represent a powerful strategy to evaluate restitution and the stability of conduction. PMID:19134481

  16. Data reproducibility of pace strategy in a laboratory test run

    PubMed Central

    de França, Elias; Xavier, Ana Paula; Hirota, Vinicius Barroso; Côrrea, Sônia Cavalcanti; Caperuto, Érico Chagas

    2016-01-01

    This data paper contains data related to a reproducibility test for running pacing strategy in an intermittent running test until exhaustion. Ten participants underwent a crossover study (test and retest) with an intermittent running test. The test was composed of three-minute sets (at 1 km/h above Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation) until volitional exhaustion. To assess pace strategy change, in the first test participants chose the rest time interval (RTI) between sets (ranging from 30 to 60 s) and in the second test the maximum RTI values were either the RTI chosen in the first test (maximum RTI value), or less if desired. To verify the reproducibility of the test, rating perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and blood plasma lactate concentration ([La]p) were collected at rest, immediately after each set and at the end of the tests. As results, RTI, RPE, HR, [La]p and time to exhaustion were not statistically different (p>0.05) between test and retest, as well as they demonstrated good intraclass correlation. PMID:27081672

  17. Self-paced model learning for robust visual tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenhui; Gu, Jason; Ma, Xin; Li, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    In visual tracking, learning a robust and efficient appearance model is a challenging task. Model learning determines both the strategy and the frequency of model updating, which contains many details that could affect the tracking results. Self-paced learning (SPL) has recently been attracting considerable interest in the fields of machine learning and computer vision. SPL is inspired by the learning principle underlying the cognitive process of humans, whose learning process is generally from easier samples to more complex aspects of a task. We propose a tracking method that integrates the learning paradigm of SPL into visual tracking, so reliable samples can be automatically selected for model learning. In contrast to many existing model learning strategies in visual tracking, we discover the missing link between sample selection and model learning, which are combined into a single objective function in our approach. Sample weights and model parameters can be learned by minimizing this single objective function. Additionally, to solve the real-valued learning weight of samples, an error-tolerant self-paced function that considers the characteristics of visual tracking is proposed. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our tracker on a recent tracking benchmark data set with 50 video sequences.

  18. Region of interest correction factors improve reliability of diffusion imaging measures within and across scanners and field strengths.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vijay K; Gonzalez, Christopher E; Landman, Bennett; Goh, Joshua; Reiter, David A; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures are commonly used as imaging markers to investigate individual differences in relation to behavioral and health-related characteristics. However, the ability to detect reliable associations in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies is limited by the reliability of the diffusion measures. Several studies have examined the reliability of diffusion measures within (i.e. intra-site) and across (i.e. inter-site) scanners with mixed results. Our study compares the test-retest reliability of diffusion measures within and across scanners and field strengths in cognitively normal older adults with a follow-up interval less than 2.25 years. Intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CoV) of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were evaluated in sixteen white matter and twenty-six gray matter bilateral regions. The ICC for intra-site reliability (0.32 to 0.96 for FA and 0.18 to 0.95 for MD in white matter regions; 0.27 to 0.89 for MD and 0.03 to 0.79 for FA in gray matter regions) and inter-site reliability (0.28 to 0.95 for FA in white matter regions, 0.02 to 0.86 for MD in gray matter regions) with longer follow-up intervals were similar to earlier studies using shorter follow-up intervals. The reliability of across field strengths comparisons was lower than intra- and inter-site reliabilities. Within and across scanner comparisons showed that diffusion measures were more stable in larger white matter regions (>1500 mm(3)). For gray matter regions, the MD measure showed stability in specific regions and was not dependent on region size. Linear correction factor estimated from cross-sectional or longitudinal data improved the reliability across field strengths. Our findings indicate that investigations relating diffusion measures to external variables must consider variable reliability across the distinct regions of interest and that correction factors can be used to improve consistency of measurement

  19. REGIONAL SCALE EVIDENCE FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY 1990 TO 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main aim of the international UNECE monitoring program ICP Waters under the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to assess, on a regional basis, the degree and geographical extent of the impact of atmospheric pollution, in particular acidification,...

  20. Improving Technical Vocational Education and Training in the Kurdistan Region--Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constant, Louay; Culbertson, Shelly; Stasz, Cathleen; Vernez, Georges

    2014-01-01

    As Iraq's Kurdistan region develops rapidly, it is creating jobs that require a solid education and technical skills. The government has launched an ambitious reform of basic and secondary education to increase its quality and has expanded opportunities for tertiary technical and university education. But expansion of secondary vocational…

  1. Sexual behavior regulated (paced) by the female induces conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Paredes, R G; Alonso, A

    1997-02-01

    The possibility that female-paced coital behavior induces a reward state of sufficient intensity and duration to induce conditioning was evaluated by the conditioned-place-preference paradigm. Ovariectomized female rats, treated with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, regulated (paced) their coital interactions with a stud male through a 2-compartment chamber in which only the female could freely move from one compartment to the other. The females that paced their coital interactions showed a clear place preference. In contrast, no change in preference was observed in the females that could not pace their coital contacts. The change in preference in the females that paced their coital interactions was similar to that produced by an injection of morphine (1 mg/kg). These results suggest that coital interactions in females can induce a reward state when the females can control the pace of the sexual interaction.

  2. Pacing a data transfer operation between compute nodes on a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-09-13

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for pacing a data transfer between compute nodes on a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin compute node, a chunk of an application message to a target compute node; sending, by the origin compute node, a pacing request to a target direct memory access (`DMA`) engine on the target compute node using a remote get DMA operation; determining, by the origin compute node, whether a pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine; and transferring, by the origin compute node, a next chunk of the application message if the pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine.

  3. Simulating Aerosol Indirect Effects with Improved Aerosol-Cloud- Precipitation Representations in a Coupled Regional Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Leung, L. Ruby; Fan, Jiwen

    2016-04-27

    This is a collaborative project among North Carolina State University, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego to address the critical need for an accurate representation of aerosol indirect effect in climate and Earth system models. In this project, we propose to develop and improve parameterizations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation feedbacks in climate models and apply them to study the effect of aerosols and clouds on radiation and hydrologic cycle. Our overall objective is to develop, improve, and evaluate parameterizations to enable more accurate simulations of these feedbacks in high resolution regional and global climate models.

  4. The pacing stress test: thallium-201 myocardial imaging after atrial pacing. Diagnostic value in detecting coronary artery disease compared with exercise testing

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, G.V.; Aroesty, J.M.; Parker, J.A.; McKay, R.G.; Silverman, K.J.; Als, A.V.; Come, P.C.; Kolodny, G.M.; Grossman, W.

    1984-05-01

    Many patients suspected of having coronary artery disease are unable to undergo adequate exercise testing. An alternate stress, pacing tachycardia, has been shown to produce electrocardiographic changes that are as sensitive and specific as those observed during exercise testing. To compare thallium-201 imaging after atrial pacing stress with thallium imaging after exercise stress, 22 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were studied with both standard exercise thallium imaging and pacing thallium imaging. Positive ischemic electrocardiographic changes (greater than 1 mm ST segment depression) were noted in 11 of 16 patients with coronary artery disease during exercise, and in 15 of the 16 patients during atrial pacing. One of six patients with normal or trivial coronary artery disease had a positive electrocardiogram with each test. Exercise thallium imaging was positive in 13 of 16 patients with coronary artery disease compared with 15 of 16 patients during atrial pacing. Three of six patients without coronary artery disease had a positive scan with exercise testing, and two of these same patients developed a positive scan with atrial pacing. Of those patients with coronary artery disease and an abnormal scan, 85% showed redistribution with exercise testing compared with 87% during atrial pacing. Segment by segment comparison of thallium imaging after either atrial pacing or exercise showed that there was a good correlation of the location and severity of the thallium defects (r . 0.83, p . 0.0001, Spearman rank correlation). It is concluded that the location and presence of both fixed and transient thallium defects after atrial pacing are closely correlated with the findings after exercise testing.

  5. Sign language users' education and employment levels: keeping pace with changes in the general Australian population?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population comparability and sampling errors that may affect survey-based research. The analysis shows that sign language users are approaching parity with the general population on some measures of educational attainment, but there remains a gap in employment levels and particularly income. Sign language users aged 25-44 years show higher attainment than those in the 45-64 age group, suggesting that educational reforms in the last 30 years are having a positive impact on both education and employment levels. However, younger sign language users are still struggling to keep pace with improvements in certain employment outcomes that are seen in the general population.

  6. Toward Improved Land Surface Initialization in Support of Regional WRF Forecasts at the Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Kabuchanga, Eric; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.

    2014-01-01

    SPoRT/SERVIR/RCMRD/KMS Collaboration: Builds off strengths of each organization. SPoRT: Transition of satellite, modeling and verification capabilities; SERVIR-Africa/RCMRD: International capacity-building expertise; KMS: Operational organization with regional weather forecasting expertise in East Africa. Hypothesis: Improved land-surface initialization over Eastern Africa can lead to better temperature, moisture, and ultimately precipitation forecasts in NWP models. KMS currently initializes Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with NCEP/Global Forecast System (GFS) model 0.5-deg initial / boundary condition data. LIS will provide much higher-resolution land-surface data at a scale more representative to regional WRF configuration. Future implementation of real-time NESDIS/VIIRS vegetation fraction to further improve land surface representativeness.

  7. Improving hot region prediction by parameter optimization of density clustering in PPI.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposed an optimized algorithm which combines density clustering of parameter selection with feature-based classification for hot region prediction. First, all the residues are classified by SVM to remove non-hot spot residues, then density clustering of parameter selection is used to find hot regions. In the density clustering, this paper studies how to select input parameters. There are two parameters radius and density in density-based incremental clustering. We firstly fix density and enumerate radius to find a pair of parameters which leads to maximum number of clusters, and then we fix radius and enumerate density to find another pair of parameters which leads to maximum number of clusters. Experiment results show that the proposed method using both two pairs of parameters provides better prediction performance than the other method, and compare these two predictive results, the result by fixing radius and enumerating density have slightly higher prediction accuracy than that by fixing density and enumerating radius.

  8. On improving cold region hydrological processes in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, Arman; Sushama, Laxmi; Verseghy, Diana; Harvey, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Regional and global climate model simulated streamflows for high-latitude regions show systematic biases, particularly in the timing and magnitude of spring peak flows. Though these biases could be related to the snow water equivalent and spring temperature biases in models, a good part of these biases is due to the unaccounted effects of non-uniform infiltration capacity of the frozen ground and other related processes. In this paper, the treatment of frozen water in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which is used in the Canadian regional and global climate models, is modified to include fractional permeable area, supercooled liquid water and a new formulation for hydraulic conductivity. The impact of these modifications on the regional hydrology, particularly streamflow, is assessed by comparing three simulations performed with the original and two modified versions of CLASS, driven by atmospheric forcing data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for the 1990-2001 period over a northeast Canadian domain. The two modified versions of CLASS differ in the soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations, with one version being based on formulations from a previous study and the other one is newly proposed. Results suggest statistically significant decreases in infiltration and therefore soil moisture during the snowmelt season for the simulation with the new hydraulic conductivity and matric potential formulations and fractional permeable area concept compared to the original version of CLASS, which is also reflected in the increased spring surface runoff and streamflows in this simulation with modified CLASS over most of the study domain. The simulated spring peaks and their timing in this simulation are also in better agreement to those observed. This study thus demonstrates the importance of treatment of frozen water for realistic simulation of streamflows.

  9. Improving regional health care in West Africa using current space systems and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemison, Mae C.; Thomas, J. Segun

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved with establishing an integrated satellite health network in West Africa based on currently available technology. The system proposed makes use of a central national facility capable of transmitting and receiving voice/data and video signals from the entire country. Regional, field and local facilities provide timely epidemiologic information, sharing of medical expertise through telemedical consultations, enhance optimized resource distribution and build a framework for telecommunications for the entire country.

  10. Improving regional health care in West Africa using current space systems and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemison, Mae C.; Thomas, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved with establishing an integrated satellite health network in West Africa based on currently available technology. The system proposed makes use of a central national facility capable of transmitting and receiving voice/data and video signals from the entire country. Regional, field and local facilities provides timely epidemiologic information, sharing of medical expertise through telemedical consultations, enhances optimized resource distribution and builds a framework for telecommunications for the entire country.

  11. Improvements to Regional Explosion Identification using Attenuation Models of the Lithosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R

    2009-03-30

    Regional P/S amplitudes have been recognized as an effective discriminant between earthquakes and explosions. While closely spaced earthquake and explosions generally discriminate easily, the application of this technique to broad regions has been hampered by large variations in the amplitude of regional phases due to the attenuation structure of the crust and upper mantle. Making use of a recent P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the lithosphere, we have found that correcting the events using our amplitude methodology significantly reduces the scattering in the earthquake population. We demonstrate an application of this technique to station NIL (Nilore, Pakistan) using broad area earthquakes and the 1998 Indian nuclear explosion recorded at the station using the Pn/Lg discriminant in the 1-2 Hz passband. We find that the explosion, which is lost in the scatter of the earthquakes in the uncorrected discriminant, clearly separates by correcting for the attenuation structure. We see a similar reduction in scatter and separation for the Pn/Sn and Pg/Lg discriminants in the same passband.

  12. Advanced Information Processing. Volume II. Instructor's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college insructors and administrators in implementing an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their…

  13. Advanced Information Processing. Volume I. Student's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use in an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their decision-making skills. This volume contains two parts of the…

  14. The Heartland Region P-Index Conservation Innovation Grant: protecting water quality through improved phosphorus management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing phosphorus loss from agricultural land is important for improvement and protection of surface water quality. Agricultural models can be used to determine management impacts on P loss and therefore serve as a guide for recommending best management practices. However, the models must be comp...

  15. Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research Design Studies on Instructional Pacing.

    PubMed

    Tincani, Matt; De Mers, Marilyn

    2016-11-01

    More than four decades of research on instructional pacing has yielded varying and, in some cases, conflicting findings. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize single-case research design (SCRD) studies on instructional pacing to determine the relative benefits of brisker or slower pacing. Participants were children and youth with and without disabilities in educational settings, excluding higher education. Tau-U, a non-parametric statistic for analyzing data in SCRD studies, was used to determine effect size estimates. The article extraction yielded 13 instructional pacing studies meeting contemporary standards for high quality SCRD research. Eleven of the 13 studies reported small to large magnitude effects when two or more pacing parameters were compared, suggesting that instructional pacing is a robust instructional variable. Brisker instructional pacing with brief inter-trial interval (ITI) produced small increases in correct responding and medium to large reductions in challenging behavior compared with extended ITI. Slower instructional pacing with extended wait-time produced small increases in correct responding, but also produced small increases in challenging behavior compared with brief wait-time. Neither brief ITI nor extended wait-time meets recently established thresholds for evidence-based practice, highlighting the need for further instructional pacing research.

  16. A hierarchical Bayesian GEV model for improving local and regional flood quantile estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Carlos H. R.; Lall, Upmanu; Troy, Tara; Devineni, Naresh

    2016-10-01

    We estimate local and regional Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution parameters for flood frequency analysis in a multilevel, hierarchical Bayesian framework, to explicitly model and reduce uncertainties. As prior information for the model, we assume that the GEV location and scale parameters for each site come from independent log-normal distributions, whose mean parameter scales with the drainage area. From empirical and theoretical arguments, the shape parameter for each site is shrunk towards a common mean. Non-informative prior distributions are assumed for the hyperparameters and the MCMC method is used to sample from the joint posterior distribution. The model is tested using annual maximum series from 20 streamflow gauges located in an 83,000 km2 flood prone basin in Southeast Brazil. The results show a significant reduction of uncertainty estimates of flood quantile estimates over the traditional GEV model, particularly for sites with shorter records. For return periods within the range of the data (around 50 years), the Bayesian credible intervals for the flood quantiles tend to be narrower than the classical confidence limits based on the delta method. As the return period increases beyond the range of the data, the confidence limits from the delta method become unreliable and the Bayesian credible intervals provide a way to estimate satisfactory confidence bands for the flood quantiles considering parameter uncertainties and regional information. In order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed hierarchical Bayesian model for regional flood frequency analysis, we estimate flood quantiles for three randomly chosen out-of-sample sites and compare with classical estimates using the index flood method. The posterior distributions of the scaling law coefficients are used to define the predictive distributions of the GEV location and scale parameters for the out-of-sample sites given only their drainage areas and the posterior distribution of the

  17. Using a Coupled Lake Model with WRF to Improve High-Resolution Regional Climate Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallard, M.; Bullock, R.; Nolte, C. G.; Alapaty, K.; Otte, T.; Gula, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lakes can play a significant role in regional climate by modifying air masses through fluxes of heat and moisture and by modulating inland extremes in temperature. Representing these effects becomes more important as regional climate modeling efforts employ finer grid spacing in order to simulate smaller scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model does not simulate lakes explicitly. Instead, lake points are treated as ocean points, with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) interpolated from the nearest neighboring ocean point in the driving coarse-scale fields. This can result in substantial errors for inland lakes such as the Great Lakes. Although prescribed lake surface temperatures (LSTs) can be used for retrospective modeling applications, this may not be desirable for applications involving downscaling future climate scenarios from a global climate model (GCM). In such downscaling simulations, lakes that impact the regional climate in the area of interest may not be resolved by the coarser global input fields. Explicitly simulating the LST would allow WRF to better represent interannual variability in regions significantly affected by lakes, and the influence of such variability on temperature and precipitation patterns. Therefore, coupling a lake model to WRF may lead to more reliable assessments of the impacts of extreme events on human health and the environment. We employ a version of WRF coupled to the Freshwater Lake model, FLake (Gula and Peltier 2012). FLake is a 1D bulk lake model which provides updated LSTs and ice coverage throughout the integration. This two-layer model uses a temperature-depth profile which includes a homogeneous mixed layer at the surface and a thermocline below. The shape of the thermocline is assumed, based on past theoretical and observational studies. Therefore, additional variables required for FLake to run are minimal, and it does not require tuning for individual lakes. These characteristics are advantageous for a

  18. Improving Geological Map of Soil Covered Area in Yogyakarta Region by Using FTIR and ASTER Image, Response to 2006 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barianto, D. H.; Setijadji, L. D.; Watanabe, K.

    2007-05-01

    Yogyakarta region is located in the southeastern part of Central Java, Indonesia, that mostly covered by product of Quaternary deposits of Merapi volcano and was entirely mapped as single geologic unit (i.e. the Young Volcanic Deposits of Merapi Volcano). This simplicity will be affected for making detail hazard map regarding to last divesting earthquake. The problem for tropical region with highly weathered is make soil covered almost the entire surface and difficult to distinguish kinds of parent/ origin rock. However the research on soil in relation to the spread of lithology in this region is rarely conducted. Geologists are challenged to improve the existing geological map by using the recent data and methods especially in soil covered area in this case by using FTIR and ASTER image. At least 50 samples of various rocks and soils were taken for FTIR which is combining with ASTER Image to create new border of geological units for improving Geological Map especially on Quaternary unit. Soil distribution related to parent rock can be recognize such as Tertiary units of tuffaceous limestone of Sentolo Fm, volcanic breccia of Nglanggran Fm, diorite from Godean and Gendol, more detailed of Quaternary Merapi's sediments and new unit as black clay from Gantiwarno which all have different physical properties. Each soils distribution and border is delineated by using satellite image from ASTER. Hopefully this research will be able to support other research which is need more accurate sedimentary unit border in Yogyakarta region.

  19. Towards Improved MODIS Aerosol Retrieval over the US East Coast Region: Re-examining the Aerosol Model and Surface Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.

    2002-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and recently the Aqua platform, produces a set of aerosol products over both ocean and land regions. Previous validation efforts have shown that from a global perspective, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is successfully retrieved from MODIS. Even over coastal regions, the over- land and over-ocean retrievals are consistent with each other, and well matched with ground-based sunphotometer measurements (such as AERONET). However, the East Coast of the United States is one region where there is consistently a discrepancy between land and ocean retrievals. Over the ocean, MODIS AODs are consistent with coastal sunphotometer measurements, but over land, AODs are consistently over- estimated. In this study we use field data from the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites experiment (CLAMS), (held during summer 2001) to determine the aerosol properties at a number of sites. Using the 6-S radiative transfer package, we compute simulated satellite radiances and compare them with observed MODIS radiances. We believe that the AOD over-estimation is not likely due to an incorrect choice of the urban/industrial aerosol models. Using 6-S to do an atmospheric correction for a very low AOD case, we show rather, that the discrepancies are likely a result of incorrect assumptions about the surface reflectance properties. Understanding and improving MODIS retrievals over the East Coast will not only improve the global quality of MODIS, but also would enable the use of MODIS as a tool for monitoring regional aerosol events.

  20. Improving a regional outreach program in a large health system using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Gabbert, John P; Trine, Robert M; Bintz, Marilu

    2012-06-01

    As government-insured populations grow, commercially insured populations decrease, and declining insurance reimbursements pressure cost and revenue. Health systems must strive to improve quality while lowering costs. Large medical centers with rural sites must understand their geography and how distances impede access to services, thereby affecting patient health. Without relevant data, which can be provided through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology, improvement is often delayed. Gundersen Lutheran Health System, a large multi-specialty system with urban and rural sites in 3 states, is developing an evaluative outreach GIS to facilitate understanding of, and response to, rural health needs. Investing in GIS technology furthers the health system's ability to deliver superior, affordable care.

  1. Identifying Isotropic Events using an Improved Regional Moment Tensor Inversion Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Dreger, Douglas S.; Ford, Sean R.; Walter, William R.

    2016-12-08

    Research was carried out investigating the feasibility of using a regional distance seismic waveform moment tensor inverse procedure to estimate source parameters of nuclear explosions and to use the source inversion results to develop a source-type discrimination capability. The results of the research indicate that it is possible to robustly determine the seismic moment tensor of nuclear explosions, and when compared to natural seismicity in the context of the a Hudson et al. (1989) source-type diagram they are found to separate from populations of earthquakes and underground cavity collapse seismic sources.

  2. Bias correction of the CCSM4 for improved regional climate modeling of the North American monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jonathan D. D.; Jin, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates how a form of bias correction using linear regression improves the limitations of the community climate system model (CCSM) version 4 when it is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the North American monsoon (NAM). Long-term biases in the CCSM dataset were removed using the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) dataset as a baseline, from which a physically consistent set of bias-corrected variables were created. To quantitatively identify the effects of CCSM data on the NAM simulations, three 32-year climatologies were generated with WRF driven by (1) CFSR, (2) original CCSM, and (3) bias-corrected CCSM data. The WRF-CFSR simulations serve as a baseline for comparison. With the bias correction, onset dates simulated by WRF bias-corrected CCSM data were generally within a week of the WRF-CFSR climatology, while WRF using the original CCSM data occur up to 3-4 weeks too early over the core of the NAM. Additionally, bias-correction led to improvements in the mature phase of the NAM, reducing August root-mean-square-error values by 26 % over the core of the NAM and 36 % over the northern periphery. Comparison of the CFSR and the bias-corrected CCSM climatologies showed marked consistency in the general evolution of the NAM system. Dry biases in the NAM precipitation existed in each climatology with the original CCSM performing the poorest when compared to observations. The poor performance of the original CCSM simulations stem from biases in the thermodynamic profile supplied to the model through lateral boundary conditions. Bias-correction improved the excessive capping inversions, and mid-level mixing ratio dry biases (2-3 g kg-1) present in the CCSM simulations. Improvements in the bias-corrected CCSM data resulted in greater convective activity and a more representative seasonal distribution of precipitation.

  3. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Black, Jon; Tedesco, John

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.

  4. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; ...

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based onmore » state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.« less

  5. Space-based NOx emission estimates over remote regions improved in DECSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jieying; van der A, Ronald Johannes; Mijling, Bas; Felicitas Levelt, Pieternel

    2017-03-01

    We improve the emission estimate algorithm DECSO (Daily Emission estimates Constrained by Satellite Observations) to better detect NOx emissions over remote areas. The new version is referred to as DECSO v5. The error covariance of the sensitivity of NO2 column observations to gridded NOx emissions has been better characterized. This reduces the background noise of emission estimates by a factor of 10. An emission update constraint has been added to avoid unrealistic day-to-day fluctuations of emissions. We estimate total NOx emissions, which include biogenic emissions that often drive the seasonal cycle of the NOx emissions. We demonstrate the improvements implemented in DECSO v5 for the domain of East Asia in the year 2012 and 2013. The emissions derived by DECSO v5 are in good agreement with other inventories like MIX. In addition, the improved algorithm is able to better capture the seasonality of NOx emissions and for the first time it reveals ship tracks near the Chinese coasts that are otherwise hidden by the outflow of NO2 from the Chinese mainland. The precision of monthly emissions derived by DECSO v5 for each grid cell is about 20 %.

  6. Percutaneously injectable fetal pacemaker: electronics, pacing thresholds, and power budget.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Adriana; Chmait, Ramen; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv; Zheng, Kaihui; Loeb, Gerald E

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a cardiac pacemaker that is designed to be implanted percutaneously into a fetus to treat complete heart block and consequent hydrops fetalis, which is otherwise fatal. One of the most significant considerations for this device is the technical challenges presented by the battery and charging system. The size of the device is limited to about 3 mm in diameter; batteries on this scale have very small charge capacities. The smaller capacity means that the device needs to be designed so that it uses as little current as possible and so that its battery can be recharged wirelessly. We determined the pacing thresholds for a simple relaxation oscillator that can be assembled from discrete, surface mount components and analyzed the power consumption of the device given different electrode configurations and stimulus parameters. An inductive recharging system will be required for some patients; it is feasible within the package constraints and under development.

  7. An analysis of the dynamic avalanche mechanism of an improved FCE diode with a deep p+ adjusting region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailin, Wang; Lei, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    An improved field charge extraction (FCE) diode with a deep p+ adjusting region at the cathode side is studied. The reverse recovery mechanism and electric field gradient are thoroughly analyzed and validated using ISE simulation results. The results show that, based on the premise of ensuring the static characteristics, the improved FCE diode can clearly improve the softness and effectively suppress the peak electric field of the nn- junction at the cathode side during reverse recovery, and thus has a high dynamic avalanche capability compared with conventional FCE diodes. Project supported by the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (RFDP) (No. 20136118110004), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51077110, 51477137).

  8. Improvement of light penetration based silkworm gender identification with confined regions of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Sa-ngiamsak, Chiranut

    2013-06-01

    Based on our previous work on light penetration-based silkworm gender identification, we find that unwanted optical noises scattering from the surrounding area near the silkworm pupa and the transparent support are sometimes analyzed and misinterpreted leading to incorrect silkworm gender identification. To alleviate this issue, we place a small rectangular hole on a transparent support so that it not only helps the user precisely place the silkworm pupa but also functions as a region of interest (ROI) for blocking unwanted optical noises and for roughly locating the abdomen region in the image for ease of image processing. Apart from the external ROI, we also assign a smaller ROI inside the image in order to remove strong scattering light from all edges of the external ROI and at the same time speed up our image processing operations. With only the external ROI in function, our experiment shows a measured 86% total accuracy in identifying gender of 120 silkworm pupae with a measured average processing time of 38 ms. Combining the external ROI and the image ROI together revamps the total accuracy in identifying the silkworm gender to 95% with a measured faster 18 ms processing time.

  9. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer.

    PubMed

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1-6) and at the end of a season (round 29-34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing.

  10. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1–6) and at the end of a season (round 29–34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  11. The Influence of Collective Behavior on Pacing in Endurance Competitions

    PubMed Central

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise; Peters, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of theoretical models have been proposed in recent years to explain pacing strategies observed in individual competitive endurance events. These have typically related to the internal regulatory processes that inform the making of decisions relating to muscular work rate. Despite a substantial body of research which has investigated the influence of collective group dynamics on individual behaviors in various animal species, this issue has not been comprehensively studied in individual athletic events. This is somewhat surprising given that athletes often directly compete in close proximity to one another, and that collective behavior has also been observed in other human environments including pedestrian interactions and financial market trading. Whilst the reasons for adopting collective behavior are not fully understood, collective behavior is thought to result from individual agents following simple local rules that result in seemingly complex large systems that act to confer some biological advantage to the collective as a whole. Although such collective behaviors may generally be beneficial, competitive endurance events are complicated by the fact that increasing levels of physiological disruption as activity progresses may compromise the ability of some individuals to continue to interact with other group members. This could result in early fatigue and relative underperformance due to suboptimal utilization of physiological resources by some athletes. Alternatively, engagement with a collective behavior may benefit all due to a reduction in the complexity of decisions to be made and a subsequent reduction in cognitive loading and mental fatigue. This paper seeks evidence for collective behavior in previously published analyses of pacing behavior and proposes mechanisms through which it could potentially be either beneficial, or detrimental to individual performance. It concludes with suggestions for future research to enhance understanding of this

  12. Effect of pacing rate and intensity on mechanical alternans amplitude.

    PubMed

    Sideris, D A; Nanas, J N; Papalambrou, J; Moulopoulos, S D

    1981-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the effect of variations in stimulus frequency (SF) and intensity (SI) of right ventricular pacing on the left ventricular mechanical alternans (MA) amplitude, (MAA) which is defined as 100 (S-W)/S, where S is the ventricular pressure of the strong beat and W that of the weak beat. In 30 dogs the right ventricle was paced at SF ranging from the sinus frequency up to 400/min and at SI ranging from threshold up to 270 mA, while the left ventricular pressure was recorded. Increasing SF at near threshold values of SI resulted in an increase of MAA up to a maximal value. Further increase in SF might cause a diminution of MAA. A slight raise in SI than could increase abruptly MAA. Further increase in SI while keeping a constant SF caused a reduction in MAA which was an approximate logarithmic function of SI. Digoxin, adrenaline or calcium reduced or abolished MA, even in experiments which left atrial and mean aortic pressure were kept constant by suitably placed open-air reservoirs. Pindolol increased MAA. Raising the height of the atrial constant pressure reservoir induced the MAA, while lowering its height increased the MAA. Changing the height of the aortic constant pressure reservoir did not produce consistent changes in MAA. The effects of SF and SI on the MAA could possibly be explained on the basis of the hypothesis that the MA is a complex oscillatory phenomenon. A different number of myocardial fibers contracting at each systole depending on SF and SI may play a role in the genesis of MA and may explain the present findings. It is concluded that, in addition to hemodynamic and inotropic factors, stimulating the ventricles at a high SI may ameliorate the MA at a given heart rate.

  13. Impact of improved models for precise orbits of altimetry satellites on the orbit accuracy and regional mean sea level trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Sergei; Esselborn, Saskia; Dettmering, Denise; Schöne, Tilo; Neumayer, Karl-Hans

    2015-04-01

    Precise orbits of altimetry satellites are a prerequisite for investigations of global and regional sea level changes. We show a significant progress obtained in the recent decades in modeling and determination of the orbits of altimetry satellites. This progress was reached due to the improved knowledge of the Earth gravity field obtained by using CHAMP (CHAllenging Mini-Satellite Payload), GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) and GOCE (Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer) data, improved realizations of the terrestrial and celestial reference frames and transformations between these reference frames, improved modeling of ocean and solid Earth tides, improved accuracy of observations and other effects. New precise orbits of altimetry satellites ERS-1 (1991-1996), TOPEX/Poseidon (1992-2005), ERS-2 (1995-2006), Envisat (2002-2012) and Jason-1 (2002-2012) have been recently derived at the time intervals given within the DFG UHR-GravDat project and the ESA Climate Change Initiative Sea Level project using satellite laser ranging (SLR), Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), Precise Range And Range-Rate Equipment (PRARE) and altimetry single-satellite crossover data (various observation types were used for various satellites). We show the current state of the orbit accuracy and the improvements obtained in the recent years. In particular, we demonstrate the impact of recently developed time-variable Earth gravity field models, improved tropospheric refraction models for DORIS observations, latest release 05 of the atmosphere-ocean dealiasing product (AOD1B) and some other models on the orbit accuracy of these altimetry satellites and regional mean sea level trends computed using these new orbit solutions.

  14. Head-to-head running race simulation alters pacing strategy, performance, and mood state.

    PubMed

    Tomazini, Fabiano; Pasqua, Leonardo A; Damasceno, Mayara V; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; de Oliveira, Fernando R; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the presence and absence of competitors on pacing, overall running performance, and mood state during a self-paced 3-km run. Nine recreational runners participated in this study. They performed the following tests: a) an incremental test to exhaustion to measure the respiratory compensation point (RCP), maximal oxygen uptake, and peak treadmill speed; b) a submaximal speed constant test to measure running economy; and c) two 3-km running time trials performed collectively (COL, head-to-head competition) or individually (IND, performed alone) to establish pacing and running performance. The COL condition was formed of a group of four runners or five runners. Runners were grouped by matched performance times and to retain head-to-head characteristics.A mood state profile questionnaire was completed before and after the 3-km running time trial. The overall performance was better in the COL than in the IND (11.75 ± 0.05 min vs. 12.25 ± 0.06 min, respectively; p = 0.04). The running speeds during the first 500 m were significantly greater in COL (16.8 ± 2.16 km·h−1) than in IND (15.3 ± 2.45 km·h−1) (p = 0.03).The gain in running speed from IND to COL during the first 400 m (i.e. running speed in COL less running speed in IND) was significantly correlated with the RCP (r = 0.88; p = 0.05). The vigor score significantly decreased from pre- to post-running in COL (p=0.05), but not in IND (p=0.20). Additionally, the post running vigor was significantly higher in IND compared to COL (p = 0.03).These findings suggested that the presence of competitors induces a fast start, which results in an improved overall performance and reduced post-exercise vigor scores, compared to an individual run.

  15. Fusion beat in patients with heart failure treated with left ventricular pacing: may ECG morphology relate to mechanical synchrony? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gianfranchi, Lorella; Bettiol, Katia; Sassone, Biagio; Verlato, Roberto; Corbucci, Giorgio; Alboni, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background Electrical fusion between left ventricular pacing and spontaneous right ventricular activation is considered the key to resynchronisation in sinus rhythm patients treated with single-site left ventricular pacing. Aim Use of QRS morphology to optimize device programming in patients with heart failure (HF), sinus rhythm (SR), left bundle branch block (LBBB), treated with single-site left ventricular pacing. Methods and Results We defined the "fusion band" (FB) as the range of AV intervals within which surface ECG showed an intermediate morphology between the native LBBB and the fully paced right bundle branch block patterns. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Echo-derived parameters were collected in the FB and compared with the basal LBBB condition. Velocity time integral and ejection time did not improve significantly. Diastolic filling time, ejection fraction and myocardial performance index showed a statistically significant improvement in the FB. Interventricular delay and mitral regurgitation progressively and significantly decreased as AV delay shortened in the FB. The tissue Doppler asynchrony index (Ts-SD-12-ejection) showed a non significant decreasing trend in the FB. The indications provided by the tested parameters were mostly concordant in that part of the FB corresponding to the shortest AV intervals. Conclusion Using ECG criteria based on the FB may constitute an attractive option for a safe, simple and rapid optimization of resynchronization therapy in patients with HF, SR and LBBB. PMID:18167164

  16. Improving satellite-retrieved surface radiative fluxes in polar regions using a smart sampling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-10-01

    The surface energy budget (SEB) of polar regions is key to understanding the polar amplification of global climate change and its worldwide consequences. However, despite a growing network of ground-based automatic weather stations that measure the radiative components of the SEB, extensive areas remain where no ground-based observations are available. Satellite remote sensing has emerged as a potential solution to retrieve components of the SEB over remote areas, with radar and lidar aboard the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites among the first to enable estimates of surface radiative long-wave (LW) and short-wave (SW) fluxes based on active cloud observations. However, due to the small swath footprints, combined with a return cycle of 16 days, questions arise as to how CloudSat and CALIPSO observations should be optimally sampled in order to retrieve representative fluxes for a given location. Here we present a smart sampling approach to retrieve downwelling surface radiative fluxes from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations for any given land-based point-of-interest (POI) in polar regions. The method comprises a spatial correction that allows the distance between the satellite footprint and the POI to be increased in order to raise the satellite sampling frequency. Sampling frequency is enhanced on average from only two unique satellite overpasses each month for limited-distance sampling < 10 km from the POI, to 35 satellite overpasses for the smart sampling approach. This reduces the root-mean-square errors on monthly mean flux estimates compared to ground-based measurements from 23 to 10 W m-2 (LW) and from 43 to 14 W m-2 (SW). The added value of the smart sampling approach is shown to be largest on finer temporal resolutions, where limited-distance sampling suffers from severely limited sampling frequencies. Finally, the methodology is illustrated for Pine Island Glacier (Antarctica) and the Greenland northern interior. Although few ground-based observations are

  17. The Importance of Improving the Quality of Emergency Surgery for a Regional Quality Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret; Hussain, Adnan; Xiao, Jane; Scheidler, William; Reddy, Haritha; Olugbade, Kola; Cummings, Dustin; Terjimanian, Michael; Krapohl, Greta; Waits, Seth A.; Campbell, Darrell; Englesbe, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Within a large, statewide collaborative, significant improvement in surgical quality have been appreciated (9.0% reduction in morbidity for elective general and vascular surgery). Our group has not noted such quality improvement in the care of patients who had emergency operations. With this work, we aim to describe the scope of emergency surgical care within the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC), variations in outcomes among hospitals, and variations in adherence to evidence based process measures. Overall, these data will form a basis for a broad based quality improvement initiative within Michigan. METHODS We report morbidity, mortality, and costs of emergency and elective general and vascular surgery cases (n= 190,826) within 34 hospitals participating in the MSQC from 2005 to 2010. Adjusted hospital specific outcomes were calculated using a step-wise multivariable logistic regression model. Adjustment covariates included patient specific co-morbidities and case complexity. Hospitals were also compared based on their adherence to evidence based process measures (measures at the patient level for each case – SCIP 1 and 2 compliance). RESULTS Emergency procedures account for approximately 11% of total cases, yet they represented 47% of mortalities and 28% of surgical complications. The complication-specific cost to payers was $126 million for emergency cases and $329 million for elective cases. Adjusted patient outcomes varied widely within MSQC hospitals; morbidity and mortality rates ranged from 16.3% to 33.9% and 4.0% to 12.4%, respectively. The variation among hospitals was not correlated with volume of emergency cases and case complexity. Hospital performance in emergency surgery was found to not depend on its share of emergent cases, but rather was found to directly correlate with its performance in elective surgery. For emergency colectomies, there was wide variation in compliance with SCIP 1 and 2 measures, and overall

  18. Paeonol Protects Rat Heart by Improving Regional Blood Perfusion during No-Reflow

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Weng, Weiliang; Zhao, Le; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Jinyan; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    No-reflow phenomenon, defined as inadequate perfusion of myocardium without evident artery obstruction, occurs at a high incidence after coronary revascularization. The mechanisms underlying no-reflow is only partially understood. It is commonly caused by the swelling of endothelial cells, neutrophil accumulation, and vasoconstriction, which are all related to acute inflammation. Persistent no-reflow can lead to hospitalization and mortality. However, an effective preventive intervention has not yet been established. We have previously found that paeonol, an active extraction from the root of Paeonia suffruticosa, can benefit the heart function by inhibiting tissue damage after ischemia, reducing inflammation, and inducing vasodilatation. To further investigate the potential cardioprotective action of paeonol on no-reflow, healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury (left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 4 h followed by reperfusion for 8 h), and I/R injury pretreated with paeonol at two different doses. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography was used to monitor regional blood perfusion and cardiac functions. Our data indicated that paeonol treatment significantly reduces myocardial infarct area and no-reflow area (n = 8; p < 0.05). Regional myocardial perfusion (A·β) and cardiac functions such as ejection fraction, stroke volume, and fractional shortening were elevated by paeonol (n = 8; p < 0.05). Paeonol also lowered the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin T, and C-reactive protein, as indices of myocardial injury. Paeonol exerts beneficial effects on attenuating I/R-associated no-reflow injuries, and may be considered as a potential preventive treatment for cardiac diseases or post-coronary revascularization in which no-reflow often occurs. PMID:27493631

  19. Improving sub-grid scale accuracy of boundary features in regional finite-difference models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Sorab; Langevin, Christian D.

    2012-06-01

    As an alternative to grid refinement, the concept of a ghost node, which was developed for nested grid applications, has been extended towards improving sub-grid scale accuracy of flow to conduits, wells, rivers or other boundary features that interact with a finite-difference groundwater flow model. The formulation is presented for correcting the regular finite-difference groundwater flow equations for confined and unconfined cases, with or without Newton Raphson linearization of the nonlinearities, to include the Ghost Node Correction (GNC) for location displacement. The correction may be applied on the right-hand side vector for a symmetric finite-difference Picard implementation, or on the left-hand side matrix for an implicit but asymmetric implementation. The finite-difference matrix connectivity structure may be maintained for an implicit implementation by only selecting contributing nodes that are a part of the finite-difference connectivity. Proof of concept example problems are provided to demonstrate the improved accuracy that may be achieved through sub-grid scale corrections using the GNC schemes.

  20. Improving sub-grid scale accuracy of boundary features in regional finite-difference models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panday, Sorab; Langevin, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to grid refinement, the concept of a ghost node, which was developed for nested grid applications, has been extended towards improving sub-grid scale accuracy of flow to conduits, wells, rivers or other boundary features that interact with a finite-difference groundwater flow model. The formulation is presented for correcting the regular finite-difference groundwater flow equations for confined and unconfined cases, with or without Newton Raphson linearization of the nonlinearities, to include the Ghost Node Correction (GNC) for location displacement. The correction may be applied on the right-hand side vector for a symmetric finite-difference Picard implementation, or on the left-hand side matrix for an implicit but asymmetric implementation. The finite-difference matrix connectivity structure may be maintained for an implicit implementation by only selecting contributing nodes that are a part of the finite-difference connectivity. Proof of concept example problems are provided to demonstrate the improved accuracy that may be achieved through sub-grid scale corrections using the GNC schemes.

  1. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for Improved Regional Weather Prediction and Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g., the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Met Op) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1 km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  2. Using nudging to improve global-regional dynamic consistency in limited-area climate modeling: What should we nudge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Hiba; Drobinski, Philippe; Dubos, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Regional climate modelling sometimes requires that the regional model be nudged towards the large-scale driving data to avoid the development of inconsistencies between them. These inconsistencies are known to produce large surface temperature and rainfall artefacts. Therefore, it is essential to maintain the synoptic circulation within the simulation domain consistent with the synoptic circulation at the domain boundaries. Nudging techniques, initially developed for data assimilation purposes, are increasingly used in regional climate modeling and offer a workaround to this issue. In this context, several questions on the "optimal" use of nudging are still open. In this study we focus on a specific question which is: What variable should we nudge? in order to maintain the consistencies between the regional model and the driving fields as much as possible. For that, a "Big Brother Experiment", where a reference atmospheric state is known, is conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model over the Euro-Mediterranean region. A set of 22 3-month simulations is performed with different sets of nudged variables and nudging options (no nudging, indiscriminate nudging, spectral nudging) for summer and winter. The results show that nudging clearly improves the model capacity to reproduce the reference fields. However the skill scores depend on the set of variables used to nudge the regional climate simulations. Nudging the tropospheric horizontal wind is by far the key variable to nudge to simulate correctly surface temperature and wind, and rainfall. To a lesser extent, nudging tropospheric temperature also contributes to significantly improve the simulations. Indeed, nudging tropospheric wind or temperature directly impacts the simulation of the tropospheric geopotential height and thus the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation. Nudging moisture improves the precipitation but the impact on the other fields (wind and temperature) is not significant. As

  3. Innovative techniques in radiation oncology. Clinical research programs to improve local and regional control in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, L.W.; Markoe, A.M.; Micaily, B.; Fisher, S.A.; Lamm, F.R. )

    1990-02-01

    There is a growing importance in failure analysis in cancer management. In these analyses locoregional failure as the cause of death emerges as a significant problem in many tumor sites, e.g., head and neck cancer, gynecologic cancer, genitourinary cancer. Because of these data, the radiation oncology community has attributed high priority to research efforts to improve locoregional control. These efforts include the following: (1) brachytherapy alone or with external beam radiation therapy or surgery; (2) intraoperative radiation therapy; (3) hyperthermia with radiation therapy; (4) particle irradiation (protons, neutrons, stripped nuclei, and pions); and (5) routes of administration of the treatment, including infusional (intravenous) chemotherapy with radiation therapy, intraarterial monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides, and intraarterial chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Each area of investigation is discussed.

  4. Methods and results from a new survey of values for eastern regional haze improvements.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anne E; Kemp, Michael A; Savage, Timothy H; Taylor, Catherine L

    2005-11-01

    A contingent valuation survey was designed and implemented in 2003 to elicit the willingness to pay for haze reduction in scenic areas of the Eastern United States. This survey updated and enhanced a portion of a 1988 survey, Chestnut and Rowe's Preservation Values Study, which is commonly used to estimate benefits of haze reduction policies. The 2003 survey incorporated features to address criticisms of the 1988 survey regarding its lack of budget constraints and its simplistic descriptions of changes in visibility. In preparing the new survey, we identified a fundamental error in the 1988 survey regarding the amount of visibility change that respondents were asked to value. When corrected, it reduces the estimates in that study of willingness to pay per unit of visibility change by approximately 40%. More importantly, we estimate that haze reduction benefits based on that study are overstated by approximately 70%. Results from our 2003 survey demonstrate that the distribution of willingness to pay is highly skewed, which implies that a haze reduction policy of which the costs per person are equal to the average willingness to pay would be rejected by between 70% and 80% of the public if subjected to a majority vote. Moreover, estimates of willingness to pay are sensitive to how respondents are reminded of their budget constraints. We find a statistically significant decline in willingness to pay when budgetary reminders are included. Finally, we find evidence that a large portion of the willingness to pay appears to be associated with improvement on the worst condition days. Little additional value appears to be associated with improvements to the majority of days that have haze conditions nearer the average. These survey results have important implications for policy making on haze reduction.

  5. PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators-a novel tool to measure progress in cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Silvia; Brum, Lauren; Sorrow, Kathleen; Thomas, Samuel; Spence, Susan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Goodman, Clifford; Peake, Michael; McVie, Gordon; Geipel, Gary; Li, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising health care costs and the often incremental nature of improvements in health outcomes continue to fuel intense debates about 'progress' and 'value' in cancer research. In times of tightening fiscal constraints, it is increasingly important for patients and their representatives to define what constitutes 'value' to them. It is clear that diverse stakeholders have different priorities. Harmonisation of values may be neither possible nor desirable. Stakeholders lack tools to visualise or otherwise express these differences and to track progress in cancer treatments based on variable sets of values. The Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence (PACE) Continuous Innovation Indicators are novel, scientifically rigorous progress trackers that employ a three-step process to quantify progress in cancer treatments: 1) mine the literature to determine the strength of the evidence supporting each treatment; 2) allow users to weight the analysis according to their priorities and values; and 3) calculate Evidence Scores (E-Scores), a novel measure to track progress, based on the strength of the evidence weighted by the assigned value. We herein introduce a novel, flexible value model, show how the values from the model can be used to weight the evidence from the scientific literature to obtain E-Scores, and illustrate how assigning different values to new treatments influences the E-Scores. The Indicators allow users to learn how differing values lead to differing assessments of progress in cancer research and to check whether current incentives for innovation are aligned with their value model. By comparing E-Scores generated by this tool, users are able to visualise the relative pace of innovation across areas of cancer research and how stepwise innovation can contribute to substantial progress against cancer over time. Learning from experience and mapping current unmet needs will help to support a broad audience of stakeholders in their efforts to

  6. Integrating mobile technology with routine dietetic practice: the case of myPace for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harricharan, Michelle; Gemen, Raymond; Celemín, Laura Fernández; Fletcher, David; de Looy, Anne E; Wills, Josephine; Barnett, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The field of Mobile health (mHealth), which includes mobile phone applications (apps), is growing rapidly and has the potential to transform healthcare by increasing its quality and efficiency. The present paper focuses particularly on mobile technology for body weight management, including mobile phone apps for weight loss and the available evidence on their effectiveness. Translation of behaviour change theory into weight management strategies, including integration in mobile technology is also discussed. Moreover, the paper presents and discusses the myPace platform as a case in point. There is little clinical evidence on the effectiveness of currently available mobile phone apps in enabling behaviour change and improving health-related outcomes, including sustained body weight loss. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent these apps have been developed in collaboration with health professionals, such as dietitians, and the extent to which apps draw on and operationalise behaviour change techniques has not been explored. Furthermore, presently weight management apps are not built for use as part of dietetic practice, or indeed healthcare more widely, where face-to-face engagement is fundamental for instituting the building blocks for sustained lifestyle change. myPace is an innovative mobile technology for weight management meant to be embedded into and to enhance dietetic practice. Developed out of systematic, iterative stages of engagement with dietitians and consumers, it is uniquely designed to complement and support the trusted health practitioner-patient relationship. Future mHealth technology would benefit if engagement with health professionals and/or targeted patient groups, and behaviour change theory stood as the basis for technology development. Particularly, integrating technology into routine health care practice, rather than replacing one with the other, could be the way forward.

  7. Myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with RBBB and LAfB: the effect of altering the activation sequence with right ventricular apical pacing.

    PubMed

    Simantirakis, Emmanuel N; Prassopoulos, Vasilios K; Marketou, Maria E; Chrysostomakis, Stavros I; Koukouraki, Sophia I; Lekakis, John P; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos S; Vardas, Panos E

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances and to detect any changes caused by alteration of the ventricular activation sequence as a result of right ventricular apical pacing. We studied 15 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), while 15 healthy individuals served as controls. All patients underwent planar and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial imaging after intravenous infusion of 5mCi 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) and a SPECT thallium201 myocardial perfusion study before and 3 months after pacemaker implantation. The heart to mediastinum ratio was calculated during the 123I-MIBG study in order to assess the global cardiac sympathetic activity and was significantly smaller in patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Patients with RBBB and LAFB revealed regional adrenergic innervation defects, mostly in the inferior and posterior walls. After a medium-term pacing period, a redistribution of 123I-MIBG uptake was detected, with aggravation of adrenergic innervation defects in the apical and posterior walls and amelioration in septal and anterior walls. Five patients showed perfusion defects that remained unchanged after pacing. Two others displayed mild myocardial perfusion defects that did not exist before pacing. In conclusion, patients with RBBB and LAFB reveal global and regional disturbances of myocardial adrenergic innervation, which shows redistribution as a result of the altered propagation of the ventricular electrical activation. To a smaller degree these patients reveal myocardial perfusion disturbances in which pacing has a limited medium-term effect.

  8. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  9. Effects of Pacing and Cognitive Style across Dynamic and Non-Dynamic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffler, Tim N.; Schwartz, Ruth N.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of self-pacing versus system-pacing were examined in different versions of a computer-based learning environment (static pictures/animations). The role of cognitive style was also considered. While the variables investigated did not have a direct impact on either learning outcome or cognitive load, significant interaction effects were…

  10. The Relationship between Successful Completion and Sequential Movement in Self-Paced Distance Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Janine M.

    2016-01-01

    A course design question for self-paced courses includes whether or not technological measures should be used in course design to force students to follow the sequence intended by the course author. This study examined learner behavior to understand whether the sequence of student assignment submissions in a self-paced distance course is related…

  11. Keeping Pace with K-12 Online & Blended Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and Practice, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John; Murin, Amy; Vashaw, Lauren; Gemin, Butch; Rapp, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This is the 10th annual "Keeping Pace" report. "Keeping Pace" has several goals: (1) add to the body of knowledge about online education policy and practice, and make recommendations for advances; (2) serve as a reference source for information about programs and policies across the country, both for policymakers and…

  12. Ratchet-traction effect: an underdiagnosed mechanism of pacing lead dislodgement.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Sudarshan Kumar; Dwivedi, Sudhanshu Kumar; Chandra, Sharad; Saran, Ram Kirti

    2014-01-01

    Pacing lead dislodgement contributes substantially, to the list of causes of early pacemaker failure. Reel's syndrome is a rare cause of pacemaker failure, resulting from the dislodging of pacing electrodes by manipulation of the pulse generator by the patient. We describe here an intriguing case of pacemaker lead dislodgement by a novel and frequently underdiagnosed mechanism that mimicked the fluoroscopic diagnosis of reel's syndrome.

  13. The effect of work pace on workload, motor variability and fatigue during simulated light assembly work.

    PubMed

    Bosch, T; Mathiassen, S E; Visser, B; de Looze, M P; van Dieën, J H

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of work pace on workload, motor variability and fatigue during light assembly work. Upper extremity kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were obtained on a cycle-to-cycle basis for eight participants during two conditions, corresponding to "normal" and "high" work pace according to a predetermined time system for engineering. Indicators of fatigue, pain sensitivity and performance were recorded before, during and after the task. The level and variability of muscle activity did not differ according to work pace, and manifestations of muscle fatigue or changed pain sensitivity were not observed. In the high work pace, however, participants moved more efficiently, they showed more variability in wrist speed and acceleration, but they also made more errors. These results suggest that an increased work pace, within the range addressed here, will not have any substantial adverse effects on acute motor performance and fatigue in light, cyclic assembly work. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: In the manufacturing industry, work pace is a key issue in production system design and hence of interest to ergonomists as well as engineers. In this laboratory study, increasing the work pace did not show adverse effects in terms of biomechanical exposures and muscle fatigue, but it did lead to more errors. For the industrial engineer, this observation suggests that an increase in work pace might diminish production quality, even without any noticeable fatigue being experienced by the operators.

  14. Web 2.0 and Social Media Connecting Learners in Self-Paced Study: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Distance learners determine the time and place for their studies--those engaged in self-paced study may also choose the rate at which they proceed through their courses. However, it is difficult to incorporate purposeful learner-learner interaction into self-paced study. A multiple-case study included three open universities with in-house design…

  15. Locating the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 7. Research & Development Series No. 240AB7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on locating a business, the seventh in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  16. Protecting the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 18. Research & Development Series No. 240AB18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on protecting a business, the 18th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in entrepreneurship…

  17. Managing Sales Efforts. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 14. Research & Development Series No. 240AB14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on managing sales efforts, the 14th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use by secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in entrepreneurship…

  18. Obtaining Technical Assistance. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 4. Research & Development Series No. 240AB4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on obtaining technical assistance, the fourth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  19. Which Students Benefit from Self-Paced Mastery Instruction and Why.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinard, Thomas A.; Dolphin, Warren D.

    1981-01-01

    The determinants of achievement were compared under conventional and self-paced mastery examination schedules in an anatomy/physiology course. General scholastic ability did not interact with method, but prior preparation in science did. Students with less science preparation showed greater achievement under self-paced mastery testing than their…

  20. Beyond a Unitary Conception of Pedagogic Pace: Quantitative Measurement and Ethnographic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Adam; Snell, Julia

    2013-01-01

    English education policy-makers have targeted classroom time as a key area for regulation and intervention, with "brisk pace" widely accepted as a feature of good teaching practice. We problematise this conventional wisdom through an exploration of objective and subjective dimensions of lesson pace in a corpus of 30 Key Stage 2 literacy…

  1. Financing the Business. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 8. Research & Development Series No. 240AB8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on financing a business, the eighth in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  2. Managing the Finances. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 16. Research & Development Series No. 240AB16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on competent financial management, the 16th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  3. Self-Paced Economics Instruction: A Large-Scale Disaggregated Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soper, John C.; Thorton, Richard M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the Sterling Institute self-paced macroeconomics course at Northern Illinois University. Results show that a completely self-paced teaching format for macroeconomics is inferior to a well-directed, concept-oriented, graduate-student instructed, lecture-discussion taught course. (Author/RM)

  4. How Pacing of Multimedia Instructions Can Influence Modality Effects: A Case of Superiority of Visual Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Klaus D.; Freitag, Annika; Zinnbauer, Peter; Freitag, Christian

    2009-01-01

    "Present text accompanying pictures aurally to promote learning" is a well established principle of instructional design. But recently, it was shown that under certain conditions visual texts can be preferable. Instructional pacing seems to be one of these conditions that mediate effects. Especially, enabling learners to pace an…

  5. Regional climate model downscaling may improve the prediction of alien plant species distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyan; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Gao, Wei; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2014-12-01

    Distributions of invasive species are commonly predicted with species distribution models that build upon the statistical relationships between observed species presence data and climate data. We used field observations, climate station data, and Maximum Entropy species distribution models for 13 invasive plant species in the United States, and then compared the models with inputs from a General Circulation Model (hereafter GCM-based models) and a downscaled Regional Climate Model (hereafter, RCM-based models).We also compared species distributions based on either GCM-based or RCM-based models for the present (1990-1999) to the future (2046-2055). RCM-based species distribution models replicated observed distributions remarkably better than GCM-based models for all invasive species under the current climate. This was shown for the presence locations of the species, and by using four common statistical metrics to compare modeled distributions. For two widespread invasive taxa ( Bromus tectorum or cheatgrass, and Tamarix spp. or tamarisk), GCM-based models failed miserably to reproduce observed species distributions. In contrast, RCM-based species distribution models closely matched observations. Future species distributions may be significantly affected by using GCM-based inputs. Because invasive plants species often show high resilience and low rates of local extinction, RCM-based species distribution models may perform better than GCM-based species distribution models for planning containment programs for invasive species.

  6. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    SciTech Connect

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  7. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400

  8. On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Nathalie; Li, Hongyi; Ward, Duane L.; Huang, Maoyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-09-30

    Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of earth system models in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies at regional to global scales. Emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are flexible for coupling with earth system models. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing the overall regulated flow at large basin scales. This study investigates the uncertainties of the reservoir models from different implementations of the generic operating rules using the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System in northwestern United States as an example to understand their effects on not only regulated flow but also reservoir storage and fraction of the demand that is met. Numerical experiments are designed to test new generic operating rules that combine storage and releases targets for multi-purpose reservoirs and to compare the use of reservoir usage priorities, withdrawals vs. consumptive demand, as well as natural vs. regulated mean flow for calibrating operating rules. Overall the best performing implementation is the use of the combined priorities (flood control storage targets and irrigation release targets) operating rules calibrated with mean annual natural flow and mean monthly withdrawals. The challenge of not accounting for groundwater withdrawals, or on the contrary, assuming that all remaining demand is met through groundwater extractions, is discussed.

  9. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-11-30

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network.

  10. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger's method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger's result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  11. Improving Snow Processes in WRF/SSiB Regional Climate Model to Investigate Aerosols-in-Snow Impacts over North America and Sub-Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaida, Catalina Monica

    Two important factors that control snow albedo are snow aging (grain growth) and presence of light-absorbing impurities (aerosols) in snow. However, most current regional climate models do not include such processes in a physically-based manner in their land surface models, which can have serious implications to simulated surface energy and water budgets, and ultimately to water resources and regional climate. We improve snow albedo calculations in the Simplified Simple Biosphere (SSiB) land surface model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model (RCM), by incorporating the SNow ICe And Radiative (SNICAR) scheme. SNICAR is a snow radiative transfer model that simulates snow albedo evolution due to snow grain growth and presence of aerosols in snow in a physically-based manner. The land surface model is further modified to account for deposition, movement, and removal by meltwater of such impurities in the snowpack. The newly modified SSiB-3 land surface model (LSM) is validated offline with in situ observations at a location in Western U.S. (WUS), and shows significant improvements in simulated snow albedo and depth when dust in snow is considered, and reproduces snow grain size and vertical distribution of dust in snow that are comparable to those observed. The online, coupled version of the new model, WRF/SSiB-3/aer, is then employed to conduct two 10-year long simulations over North America -- aerosols-loaded (AER) snow and clean snow (NOAER) cases -- to investigate the impact of aerosols in snow (AIS) on surface energy (SEB) and water (WB) budgets on a regional scale. GOCART surface aerosol deposition data is used in AER scenario. Comparisons between AER and NOAER simulations reveal albedo is reduced the most during the ablation period in the presence of AIS, inducing a surface radiative forcing (RF) ranging 8.5 W/m2 over WUS to 13.6 W/m2 over NCan during MAM and MJJ (10-year means), respectively, but as high as 65 W/m2

  12. Signatures of natural selection in the mitochondrial genomes of Tachycineta swallows and their implications for latitudinal patterns of the 'pace of life'.

    PubMed

    Stager, Maria; Cerasale, David J; Dor, Roi; Winkler, David W; Cheviron, Zachary A

    2014-08-01

    Latitudinal variation in avian life histories can be summarized as a slow-fast continuum, termed the 'pace of life', that encompasses patterns in life span, reproduction, and rates of development among tropical and temperate species. Much of the variation in avian pace of life is tied to differences in rates of long-term metabolic energy expenditure. Given the vital role of the mitochondrion in metabolic processes, studies of variation in the mitochondrial genome may offer opportunities to establish mechanistic links between genetic variation and latitudinal 'pace of life' patterns. Using comparative genomic analyses, we examined complete mitochondrial genome sequences obtained from nine, broadly distributed Tachycineta swallow species to test for signatures of natural selection across the mitogenome within a phylogenetic framework. Our results show that although purifying selection is the dominant selective force acting on the mitochondrial genome in Tachycineta, three mitochondrial genes (ND2, ND5, and CYTB) contain regions that exhibit signatures of diversifying selection. Two of these genes (ND2 and ND5) encode interacting subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, and amino residues that were inferred to be targets of positive selection were disproportionately concentrated in these genes. Moreover, the positively selected sites exhibited a phylogenetic pattern that could be indicative of adaptive divergence between "fast" and "slow" lineages. These results suggest that functional variation in cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase could mechanistically contribute to latitudinal 'pace of life' patterns in Tachycineta.

  13. Evaluation of local media surveillance for improved disease recognition and monitoring in global hotspot regions.

    PubMed

    Schwind, Jessica S; Wolking, David J; Brownstein, John S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Smith, Woutrina A

    2014-01-01

    address the information gaps seen in global 'hot spot' regions.

  14. Evaluation of Local Media Surveillance for Improved Disease Recognition and Monitoring in Global Hotspot Regions

    PubMed Central

    Schwind, Jessica S.; Wolking, David J.; Brownstein, John S.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Smith, Woutrina A.

    2014-01-01

    to address the information gaps seen in global ‘hot spot’ regions. PMID:25333618

  15. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Chuirazzi, William; Cao, Lei

    2017-03-01

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current-voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a 241Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 μm at -550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field.

  16. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Cordelia H; Radford, Ben T; Possingham, Hugh P; Heyward, Andrew J; Stewart, Romola R; Watts, Matthew E; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J; Harvey, Euan S; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W; Lowe, Ryan J; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-08-24

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia-a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation.

  17. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Cordelia H.; Radford, Ben T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Stewart, Romola R.; Watts, Matthew E.; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-01-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia–a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation. PMID:27556689

  18. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cordelia H.; Radford, Ben T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Stewart, Romola R.; Watts, Matthew E.; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-08-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia–a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation.

  19. Improving waterfowl production estimates: results of a test in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, P.M.; Cowardin, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in an effort to improve and standardize methods for estimating waterfowl production tested a new technique in the four-county Arrowwood Wetland Management District (WMD) for three years (1982-1984). On 14 randomly selected 10.36 km2 plots, upland and wetland habitat was mapped, classified, and digitized. Waterfowl breeding pairs were counted twice each year and the proportion of wetland basins containing water was determined. Pair numbers and habitat conditions were entered into a computer model developed by Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. That model estimates production on small federally owned wildlife tracts, federal wetland easements, and private land. Results indicate that production estimates were most accurate for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), the species for which the computer model and data base were originally designed. Predictions for the pintail (Anas acuta), gadwall (A. strepa), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and northern shoveler (A. clypeata) were believed to be less accurate. Modeling breeding period dynamics of a waterfowl species and making credible production estimates for a geographic area are possible if the data used in the model are adequate. The process of modeling the breeding period of a species aids in locating areas of insufficient biological knowledge. This process will help direct future research efforts and permit more efficient gathering of field data.

  20. Towards improved MODIS aerosol retrieval over the US East Coast region: Re-examining the aerosol model and surface assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.

    2002-12-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and recently the Aqua platform, produces a set of aerosol products over both ocean and land regions. Previous validation efforts have shown that from a global perspective, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is successfully retrieved from MODIS. Even over coastal regions, the over-land and over-ocean retrievals are consistent with each other, and well matched with ground-based sunphotometer measurements (such as AERONET). However, the East Coast of the United States is one region where there is consistently a discrepancy between land and ocean retrievals. Over the ocean, MODIS AODs are consistent with coastal sunphotometer measurements, but over land, AODs are consistently over-estimated. In this study we use field data from the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites experiment (CLAMS), (held during summer 2001) to determine the aerosol properties at a number of sites. Using the 6-S radiative transfer package, we compute simulated satellite radiances and compare them with observed MODIS radiances. We believe that the AOD over-estimation is not likely due to an incorrect choice of the urban/industrial aerosol models. Using 6-S to do an atmospheric correction for a very low AOD case, we show rather, that the discrepancies are likely a result of incorrect assumptions about the surface reflectance properties. Understanding and improving MODIS retrievals over the East Coast will not only improve the global quality of MODIS, but also would enable the use of MODIS as a tool for monitoring regional aerosol events.

  1. Improved 2-D attenuation analysis for Northern Italy using a merged dataset from selected regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasca, Paola; Massa, Marco; Laprocina, Enrica; Mayeda, Kevin; Phillips, Scott; Malagnini, Luca; Spallarossa, Daniele; Costa, Giovanni; Augliera, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    A merged, high-quality waveform dataset from different seismic networks has been used to improve our understanding of lateral seismic attenuation for Northern Italy. In a previous study on the same region, Morasca et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98:1936-1946, 2008) were able to resolve only a small area due to limited data coverage. For this reason, the interpretation of the attenuation anomalies was difficult given the complexity of the region and the poor resolution of the available data. In order to better understand the lateral changes in the crustal structure and thickness of this region, we selected 770 earthquakes recorded by 54 stations for a total of almost 16,000 waveforms derived from seismic networks operating totally or partially in Northern Italy. Direct S-wave and coda attenuation images were obtained using an amplitude ratio technique that eliminates source terms from the formulation. Both direct and early-coda amplitudes are used as input for the inversions, and the results are compared. Results were obtained for various frequency bands ranging between 0.3 and 25.0 Hz and in all cases show significant improvement with respect to the previous study since the resolved area has been extended and more crossing paths have been used to image smaller scale anomalies. Quality-factor estimates are consistent with the regional tectonic structure exhibiting a general trend of low attenuation under the Po Plain basin and higher values for the Western Alps and Northern Apennines. The interpretation of the results for the Eastern Alps is not simple, possibly because our resolution for this area is still not adequate to resolve small-scale structures.

  2. Improved Regional Water Management Utilizing Climate Forecasts: An Inter-basin Transfer Model with a Risk Management Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Arumugam, S.; Ranjithan, R. S.; Brill, E. D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Regional water supply systems undergo surplus and deficit conditions due to differences in inflow characteristics as well as due to their seasonal demand patterns. This study presents a framework for regional water management by proposing an Inter-Basin Transfer (IBT) model that uses climate-information-based inflow forecast for minimizing the deviations from the end- of-season target storage across the participating reservoirs. Using the ensemble streamflow forecast, the IBT water allocation model was applied for two reservoir systems in the North Carolina Triangle area. Results show that inter-basin transfers initiated by the ensemble streamflow forecast could potentially improve the overall water supply reliability as the demand continues to grow in the Triangle Area. To further understand the utility of climate forecasts in facilitating IBT under different spatial correlation structures between inflows and between the initial storages of the two systems, a synthetic experiment was designed to evaluate the framework under inflow forecast having different skills. Findings from the synthetic study can be summarized as follows: (a) Inflow forecasts combined with the proposed IBT optimization model provide improved allocation in comparison to the allocations obtained under the no- transfer scenario as well as under transfers obtained with climatology; (b) Spatial correlations between inflows and between initial storages among participating reservoirs could also influence the potential benefits that could be achieved through IBT; (c) IBT is particularly beneficial for systems that experience low correlations between inflows or between initial storages or on both attributes of the regional water supply system. Thus, if both infrastructure and permitting structures exist for promoting inter-basin transfers, season-ahead inflow forecasts could provide added benefits in forecasting surplus/deficit conditions among the participating reservoirs in the regional water supply

  3. Clinical evaluation of peak endocardial acceleration as a sensor for rate responsive pacing.

    PubMed

    Greco, Enrico Maria; Ferrario, Marco; Romano, Salvatore

    2003-04-01

    An innovative control parameter for rate responsive (RR) pacing that uses a sensor to measure mechanical vibrations generated by the myocardium during the isovolumetric contraction phase (peak endocardial acceleration [PEA]), has been devised by SORIN Biomedica (BEST Living System). To assess the physiological sensitivity of the pacemaker sensor along with reliability of the algorithm to supply appropriate pacing rates three different relationships were examined (linear regression analysis): (1) recorded deltaPEA exercise steps against the calculated energy cost of exercise (MET), (2) exercise pacing rates against predicted values, and (3) deltaPEA against exercise pacing rates. Fifteen patients (mean age 68 +/- 12 years) in NYHA Class I-II, implanted with the BEST Living System (Living 1 DDDR pacemaker) for advanced AVB and/or SSS, underwent one of the following maximal exercise stress protocols: bicycle (25 W, 2-minute steps) or Bruce or Chronotropic Assessment Exercise Protocol (CAEP). Pacing rates for each step were matched against those predicted by a reliable and tested custom software called Pacing Rate Profile Software (PRPS). The PRPS is based on the oxygen pulse reserve (OPR) method (OPR = VO2 reserve divided by heart rate reserve), American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) formulas for calculating workload/metabolic requirements, and data derived from the Weber functional classes. On the basis of certain patient, data the PRPS then supplies appropriate metabolic pacing rate profiles. In all 15 patients linear regression analysis of deltaPEA against MET, as evaluated during the exercise protocol steps, showed a high correlation (r = 0.97). Likewise, a high correlation was also obtained between PRPS predicted heart rates and exercise pacing rates (r = 0.96) and PEA against exercise pacing rates (r = 0.96). The results of this study show that, through PEA dynamic monitoring, the SORIN Best Living System produces physiological pacing rates that are

  4. Improving ungulate habitat in a region undergoing rapid energy development: Consequences for songbirds and small mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, Sara Petrita

    Habitat manipulation intended to mitigate the impact of energy development on game animals is well underway in the western U.S. Yet, the consequences of these actions for other species are not well understood. A habitat manipulation experiment was established in the Piceance Basin, a region of Colorado undergoing rapid energy development, to evaluate alternative methods (i.e. chaining, hydro-axe, and roller-chop treatments) for reducing pinyon-juniper woodlands to promote mule deer habitat. I use this experimental design to additionally test the initial effects of these treatments on birds and small mammals, and to evaluate selection of habitat components in treatments by birds and small mammals. I found lower bird species occupancy in all treatment plots compared to control plots; however the strength of this response varied by bird guild. I found a positive relationship between bird species occupancy and percent tree cover and a negative relationship between bird species occupancy and percent grass and forb cover. I found no evidence of differences in small mammal species occupancy or density between controls and treatments. I found a positive relationship between small mammal species occupancy and percent grass and forb cover. Species richness did not significantly differ between control and treatment plots for birds or small mammals. My approach and research findings can be used to inform habitat management and multiple-species conservation objectives in pinyon-juniper and sage-steppe ecosystems undergoing energy development. Specifically, I have identified that recently developed roller-chop and hydro-axe treatments have similar impacts to woodland bird guilds as traditional chaining treatments. I have also identified species that are sensitive to habitat mitigation treatments, and thus should be monitored if woodland reduction continues to be used as a habitat mitigation strategy. Since all bird guilds were positively associated with tree cover, woodland

  5. Improving the Gap between Model Predictions and Observations of Formaldehyde over the Remote Marine Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, J.; Meskhidze, N.

    2013-05-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a ubiquitous oxidation product that exists in polluted rural and urban areas, as well as remote background sites where it is an important photochemical intermediate. HCHO levels of up to six times above what is typically predicted by photochemical models have been reported over the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). As proposed mechanisms for HCHO production remain to be insufficient to explain such large discrepancies between model predictions and measured values, the role of marine regions in the creation of HCHO continues to be one of the largest sources of uncertainty in current global chemistry-transport models. Here we examine the viability of a proposed mechanism for the photochemical production of formaldehyde involving aerosols enriched with biologically produced organic matter. In this study, the phytoplankton Emiliania Huxleyi was incubated in autoclaved seawater contained within a 9 liter Pyrex glass bottle. Quantitative analysis of the enrichment of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and other biologically produced organic matter (dissolved and particulate) in the surface microlayer was carried out by employing Alldredge's alcian blue staining technique. To produce organic aerosols, enriched seawater was bubbled with hydrocarbon free air using a sintered glass filter placed 5 cm below the surface. Utilizing a mixed flow reaction scheme, produced aerosols were then pushed through stainless steel flow tubes into a separate 9-liter Pyrex glass container acting as a residence chamber. The container was surrounded with six Ushio 9W Midrange UVB lights to allow for the irradiation of aerosols at 306 nm. A flow rate of approximately 0.1 l/min allowed for an average aerosol residence time of 90 minutes inside the residence chamber. All air from the chamber was then passed through a 5" long Pyrex desorber tube packed with 60/80 Tenax that had been soaked in the derivatizing agent pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH). Subsequent thermal

  6. Neutron Cross Section Processing Methods for Improved Integral Benchmarking of Unresolved Resonance Region Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR). These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF) method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both probability table

  7. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B.; Cockerill, Kristan

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  8. Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajoo, Karthigesu

    Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region K Nagarajoo Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja Johor Darul Takzim Email: karthi@uthm.edu.my DGPS is a system where the range error at a reference station will be eliminated from the range measurement at the user, which `view' the same satellite, presuming that the satellite's path to both the reference station and the user experience common errors due to the ionosphere, clock errors, multipath etc. In this assumption, the error due to the ionospheric refraction is assumed to be the same for the two closely spaced paths (such as a baseline length between reference station and the user is 10km) and thus the presence of ionospheric horizontal gradient is ignored. If a user's path is exposed to a drastically large ionosphere gradient (i.e., over the equatorial region), the large difference of ionosphere delays between the reference station and the user can result in significant position error for the user. Apart from that, the difference in the elevation angle at the reference and the user that `view' the same satellite to get the range measurement does also introduce some millimetre to centimetre of range difference. The neglect of the effect due to the presence of an ionospheric horizontal gradient and the elevation angle's difference (at both ends of the baseline) will cause a significant amount of error in the final DGPS user positioning. In this work, those two effects have been investigated in order to obtain a more accurate ionospheric correction for DGPS and have been found to be roughly comparable showing that they are both important. By performing ray-tracing calculations (using Jones 3-D Ray Tracing program) with and without a linear horizontal ionosphere gradient, the effects of elevation angle and horizontal gradient have been separated and a final positioning improvement of about 8cm has been shown at the user of a

  9. Improved simulation of tropospheric ozone by a global-multi-regional two-way coupling model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; Chen, Jinxuan; Hu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    from 0.53 to 0.68, and it reduces the mean model bias from 10.8 to 6.7 ppb. Regionally, the coupled system reduces the bias by 4.6 ppb over Europe, 3.9 ppb over North America and 3.1 ppb over other regions. The two-way coupling brings O3 vertical profiles much closer to the HIPPO (for remote areas) and MOZAIC (for polluted regions) data, reducing the tropospheric (0-9 km) mean bias by 3-10 ppb at most MOZAIC sites and by 5.3 ppb for HIPPO profiles. The two-way coupled simulation also reduces the global tropospheric column ozone by 3.0 DU (9.5 %, annual mean), bringing them closer to the OMI data in all seasons. Additionally, the two-way coupled simulation also reduces the global tropospheric mean hydroxyl radical by 5 % with improved estimates of methyl chloroform and methane lifetimes. Simulation improvements are more significant in the Northern Hemisphere, and are mainly driven by improved representation of spatial inhomogeneity in chemistry/emissions. Within the nested domains, the two-way coupled simulation reduces surface ozone biases relative to typical GEOS-Chem one-way nested simulations, due to much improved LBCs. The bias reduction is 1-7 times the bias reduction from the global to the one-way nested simulation. Improving model representations of small-scale processes is important for understanding the global and regional tropospheric chemistry.

  10. Health education and peer leaders' role in improving low vaccination coverage in Akre district, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahman, M A; Al-Dabbagh, S A; Al-Habeeb, Q S

    2013-02-01

    The role of religious leaders in improving vaccination coverage has not been well researched. This intervention study investigated the role of a health education campaign and peer spiritual leaders in improving vaccination coverage rates in Akre district in Kurdistan region, Iraq. An information campaign was conducted in 30 villages with low vaccination coverage. The participation of peer spiritual leaders was sought in 15 villages of the Sorchi tribe known to have persistent low coverage rates. The vaccination coverage rates of DPT1, DPT2, DPT3 and measles vaccines during the post-intervention period (January to June 2007) were significantly improved (95.5%, 90.0%, 84.4% and 80.3% respectively) compared with the pre-intervention period (January to June 2006) (55.9%, 42.7%, 21.5% and 27.6% respectively). The dropout rates of those vaccines were also significantly decreased. Vaccination in villages where spiritual leaders were involved improved significantly more than other villages.

  11. High-Resolution Specification of the Land and Ocean Surface for Improving Regional Mesoscale Model Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Lazarus, Steven M.; Splitt, Michael E.; Crosson, William L.; Lapenta, William M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2008-01-01

    The exchange of energy and moisture between the Earth's surface and the atmospheric boundary layer plays a critical role in many meteorological processes. High-resolution, accurate representations of surface properties such as sea-surface temperature (SST), soil temperature and moisture content, ground fluxes, and vegetation are necessary to better understand the Earth-atmosphere interactions and improve numerical predictions of sensible weather. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been conducting separate studies to examine the impacts of high-resolution land-surface initialization data from the Goddard Space Flight Center Land Information System (LIS) on subsequent WRF forecasts, as well as the influence of initializing WRF with SST composites derived from the MODIS instrument. This current project addresses the combined impacts of using high-resolution lower boundary data over both land (LIS data) and water (MODIS SSTs) on the subsequent daily WRF forecasts over Florida during May 2004. For this experiment, the WRF model is configured to run on a nested domain with 9- km and 3-kin grid spacing, centered on the Florida peninsula and adjacent coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. A control configuration of WRF is established to take all initial condition data from the NCEP Eta model. Meanwhile, two WRF experimental runs are configured to use high-resolution initialization data from (1) LIS land-surface data only, and (2) a combination of LIS data and high-resolution MODIS SST composites. The experiment involves running 24-hour simulations of the control WRF configuration, the MS-initialized WRF, and the LIS+MODIS-initialized WRF daily for the entire month of May 2004. All atmospheric data for initial and boundary conditions for the Control, LIS, and LIS+MODIS runs come from the NCEP Eta model on a 40-km grid. Verification statistics are generated at land surface observation sites and buoys, and the impacts

  12. Comparison of Two Methods for Improving the Resolution of On-Road CO2 Emissions at a Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondfield, M. N.; Hutyra, L.; Raciti, S. M.; McKain, K.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of our anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nationally, transportation is estimated to account for roughly 30% of all emissions, but spatial variations in on-road sources are difficult to accurately estimate on scales finer than the state or county at best. Patterns in commuting require analyses with spatial extents well beyond the urban core and temporal resolution that accounts for diurnal traffic flows, shifting the focus to a metropolitan region. Regional carbon models rely on accurate a priori transportation emissions fields, making high resolution estimates from this sector crucial. Currently, emissions have been estimated at national and regional scales using aggregate vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and at local scales using traffic counts for individual roads. However, local observations are limited in extent and regional inventories are typically too coarse to effectively capture urban and commuter influences. In this analysis, we employ a hybrid approach, using both top-down and bottom-up methods to disaggregate a national estimate of on-road CO2 emissions for the Boston, MA metropolitan area. We contrast top-down calculations based on road density and distances from major roads with bottom-up, fine-scale estimates based on local traffic data and mode-split traffic flow models. We find that in Boston, the national inventory systematically underestimates emissions within the urban core and over estimates suburban contributions. This approach is easily reproducible and has the potential to improve modeling of on-road CO2 emissions for urban regions. Further, developing a fine-grained emissions map can assist in exposure estimates for vehicle particulates and other criteria pollutants.

  13. Reporting of Quality Indicators and Improvement in Hospital Performance: The P.Re.Val.E. Regional Outcome Evaluation Program

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, Cristina; Sorge, Chiara; Fusco, Danilo; Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina; Perucci, Carlo A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether reporting of hospital performance was associated with a change in quality indicators in Italian hospitals. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationwide Hospital Information System for 2006–2009. Study Design We performed a pre-post evaluation in Lazio (before and after disclosure of the Regional Outcome Evaluation Program P.Re.Val.E.) and a comparative evaluation versus Italian regions without comparable programs. We analyzed risk-adjusted proportions of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), hip fractures operated on within 48 hours, and cesarean deliveries. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Using standardized ICD-9-CM coding algorithms, we selected 381,053 acute myocardial infarction patients, 250,712 hip fractures, and 1,736,970 women who had given birth. Principal Findings In Lazio PCI within 48 hours changed from 22.49 to 29.43 percent following reporting of the P.Re.Val.E results (relative increase, 31 percent; p < .001). In the other regions this proportion increased from 22.48 to 27.09 percent during the same time period (relative increase, 21 percent; p < .001). Hip fractures operated on within 48 hours increased from 11.73 to 15.78 percent (relative increase, 34 percent; p < .001) in Lazio, and not in other regions (29.36 to 28.57 percent). Cesarean deliveries did not decrease in Lazio (34.57–35.30 percent), and only slightly decreased in the other regions (30.49–28.11 percent). Conclusions Reporting of performance data may have a positive but limited impact on quality improvement. The evaluation of quality indicators remains paramount for public accountability. PMID:22985031

  14. Long-term follow-up of pacing of the conditioned diaphragm in quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Elefteriades, John A; Quin, Jacquelyn A; Hogan, James F; Holcomb, Wade G; Letsou, George V; Chlosta, William F; Glenn, William W W L

    2002-06-01

    The authors have previously shown that conditioning of the diaphragm for continuous bilateral pacing is a feasible and effective means of ventilation in patients with complete respiratory paralysis from high cervical (above C3) quadriplegia. The present study reports the long-term results of continuous diaphragmatic pacing. Twelve quadriplegia patients underwent bilateral phrenic nerve pacemaker placement and diaphragm conditioning from 1981 to 1987. Pacing was initiated at 11 Hz and progressively decreased to 7.1 Hz. A pulse train duration of 1.3 seconds for adults and 0.9 seconds for children was used. Long-term follow-up information obtained included pacing status (full-time, part-time, or mechanical ventilation), ventilation parameters, and social circumstances. Of the 12 patients, 6 continued to pace full time (mean 14.8 years); all were living at home. Three patients paced for an average of 1.8 years before stopping; two were institutionalized. One patient who paced full time for 6.5 years before lapsing to part time, lived at home. Two patients were deceased; one paced continuously for 10 years before his demise, the other stopped pacing after 1 year. Patients who stopped full-time pacing did so mainly for reasons of inadequate social or financial support or associated medical problems. All patients demonstrated normal tidal volumes and arterial blood gases while pacing full time. Despite theoretical concerns about long-term nerve damage, no patient lost the ability to pace the phrenic nerve. Threshold currents did not increase over time (original/follow-up: 0.46/0.47 for right, 0.45/0.46 for left), nor did maximal currents (original/follow-up: 1.16/1.14 for right, 1.37/1.26 for left). This follow-up confirms that quadriplegic patients are able to meet long-term, full-time ventilation requirements using phrenic nerve stimulation of the conditioned diaphragm. Careful review of diaphragmatic pacing candidates with respect to associated medical conditions

  15. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  16. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Maslowski, Wieslaw

    2016-10-17

    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  17. A Novel Strategy for Thermostability Improvement of Trypsin Based on N-Glycosylation within the Ω-Loop Region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Liu, Ye; Yu, Haoran; Du, Kun; Gan, Yiru; Huang, He

    2016-07-28

    The Ω-loop is a nonregular and flexible structure that plays an important role in molecular recognition, protein folding, and thermostability. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to assess the molecular stability and flexibility profile of the porcine trypsin structures. Two Ω-Loops (fragment 57-67 and fragment 78-91) were confirmed to represent the flexible region. Subsequently, glycosylation site-directed mutations (A73S, N84S, and R104S) were introduced within the Ω-loop region and its wing chain based on its potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr consensus sequences) and structure information to improve the thermostability of trypsin. The result demonstrated that the halflife of the N84S mutant at 50°C increased by 177.89 min when compared with that of the wildtype enzyme. Furthermore, the significant increase in the thermal stability of the N84S mutant has also been proven by an increase in the Tm values determined by circular dichroism. Additionally, the optimum temperatures of the wild-type enzyme and the N84S mutant were 75°C and 80°C, respectively. In conclusion, we obtained the thermostability-improved enzyme N84S mutant, and the strategy used to design this mutant based on its structural information and N-linked glycosylation modification could be applied to engineer other enzymes to meet the needs of the biotechnological industry.

  18. Evolutionary traces decode molecular mechanism behind fast pace of myosin XI

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytoplasmic class XI myosins are the fastest processive motors known. This class functions in high-velocity cytoplasmic streaming in various plant cells from algae to angiosperms. The velocities at which they process are ten times faster than its closest class V homologues. Results To provide sequence determinants and structural rationale for the molecular mechanism of this fast pace myosin, we have compared the sequences from myosin class V and XI through Evolutionary Trace (ET) analysis. The current study identifies class-specific residues of myosin XI spread over the actin binding site, ATP binding site and light chain binding neck region. Sequences for ET analysis were accumulated from six plant genomes, using literature based text search and sequence searches, followed by triple validation viz. CDD search, string-based searches and phylogenetic clustering. We have identified nine myosin XI genes in sorghum and seven in grape by sequence searches. Both the plants possess one gene product each belonging to myosin type VIII as well. During this process, we have re-defined the gene boundaries for three sorghum myosin XI genes using fgenesh program. Conclusion Molecular modelling and subsequent analysis of putative interactions involving these class-specific residues suggest a structural basis for the molecular mechanism behind high velocity of plant myosin XI. We propose a model of a more flexible switch I region that contributes to faster ADP release leading to high velocity movement of the algal myosin XI. PMID:21942950

  19. Paleoclimatology: Second clock supports orbital pacing of the ice ages

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1997-05-02

    For a while, it looked as if a water-filled crack in the Nevada desert might doom the accepted explanation of the ice ages. Twenty years ago, the so-called astronomical theory had carried the day. Oceanographers had found evidence implying that the march of ice ages over the last million years was paced by the cyclical stretching and squeezing of Earth`s orbit around the sun, which would have altered the way sunlight fell on the planet`s surface. But in 1988, researchers scuba diving in Nevada`s Devils Hole came up with a climate record--captured in carbonate deposits in the crack-that seemed to contradict this chronology. This article discusses the findings and the puzzles that still remain. The records of sea-level change in Barbados coral appear to be right and the astronomical theory is on solid ground using a new clock based on the radioactive decay of uranium-235 to protactinium-231. However, the Devils Hole record also seems to be correct.

  20. Sex Differences in Time Perception during Self-paced Running

    PubMed Central

    HANSON, NICHOLAS J.; BUCKWORTH, JANET

    2016-01-01

    Time perception during exercise may be affected by chosen intensity, and may also affect enjoyment of exercise and subsequent long-term adherence. However, little is known about how individuals perceive the passage of time during exercise, or if factors such as sex are influential. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are sex related differences in perception of time during a bout of exercise in experienced runners. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men, 11 women) participated in a bout of treadmill running where they were allowed to select their intensity. Sixty second prospective time estimations were taken before, during (at 33%, 66% and 90% of the completed distance), and after the run. Heart rate (HR) was also recorded throughout. The women (M = 91.9, SD = 3.3) ran at a significantly higher percentage of their maximum HR than the men (M = 86.5, SD = 6.4; p = 0.022), choosing to run at a higher relative intensity than the men when given the opportunity to self-pace. The women had relatively lower time estimations overall, showing that they perceived time to be passing by more slowly compared to the men. These results may help to explain sex related differences in exercise adherence. PMID:27766135