Science.gov

Sample records for package closure system

  1. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  2. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  3. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  4. Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

    2006-04-01

    High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

  5. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System Robotic Welding and Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    C. I. Nichol; D. P. Pace; E. D. Larsen; T. R. McJunkin; D. E. Clark; M. L. Clark; K. L. Skinner; A. D. Watkins; H. B. Smartt

    2011-10-01

    The Waste Package Closure System (WPCS), for the closure of radioactive waste in canisters for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste in the Yucca Mountain Repository was designed, fabricated, and successfully demonstrated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This article focuses on the robotic hardware and tools necessary to remotely weld and inspect the closure lid welds. The system was operated remotely and designed for use in a radiation field, due to the SNF contained in the waste packages being closed.

  6. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  7. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  8. A Fruit of Yucca Mountain: The Remote Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Skinner; Greg Housley; Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2011-11-01

    Was the death of the Yucca Mountain repository the fate of a technical lemon or a political lemon? Without caution, this debate could lure us away from capitalizing on the fruits of the project. In March 2009, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully demonstrated the Waste Package Closure System, a full-scale prototype system for closing waste packages that were to be entombed in the now abandoned Yucca Mountain repository. This article describes the system, which INL designed and built, to weld the closure lids on the waste packages, nondestructively examine the welds using four different techniques, repair the welds if necessary, mitigate crack initiating stresses in the surfaces of the welds, evacuate and backfill the packages with an inert gas, and perform all of these tasks remotely. As a nation, we now have a proven method for securely sealing nuclear waste packages for long term storage—regardless of whether or not the future destination for these packages will be an underground repository. Additionally, many of the system’s features and concepts may benefit other remote nuclear applications.

  9. Welding Robot and Remote Handling System for the Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, M.E.; Holt, T.E.; LaValle, D.R.; Pace, D.P.; Croft, K.M.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2008-07-01

    In preparation for the license application and construction of a repository for housing the nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste in Yucca Mountain, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with preparing a mock-up of a full-scale prototype system for sealing the waste packages (WP). Three critical pieces of the closure room include two PaR Systems TR4350 Telerobotic Manipulators and a PaR Systems XR100 Remote Handling System (RHS). The TR4350 Manipulators are 6-axis programmable robots that will be used to weld the WP lids and purge port cap as well as conduct nondestructive examinations. The XR100 Remote Handling System is a 4-axis programmable robot that will be used to transport the WP lids and process tools to the WP for operations and remove equipment for maintenance. The welding and RHS robots will be controlled using separate PaR 5/21 CIMROC Controllers capable of complex motion control tasks. A tele-operated PaR 4350 Manipulator will also be provided with the XR100 Remote Handling System. It will be used for maintenance and associated activities within the closure room. (authors)

  10. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  11. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  12. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-09-23

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing.

  13. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-08-02

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure.

  14. Drop Tests of the Closure Ring for the 9975 Package

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C

    1999-09-29

    The drop tests of the closure ring for 9975 packages, described here, were performed to answer questions raised by the regulatory authority as a result of deformation of the closure ring and drum rim observed during drop tests conducted in September 1998.

  15. CRP - VD Tube & Closure -  Unit Non-Reclosable Packaging Rigid

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a unit-dose non-reclosable rigid package. The package consists of a tube and a closure that is permanently attached to the tube neck. The package is opened by pushing down on the closure and simultaneously turning it counterclockwise.

  16. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  17. WASTE PACKAGE REMEDIATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Sudan

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Package Remediation System remediates waste packages (WPs) and disposal containers (DCs) in one of two ways: preparation of rejected DC closure welds for repair or opening of the DC/WP. DCs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for preparation of rejected closure welds if testing of the closure weld by the Disposal Container Handling System indicates an unacceptable, but repairable, welding flaw. DC preparation of rejected closure welds will require removal of the weld in such a way that the Disposal Container Handling System may resume and complete the closure welding process. DCs/WPs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for opening if the Disposal Container Handling System testing of the DC closure weld indicates an unrepairable welding flaw, or if a WP is recovered from the subsurface repository because suspected damage to the WP or failure of the WP has occurred. DC/WP opening will require cutting of the DC/WP such that a temporary seal may be installed and the waste inside the DC/WP removed by another system. The system operates in a Waste Package Remediation System hot cell located in the Waste Handling Building that has direct access to the Disposal Container Handling System. One DC/WP at a time can be handled in the hot cell. The DC/WP arrives on a transfer cart, is positioned within the cell for system operations, and exits the cell without being removed from the cart. The system includes a wide variety of remotely operated components including a manipulator with hoist and/or jib crane, viewing systems, machine tools for opening WPs, and equipment used to perform pressure and gas composition sampling. Remotely operated equipment is designed to facilitate DC/WP decontamination and hot cell equipment maintenance, and interchangeable components are provided where appropriate. The Waste Package Remediation System interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System for the receipt and transport of WPs and DCs. The Waste

  18. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  20. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  1. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described.

  2. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO CLOSURE TORQUES AND SEQUENTIAL IMPACTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2007-07-09

    This paper presents a finite-element technique to simulate the structural responses and to evaluate the cumulative damage of a radioactive material packaging requiring bolt closure-tightening torque and subjected to the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 part 71 (10CFR71). Existing finite-element methods for modeling closure stresses from bolt pre-load are not readily adaptable to dynamic analyses. The HAC events are required to occur sequentially per 10CFR71 and thus the evaluation of the cumulative damage is desirable. Generally, each HAC event is analyzed separately and the cumulative damage is partially addressed by superposition. This results in relying on additional physical testing to comply with 10CFR71 requirements for assessment of cumulative damage. The proposed technique utilizes the combination of kinematic constraints, rigid-body motions and structural deformations to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in modeling the effect of cumulative damage. This methodology provides improved numerical solutions in compliance with the 10CFR71 requirements for sequential HAC tests. Analyses were performed for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) designed by Savannah River National Laboratory to demonstrate the applications of the technique. The methodology proposed simulates the closure bolt torque preload followed by the sequential HAC events, the 30-foot drop and the 30-foot dynamic crush. The analytical results will be compared to the package test data.

  3. Design and analysis of lid closure bolts for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Stojimirovic, A.

    1995-07-01

    The design criterion recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for Category I radioactive packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This criterion provides material specifications and allowable stress limits for bolts used to secure lids of containment vessels. This paper describes the design requirements for Category I containment vessel lid closure bolts, and provides an example of a bolting stress analysis. The lid-closure bolting stress analysis compares calculations based on handbook formulas with an analysis performed with a finite-element computer code. The results show that the simple handbook calculations can be sufficiently accurate to evaluate the bolt stresses that occur in rotationally rigid lid flanges designed for metal-to-metal contact.

  4. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  5. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  6. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  7. Post-closure performance assessment of waste packages for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, W.J.; Ueng, T.S.; Lewis, L.C.

    1993-10-01

    This report details a system model of some core features of the performance of waste packages for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Yucca Mountain Site. The model is realized in the prototype computer program PANDORA-1.1. The PANDORA system model links processes leading to possible release of radionuclides from the waste package. The PANDORA submodels are being developed for processes and conditions specific to this potential repository site, notably the comparatively dry location in an arid area and well above the groundwater table, and the rock medium of porous partially welded tuff.

  8. Installation package for a solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  9. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  10. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  11. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  12. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  13. Angle Closure Scoring System (ACSS)-A Scoring System for Stratification of Angle Closure Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Sarangi, Sarada; Das, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS) for stratifying primary angle course disease. Methods This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21) and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO). Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS), non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1–4 quadrants), iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg) and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL), cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to give total score (ACSSt). Result There were significant differences in ACSSg scores within the same ISGEO stage of PAC and PACG between eyes that required nil or >1medicines after laser iridotomy, p<0.001. The ACSSg was associated with need for >1 medicines in both PAC and PACG eyes, p<0.001. An ACSSg score>12 and 14 in PAC (odds ratio = 2.7(95% CI-1.7–5.9) and PACG (Odds ratio = 1.6(95%CI-1.19–2.2) predicted need for single medicines while ACSSg scores >14 and 19 predicted need for ≥2 medicines in PAC and PACG eyes, respectively. The LT/Al ratio, IOP score or cup disc score did not influence the need for medical treatment independently. Conclusion The ACSS can be a useful clinical adjunct to the ISGEO system to predict need for medicines and prognosticate each stage more accurately. PMID:27788183

  14. Angle Closure Scoring System (ACSS)-A Scoring System for Stratification of Angle Closure Disease.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Sarangi, Sarada; Das, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS) for stratifying primary angle course disease. This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21) and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO). Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS), non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1-4 quadrants), iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg) and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL), cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to give total score (ACSSt). There were significant differences in ACSSg scores within the same ISGEO stage of PAC and PACG between eyes that required nil or >1medicines after laser iridotomy, p<0.001. The ACSSg was associated with need for >1 medicines in both PAC and PACG eyes, p<0.001. An ACSSg score>12 and 14 in PAC (odds ratio = 2.7(95% CI-1.7-5.9) and PACG (Odds ratio = 1.6(95%CI-1.19-2.2) predicted need for single medicines while ACSSg scores >14 and 19 predicted need for ≥2 medicines in PAC and PACG eyes, respectively. The LT/Al ratio, IOP score or cup disc score did not influence the need for medical treatment independently. The ACSS can be a useful clinical adjunct to the ISGEO system to predict need for medicines and prognosticate each stage more accurately.

  15. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  16. System for inspection of package seal integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Terry G.

    1995-10-01

    There is an increasing acceptance of reduced waste packaging methods for pharmaceutical and medical products. The high level of product integrity must be maintained, while manufacturing lines are required to increase production rates. To ensure their confidence in these packaging methods, manufacturers have turned to process validation as one method of check. In addition to that effort, automated on-line inspection has become increasingly important. Automated inspection can be used to augment manual inspection techniques that are viable at slower production rates. In this paper we explore the elements of a systematic approach that can provide 100% automatic inspection of product seals at full production rates. The various materials used to seal packages effect the system configuration. One such package sealing material is highly specular (mirror-like) laminated foil. A characteristic of this packaging method is its ability to reflect nearly all of the light from the surface. However, the heat process required to bond the seal to the package creates a coining effect where a uniform, low to medium intensity light source, transmitted at a low incident angle, can be used to identify seal defects. It is equally difficult to inspect package seals that are opaque, translucent, or transparent. Each seal material requires a specific lighting solution. When using reflective material, great care must be taken to develop and integrate the lighting method to an automated package seal inspection system.

  17. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  18. Adapting to Biology: Maintaining Container-Closure System Compatibility with the Therapeutic Biologic Revolution.

    PubMed

    Degrazio, Dominick

    Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to the dimension of evolving therapeutic biologics. Important concerns associated with this changeover are becoming forefront, as challenges develop of varying complexity uncommon with the synthesis and production of traditional drugs. Therefore, alternative measures must be established that aim to preserve the efficacy and functionality of a biologic that might not be implemented for small molecules. Conserving protein stability is relative to perpetuating a net equilibrium of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Key to sustaining this balance is the ability of container-closure systems to maintain their compatibility with the ever-changing dynamics of therapeutic biologics. Failure to recognize and adjust the material properties of packaging components to support compatibility with therapeutic biologics can compromise patient safety, drug productivity, and biological stability. This review will examine the differences between small-molecule drugs and therapeutic biologics, lay a basic foundation for understanding the stability of therapeutic biologics, and demonstrate potential sources of container-closure systems' incompatibilities with therapeutic biologics at a mechanistic level. Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to recombinantly derived therapeutic biologics. Concerns associated with this transformation are becoming prominent, as therapeutic biologics are uncharacteristic to small-molecule drugs. Maintaining the stability of a therapeutic biologic is a combination of balancing intrinsic factors and external elements within the biologic's microenvironment. An important aspect of this balance is relegated to the overall compatibility of primary, parenteral container-closure systems with therapeutic biologics

  19. ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE TO WASTE PACKAGES CAUSED BY SEISMIC EVENTS DURING POST-CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, S W; Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Gerhard, M; Buscheck, T A

    2008-05-27

    This paper presents methodology and results of an analysis of damage due to seismic ground motion for waste packages emplaced in a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A series of three-dimensional rigid body kinematic simulations of waste packages, pallets, and drip shields subjected to seismic ground motions was performed. The simulations included strings of several waste packages and were used to characterize the number, location, and velocity of impacts that occur during seismic ground motion. Impacts were categorized as either waste package-to-waste package (WP-WP) or waste package-to-pallet (WP-P). In addition, a series of simulations was performed for WP-WP and WP-P impacts using a detailed representation of a single waste package. The detailed simulations were used to determine the amount of damage from individual impacts, and to form a damage catalog, indexed according to the type, angle, location and force/velocity of the impact. Finally, the results from the two analyses were combined to estimate the total damage to a waste package that may occur during an episode of seismic ground motion. This study addressed two waste package types, four levels of peak ground velocity (PGV), and 17 ground motions at each PGV. Selected aspects of waste package degradation, such as effective wall thickness and condition of the internals, were also considered. As expected, increasing the PGV level of the vibratory ground motion increases the damage to the waste packages. Results show that most of the damage is caused by WP-P impacts. TAD-bearing waste packages with intact internals are highly resistant to damage, even at a PGV of 4.07 m/s, which is the highest level analyzed.

  20. Massively Parallel Post-Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    MEMS, Microelectromechanical Systems, Vacuum Packaging , Localized Heating, Localized Bonding, Packaging, Trimming, Resonator, Encapsulation...II: Selective Encapsulation for MEMS Post-Packaging ................................ 19 4.2.1 Vacuum Packaging Technology Using Localized Aluminum...32 4.2.5 Vacuum Packaging Using Localized CVD Deposition

  1. Thermal management of LEDs: package to system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, Mehmet; Becker, Charles A.; Weaver, Stanton E.; Petroski, James

    2004-01-01

    Light emitting diodes, LEDs, historically have been used for indicators and produced low amounts of heat. The introduction of high brightness LEDs with white light and monochromatic colors have led to a movement towards general illumination. The increased electrical currents used to drive the LEDs have focused more attention on the thermal paths in the developments of LED power packaging. The luminous efficiency of LEDs is soon expected to reach over 80 lumens/W, this is approximately 6 times the efficiency of a conventional incandescent tungsten bulb. Thermal management for the solid-state lighting applications is a key design parameter for both package and system level. Package and system level thermal management is discussed in separate sections. Effect of chip packages on junction to board thermal resistance was compared for both SiC and Sapphire chips. The higher thermal conductivity of the SiC chip provided about 2 times better thermal performance than the latter, while the under-filled Sapphire chip package can only catch the SiC chip performance. Later, system level thermal management was studied based on established numerical models for a conceptual solid-state lighting system. A conceptual LED illumination system was chosen and CFD models were created to determine the availability and limitations of passive air-cooling.

  2. INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

  3. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  4. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  5. DROP TESTS RESULTS OF REVISED CLOSURE BOLT CONFIGURATION OF THE STANDARD WASTE BOX, STANDARD LARGE BOX 2, AND TEN DRUM OVERPACK PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    May, C.; Opperman, E.; Mckeel, C.

    2010-04-15

    The Transuranic (TRU) Disposition Project at Savannah River Site will require numerous transfers of radioactive materials within the site boundaries for sorting and repackaging. The three DOT Type A shipping packagings planned for this work have numerous bolts for securing the lids to the body of the packagings. In an effort to reduce operator time to open and close the packages during onsite transfers, thus reducing personnel exposure and costs, an evaluation was performed to analyze the effects of reducing the number of bolts required to secure the lid to the packaging body. The evaluation showed the reduction to one-third of the original number of bolts had no effect on the packagings capability to sustain vibratory loads, shipping loads, internal pressure loads, and the loads resulting from a 4-ft drop. However, the loads caused by the 4-ft drop are difficult to estimate and the study recommended each of the packages be dropped to show the actual effects on the package closure. Even with reduced bolting, the packagings were still required to meet the 49 CFR 178.350 performance criteria for Type A packaging. This paper discusses the effects and results of the drop testing of the three packagings.

  6. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  7. Design and Packaging of Fault Tolerant Optoelectronic Multiprocessor Computing System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-14

    crystals in packaging design and to assemble packaged fault tolerant systems using the developed technologies. On the secondary basis, we would model...optoelectronic packaging for free-space optical interconnect alters the nature of electrical packaging design methodologies, as well as the complexity of

  8. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  9. 40 CFR 281.36 - Out-of-service UST systems and closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Out-of-service UST systems and closure... § 281.36 Out-of-service UST systems and closure. In order to be considered no less stringent than the corresponding federal requirements for temporarily closed UST systems and permanent closure, the state must have...

  10. Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost...high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging requirements. The program balanced the need for...near term component and wafer-level vacuum packaging with the development of advanced high density wafer-level packaging solutions. Three vacuum

  11. The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2012-07-01

    The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner.

  12. Influence of Different Container Closure Systems and Capping Process Parameters on Product Quality and Container Closure Integrity (CCI) in GMP Drug Product Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Huwyler, Joerg; Eder, Juergen; Fritsch, Kamila; Posset, Tobias; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Capping equipment used in good manufacturing practice manufacturing features different designs and a variety of adjustable process parameters. The overall capping result is a complex interplay of the different capping process parameters and is insufficiently described in literature. It remains poorly studied how the different capping equipment designs and capping equipment process parameters (e.g., pre-compression force, capping plate height, turntable rotating speed) contribute to the final residual seal force of a sealed container closure system and its relation to container closure integrity and other drug product quality parameters. Stopper compression measured by computer tomography correlated to residual seal force measurements.In our studies, we used different container closure system configurations from different good manufacturing practice drug product fill & finish facilities to investigate the influence of differences in primary packaging, that is, vial size and rubber stopper design on the capping process and the capped drug product. In addition, we compared two large-scale good manufacturing practice manufacturing capping equipment and different capping equipment settings and their impact on product quality and integrity, as determined by residual seal force.The capping plate to plunger distance had a major influence on the obtained residual seal force values of a sealed vial, whereas the capping pre-compression force and the turntable rotation speed showed only a minor influence on the residual seal force of a sealed vial. Capping process parameters could not easily be transferred from capping equipment of different manufacturers. However, the residual seal force tester did provide a valuable tool to compare capping performance of different capping equipment. No vial showed any leakage greater than 10(-8)mbar L/s as measured by a helium mass spectrometry system, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted in the residual seal force range

  13. Total System Performance Assessment- License Appication Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis for Post-Closure Ventilation (Design Alternative 3)

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb

    1999-06-21

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the effect of potential changes to the TSPA-VA base case design on long-term repository performance. The design changes that are evaluated in this report include two configurations for post-closure ventilation. bow tie and open loop (Design Alternative 3 or D3). The following paragraphs briefly describe the motivation for evaluating post-closure ventilation. The bow tie configuration for post closure ventilation has been identified as a design alternative to the TSPA-VA base case model (CRWMS M&O, 1998a) that may provide improved performance by reducing the temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. The bow tie configuration for post-closure ventilation is a closed-loop design. In this design. cross drifts are placed in pairs with each drift angling up on opposite sides of the repository. From the side, the cross drifts and side drifts form the shape of a bow tie. Movement of air through the system is driven by convective heating from the waste packages in the cross drifts. The open loop configuration is also being considered for its potential to improve post-closure performance of the repository. As with the bow tie configuration, the open loop is designed to decrease temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. For the open loop configuration, air is drawn into the drifts from outside the mountain. The configuration for the repository with open-loop ventilation is similar to the base case repository design with a few added shafts to increase air flow through the drifts. This report documents the modeling assumptions and calculations conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of Design Alternative 3. The performance measure for this evaluation is dose rate. Results are presented that compare the dose-rate time histories with the new design alternatives to that for the TSPA-VA base case calculation (CRWMS M&O, 1998a).

  14. Practical fundamentals of glass, rubber, and plastic sterile packaging systems.

    PubMed

    Sacha, Gregory A; Saffell-Clemmer, Wendy; Abram, Karen; Akers, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Sterile product packaging systems consist of glass, rubber, and plastic materials that are in intimate contact with the formulation. These materials can significantly affect the stability of the formulation. The interaction between the packaging materials and the formulation can also affect the appropriate delivery of the product. Therefore, a parenteral formulation actually consists of the packaging system as well as the product that it contains. However, the majority of formulation development time only considers the product that is contained in the packaging system. Little time is spent studying the interaction of the packaging materials with the contents. Interaction between the packaging and the contents only becomes a concern when problems are encountered. For this reason, there are few scientific publications that describe the available packaging materials, their advantages and disadvantages, and their important product attributes. This article was created as a reference for product development and describes some of the packaging materials and systems that are available for parenteral products.

  15. Porcine Collagen Transconjunctival Wound Closure System for Microincisional Vitrectomy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiffany A; Kaiser, Peter K; Fasching, Rainer; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2017-07-01

    Microincisional vitrectomy surgery has improved outcomes for vitrectomies; however, wound closure complications remain an important concern. The authors introduce a technique to improve transconjunctival wound closure in vitrectomy surgery. The authors evaluated the efficacy of porcine collagen plugs on stopping leakage from sclerotomy test sites in vitro and in vivo and assessed wound site healing with histology samples. The porcine collagen plugs successfully prevented leakage of trypan blue dye in enucleated rabbit eyes and of fluid flow in the rabbit model. Histology showed excellent wound reconstruction and healing, with essentially no inflammation for either angled or straight incisions with a 23-gauge system. The authors describe a simple and effective novel approach to wound closure in any-gauge vitrectomy surgery using porcine collagen plugs. This method can help reduce complications related to wound leakage. The authors plan to conduct human studies to demonstrate the safety of the approach in the future. [ Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:576-579.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. An underwater work systems package. [remote handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, N. B.

    1975-01-01

    A modular unit which is adaptable to several existing deep sea submersibles was developed to extend their working abilities and acquire knowledge of components and techniques for working in the deep sea environment. This work systems package is composed of an aluminum pipe structure on which are mounted two six-function grabber arms, a seven function manipulator, tool suit, 1,000/lb. capacity winch, electrohydraulic power supply, electronics housing, lights, and television. The unit is designed to be operated by itself either remotely or with divers, attached to manned submersibles, or mounted on unmanned cable-controlled submersibles.

  17. SWIFT: A solar system integration software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, Harold F.; Duncan, Martin J.

    2013-03-01

    SWIFT follows the long-term dynamical evolution of a swarm of test particles in the solar system. The code efficiently and accurately handles close approaches between test particles and planets while retaining the powerful features of recently developed mixed variable symplectic integrators. Four integration techniques are included: Wisdom-Holman Mapping; Regularized Mixed Variable Symplectic (RMVS) method; fourth order T+U Symplectic (TU4) method; and Bulirsch-Stoer method. The package is designed so that the calls to each of these look identical so that it is trivial to replace one with another. Complex data manipulations and results can be analyzed with the graphics packace SwiftVis.

  18. An underwater work systems package. [remote handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, N. B.

    1975-01-01

    A modular unit which is adaptable to several existing deep sea submersibles was developed to extend their working abilities and acquire knowledge of components and techniques for working in the deep sea environment. This work systems package is composed of an aluminum pipe structure on which are mounted two six-function grabber arms, a seven function manipulator, tool suit, 1,000/lb. capacity winch, electrohydraulic power supply, electronics housing, lights, and television. The unit is designed to be operated by itself either remotely or with divers, attached to manned submersibles, or mounted on unmanned cable-controlled submersibles.

  19. Packaging and Reliability Issues in Micro/Nano Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongbaeg; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Chiao, Mu; Lin, Liwei

    The potential of MEMS/NEMS technologies has been viewed as a revolution comparable or even bigger than that of microelectronics. These scientific and engineering advancements in micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS)/(NEMS) could bring previously unthinkable applications to reality, from space systems, environmental instruments, to daily-life appliances. As presented in previous chapters, the development of core MEMS/NEMS processes has already demonstrated a lot of commercial applications as well as future potentials with elaborate functionalities. However, creating a low-cost reliable package for the protection of these MEMS/NEMS products is still a very difficult task. Without addressing these packaging and reliability issues, no commercial products can be sold on the market. Packaging design and modeling, packaging material selection, packaging process integration, and packaging cost are the main issues to be considered. In this chapter, we will present the fundamentals of MEMS/NEMS packaging technology, including packaging processes, hermetic and vacuum encapsulations, thermal issues, packaging reliability, and future packaging trends. The future development of MEMS packaging will rely on the success of the implementation of several unique techniques, such as packaging design kits for system and circuit designer, low-cost wafer-level and chip-scale packaging techniques, effective testing techniques, and reliable fabrication of an interposer [56.1] with vertical through-interconnects for device integrations.

  20. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-08-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  1. Laser beam shaping and packaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Daxin; Zhao, Baiqin

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a semiconductor laser beam shaping system, that can collimate the irradiance profile effectively and package the laser diode(LD) at the same time. Due to the semiconductor LD is a kind of line source, a particular ellipsoidal lens is designed after both the fast-axis and the slow-axis of the laser beam analyzed. Geometrical optics analysis based on the ray tracing method is done and the formulas to calculate the shape of the lens are given. Both the theoretical and experimental result show that the laser beam system works effectively; the divergence angle is reduced to less than 0.5 degree in the fast-axial direction and 1.8 degree in the slow-axial direction. In addition, it is the same process that makes the laser beam shaper and packages the LD by using epoxy resin, which simplifies the manufacturing process and reduces the LD volume greatly. Because of the advantages of small volume, low-cost, high rigidity and easy fabrication, the shaper is of great value in the field of semiconductor LD applications.

  2. Active and intelligent packaging systems for a modern society.

    PubMed

    Realini, Carolina E; Marcos, Begonya

    2014-11-01

    Active and intelligent packaging systems are continuously evolving in response to growing challenges from a modern society. This article reviews: (1) the different categories of active and intelligent packaging concepts and currently available commercial applications, (2) latest packaging research trends and innovations, and (3) the growth perspectives of the active and intelligent packaging market. Active packaging aiming at extending shelf life or improving safety while maintaining quality is progressing towards the incorporation of natural active agents into more sustainable packaging materials. Intelligent packaging systems which monitor the condition of the packed food or its environment are progressing towards more cost-effective, convenient and integrated systems to provide innovative packaging solutions. Market growth is expected for active packaging with leading shares for moisture absorbers, oxygen scavengers, microwave susceptors and antimicrobial packaging. The market for intelligent packaging is also promising with strong gains for time-temperature indicator labels and advancements in the integration of intelligent concepts into packaging materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  4. Decision support system for material handling and packaging design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Mats I.; Mazouz, Abdel K.; Han, Chingping

    1992-02-01

    The reliability of the materials handling process involving automated stacking of packages on a pallet or automated sorting of packages in a distribution system depends mainly on the design of the package and the material used for the package. Many problems can be eliminated that result in a higher utilization of the system if the package is designed not only for the product and its requirements but also for an automated handling system with different types of grasping devices. A decision support system is being developed to help the package designer select the most appropriate material and design to satisfy the requirements of the automated materials handling process. The decision support system is programmed in C++ which gives the flexibility and portability needed for this type of system. The user interface is using graphics to ease the understanding of different design options during the selection process.

  5. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  6. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  7. Evaluation of Container Closure System Integrity for Frozen Storage Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Nikoloff, Jonas; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, drug product for parenteral administration is stored in a frozen state (e.g., -20 °C or -80 °C), particularly during early stages of development of some biotech molecules in order to provide sufficient stability. Shipment of frozen product could potentially be performed in the frozen state, yet possibly at different temperatures, for example, using dry ice (-80 °C). Container closure systems of drug products usually consist of a glass vial, rubber stopper, and an aluminum crimped cap. In the frozen state, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of commonly used rubber stoppers is between -55 and -65 °C. Below their Tg, rubber stoppers are known to lose their elastic properties and become brittle, and thus potentially fail to maintain container closure integrity in the frozen state. Leaks during frozen temperature storage and transportation are likely to be transient, yet, can possibly risk container closure integrity and lead to microbial contamination. After thawing, the rubber stopper is supposed to re-seal the container closure system. Given the transient nature of the possible impact on container closure integrity in the frozen state, typical container closure integrity testing methods (used at room temperature conditions) are unable to evaluate and thus confirm container closure integrity in the frozen state. Here we present the development of a novel method (thermal physical container closure integrity) for direct assessment of container closure integrity by a physical method (physical container closure integrity) at frozen conditions, using a modified He leakage test. In this study, different container closure systems were evaluated with regard to physical container closure integrity in the frozen state to assess the suitability of vial/stopper combinations and were compared to a gas headspace method. In summary, the thermal physical container closure integrity He leakage method was more sensitive in detecting physical container closure

  8. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Knackstedt, R W; Dixon, J A; O'Neill, P J; Herrera, F A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent.

  9. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Knackstedt, R. W.; Dixon, J. A.; O'Neill, P. J.; Herrera, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent. PMID

  10. Current collection and current closure in the Tethered Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drobot, Adam; Satyanarayana, P.; Chang, Chia-Lie; Tsang, Kang; Papadopoulos, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Current collection and closure-path modeling are examined analytically with respect to the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). A particle-in cell code is compared with a one-dimensional unmagnetized fluid code to model the behavior of a positively charged satellite in the ionosphere. The morphology of the sheath and the sheath-region processes are thus examined, and the influence of ions leaving the sheath region is found to cause the attraction of an electron current that is 40 times greater than the steady state value. The enhancement is transient and enhances the acceleration of the electrons in the sheath. A set of modified MHD equations, including those for ion inertia, quasineutrality, and electron drift, is employed to model TSS current closure. Whistler modes are found to exist and can be excited as the TSS passes through the ionosphere. Important conclusions include a significant fluctuation level in the steady state sheath, an ion void which affects the electron population, and some long-lived electrons trapped in the settled sheath with respect to two directions.

  11. Current collection and current closure in the Tethered Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drobot, Adam; Satyanarayana, P.; Chang, Chia-Lie; Tsang, Kang; Papadopoulos, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Current collection and closure-path modeling are examined analytically with respect to the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). A particle-in cell code is compared with a one-dimensional unmagnetized fluid code to model the behavior of a positively charged satellite in the ionosphere. The morphology of the sheath and the sheath-region processes are thus examined, and the influence of ions leaving the sheath region is found to cause the attraction of an electron current that is 40 times greater than the steady state value. The enhancement is transient and enhances the acceleration of the electrons in the sheath. A set of modified MHD equations, including those for ion inertia, quasineutrality, and electron drift, is employed to model TSS current closure. Whistler modes are found to exist and can be excited as the TSS passes through the ionosphere. Important conclusions include a significant fluctuation level in the steady state sheath, an ion void which affects the electron population, and some long-lived electrons trapped in the settled sheath with respect to two directions.

  12. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-02-01

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

  13. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  14. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  15. System specification for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This document describes functional design requirements for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS), as required by DOE contract DE-AC03-96SF20948 through contract modification 9 for equipment in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS).

  16. Micro package of short term wireless implantable microfabricated systems.

    PubMed

    Bu, Leping; Cong, Peng; Kuo, Hung-I; Ye, Xuesong; Ko, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Package is a critical part in biomedical implantable systems. Many factors affecting the host body and the life time of implantable systems need to be considered. Package becomes more critical for microfabricated systems with wireless charging and communication. This paper presents the first phase study on micro package techniques for short term (30 to 90 days) implantable systems. A MEMS implantable telemetry model system was designed for packaging evaluation. The transmitter was custom designed and fabricated using MOSIS processes and an external receiver was designed and built for data collection. For short term implantable systems, medical grade silicone outer coating is used for "tissue compatibility"; while multilayer polymeric and nanometer-thin metal or ceramic films were used for inner coatings to provide mechanical strength and to block vapor and moisture penetration. The total coating thickness is less than 0.6 mm. The electrical performances (leakage resistance) of test board and model devices coated with various package materials and processes are evaluated in 40 degrees C saline. This paper presents: the model system; the evaluation methods and analysis of failure modes of polymeric coating on test boards; the solution to the failures and suggested coating techniques of polymeric materials; and the evaluation of model systems packaged with multi-layer coatings in 40 degrees C saline. The expected performance of developed packaging method was verified by experiments. Implantable wireless MEMS system can be packaged with thin multilayer materials to have an expected life time greater than 30 days.

  17. PACKAGE PLANTS FOR SMALL SYSTEMS: A FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint field study was conducted by AWWA and the Drinking Water Research Division of USEPA to evaluate existing small community systems that use package plant technology. Forty-eight package plant systems representing a geographic and technological cross section were evaluated t...

  18. PACKAGE PLANTS FOR SMALL SYSTEMS: A FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint field study was conducted by AWWA and the Drinking Water Research Division of USEPA to evaluate existing small community systems that use package plant technology. Forty-eight package plant systems representing a geographic and technological cross section were evaluated t...

  19. New skin closure system facilitates wound healing after cardiovascular implantable electronic device surgery.

    PubMed

    De Maria, Elia

    2015-08-16

    The manuscript describes the efficacy of a new skin closure system (ZipLine™) for wound closure after pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator surgery. The system is particularly useful when wound healing is difficult with traditional methods and in patients at high risk for surgical site infections (SSIs). This skin closure option is easy and quick to apply and remove, and produces excellent cosmetic results. Although it is associated with a minimal expense upcharge, the benefits, including the potential for decrease in SSI, make it attractive and worth considering for skin closure in device patients, particularly those at increased risk of complications.

  20. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  1. AZTEC: A parallel iterative package for the solving linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    We describe a parallel linear system package, AZTEC. The package incorporates a number of parallel iterative methods (e.g. GMRES, biCGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR) and preconditioners (e.g. Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, polynomial, domain decomposition with LU or ILU within subdomains). Additionally, AZTEC allows for the reuse of previous preconditioning factorizations within Newton schemes for nonlinear methods. Currently, a number of different users are using this package to solve a variety of PDE applications.

  2. Detailed design report for an operational phase panel-closure system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-11

    Under contract to Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Westinghouse), Waste Isolation Division (WID), IT Corporation has prepared a detailed design of a panel-closure system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Preparation of this detailed design of an operational-phase closure system is required to support a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application and a non-migration variance petition. This report describes the detailed design for a panel-closure system specific to the WIPP site. The recommended panel-closure system will adequately isolate the waste-emplacement panels for at least 35 years. This report provides detailed design and material engineering specifications for the construction, emplacement, and interface-grouting associated with a panel-closure system at the WIPP repository, which would ensure that an effective panel-closure system is in place for at least 35 years. The panel-closure system provides assurance that the limit for the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) will be met at the point of compliance, the WIPP site boundary. This assurance is obtained through the inherent flexibility of the panel-closure system.

  3. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS AND STATUS ON CLOSURE OF DOE RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK ANCILLARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H; Sharon Marra, S; Christine Langton, C

    2009-01-21

    This paper summarizes the current state of art of sampling, characterizing, retrieving, transferring and treating the incidental waste and stabilizing the void space in tank ancillary systems and the needs involved with closure of these systems. The overall effort for closing tank and ancillary systems is very large and is in the initial stages of being addressed in a systematic manner. It was recognized in doing this effort, that gaps in both technology and material application for characterization and removal of residual waste and closure of ancillary systems would be identified. Great efficiencies are to be gained by defining the technology need areas early in the closure process and providing recommendations for technical programs to improve the closure strategies. Therefore, this paper will not only summarize the state of closure of ancillary systems but also provide recommendations to address the technology gaps identified in this assessment.

  4. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  5. IBACOS Builder System Performance Packages: January 2003-December 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Broniek, John; Norton, P.

    2004-07-01

    This report presents system design packages for cold and mixed-humid climates that builders and contractors can use to construct homes that achieve a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score between 86 and 88.

  6. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  7. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-08

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

  8. Alumina Based 500 C Electronic Packaging Systems and Future Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2012-01-01

    NASA space and aeronautical missions for probing the inner solar planets as well as for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines require high-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics. A 96% aluminum oxide and Au thick-film metallization based packaging system including chip-level packages, printed circuit board, and edge-connector is in development for high temperature SiC electronics. An electronic packaging system based on this material system was successfully tested and demonstrated with SiC electronics at 500 C for over 10,000 hours in laboratory conditions previously. In addition to the tests in laboratory environments, this packaging system has more recently been tested with a SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) on low earth orbit through the NASA Materials on the International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE7). A SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE7 suite to International Space Station via a Shuttle mission and tested on the orbit for eighteen months. A summary of results of tests in both laboratory and space environments will be presented. The future development of alumina based high temperature packaging using co-fired material systems for improved performance at high temperature and more feasible mass production will also be discussed.

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  10. Computerized waste-accountability shipping and packaging system. [WASP

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Baston, M. Jr.; DeVer, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Waste Accountability, Shipping and Packaging System (WASP) is a real-time computerized system designed and implemented by Mound Facility to meet the stringent packaging and reporting requirements of radioactive waste being shipped to burial sites. The system stores packaging data and inspection results for each unit and prepares all necessary documents at the time of shipment. Shipping data specific for each burial site are automatically prepared on magnetic tape for transmission to the computing center at that site. WASP has enabled Mound Facility to effectively meet the requirements of the burial sites, diminishing the possibility of being rejected from a site because of noncompliance.

  11. Development of an automated pit packaging system for Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a system that uses robots to package pits at Pantex in the AT-400A pit storage and transportation container. This report will give an overview of the AT-400A packaging process, and the parts of the overall AT-400A packaging operation that will be performed robotically. The process employed to move from development in the laboratory at Sandia to production use at Pantex will be described. Finally, important technology components being developed for and incorporated into the robotic system will be described. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Effect of pressure on closure temperature of a trace element in cooling petrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Closure temperature is important to many diffusion-related problems involving cooling. The classic model of Dodson and its modifications for cooling petrological systems are formulated at constant pressure. Many petrologic processes involve changes in both temperature and pressure. The effect of changing pressure on diffusional loss in cooling petrological systems has not been considered in Dodson's model. During upwelling, the decompression rate is related to the cooling rate through the slope of the upwelling path. Simple analytical expressions for the average or mean closure temperature and closure pressure in cooling-upwelling mono-mineralic and bi-mineralic systems are obtained by noting that both temperature and pressure decrease as a function of time along the upwelling path. These pressure-adjusted equations are nearly identical to closure temperature equations for isobaric cases if one replaces the activation energy and pre-exponential factor for diffusion in the isobaric formulations by the path-dependent activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The latter also depend on the slope of the upwelling path. The competing effects between pressure and temperature on diffusion during upwelling result in reductions in the effective activation enthalpy for diffusion and exchange enthalpy for partitioning, which in turn leads to systematic deviations in closure temperatures from cases of constant pressure. For systems with large activation volume for diffusion, it may be possible to deduce upwelling path and upwelling rate from closure temperatures and closure pressures of selected elements. Examples of closure temperature and closure pressure for REE diffusion in garnet and clinopyroxene and in garnet-clinopyroxene aggregates are presented and discussed in the context of the minor's rule and the REE-in-garnet-clinopyroxene thermobarometer. Closure temperatures for middle-to-heavy REE in garnet-clinopyroxene aggregates are controlled primarily by diffusion in

  13. Silicon-on-silicon system packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balseanu, Mihaela

    A novel process for homogeneous integration of commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits on a silicon (Si) substrate, utilizing wafer bonding, has been developed. The integration of discrete ICs with different functionality on a silicon substrate is inherently more reliable than traditional packaging because it eliminates wires bonds and discrete packages; allowing for higher density interconnections. This integration assembly also reduces the thermal mismatch between the package components and the associated reliability problems. The process begins with the formation of cavities into a Si substrate to house the Si devices. A Si wafer is patterned, completely etched through and bonded to a Si handle wafer at 1100°C. During this step, a covalent bond is formed at the interface of the two wafers while the sidewalls of the cavities are covered with about a micron of thermal oxide to ensure the electrical isolation of the Si chips from the housing wafer. Afterwards, the devices are bonded via low temperature wafer bonding into the resulted cavities of the housing wafer. After bonding, the trenches formed between the inserted chips and the surrounding silicon body are filled and the module surface is planarized to insure reliable chip-to-chip interconnection. Aluminum is then sputtered and patterned by wet etching to define the metal lines connecting the integrated circuits. Multiple interconnect layers can be implemented by repeating the last two processing steps. The structural and thermal performance of the silicon-on-silicon multichip module was investigated using the finite element analysis package ANSYS. Thermomechanical analysis has been performed on the structure to evaluate its behavior under typical operating conditions as well as to determine the key geometrical parameters that influence the package reliability. Thermal simulations have been performed to ascertain the most suitable cooling solution for the module. The resulting structure

  14. Residential solar-heating system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for modular solar heating system includes performance specifications, design data, installation guidelines, and other information that should be valuable to those interested in system (or similar systems) for projected installation. When installed in insulated "energy saver" home, system can supply large percentage of total energy needs of building.

  15. Residential solar-heating system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for modular solar heating system includes performance specifications, design data, installation guidelines, and other information that should be valuable to those interested in system (or similar systems) for projected installation. When installed in insulated "energy saver" home, system can supply large percentage of total energy needs of building.

  16. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  17. Construction of a wireless communication contact closure system for liquid chromatography with multiple parallel mass spectrometers and other detectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A contact closure system has been constructed and implemented that utilizes two contact closure sender boards that communicate wirelessly to four contact closure receiver boards to distribute start signals from two or three liquid chromatographs to fourteen instruments, pumps, detectors, or other co...

  18. Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Its Feasibility for Military Feeding Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    prevent mold growth and is 1 a) b) Skin Tight Gas Atmosphere akingPackagingFood , :,i: Residual Barrier Packaging c) d) Gourmet Food Skintight Packaging...Bardier Brea Packaging ... Barrier packaging incorporates: Oxygen scavenger Moisture absorbent Bread Custom Permeability Slow cooked after packaged...packaging; c) sous vide packaging; d) active packaging. 2 used mainly for starch or bread products at ambient temperatures. An active packaging with a

  19. A survey of packages for large linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Milne, Brent

    2000-02-11

    This paper evaluates portable software packages for the iterative solution of very large sparse linear systems on parallel architectures. While we cannot hope to tell individual users which package will best suit their needs, we do hope that our systematic evaluation provides essential unbiased information about the packages and the evaluation process may serve as an example on how to evaluate these packages. The information contained here include feature comparisons, usability evaluations and performance characterizations. This review is primarily focused on self-contained packages that can be easily integrated into an existing program and are capable of computing solutions to very large sparse linear systems of equations. More specifically, it concentrates on portable parallel linear system solution packages that provide iterative solution schemes and related preconditioning schemes because iterative methods are more frequently used than competing schemes such as direct methods. The eight packages evaluated are: Aztec, BlockSolve,ISIS++, LINSOL, P-SPARSLIB, PARASOL, PETSc, and PINEAPL. Among the eight portable parallel iterative linear system solvers reviewed, we recommend PETSc and Aztec for most application programmers because they have well designed user interface, extensive documentation and very responsive user support. Both PETSc and Aztec are written in the C language and are callable from Fortran. For those users interested in using Fortran 90, PARASOL is a good alternative. ISIS++is a good alternative for those who prefer the C++ language. Both PARASOL and ISIS++ are relatively new and are continuously evolving. Thus their user interface may change. In general, those packages written in Fortran 77 are more cumbersome to use because the user may need to directly deal with a number of arrays of varying sizes. Languages like C++ and Fortran 90 offer more convenient data encapsulation mechanisms which make it easier to implement a clean and intuitive user

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Obrien, J.H.

    1997-02-24

    The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

  1. Automated closure system for nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, D. W.; Brown, W. F.

    1985-09-17

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a pulsed magnetic process in which the open end of a length of cladding is positioned within a complementary tube surrounded by a pulsed magnetic welder. Seals are provided at each end of the tube, which can be evacuated or can receive tag gas for direct introduction to the cladding interior. Loading of magnetic rings and end caps is accomplished automatically in conjunction with the welding steps carried out within the tube.

  2. Automated closure system for nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.

    1985-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a pulsed magnetic process in which the open end of a length of cladding is positioned within a complementary tube surrounded by a pulsed magnetic welder. Seals are provided at each end of the tube, which can be evacuated or can receive tag gas for direct introduction to the cladding interior. Loading of magnetic rings and end caps is accomplished automatically in conjunction with the welding steps carried out within the tube.

  3. Achieving miniature sensor systems via advanced packaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartup, David C.; Bobier, Kevin; Demmin, Jeffrey

    2005-05-01

    Demands for miniaturized networked sensors that can be deployed in large quantities dictate that the packages be small and cost effective. In order to accomplish these objectives, system developers generally apply advanced packaging techniques to proven systems. A partnership of Nova Engineering and Tessera begins with a baseline of Nova's Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) technology and utilizes Tessera's three-dimensional (3D) Chip-Scale Packaging (CSP), Multi-Chip Packaging (MCP), and System-in-Package (SIP) innovations to enable novel methods for fabricating compact, vertically integrated sensors utilizing digital, RF, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. These technologies, applied to a variety of sensors and integrated radio architectures, enable diverse multi-modal sensing networks with wireless communication capabilities. Sensors including imaging, accelerometers, acoustical, inertial measurement units, and gas and pressure sensors can be utilized. The greatest challenge to high density, multi-modal sensor networks is the ability to test each component prior to integration, commonly called Known Good Die (KGD) testing. In addition, the mix of multi-sourcing and high technology magnifies the challenge of testing at the die level. Utilizing Tessera proprietary CSP, MCP, and SIP interconnection methods enables fully testable, low profile stacking to create multi-modal sensor radios with high yield.

  4. [Experience with the negative pressure closure system of chronic wounds in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Dabaghi-Richerand, A; Gómez-Chavarría, J; González-Sánchez, M; Saleme-Cruz, J; Garavito, E

    2013-01-01

    To show the results and advantages of using the negative pressure closure system in a pediatric population with infections and wound closure defects. A retrospective analysis was conducted on pediatric patients in whom the VAC(®) negative pressure wound closure system was used in the Shriners Hospital for Children, Mexico, from January 2008 to December 2012. We were able to include 8 patients treated with this system. We evaluated the cause for use, wound colonizing microorganism, number of days of stay at the hospital, number of times applied, interval of application, and number of days in the hospital until discharge after VAC(®) application, and final treatment. The average days after VAC aplication till discharge was 13.7 days. The final treatment in 7 of the 8 patients was direct closure or application of skin grafts for closure of the wounds. Through this study we were able to observe that, after the application of this treatment, there was an increase in the granulation tissue at the wounds, as well as resolution of the infection. We were able to confirm the efficiency of this treatment in controlling the infection and decreasing skin defects, allowing an easier and earlier wound closure. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures of the solar hot water system. This system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  6. Assessment of engineered barrier system and design of waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1988-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established two post-closure performance objectives for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in a geologic repository. These require containment of the waste followed by controlled release. The EBS for a repository in unsaturated tuff at Yucca Mountain is designed to meet these performance objectives. The major components are the waste form, container, air gap, and borehole liner. Assessment of post-closure performance of the EBS is based on allocating performance for various components toward meeting overall design objectives. Because of the unprecedented time periods considered, 1000 to 10,000 years, computer modeling is essential and will be used in conjunction with testing to assess whether the performance allocations are met. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Nitinol clip distal migration and resultant popliteo-tibial artery occlusion complicating access closure by the StarClose SE vascular closure system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Myeong Jin; Yoo, Chan Jong; Park, Cheol Wan

    2017-02-01

    Lower extremity ischemia following deployment of a vascular closure device for access site closure after a transfemoral endovascular procedure rarely occurs. A 68-year-old woman diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior communicating aneurysm was treated by endovascular coil embolization. The StarClose SE device was deployed for right femoral arteriotomy closure. After 2 days, critical ischemia occurred on her right lower leg due to total occlusion of the popliteo-tibial artery. Emergent surgical embolectomy was performed and the nitinol clip of the StarClose device was captured in the lumen of the tibioperoneal trunk. Although StarClose is an extravascular closure system, intravascular deployment, distal migration, and resultant critical limb ischemia can occur.

  8. Installation package - SIMS prototype system 1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This report consists of details for the installation, operation and maintenance of a prototype heating and hot water system, designed for residential or light commercial applications. This system consists of the following subsystems: air type collectors, pebble bed thermal storage, air handling unit, air to water heat exchanger, hot water preheat tank, auxiliary energy, ducting system.

  9. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  10. Packaging considerations for planar optical interconnection systems.

    PubMed

    Acklin, B; Jahns, J

    1994-03-10

    We discuss various aspects of building an integrated optoelectronic system that is based on the concept of planar optics. A particular optical interconnection system has been fabricated and demonstrated. It provides parallel interconnections with 1024 optical channels that could be useful as an optical backplane in an optoelectronic multichip module. We consider the design and the fabrication of the optical system, schemes for the hybrid integration with optoelectronic device arrays, and the thermal management of an integrated system. The proposed hybrid integration scheme is based on mature technologies such as thermal anodic bonding and flip-chip bonding. Possibilities for efficient heat sinking are described.

  11. Solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes solar heating system composed of warm-air solar collector, logic control unit, and switching and transport unit, that meets government standards for installation in residential dwellings. Text describes system operation and performance specifications complemented by comprehensive set of subcomponent design drawings.

  12. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  13. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  14. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  15. Design package Lazy Susan for the fuel retrieval system

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a Lazy Susan style small tool for the Fuel Retrieval System. The Lazy Susan tool is used to help rotate an MCO Fuel Basket when loading it. This document contains requirements, development design information, tests and test reports that pertain to the production of Lazy Susan small tool.

  16. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  17. Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System for Aircraft Engine Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a packaged silicon carbide (SiC) based MEMS pressure sensor system designed specifically for a conventional turbofan engine. The electronic circuit is based on a Clapp-type oscillator that incorporates a 6H-SiC MESFET, a SiCN MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, titanate MIM capacitors, wirewound inductors, and thick film resistors. The pressure sensor serves as the capacitor in the LC tank circuit, thereby linking pressure to the resonant frequency of the oscillator. The oscillator and DC bias circuitry were fabricated on an alumina substrate and secured inside a metal housing. The packaged sensing system reliably operates at 0 to 350 psi and 25 to 540C. The system has a pressure sensitivity of 6.8 x 10E-2 MHzpsi. The packaged system shows negligible difference in frequency response between 25 and 400C. The fully packaged sensor passed standard benchtop acceptance tests and was evaluated on a flight-worthy engine.

  18. Description of the IV + V System Software Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microcomputers for Information Management: An International Journal for Library and Information Services, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the IV + V System, a software package designed by the Institut fur Maschinelle Dokumentation for the United Nations General Information Programme and UNISIST to support automation of local information and documentation services. Principle program features and functions outlined include input/output, databank, text image, output, and…

  19. Design package lazy susan for the fuel retrieval system

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-09-10

    This is a design package that contains the details for a Lazy Susan style small tool for the Fuel Retrieval System. The Lazy Susan tool is used to help rotate an MCO Fuel Basket when loading it. This document contains requirements, development design information, tests and test reports that pertain to the production of Lazy Susan small tool.

  20. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Plahn, Paul; Keene, Kevin; Pendray, John

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  1. Final system instrumentation design package for Decade 80 solar house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The final configuration of the Decade 80 solar house to monitor and collect system performance data is presented. A review demonstrated by actual operation that the system and the data acquisition subsystem operated satisfactorily and installation of instrumentation was in accordance with the design. This design package is made up of (1) site and system description, (2) operating and control modes, and (3) instrumentation program (including sensor schematic).

  2. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  3. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work.

  5. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  6. The work request system of a NASA Q1 package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A computer package is described which can be used to track any type of work that is controlled on the basis of work requests and purchase orders/contracts. Run on any NASA Ql, using floppy disks only, the system can handle about 1,200 requests per year, and provides performance and summary reports for management. The milestones tracked at Goddard are described as well as directions for installing the system. Sample reports and operator instructions are included.

  7. pysimm: A python package for simulation of molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, Michael E.; Colina, Coray M.

    In this work, we present pysimm, a python package designed to facilitate structure generation, simulation, and modification of molecular systems. pysimm provides a collection of simulation tools and smooth integration with highly optimized third party software. Abstraction layers enable a standardized methodology to assign various force field models to molecular systems and perform simple simulations. These features have allowed pysimm to aid the rapid development of new applications specifically in the area of amorphous polymer simulations.

  8. Entrapment of the StarClose Vascular Closure System After Attempted Common Femoral Artery Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Durack, Jeremy C. Thor Johnson, D.; Fidelman, Nicholas; Kerlan, Robert K.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.

    2012-08-15

    A complication of the StarClose Vascular Closure System (Abbott, Des Plaines, IL) after a transarterial hepatic chemoembolization is described. After attempted clip deployment, the entire device became lodged in the tissues overlying the common femoral artery and could not be removed percutaneously. Successful removal of the device required surgical cutdown for removal and arterial repair. Entrapment of the StarClose vascular closure deployment system is a potentially serious complication that has been reported in the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database, but has not been recognized in the literature.

  9. Numerical simulation of heterogeneous fractured gas reservoir systems with turbulence and closure stress effects

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, A.M.; Crichlow, H.B.; Soliman, M.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A numerical technique for analyzing the behavior of a fractured gas reservoir system is presented. The reservoir is simulated by a fully implicit three-dimensional model that incorporates the effects of turbulent flow and closure stress in a finite conductivity fracture. The model utilizes the real gas pseudo-pressure, two-point upstream transmissibilities and a stable iterative process based on a sparse matrix approach to solving the equation systems. This paper presents a description of the model and applications to various reservoirs to illustrate the effects of fracture heights, turbulence and closure pressure on well performance. 16 refs.

  10. User's guide to closure evaluation system: CES beta-test version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; McCready, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Closure Evaluation System (CES) is a decision support tool, developed by the U.S. EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, to assist reviewers and preparers of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit applications. CES is designed to serve as a checklist for identifying potential design problems in the vegetative cover, final cover, and leachate collection components of RCRA landfill closures as set forth in 40 CFR 264 and 40 CFR 265. It is not intended to be a complete automation of the evaluation process. The conclusions reached by the CES system (and it's modules) should serve either as a starting point for a more thorough investigation or as a final check applied after completion of a technical review. The CES system will, nevertheless, be useful in the directing the appropriate users attention to critical closure design issues and in applying design criteria that are supported by RCRA guidance. The CES system incorporates three modules that can assist in the evaluation of a proposed RCRA closure design: The Vegetative Cover Evaluation System (V-CES); The Final Cover Evaluation System (F-CES); and The Leachate Collection Evaluation System (L-CES). Since each module is a stand alone system, you can work with one module during a CES consultation or work with all three modules in any order.

  11. Ray tracing package through a lens system and a spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zurro, B.; King, P.W.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1980-03-01

    To study the light collection optics of the ISX-B two-dimensional (2-D) Thomson scattering system, we have implemented in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fusion Energy Division (FED) PDP-10 two computer programs, LENS and SPECT, that trace rays through a lens system and a spectrometer, respectively. The lens package follows the path of any kind of ray (meridional or skew) through a centered optical system formed by an arbitrary number of spherical surfaces. The spectrometer package performs geometrical ray tracing through a Czerney-Turner spectrometer and can be easily modified for studying any other configuration. Contained herein is a description of the procedures followed and a listing of the computer programs.

  12. Packaging and characterization of micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saupe, Ray; Otto, Thomas; Stock, Volker; Fritzsch, Uwe; Gessner, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    Modern optical analytics require more and more compact and cost-effective modules for analysis of surfaces, solids, thin films, powders, pastes, gels, liquids and alike. Thereby a fast and non-invasive measurement is often necessary. Microsystem technology, more precisely Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical System (MOEMS) technology is suitable for the realization of such modules. Different miniaturized optical analyzers employing MOEMS have been developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM) in collaboration with the Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM) and the company COLOUR CONTROL Farbmesstechnik GmbH. These devices are based on the principle of spectral sensing in the infrared range. Due to the requirement of compact dimensions and short optical paths a high packaging accuracy is necessary. In the development process different setups with a continuous packaging improvement have been realized. The first packaging principle was based on particularly assembled laser-cut stainless steel sheets and optical standard components. The design requires exact positioning of the functional elements to attain a sufficient optical resolution. The reduction of the active components by means of monolithic combinations was one improvement. Further progress could be achieved by a package made of aluminum cast, whose models were provided using modern methods of rapid prototyping. Consequently adjustment tolerances will be minimized and the vibration stability will be increased. During the development process, simulations and characterization of the system are essential to obtain necessary improvements. Thereby an evaluation of the packaging accuracy regarding its influence on the defocus was made. According to precision and reproducibility, the optical and electrical performance are being tested.

  13. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure...

  14. How the Lean Management System is Working on a Closure Project - 13242

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery, Carol

    2013-07-01

    Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH) manages the River Corridor Closure Project (RCCP), a 10-year contract, in which WCH will clean up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Strategic planning sessions in 2009 identified key performance areas that were essential to closure and in which focused change could result in dramatic performance improvement. Lean Management Systems (Lean) was selected as the methodology to achieve the desired results. The Lean Process is built upon the fundamentals of the power of respect for people and the practice of continuous process improvement. Lean uses week-long, focused sessions that teach a selected team the techniques to recognize waste within their own work processes, propose potential solutions, and then conduct experiments during the week to test their solutions. In 2011, the Lean process was implemented in the Waste Operations organization. From there it was expanded to closure documents, field remediation, and decommissioning and demolition. WCH identified the following Lean focus areas: 1) closure document processes that required extensive internal preparation, and lengthy external review and approval cycles; 2) allocation of limited transportation and waste disposal resources to meet aggressive remediation schedules; 3) effective start-of-the-day routines in field operations; 4) improved excavation and load-out processes; and 5) approaches to strengthen safety culture and support disciplined operations. Since the introduction of Lean, RCCP has realized many successes and also gained some unexpected benefits. (authors)

  15. Tethsim - A dynamics simulation software package for tethered system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, F.; Cibrario, B.; Origgi, G.

    This paper presents the description of a dynamics simulation package, called Tethsim, devoted to the investigation of tethered systems behavior in space. The papers also analyzes specific problems related to tethered system simulation such as validation, varying-length tether growth model, and CPU time consumption and describes the approaches used to solve them. The system is modeled in Tethsim as composed by rigid bodies and point-masses connected by spring-dashpot, to form an open-line configuration. Strong emphasis has been placed on easing user interfaces with the program; in particular, the software can be flexibly adapted to the specific system to be simulated.

  16. Maximum-entropy closure for a Galerkin system of incompressible shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Bernd R.; Niven, Robert K.

    2011-11-01

    A statistical physics closure is proposed for Galerkin models of incompressible shear flows. This closure employs a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle to infer the probability distribution in Galerkin state space using exact statistical balance equations as side constraints. Application to an empirical Galerkin model of the periodic cylinder wake predicts mean amplitude values and modal energy levels in good agreement with direct numerical simulation. Recipes for more complicated Galerkin systems are provided. Partially funded by the ANR Chaires d'Excellence TUCOROM.

  17. Analysis of Ecodesign Implementation and Solutions for Packaging Waste System by Using System Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzina, Alise; Dace, Elina; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research project which explored the packaging waste management system in Latvia. The paper focuses on identifying how the policy mechanisms can promote ecodesign implementation and material efficiency improvement and therefore reduce the rate of packaging waste accumulation in landfill. The method used for analyzing the packaging waste management policies is system dynamics modeling. The main conclusion is that the existing legislative instruments can be used to create an effective policy for ecodesign implementation but substantially higher tax rates on packaging materials and waste disposal than the existing have to be applied.

  18. USER'S GUIDE TO CLOSURE EVALUATION SYSTEM: CES BETA-TEST VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Closure Evaluation System (CES) is a decision support tool, developed by the U.S. EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, to assist reviewers and preparers of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit applications. CES is designed to serve as a checklis...

  19. 40 CFR 281.36 - Out-of-service UST systems and closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVAL OF STATE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Criteria for No-Less-Stringent... with release detection requirements if regulated substances are stored in the tank; (3) Be closed off... operator conducts a site assessment. (b) Permanent closure of UST systems. All tanks and piping must be...

  20. USER'S GUIDE TO CLOSURE EVALUATION SYSTEM: CES BETA-TEST VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Closure Evaluation System (CES) is a decision support tool, developed by the U.S. EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, to assist reviewers and preparers of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit applications. CES is designed to serve as a checklis...

  1. [Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects in adults. Practicality and safety of four different closure systems used in 102 patients].

    PubMed

    La Rosée, K; Krause, D; Becker, M; Beuckelmann, D J; Deutsch, H J; Höpp, H W

    2001-09-21

    Surgical closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a procedure with few complications. But this surgical intervention can nowadays be avoided by transcatheter insertion of occluding devices. Such interventional methods must be judged against the results of surgical procedures. This report from one center presents the practicability and safety of different transcatheter occluder systems. Transcatheter occlusion was undertaken in 102 patients (40 females, 62 males, aged between 17 and 76 years [median age 45]) with either an ASD (41pts.) or a PFO (60 pts.) or with both, in one patient. Four different systems were used: ASDOS (for ASD and PFO), PFO-STAR (for PFO), Amplatzer Septal Occluder (for ASD) or Amplatzer PFO Occluder (for PFO). Follow-up, including transoesophageal echocardiography took place 48 hours, 4 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after the interventional occluder placement. An occluder was successfully placed in the ASD or PFO in 99 of the 102 patients. In three patients the occluder ( ASDOS ASD) could not be correctly ancchored in the defect. In two other patients the same device was subsequently removed surgically because of mispositioning or a large resiudal shunt. Occluder-associated problems were: mild (41%) or extensive (11%) thrombus formation on the occluder without early embolization, residual shunt at one year (ASD 16%, PFO 29%); minor displacement (10%) or broken umbrella strut (6%) of no clinical relevance. One patient required emergency surgical intervention on the day of the transcatheter placement (PFO-STAR) because of pricardial tamponade. Primary complete occlusion was achieved in 71%. There was no case of cerebral emboli. Transcatheter occlusion of ASD and/or PFO is a reliable and safe procedure. Regarding peri- and/or postinterventional complications, primary results and practicability, the Amplatzer septal occluder and Amplatzer PFO occluder are particularly advantageous.

  2. FRAMES Software System: Linking to the Statistical Package R

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Whelan, Gene; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2006-12-11

    This document provides requirements, design, data-file specifications, test plan, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control protocol for the linkage between the statistical package R and the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Versions 1.x and 2.0. The requirements identify the attributes of the system. The design describes how the system will be structured to meet those requirements. The specification presents the specific modifications to FRAMES to meet the requirements and design. The test plan confirms that the basic functionality listed in the requirements (black box testing) actually functions as designed, and QA/QC confirms that the software meets the client’s needs.

  3. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  4. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  5. Functional Requirements for an Electronic Work Package System

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna H.

    2016-12-01

    This document provides a set of high level functional requirements for a generic electronic work package (eWP) system. The requirements have been identified by the U.S. nuclear industry as a part of the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages - Enterprise Requirements (NEWPER) initiative. The functional requirements are mainly applied to eWP system supporting Basic and Moderate types of smart documents, i.e., documents that have fields for recording input such as text, dates, numbers, and equipment status, and documents which incorporate additional functionalities such as form field data “type“ validation (e.g. date, text, number, and signature) of data entered and/or self-populate basic document information (usually from existing host application meta data) on the form when the user first opens it. All the requirements are categorized by the roles; Planner, Supervisor, Craft, Work Package Approval Reviewer, Operations, Scheduling/Work Control, and Supporting Functions. The categories Statistics, Records, Information Technology are also included used to group the requirements. All requirements are presented in Section 2 through Section 11. Examples of more detailed requirements are provided for the majority of high level requirements. These examples are meant as an inspiration to be used as each utility goes through the process of identifying their specific requirements. The report’s table of contents provides a summary of the high level requirements.

  6. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  7. 75 FR 34172 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Owens Illinois Manufacturing, Hamlet, NC; Amended... workers of Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Hamlet, North Carolina. The notice was... from Olston Staffing were employed on-site at the Hamlet, North Carolina location of Rexam Closure...

  8. Closure Evaluation System (CES) version 1. 1 (5 1/4 inch) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Closure Evaluation System (CES) is a decision support tool designed to serve as a checklist for identifying potential design problems in landfill closures. The system is comprised of three component systems designed to provide advice about closure of hazardous waste land disposal sites. The Vegetative Cover Evaluation System advises whether a proposed vegetation will meet basic EPA criteria such as drought resistance, protection against erosion, and minimum continued maintenance. It confirms that the planting/seeding plan is consistent with horticulture practices and that the selected plant species is compatible with regional climate characteristics. The Final Cover Evaluation System advises whether a proposed final cover design includes the minimum components required by EPA, whether the system will function as required by EPA, and if it adheres to basic construction principles for RCRA caps as outlined in EPA technical resource documents. The Leachate Collection Evolution System advises whether a proposed leachate collection design will perform satisfactorily. It performs a number of calculations intended to expose potential design flaws. Since each component is a 'stand alone' system, you can work with one component during a CES consultation or work with all three components in any order.

  9. A new system for crack closure of cementitious materials using shrinkable polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, Anthony; Joseph, Christopher; Lark, Robert; Isaacs, Ben; Dunn, Simon; Weager, Brendon

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents details of an original crack-closure system for cementitious materials using shrinkable polymer tendons. The system involves the incorporation of unbonded pre-oriented polymer tendons in cementitious beams. Crack closure is achieved by thermally activating the shrinkage mechanism of the restrained polymer tendons after the cement-based material has undergone initial curing. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated in a series of small scale experiments on pre-cracked prismatic mortar specimens. The results from these tests show that, upon activation, the polymer tendon completely closes the preformed macro-cracks and imparts a significant stress across the crack faces. The potential of the system to enhance the natural autogenous crack healing process and generally improve the durability of concrete structures is addressed.

  10. Scilab software package for the study of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeianu, C. C.; Beşliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Felea, D.; Grossu, I. V.

    2008-05-01

    This work presents a new software package for the study of chaotic flows and maps. The codes were written using Scilab, a software package for numerical computations providing a powerful open computing environment for engineering and scientific applications. It was found that Scilab provides various functions for ordinary differential equation solving, Fast Fourier Transform, autocorrelation, and excellent 2D and 3D graphical capabilities. The chaotic behaviors of the nonlinear dynamics systems were analyzed using phase-space maps, autocorrelation functions, power spectra, Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Various well known examples are implemented, with the capability of the users inserting their own ODE. Program summaryProgram title: Chaos Catalogue identifier: AEAP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 885 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5925 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Scilab 3.1.1 Computer: PC-compatible running Scilab on MS Windows or Linux Operating system: Windows XP, Linux RAM: below 100 Megabytes Classification: 6.2 Nature of problem: Any physical model containing linear or nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE). Solution method: Numerical solving of ordinary differential equations. The chaotic behavior of the nonlinear dynamical system is analyzed using Poincaré sections, phase-space maps, autocorrelation functions, power spectra, Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropies. Restrictions: The package routines are normally able to handle ODE systems of high orders (up to order twelve and possibly higher), depending on the nature of the problem. Running time: 10 to 20 seconds for problems that do not

  11. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    POWELL, W.J.

    1999-11-29

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot · CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain · CAS 02-59-01, Septic System · CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain · CAS 02-60-02, French Drain · CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain · CAS 02-60-04, French Drain · CAS 02-60-05, French Drain · CAS 02-60-06, French Drain · CAS 02-60-07, French Drain · CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall · CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap · CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 · The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  13. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-31

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under the Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan for Tank System TRA-009. The tank system to be closed is identified as VCO-SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-009. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  14. Small planar packaging system for high-throughput ATM switching systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Yasuda, K.; Oka, H.; Kaneko, Y.; Kawauchi, M.

    1995-03-01

    A small planar packaging (SPP) system is described that can be combined with card-on-board (COB) packaging in ATM switching systems with throughputs of over 40 Gbit/s. Using a newly developed quasicoaxial zero-insertion-force connector, point-to-point 311 Mbit/s of 8 bit parallel signal transmission is achieved in an arbitrary location on the SPP system's shelf. Also 5400 I/O connections in the region of the planar packaging system are made, and thus the SPP system eliminates the I/O pin count limitation. Furthermore, the heat flux of the SPP system is five times higher than that of conventional COB packaging because of its air flow control structure.

  15. MCO Monitoring issue closure package

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Agreement on a focused, limited approach to MCO monitoring has been documented. While the value of monitoring has been understood by those interested in the SNF Project, there had been a diversity of opinion on details of approach and implementation. For this reason, MCO monitoring had been identified as a technical issue. A cooperative effort involving the contractor, RL, and the technical assistance group (TAG), resulted in the definition of an approach agreeable to all and of the remaining details to be resolved through conceptual engineering. MCO monitoring will consist of temperature, pressure, and gas composition monitoring of 4 to 6 MCOs for up to two years. High pressure detection capability for the duration of interim storage for every MCO will also be evaluated and implemented within the current project baseline, if possible. Otherwise a BCR will be prepared and submitted.

  16. Endoscopic Closure of Duodenal Perforation with the Over-the-scope-clipping System

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Miyahara, Ryoji; Funasaka, Kohei; Yamamura, Takeshi; Ohno, Eizaburo; Nakamura, Masanao; Kawashima, Hiroki; Watanabe, Osamu; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment for superficial non-ampullary duodenal tumors is technically difficult and challenging due to the anatomical characteristics of the duodenum. It is frequently complicated by procedural accidents, such as perforation. Surgical repair has long been the standard treatment for acute iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforation. However, endoscopic closure has recently emerged as an attractive alternative. In the patient presented herein, the over-the-scope-clipping system (OTSC system) was found to be useful for closing a duodenal perforation that had occurred during endoscopic submucosal dissection. For endoscopists who perform endoscopic treatment of the duodenum, endoscopic closure with the OTSC system is considered to be a technique that is necessary to master. PMID:27803406

  17. 3-d Periodic Packaging: Sodalite, a Model System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    to 05-31-92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS 3-d Periodic Packaging: N00014-90-J-1159 Sodalite , A Model System 6. AUTHOR(S) G.D. Stucky, V.I...assembly of confined atomic and molecular arrays. Sodalite , one of the simplest zeolite analogue structures with a 60 atom cage can be synthesized with...structure of both the frameworks and the clusters within the cages of sodalite structural analogues can be precisely determined. In addition to new

  18. 3-D Periodic Packaging: Sodalite, a Model System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    hfww 05-15-92 Technical 06-1-91 o 05-31-92 ,mA AMU SUBSTIl SI. FUNDING NUMBUS 3-d Periodic Packaging: Sodalite , A Model System N00014-81-K-0598 AUTNO(S...considerable latitude in the assembly of confined atomic and molecular arrays. Sodalite , one of the simplest zeolite analogue structures with a 60 atom...framework electric field. The structure of both the fiameworks and the clusters within the cages of sodalite structural analogues can be precisely

  19. A waste package strategy for regulatory compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Cloninger, M.O.

    1990-04-01

    This paper summarizes the strategy given in the Site Characterization Plan for demonstrating compliance with the post closure performance objectives for the waste package and the Engineered Barrier System contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. The strategy consists of the development of a conservative waste package design that will meet the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty using a multi-barrier approach that takes advantage of the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Complexity VIII. Ontology of closure in complex systems: The C* hypothesis and the O° notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jerry LR

    1999-03-01

    Closure is a common characteristic of mathematical, natural and socio-cultural systems. Whether one is describing a graph, a molecule, a cell, a human, or a nation state, closure is implicitly understood. An objective of this paper is to continue a construction of a systematic framework for closure which is sufficient for future quantitative transdisciplinary investigations. A further objective is to extend the Birkhoff-von Neumann criterion for quantum systems to complex natural objects. The C* hypothesis is being constructed to be consistent with algebraic category theory (Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1987, 1997, Chandler, 1990, 1991, Chandler, Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1996). Five aspects of closure will be used to construct a framework for categories of complex systems: 1. Truth functions in mathematics and the natural sciences 2. Systematic descriptions in the mks and O° notations 3. Organizational structures in hierarchical scientific languages 4. Transitive organizational pathways in the causal structures of complex behaviors 5. Composing additive, multiplicative and exponential operations in complex systems Truth functions can be formal or objective or subjective, depending on the complexity of the system and on our capability to represent the fine structure of the system symbolically, observationally or descriptively. "Complete" material representations of the fine structure of a system may allow truth functions to be created over sets of one to one correspondences. Less complete descriptions can support less stringent truth functions based on coherence or subjective judgments. The role of human values in creating and perpetuating truth functions can be placed in context of the degree of fine structure in the system's description. The organization of complex systems are hypothesized to be categorizable into degrees relative to one another, thereby creating an ordering relationship. This ordering relationship is denoted by the symbols: O°1, O°2,O°3

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd{sup 3} of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd{sup 3} of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of universal waste in

  2. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  4. Stress-relaxation and tension relief system for immediate primary closure of large and huge soft tissue defects: an old-new concept: new concept for direct closure of large defects.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin Nard; Topaz, Guy; Li, Mingsen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Stress-relaxation is a well-established mechanism for laboratory skin stretching, with limited clinical application in conventional suturing techniques due to the inherent, concomitant induction of ischemia, necrosis and subsequent suture failure. Skin defects that cannot be primarily closed are a common difficulty during reconstructive surgery. The TopClosure tension-relief system (TRS) is a novel device for wound closure closure, providing secured attachment to the skin through a wide area of attachment, in an adjustable manner, enabling primary closure of medium to large skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the TopClosure TRS as a substitute for skin grafting and flaps for primary closure of large soft tissue defects by stress-relaxation. We present three demonstrative cases requiring resection of large to huge tumors customarily requiring closure by skin graft or flaps. TRS was applied during surgery serving as a tension-relief platform for tension sutures, to enable primary skin-defect closure by cycling of stress-relaxation, and following surgery as skin-secure system until complete wound closure. All skin defects ranging from 7 to 26 cm in width were manipulated by the TRS through stress-relaxation, without undermining of skin, enabling primary skin closure and eliminating the need for skin grafts and flaps. Immediate wound closure ranged 26 to 135 min. TRS was applied for 3 to 4 weeks. Complications were minimal and donor site morbidity was eliminated. Surgical time, hospital stay and costs were reduced and wound aesthetics were improved. In this case series we present a novel technology that enables the utilization of the viscoelastic properties of the skin to an extreme level, extending the limits of primary wound closure by the stress-relaxation principle. This is achieved via a simple device application that may aid immediate primary wound closure and downgrade the complexity of surgical procedures for a wide range

  5. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  6. A QR code identification technology in package auto-sorting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Yi-Juan; Shi, Jian-Ping; Mao, Guo-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Traditional manual sorting operation is not suitable for the development of Chinese logistics. For better sorting packages, a QR code recognition technology is proposed to identify the QR code label on the packages in package auto-sorting system. The experimental results compared with other algorithms in literatures demonstrate that the proposed method is valid and its performance is superior to other algorithms.

  7. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  8. Life Support Goals Including High Closure and Low Mass Should Be Reconsidered Using Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling space life support systems have been built and tested since the 1960s and have operated on the International Space Station (ISS) since the mid 2000s. The development of space life support has been guided by a general consensus focused on two important related goals, increasing system closure and reducing launch mass. High closure is achieved by recycling crew waste products such as carbon dioxide and condensed humidity. Recycling directly reduces the mass of oxygen and water for the crew that must be launched from Earth. The launch mass of life support can be further reduced by developing recycling systems with lower hardware mass and reduced power. The life support consensus has also favored using biological systems. The goal of increasing closure using biological systems suggests that food should be grown in space and that biological processors be used for air, water, and waste recycling. The goal of reducing launch mass led to use of Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in life support advocacy and technology selection. The recent consensus assumes that the recycling systems architecture developed in the 1960s and implemented on ISS will be used on all future long missions. NASA and other project organizations use the standard systems engineering process to guide hardware development. The systems process was used to develop ISS life support, but it has been less emphasized in planning future systems for the moon and Mars. Since such missions are far in the future, there has been less immediate need for systems engineering analysis to consider trade-offs, reliability, and Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Preliminary systems analysis suggests that the life support consensus concepts should be revised to reflect systems engineering requirements.

  9. Modeling closure of the Pd-Ag system in iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Orman, J.; Matthes, M.; Fischer-Gödde, M.; Krawczynski, M. J.; Kleine, T.

    2015-12-01

    J.A. Van Orman1, M. Matthes2, M. Fischer-Godde2, M.J. Krawczynski3, T. Kleine21 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (james.vanorman@case.edu) 2 Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat Muenster, 48149 Muenster, Germany 3 Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 The short-lived Pd-107/Ag-107 system can provide constraints on the timing of assembly and cooling of iron meteorite parent bodies, but to interpret the dates derived from this system it is necessary to understand the closure conditions. Palladium is strongly enriched in the metal phases, and sulphide (troilite) is the primary sink for radiogenic silver. Closure of the system hence depends primarily on the transfer of Ag-107 from metal to troilite. Because cation diffusion in troilite is extremely rapid, Ag-107 transfer is likely to be controlled by diffusion through the metal. Sugiura and Hoshino (2003) estimated a closure temperature of ~1100 K for the Pd/Ag system in iron meteorites under the assumption that the diffusion rate of Ag in the metal is similar to that of Ni diffusion in taenite. Here we consider the problem in more detail, utilizing constraints on Ag diffusion in taenite and kamacite from the metallurgical literature to numerically model diffusive exchange between metal and troilite with simultaneous radiogenic ingrowth. The process is complicated by exsolution of the metal into bcc kamacite and fcc taenite phases during cooling. We will discuss approaches to the treatment of this issue and their influence on the derived closure temperatures. Sugiura N., Hoshino H. (2003) Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 38, 117-143.

  10. Achieving Closure for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems: Engineering and Ecological Challenges, Research Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    Closed systems are desirable for a number of purposes: space life support systems where precious life-supporting resources need to be kept inside; biospheric systems; where global ecological pro-cesses can be studied in great detail and testbeds where research topics requiring isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) can be studied in isolation from the outside environment and where their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied. But to achieve and maintain closure raises both engineering and ecological challenges. Engineering challenges include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and devel-oping methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is devel-oping means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differen-tials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro-and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and

  11. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system (E-VAC): case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Malinger, Stanisław; Świrkowicz, Józef; Hermann, Jacek; Drews, Michał; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become a standard in the treatment of chronic and difficult healing wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy is applied to the wound via a special vacuum-sealed sponge. Nowadays, the endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system (E-VAC) has been proven to be an important alternative in patients with upper and lower intestinal leakage not responding to standard endoscopic and/or surgical treatment procedures. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system provides perfect wound drainage and closure of various kinds of defect and promotes tissue granulation. Our experience has shown that E-VAC may significantly improve the morbidity and mortality rate. Moreover, E-VAC may be useful in a multidisciplinary approach – from upper gastrointestinal to rectal surgery complications. On the other hand, major limitations of the E-VAC system are the necessity of repeated endoscopic interventions and constant presence of well-trained staff. Further, large-cohort studies need to be performed to establish the applicability and effectiveness of E-VAC before routine widespread use can be recommended. PMID:26240633

  12. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system (E-VAC): case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Szmyt, Krzysztof; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Malinger, Stanisław; Świrkowicz, Józef; Hermann, Jacek; Drews, Michał; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become a standard in the treatment of chronic and difficult healing wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy is applied to the wound via a special vacuum-sealed sponge. Nowadays, the endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system (E-VAC) has been proven to be an important alternative in patients with upper and lower intestinal leakage not responding to standard endoscopic and/or surgical treatment procedures. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system provides perfect wound drainage and closure of various kinds of defect and promotes tissue granulation. Our experience has shown that E-VAC may significantly improve the morbidity and mortality rate. Moreover, E-VAC may be useful in a multidisciplinary approach - from upper gastrointestinal to rectal surgery complications. On the other hand, major limitations of the E-VAC system are the necessity of repeated endoscopic interventions and constant presence of well-trained staff. Further, large-cohort studies need to be performed to establish the applicability and effectiveness of E-VAC before routine widespread use can be recommended.

  13. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-02-26

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude.

  14. Neodymium Diffusion Kinetics in Orthopyroxene: Experimental Studies, Mineral Closure Temperature of Sm-Nd Decay System and Application to Mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, J.; Ganguly, J.; Hervig, R.; Zhang, X.-Y.

    2008-03-01

    We have determined Nd diffusion kinetics in orthopyroxene, and applied these data to calculate closure temperature of Sm-Nd decay system in the mineral, and to refine the cooling history of mesosiderites.

  15. Development of KIAPS Observation Processing Package for Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeon-Ho; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Sihye; Han, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Su-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. Data assimilation team at KIAPS has been developing the observation processing system (KIAPS Package for Observation Processing: KPOP) to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Global Model (KIAPS Integrated Model - Spectral Element method based on HOMME: KIM-SH). Currently, the KPOP is capable of processing the satellite radiance data (AMSU-A, IASI), GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO), AIRCRAFT (AMDAR, AIREP, and etc…), and synoptic observation (SONDE and SURFACE). KPOP adopted Radiative Transfer for TOVS version 10 (RTTOV_v10) to get brightness temperature (TB) for each channel at top of the atmosphere (TOA), and Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) 1-dimensional forward module to get bending angle (BA) at each tangent point. The observation data are obtained from the KMA which has been composited with BUFR format to be converted with ODB that are used for operational data assimilation and monitoring at the KMA. The Unified Model (UM), Community Atmosphere - Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and KIM-SH model outputs are used for the bias correction (BC) and quality control (QC) of the observations, respectively. KPOP provides radiance and RO data for Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and also provides SONDE, SURFACE and AIRCRAFT data for Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR). We are expecting all of the observation type which processed in KPOP could be combined with both of the data assimilation method as soon as possible. The preliminary results from each observation type will be introduced with the current development status of the KPOP.

  16. Closure temperature in cooling bi-mineralic systems: I. Definition and with application to REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lijing; Liang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Closure temperature is an important concept to many diffusion related problems involving cooling. The basic idea and formulation were outlined in the seminal work of Dodson for cooling mono-mineralic systems. The Dodson's equation has been widely used to calculate closure temperatures for igneous and metamorphic rocks that contain more than one mineral. The purpose of this study is to examine closure temperatures in cooling bi-mineralic systems and to investigate the physical meaning of temperatures calculated using the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer. We conduct numerical simulations of diffusive redistribution of trace elements between two coexisting minerals under prescribed cooling using temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and mineral-mineral partition coefficients. Following Dodson's treatment, the closure temperature in bi-mineralic systems can be defined by the evolution of either average trace element concentrations in the two minerals or their ratio. The latter defines an effective partition coefficient. Closure temperatures calculated based on the two definitions are compared for a range of cooling rates, grain sizes, mineral proportions, and temperature-dependent partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients. Temperatures defined by the effective partition coefficient are recommended. Application to diffusive redistribution of rare earth elements (REE) in orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene systems demonstrates that closure temperature differences among REE are small and hence their average value may be used as the closure temperature for the cooling two-pyroxene system. The average closure temperature of REE in the two-pyroxene system is essentially the same as the temperature calculated using the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer and practically independent of pyroxene modal abundance in the system. Differences in temperatures calculated using the REE- and major element-based two-pyroxene thermometers can be used to infer cooling rate of two

  17. Closure system

    DOEpatents

    Hertelendy, Nicholas A [Kennewick, WA

    1989-01-01

    A pressure resistant seal for a metallic container is formed between a cylindrical portion having one end open and a cap which seals the open end of the shell. The cap is in the form of a frusto-conical flange which is inserted narrow end first into the open end of the shell and the container is sealed by means of a capping tool which pulls the flange against a die, deforming the flange and forcing the edge of the flange into the wall of the shell.

  18. Closure system

    DOEpatents

    Hertelendy, Nicholas A.

    1989-04-04

    A pressure resistant seal for a metallic container is formed between a cylindrical portion having one end open and a cap which seals the open end of the shell. The cap is in the form of a frusto-conical flange which is inserted narrow end first into the open end of the shell and the container is sealed by means of a capping tool which pulls the flange against a die, deforming the flange and forcing the edge of the flange into the wall of the shell.

  19. Closure system

    DOEpatents

    Hertelendy, N.A.

    1987-04-22

    A pressure resistant seal for a metallic container is formed between a cylindrical portion having one end open and a cap which seals the open end of the shell. The cap is in the form of a frusto-conical flange which is inserted narrow end first into the open end of the shell and the container is sealed by means of a capping tool which pulls the flange against a die, deforming the flange and forcing the edge of the flange into the wall of the shell. 6 figs.

  20. Materials in Manufacturing and Packaging Systems as Sources of Elemental Impurities in Packaged Drug Products: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis R; Stults, Cheryl L M; Paskiet, Diane M; Ball, Douglas J; Nagao, Lee M

    Elemental impurities in drug products can arise from a number of different sources and via a number of different means, including the active pharmaceutical ingredient, excipients, the vehicle, and leaching of elemental entities that are present in the drug product's manufacturing or packaging systems. Thus, knowledge about the presence, level, and likelihood of leaching of elemental entities in manufacturing and packaging systems is relevant to understanding how these systems contribute to a drug product's total elemental impurity burden. To that end, a joint team from the Extractables and Leachables Safety Information Exchange (ELSIE) Consortium and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS) has conducted a review of the available literature on elemental entities in pharmaceutically relevant polymers and the presence of these elemental entities in material extracts and/or drug products. This review article contains the information compiled from the available body of literature and considers two questions: (1) What elemental entities are present in the relevant polymers and materials and at what levels are they present? (2) To what extent are these elemental entities leached from these materials under conditions relevant to the manufacturing and storage/distribution of solution drug products? Conclusions drawn from the compiled data are as follows: (1) Elemental entities are present in the materials used to construct packaging and manufacturing systems as these materials either contain these elemental entities as additives or are exposed to elemental entities during their production. (2) Unless the elemental entities are parts of the materials themselves (for example, SiO2 in glass) or intentionally added to the materials (for example, metal stearates in polymers), their incidental amounts in the materials are generally low. (3) When elemental entities are present in materials and systems, generally only a very small

  1. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  2. The software package CAOS 7.0: enhanced numerical modelling of astronomical adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbillet, Marcel; La Camera, Andrea; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Perruchon-Monge, Ulysse; Sy, Adama

    2016-07-01

    The Software Package CAOS (acronym for Code for Adaptive Optics Systems) is a modular scientific package performing end-to-end numerical modelling of astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems. It is IDL-based and developed within the eponymous CAOS Problem-Solving Environment, recently completely re-organized. In this paper we present version 7.0 of the Software Package CAOS, containing a number of enhancements and new modules, in particular for wide-field AO systems modelling.

  3. Design package test weights for fuel retrieval system (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-10-26

    This is a design package that documents the development of test weights used in the Spent Nuclear Fuels subproject Fuel Retrieval System. The K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project consists of the safe retrieval, preparation, and repackaging of the spent fuel stored at the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins for interim safe storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) scrap baskets and fuel baskets will be loaded and weighed under water. The equipment used to weigh the loaded fuel baskets requires daily calibration checks, using test weights traceable to National Institute of Standards Testing (NIST) standards. The test weights have been designated as OCRWM related in accordance with HNF-SD-SNF-RF'T-007 (McCormack).

  4. Past, current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: A review.

    PubMed

    Kerry, J P; O'Grady, M N; Hogan, S A

    2006-09-01

    Interest in the use of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into packaging systems with the aim of maintaining or extending meat product quality and shelf-life. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents and anti-microbial packaging technologies. Intelligent packaging systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged foods to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transport and storage. The potential of sensor technologies, indicators (including integrity, freshness and time-temperature (TTI) indicators) and radio frequency identification (RFID) are evaluated for potential use in meat and meat products. Recognition of the benefits of active and intelligent packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.

  5. [The development and operation of a package inserts service system for electronic medical records].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Sachiho; Shimamori, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Seiji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2003-03-01

    To promote the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals and to prevent side effects, physicians need package inserts on medicinal drugs as soon as possible. A medicinal drug information service system was established for electronic medical records to speed up and increase the efficiency of package insert communications within a medical institution. Development of this system facilitates access to package inserts by, for example, physicians. The time required to maintain files of package inserts was shortened, and the efficiency of the drug information service increased. As a source of package inserts for this system, package inserts using a standard generalized markup language (SGML) form were used, which are accessible to the public on the homepage of the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research (OPSR). This study found that a delay occurred in communicating revised package inserts from pharmaceutical companies to the OPSR. Therefore a pharmaceutical department page was set up as part of the homepage of the medical institution for electronic medical records to shorten the delay in the revision of package inserts posted on the medicinal drug information service homepage of the OPSR. The usefulness of this package insert service system for electronic medical records is clear. For more effective use of this system based on the OPSR homepage pharmaceutical companies have been requested to provide quicker updating of package inserts.

  6. Smart Packaging Technologies and Their Application in Conventional Meat Packaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, Michael N.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    Preservative packaging of meat and meat products should maintain acceptable appearance, odour and flavour and should delay the onset of microbial spoilage. Typically fresh red meats are placed on trays and over-wrapped with an oxygen permeable film or alternatively, meats are stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (80% O2:20% CO2) (Georgala & Davidson, 1970). Cooked meats are usually stored in 70% N2:30% CO2 (Smiddy, Papkovsky, & Kerry, 2002). The function of oxygen in MAP is to maintain acceptable fresh meat colour and carbon dioxide inhibits the growth of spoilage bacteria (Seideman & Durland, 1984). Nitrogen is used as an inert filler gas either to reduce the proportions of the other gases or to maintain the pack shape (Bell & Bourke, 1996).

  7. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-26

    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module.

  8. Laceration of the Common Femoral Artery Following Deployment of the StarClose{sup TM} Vascular Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Michael Walkden, Miles Belli, Anna Maria

    2008-07-15

    StarClose is a novel arterial closure device which achieves hemostasis, following arteriotomy, via a nitinol clip deployed on the outer arterial wall. Since its introduction to the market, several studies have shown StarClose to be both safe and effective, with few major complications encountered. We report a case of common femoral artery laceration following deployment of the StarClose vascular closure system. We conclude that the injury occurred secondary to intravascular misplacement of the nitinol clip.

  9. Ice-atmosphere feedbacks dominate the response of the climate system to Drake Passage closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, M. H.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Santoso, A.; Sijp, W. P.

    2016-02-01

    The response of the global climate system to Drake Passage (DP) closure is examined using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice model. Unlike most previous studies, a full three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model is included with a complete hydrological cycle and a freely evolving wind field, as well as a coupled dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice module. Upon DP closure the initial response is found to be consistent with previous ocean-only and intermediate complexity climate model studies, with an expansion and invigoration of the Antarctic meridional overturning, along with a slowdown in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production. This results in a dominance of Southern Ocean poleward geostrophic flow and Antarctic sinking when DP is closed. However, within just a decade of DP closure, the increased southward heat transport has melted back a substantial fraction of Antarctic sea-ice. At the same time the polar oceans warm by 4-6 degrees C on the zonal mean, and the maximum strength of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies weaken by about 10%. These effects, not captured in models without ice and atmosphere feedbacks, combine to force Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) to warm and freshen, to the point that this water mass becomes less dense than NADW. This leads to a marked contraction of the Antarctic overturning, allowing NADW to ventilate the abyssal ocean once more. Poleward heat transport settles back to very similar values as seen in the unperturbed DP open case. Yet remarkably, the equilibrium climate in the closed DP configuration retains a strong Southern Hemisphere warming, similar to past studies with no dynamic atmosphere. However, here it is ocean-atmosphere-ice feedbacks, primarily the ice-albedo feedback and partly the weakened mid-latitude jet, not a vigorous southern sinking, that maintain the warm polar oceans. This demonstrates that DP closure can drive a hemisphere-scale warming with polar amplification, without the presence of any vigorous

  10. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  11. Construction of a wireless communication contact closure system for liquid chromatography with multiple parallel mass spectrometers and other detectors.

    PubMed

    Byrdwell, William Craig

    2014-10-01

    A contact closure system was constructed that uses two contact closure sender boards that communicate wirelessly to four contact closure receiver boards to distribute start signals from two or three liquid chromatographs to 14 instruments, pumps, detectors, or other components. Default high, closed low, TTL logic (5-volt) start signals from two autosamplers are converted to simple contacts by powered relay boards that are then connected to two 16-channel wireless contact closure sender boards. The contact closure signals from the two sender boards are transmitted wirelessly to two pairs of eight-channel receiver boards (total of 32 contact signals) that distribute the start signal to 14 switches that allow selection of which start signal is sent to which instrument, pump, or detector. The contact closure system is used for quadruple parallel mass spectrometry experiments in which four mass spectrometers, using three different atmospheric pressure ionization modes, plus a UV detector, an evaporative light-scattering detector, a corona charged aerosol detector, and two syringe pumps supplying electrolyte, are all synchronized to start simultaneously. A wide variety of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments using multiple liquid chromatographs and mass spectrometers simultaneously, LCx/MSy, including column-switching experiments, can be reconfigured simply by toggling switches.

  12. The effects of non-vacuum packaging systems on drip loss from chilled beef.

    PubMed

    Payne, S R; Durham, C J; Scott, S M; Devine, C E

    1998-07-01

    This study investigated drip loss in chilled beef (hot-boned m. longissimus lumborum (LL)) under conventional packaging systems, in which a vacuum is applied, and non-vacuum packaging systems. The use of vacuum during the packaging process (vacuum packaging, CO(2) atmosphere packaging) was associated with increased drip. Drip was lower in heat-shrunk vacuum packaging than in non-shrunk vacuum packaging. A slow vacuum onset had no effect on drip formation, or may have increased it. The extent of pressure reduction (vacuum; range 0-1 atm) did not significantly affect drip formation, although the standard vacuum pressure (0 atm) tended to cause more drip loss than higher pressures. The three non-vacuum anaerobic packaging systems tested were: flushed with carbon dioxide without the pressure being reduced below atmospheric (Flush), or the same system with no CO(2) flush but a proprietary oxygen absorber added (Scavenger), or a combination of both (Flush/Scavenger). Storage was at -1.5 °C for up to 20 weeks. The Flush and Flush/Scavenger systems had considerably lower drip loss than the CAP standard system (6.4%, 6.5%, and 9.1% respectively); the Scavenger system had the lowest drip loss (5.2%). Drip losses generally increased with storage period, irrespective of packaging system. All non-vacuum packaging systems except the Flush system had very low oxygen levels (<0.l% v v ). The Flush system had considerably higher levels of oxygen (0.9%) with associated browning of meat samples. All packaging systems gave a hygienic shelf-life of at least 16 weeks. At 16 weeks, microbial numbers were highest (5 × 10(6)) in the Scavenger system. The meat from all packaging systems was acceptable to taste panels even after 16 weeks of storage at -1.5 °C. There were no significant differences between any of the packaging systems for any of the sensory attributes tested. The packaging systems with the best all round performance were the Flush/Scavenger and the Scavenger systems

  13. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m{sup 3}. The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year).

  14. Implementing AORN recommended practices for selection and use of packaging systems for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Morton, Paula J; Conner, Ramona

    2014-04-01

    The delivery of sterile products to the sterile field is essential to perioperative practice. The use of protective packaging for sterilized items is crucial to helping ensure that patients receive sterile items for surgical procedures. AORN's "Recommended practices for selection and use of packaging systems for sterilization" offers guidance to perioperative team members in evaluating, selecting, and using packaging systems that permit sterilization of the contents, prevent contamination of sterilized items until the package is opened for use, protect the items from damage during transport and storage, and permit aseptic delivery of the items to the sterile field.

  15. System design package for IBM system one: solar heating and domestic hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage. The system was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system was packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  16. System Design Package for SIMS Prototype System 3, Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collation of documents and drawings are presented that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plate collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  17. Installation package for a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package consists of installation, operation and maintenance manuals for four commercial solar energy subsystems, including flat plate solar collector pebble bed thermal-storage. Manual gives design information, sizing data, specification drawings, and other material for subsystem.

  18. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  19. Image dissector control and data system, part 1. [instrument packages and equipment specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A general description of the image dissector control and data system is presented along with detailed design information, operating instructions, and maintenance and trouble-shooting procedures for the four instrumentation packages. The four instrumentation packages include a 90 inch telescope, a simplified telescope module for use on the 90 inch or other telescopes, a photographic plate scanner module which permits the scanning of astronomical photographic plates in the laboratory, and the lunar experiment package module.

  20. Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM Modular Generator sets

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.

    1994-12-31

    Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM modular generator sets are outlined. The following topics are discussed: GE LM gas turbine history, operating experience, maintenance, gas turbine spare engines, modular gas turbine generator sets, typical LM2500 cogeneration plant and STIG cycle plant, factory packaging concept, gas turbine/generator package, performance, comparison, competitive capital cost, phased construction, comparison of revenue requirements, capacity evaluation, heat rate evaluation, fuel evaluation, startup, and dispatch flexibility without maintenance penalty.

  1. Thyme Oil Encapsulated in Halloysite Nanotubes for Antimicrobial Packaging System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hyeock; Seo, Hyun-Sun; Park, Hyun Jin

    2017-04-01

    An antimicrobial capsule releasing thyme oil was developed using modified halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). In order to increase the pore volume, HNTs were treated with 5.0 mol/L NaOH solution, which resulted in the encapsulation of more thyme oil molecules inside the HNTs. The morphology of the raw HNTs and NaOH-treated HNTs (N-HNTs) was characterized using transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The loading capacity increased from 180.7 ± 12.7 to 256.4 ± 16.7 mg thyme oil/g HNT after the NaOH treatment. The aerial release characteristics of thyme oil from both the HNT capsules were investigated in a closed-package atmosphere system at 4, 25, and 40 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the capsule against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined using the vapor phase assay. Moreover, the antimicrobial effects of the capsule against E. coli O157:H7, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), and molds and yeasts (MY) on the surfaces of cherry tomatoes were investigated at 4 and 25 °C for 5 d. When the cherry tomatoes were exposed to the thyme oil-loaded N-HNT capsule, the number of E. coli O157:H7, MAB, and MY significantly reduced during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. MuLV packaging systems as models for estimating/measuring retrovirus recombination frequency.

    PubMed

    Patience, C; Takeuch, Y; Cosset, F L; Weiss, R A

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of retrovirus vectors and endogenous retroviruses present in packaging cell lines and target cells may result in the formation of recombinant viruses. Using sensitive RT-PCR assays, we have investigated human and murine gene therapy packaging cell lines for the incorporation of endogenous retrovirus transcripts into murine leukaemia virus (MLV) vector particles and whether vector genomes are incorporated into human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) particles. VL30 endogenous retrovirus sequences were packaged in particles produced by the murine AM12 packaging system. For every seven MLV-derived -galactosidase beta-Gal vector genomes present in the particles, one copy of VL30 was also packaged. Although human FLY packaging cells expressed HERV transcripts (HERV-K, HuRT, type C, and RTVL-H), none was detectable in the MLV vector particles released from the cells. Non-specific packaging of the MLV gag-pol expression vector transcripts was detected in the FLY virions at a low level (one in 17,000 sequences). In other experiments, gag proteins produced by HERV-K particles present in human teratocarcinoma cells did not appear to package MLV-based vectors that expressed Gal transcripts. These findings indicate that retrovirus vectors interact with human packaging cells to produce retrovirus particles that are far less contaminated by endogenous viral sequences or other types of extraneous particles than murine packaging cells.

  3. Safety evaluation for packaging transportation of equipment for tank 241-C-106 waste sluicing system

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, D.B.

    1994-08-25

    A Waste Sluicing System (WSS) is scheduled for installation in nd waste storage tank 241-C-106 (106-C). The WSS will transfer high rating sludge from single shell tank 106-C to double shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (102-AY). Prior to installation of the WSS, a heel pump and a transfer pump will be removed from tank 106-C and an agitator pump will be removed from tank 102-AY. Special flexible receivers will be used to contain the pumps during removal from the tanks. After equipment removal, the flexible receivers will be placed in separate containers (packagings). The packaging and contents (packages) will be transferred from the Tank Farms to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage and then to T Plant for evaluation and processing for final disposition. Two sizes of packagings will be provided for transferring the equipment from the Tank Farms to the interim storage facility. The packagings will be designated as the WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings throughout the remainder of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP). The WSSP-1 packagings will transport the heel and transfer pumps from 106-C and the WSSP-2 packaging will transport the agitator pump from 102-AY. The WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings are similar except for the length.

  4. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  5. System design package for SIMS prototype system 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The system consisted of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit, containing solar collectors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping, and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system were packaged for evaluation.

  6. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking-bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnace/trays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented.

  7. Severe scar problems following use of a locking barbed skin closure system in the foot.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, Majid; Singh, Samrendu

    2013-06-01

    Barbed sutures provide a novel technique for knotless wound closure. They have mainly been used in plastic and general surgery. There are no reports about its use in the foot. We present a case series of 11 feet in 8 patients whose wounds were closed with barbed sutures. Ten had primary hallux valgus correction and one had a revision correction. No problems were noted at 2-weeks follow-up. Four of the 11 cases required open suture excision due to an adverse reaction. Five were followed to delayed wound healing. Histology results from one scar showed a localised histiocytic reaction and superficial dermal abscess formation. We feel the thin subcutaneous tissue of the foot, the amount of motion and pressure from the shoe causes the barbs to repeatedly irritate the soft tissue. Based on our short case series we cannot recommend the use of a barbed skin closure system in the foot. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of upper intestinal leaks using an endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system (E-VAC).

    PubMed

    Bludau, M; Hölscher, A H; Herbold, T; Leers, J M; Gutschow, C; Fuchs, H; Schröder, W

    2014-03-01

    Esophageal perforations and postoperative leakage of esophagogastrostomy are considered to be life-threatening conditions due to the development of mediastinitis and consecutive sepsis. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), a well-established treatment method for superficial infected wounds, is based on a negative pressure applied to the wound via a vacuum-sealed sponge. Endoluminal VAC (E-VAC) therapy is a novel method, and experience with its esophageal application is limited. This retrospective study summarizes the experience of a center with a high volume of upper gastrointestinal surgery using E-VAC therapy for patients with leakages of the esophagus. The study investigated 14 patients who had esophageal defects treated with E-VAC. Three patients had a spontaneous defect; two patients had an iatrogenic defect; and nine patients had a postoperative esophageal defect. The average duration of application was 12.1 days, and an average of 3.9 E-VAC systems were used. For 6 of the 14 patients, E-VAC therapy was combined with the placement of self-expanding metal stents. Complete restoration of the esophageal defect was achieved in 12 (86 %) of the 14 patients. Two patients died due to prolonged sepsis. This report demonstrates that E-VAC therapy adds an additional treatment option for partial esophageal wall defects. The combination of E-VAC treatment and endoscopic stenting is a successful novel procedure for achieving a high closure rate.

  9. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 2: PEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    User power, duration, and orbit requirements, which were the prime factors influencing power extension package (PEP) design, are discussed. A representative configuration of the PEP concept is presented and the major elements of the system are described as well as the PEP-to-Orbiter and remote manipulator interface provisions.

  10. Reduction in deep sternal wound infection with use of a peristernal cable-tie closure system: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Stelly, Meghan M; Rodning, Charles B; Stelly, Terry C

    2015-11-14

    Deep sternal wound infections are a rare but serious complication after median sternotomy. We evaluated the incidence of deep sternal wound infection associated with two techniques for sternal closure. In this retrospective case series, we recorded the method of sternal closure in consecutive patients undergoing a variety of cardiothoracic surgical procedures. Sternal closure in the historical control group was performed using trans-sternal, stainless-steel wire sutures; subsequent patients were closed using wire sutures in conjunction with a novel, peristernal cable-tie closure system to reinforce the corpus sterni. Perioperative care was standardized between groups. Demographics, risk factors, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Between July 2010 and July 2014, 609 consecutive adult patients underwent sternal closure following open median sternotomy at a single hospital in Mobile, Alabama. Sternal closure was accomplished with wire sutures in the first 309 patients and with cable-tie reinforcement in the subsequent 300 patients. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups, except that the cable-tie group exhibited greater preoperative comorbidity. Mean body mass index was comparable between groups (30.2 ± 6.6 kg/m(2) wire suture versus 30.5 ± 7.7 cable-tie, p = 0.568). Deep sternal wound infection occurred in 2.6 % (8/309) patients in the wire-suture group, whereas no deep sternal wound infections were observed in the cable tie group (p = 0.008). The peristernal cable-tie system was a simple and reliable method for sternal closure after open median sternotomy, and was associated with a reduced risk of deep sternal wound infection, even in an obese and comorbid population.

  11. Environmental Monitoring System for Home-Delivery Service of Packages by Using MEMS Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Takayuki; Masaki, Kentaro; Maenaka, Kazusuke

    Nowadays, home-delivery services of packages are imperative in everyday life. These service industries are trying to provide cheaper, faster and safer service. However, package condition and handling during transportation are not disclosed to a customer. In this study, we realized a prototype system by MEMS technology for measuring the environmental conditions around a package for home-delivery service. The system includes barometric pressure, temperature, relative humidity and three dimensional acceleration (shock) sensing devices, as well as an interface circuitry. The system is a size of 115 × 54 × 10 mm3 and a weight of 50 g. We measured the package conditions during the transportation by three Japanese domestic home-delivery services, and using data mining, we were able to obtain a representation of the package's circumstances.

  12. Non-Destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-Level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    logarithmic decrement of those amplitudes.7,8 Experiments that did not rely on resonant frequencies used capacitance measurements or pressure sensors to relate...Non-destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer- level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches by Ryan Knight and...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7094 September 2014 Non-destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer- level Packaged

  13. Implementation guide for MINPACK-1. [Package of Fortran subprograms for solution of systems of nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Garbow, B.S.; Hillstrom, K.E.; More, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    MINPACK-1 is a package of Fortran subprograms for the numerical solution of systems of nonlinear equations and nonlinear least-squares problems. This report describes how to implement the package from the tape on which it is transmitted. 3 tables.

  14. Motivation for Training--An Expert System Based Package for Small Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eary, John

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of training needs of small businesses highlights a training package based on an expert system that was developed in England. Learning styles are discussed, computer-based training (CBT) packages are described, the position audit process is explained, and the value of prototyping is discussed. (LRW)

  15. Marine propulsion device with engine heat recovery system and streamlining hull closures

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H. W.

    1985-11-12

    A Marine Jet Propulsion System for use as an inboard engine for boats is herein described. An engine or motor means is attached in a driving relationship to a pump and thrust output apparatus. Heat generated by and rejected by the engine or motor is passed into the pump base for dissipation into the outputted jet thrust stream. Air and/or exhaust gas from the engine is ejected around the jet output stream to reduce against-the-hull turbulence and jet stream or thrust energy losses. Streamlining hull closures for the jet pump intake and output ports are provided to reduce system hull drag when not in use and to limit marine organism growth inside the pump.

  16. [OVESCO: a promising system for endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal tract perforations].

    PubMed

    Junquera, Félix; Martínez-Bauer, Eva; Miquel, Mireia; Fort, Miriam; Gallach, Marta; Brullet, Enric; Campo, Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Perforations of the gastrointestinal tract are a significant source of morbidity in clinical practice. Surgery has been the standard of care. However, endoscopic treatment with clips can be used when perforations are small. The development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has substantially contributed to research in this field, such as the over the scope clip (OVESCO or OTSC). This system is one of the most promising technologies for closure of perforations of the gastrointestinal tract because of its efficacy, safety and rapidity. Other indications include severe gastrointestinal bleeding, fistulae, anastomotic leaks, and bariatric surgery anastomosis remodelling. This article describes the OVESCO system from its initial design to its introduction in clinical practice.

  17. The over-the-scope clip system – a novel technique for gastrocutaneous fistula closure: The first North American experience

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Truptesh H; Haber, Gregory; Sonpal, Niket; Karanth, Nithin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mainstay of therapy for gastrocutaneous (GC) fistulas has been surgical intervention. However, endoclips are currently used for management of perforations and fistulas but are limited by their ability to entrap and hold the tissue. OBJECTIVE: To report the first North American experience with a commercially available over-the-scope clip (OTSC) device, a novel and new tool for the endoscopic entrapment of tissue for the closure of fistula and perforations. METHODS: The present single-centre study was conducted at a tertiary referral academic gastroenterology unit and centre for advanced therapeutic endoscopy and involved patients referred for endoscopic treatment for the closure of a GC fistula. The OTSC device was mounted on the tip of the endoscope and passed into the stomach to the level of the fistula. The targeted site of the fistula was grasped with the tissue anchoring tripod and pulled into the cap with concomitant scope channel suction. Once the tissue was trapped in the cap, a ‘bear claw’ clip was deployed. RESULTS: The patients recovered with fistula closure. No complication or recurrence was noted. Fistula sizes >1 cm, however, were difficult to close with the OTSC system. The length of stay of the bear claw clip at the fistula site is unpredictable, which may lead to incomplete closure of the fistula. CONCLUSION: Closure of a GC fistula using a novel ‘bear claw’ clip system is feasible and safe. PMID:22506258

  18. Classification of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system components according to importance to safety

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W., Jr; Ayers, A.L. Jr; Tyacke, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides a graded approach for classification of components used in transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage systems. This approach provides a method for identifying, the classification of components according to importance to safety within transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. Record retention requirements are discussed to identify the documentation necessary to validate that the individual components were fabricated in accordance with their assigned classification. A review of the existing regulations pertaining to transportation packagings and dry storage systems was performed to identify current requirements The general types of transportation packagings and dry storage systems were identified. Discussions were held with suppliers and fabricators of packagings and storage systems to determine current practices. The methodology used in this report is based on Regulatory Guide 7.10, Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in the Transport of Radioactive Material. This report also includes a list of generic components for each of the general types of transportation packagings and spent fuel storage systems. The safety importance of each component is discussed, and a classification category is assigned.

  19. Vacuum-packaged piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters: damping contributions and autonomy for a wireless sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfrink, R.; Renaud, M.; Kamel, T. M.; de Nooijer, C.; Jambunathan, M.; Goedbloed, M.; Hohlfeld, D.; Matova, S.; Pop, V.; Caballero, L.; van Schaijk, R.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the characterization of thin-film MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on aluminum nitride as piezoelectric material. A record output power of 85 µW is measured. The parasitic-damping and the energy-harvesting performances of unpackaged and packaged devices are investigated. Vacuum and atmospheric pressure levels are considered for the packaged devices. When dealing with packaged devices, it is found that vacuum packaging is essential for maximizing the output power. Therefore, a wafer-scale vacuum package process is developed. The energy harvesters are used to power a small prototype (1 cm3 volume) of a wireless autonomous sensor system. The average power consumption of the whole system is less than 10 µW, and it is continuously provided by the vibration energy harvester.

  20. Design package for vacuum wand for fuel retrieval system

    SciTech Connect

    ROACH, H.L.

    1999-07-28

    This is a design package that contains the details for the design, fabrication, and testing of a vacuum wand that will pick up sludge and corrosion products generated during fuel assembly handling operations at K-Basin. This document contains requirements, development design information, design calculations, tests, and test reports.

  1. The impact of packaging system and temperature abuse on the shelf life characteristics of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Rogers, H B; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Tittor, A; Miller, M F; Brashears, M M

    2014-05-01

    New ground beef packaging systems have warranted investigation of their spoilage and quality characteristics. Furthermore, analysis of ground beef spoilage in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and stored at abusive temperature is lacking. This research aimed to determine the effect of packaging systems and temperature abuse on the sensory and shelf-life characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties were packaged using polyvinyl chloride overwrap (OW), HI-OX MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2), LO-OX MAP (30% CO2, 70% N2), CO-MAP (0.4% CO, 30% CO2, 69.6% N2), or vacuum (VAC) prior to color, odor, biochemical, and microbial analyses over display. CO-MAP exhibited more desirable color and consumer acceptability throughout display. Lean discoloration and odor scores were lower for anaerobic packaging than aerobic packaging. Microbial results mirrored sensory preferences for anaerobic packaging. These results indicate anaerobic packaging extends shelf-life properties and desirable sensory attributes throughout display and temperature abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Level Waste Tank Closure Modeling with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    SciTech Connect

    BOLLINGER, JAMES

    2004-07-29

    Waste removal from 49 underground storage tanks located in two tank farms involves three steps: bulk waste removal, water washing to remove residual waste, and in some cases chemical cleaning to remove additional residual waste. Not all waste can be completely removed by these processes-resulting in some residual waste loading following cleaning. Completely removing this residual waste would be prohibitively expensive; therefore, it will be stabilized by filling the tanks with grout. Acceptable residual waste loading inventories were determined using one-dimensional groundwater transport modeling to predict future human exposure based on several scenarios. These modeling results have been incorporated into a geographic information systems (GIS) application for rapid evaluation of various tank closure options.

  3. Early Surgical Management of Large Scalp Infantile Hemangioma Using the TopClosure® Tension-Relief System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhanyong; Yang, Xilin; Zhao, Yueqiang; Fan, Huajun; Yu, Mosheng; Topaz, Moris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular neoplasms of infancy and childhood. The majority do not need medical intervention. However, large ulcerated scalp IHs may lead to fatal bleeding as well as severe cosmetic disfigurement that indicate early surgical excision, inflicting substantial surgical risks, with short- and long-term morbidity. The TopClosure Tension-Relief System (TRS) is an innovative skin stretching and wound closure-secure system that facilitates primary closure of relatively large skin defects. This system has been shown as a substitute for skin grafts, flaps, or tissue expanders. We describe a case of a giant IH of the scalp usually requiring a complex surgical approach, which was immediately primarily closed applying the TRS. A 3-day-old female infant presented with a giant scalp hemangioma at birth that rapidly grew in the neonatal period with early signs of ulceration. The patient underwent surgical resection of the giant scalp hemangioma with immediate primary closure of the defect using the TRS. Surgical procedure and postoperative period were uneventful. Early surgical resections of IHs at infancy carry substantial surgical risks and morbidity. This is the first reported case of early resection of a scalp hemangioma in the neonatal period, with successful immediate primary closure by application of stress-relaxation technique through the TRS. The application of the TopClosure TRS in this age group has significant advantages. It reduces the complexity and length of surgery, reducing blood loss, eliminating donor site morbidity, improving wound aesthetics, and minimizing the need for future reconstructive procedures. PMID:26632734

  4. Early Surgical Management of Large Scalp Infantile Hemangioma Using the TopClosure® Tension-Relief System.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhanyong; Yang, Xilin; Zhao, Yueqiang; Fan, Huajun; Yu, Mosheng; Topaz, Moris

    2015-11-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular neoplasms of infancy and childhood. The majority do not need medical intervention. However, large ulcerated scalp IHs may lead to fatal bleeding as well as severe cosmetic disfigurement that indicate early surgical excision, inflicting substantial surgical risks, with short- and long-term morbidity.The TopClosure Tension-Relief System (TRS) is an innovative skin stretching and wound closure-secure system that facilitates primary closure of relatively large skin defects. This system has been shown as a substitute for skin grafts, flaps, or tissue expanders.We describe a case of a giant IH of the scalp usually requiring a complex surgical approach, which was immediately primarily closed applying the TRS.A 3-day-old female infant presented with a giant scalp hemangioma at birth that rapidly grew in the neonatal period with early signs of ulceration. The patient underwent surgical resection of the giant scalp hemangioma with immediate primary closure of the defect using the TRS. Surgical procedure and postoperative period were uneventful.Early surgical resections of IHs at infancy carry substantial surgical risks and morbidity. This is the first reported case of early resection of a scalp hemangioma in the neonatal period, with successful immediate primary closure by application of stress-relaxation technique through the TRS. The application of the TopClosure TRS in this age group has significant advantages. It reduces the complexity and length of surgery, reducing blood loss, eliminating donor site morbidity, improving wound aesthetics, and minimizing the need for future reconstructive procedures.

  5. Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, J.A.

    1994-11-09

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3.

  6. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  7. Increased Patient Delays in Care after the Closure of Martin Luther King Hospital: Implications for Monitoring Health System Changes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Kara Odom; Leng, Mei; Liang, Li-Jung; Forge, Nell; Morales, Leo; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen

    2012-01-01

    Background The safety net system remains an important part of the health care system for uninsured and minority populations, however, the closure of safety net hospitals changes the availability of care. Using community-based participatory research methods, we explored the impact of hospital closure among late middle aged and elderly racial/ethnic minorities in South Los Angeles. Methods Telephone survey of participants in both 2008, after hospital closure, and 2003, before hospital closure, who self-identified as African American or Latino, were over the age of 50 and lived in zip codes of South Los Angeles. We developed multiple logistic regression models on imputed data sets weighted for non-response and adjusted for self-reported measures of demographic and clinical characteristics to examine the odds of reporting delays in care. Results After adjusting for covariates known to influence access to care and distributed differently in the two survey samples, we found significantly greater delays in care. Following the closure of the Martin Luther King, Jr. safety net hospital, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.70 (95% CI 1.01, 2.87) for delays in care, 1.88 (95% CI 1.06, 3.13) for problems receiving needed medical care, and 2.62 (95% CI 1.46, 4.67) for seeing a specialist. Conclusions Our survey of older minority adults in South Los Angeles found increased delays in access to care for needed medical services after the closure of Martin Luther King, Jr. Hospital. As health care reform unfolds, monitoring for changes in access to care that may result from new policies will be important to address future disparities, particularly for vulnerable populations. PMID:21942170

  8. Closure Temperature in Cooling Bi-Mineralic Systems With Application to REE-in-Two-Pyroxene Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, L.; Liang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Closure temperature is an important concept to many diffusion related problems involving cooling. The basic idea and formulation were outlined in the seminal work of Dodson for cooling mono-mineralic systems [1, 2]. The Dodson's equation has been widely used to calculate closure temperatures for igneous and metamorphic rocks that usually contain more than one mineral. The purpose of this study is to systematically examine closure temperatures in cooling bi-mineralic systems. This study is also motivated by our quest for the physical meaning of temperatures derived from the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer that is based on temperature-dependent REE partitioning between coexisting orthopyroxene (opx) and clinopyroxene (cpx) in mafic and ultramafic rocks [3]. To better understand closure temperatures and their relations to the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer, we conduct numerical simulations of diffusive re-equilibration of trace elements between two coexisting minerals under prescribed cooling using temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient. Following Dodson's approach for mono-mineralic systems, we define the closure temperature of a trace element in cooling bi-mineralic systems using two methods: (1) by following the evolution of average concentration of the trace element in each mineral; (2) by tracing the variation of an effective partition coefficient (ratio of the average concentrations between the two minerals). Closure temperatures calculated using the two definitions are identical for a wide range of grain sizes and cooling rates. Additional simulations for a range of temperature-dependent partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients reveal that in addition to parameters introduced in Dodson's equation (pre-exponential factor D0, activation energy E, mineral grain size, and cooling rate), temperature-dependent partition coefficients are also important in determining the closure temperature for the bi-mineralic systems. Our

  9. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development of a Packaged and Integrated Microturbine/ Chiller Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to define, develop, integrate, and validate at full scale the technology for a 1 MWe, microturbine-driven CHP packaged system for industrial or large commercial applications.

  11. CLOSURE WELD DEVELOPMENT FOR 3013 OUTER CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Howard, S.; Peterson, K.; Stokes, M.

    2009-11-10

    Excess plutonium materials in the DOE complex are packaged and stored in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies requirements for the stabilization of such materials and subsequent packaging in dual nested seal-welded containers. Austenitic stainless steels have been selected for container fabrication. The inner 3013 container provides contamination control while the outer 3013 container is the primary containment vessel and is the focus of this paper. Each packaging site chose a process for seal welding the outer 3013 containers in accordance with its needs and expertise. The two processes chosen for weld closure were laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Following development efforts, each system was qualified in accordance with DOE-STD-3013 prior to production use. The 3013 outer container closure weld joint was designed to accommodate the characteristics of a laser weld. This aspect of the joint design necessitated some innovative process and equipment considerations in the application of the GTAW process. Details of the weld requirements and the development processes are presented and several potential enhancements for the GTAW system are described.

  12. 75 FR 28655 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc. a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...) Wages Are Paid Through Owens Illinois Manufacturing Hamlet, NC; Amended Certification Regarding... Closure Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Hamlet, North Carolina. The notice was published in the..., Hamlet, North Carolina, who became totally or partially separated from employment on or after November 10...

  13. Technical Challenges in Reliable Microelectronics Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    MEMS have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, chemical sensors, artificial nose, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits (IC) to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the reliable IC packaging technology. Active elements or microstructures in MEMS devices often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it measures to assure the packaging technology of MEMS. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided reliability of MEMS packaging technology is sufficiently addressed. This MEMS technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS technology and challenging technical issues in the packaging of hermetically sealed and non-hermetically sealed

  14. Technical Challenges in Reliable Microelectronics Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    MEMS have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, chemical sensors, artificial nose, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits (IC) to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the reliable IC packaging technology. Active elements or microstructures in MEMS devices often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it measures to assure the packaging technology of MEMS. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided reliability of MEMS packaging technology is sufficiently addressed. This MEMS technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS technology and challenging technical issues in the packaging of hermetically sealed and non-hermetically sealed

  15. Analysis of corrugated cardboard influence on the protective properties of complex packaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osowski, Przemyslaw; Piatkowski, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    According to available literature, it is assumed that outer packaging container, which is usually made of corrugated cardboard, does not influence the mitigation of the impact effects, thus in the designing process of packaging system the outer packaging is skipped. The purpose of this paper is to verify the above assumption, including determination of the influence of the 5-layer cardboard on the properties of structures that consist of that cardboard and polyethylene foam. Verification is performed with the use of the finite element method. To apply this method the dynamic compression curve of cushioning material is required. Therefore in the paper it is also presented the modified method to determine the curve.

  16. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  17. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  18. Expression of Drosophila Cabut during early embryogenesis, dorsal closure and nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Belacortu, Yaiza; Weiss, Ron; Kadener, Sebastian; Paricio, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    cabut (cbt) encodes a transcription factor involved in Drosophila dorsal closure (DC), and it is expressed in embryonic epithelial sheets and yolk cell during this process upon activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Additional studies suggest that cbt may have a role in multiple developmental processes. To analyze Cbt localization through embryogenesis, we generated a Cbt specific antibody that has allowed detecting new Cbt expression patterns. Immunohistochemical analyses on syncytial embryos and S2 cells reveal that Cbt is localized on the surface of mitotic chromosomes at all mitotic phases. During DC, Cbt is expressed in the yolk cell, in epidermal cells and in the hindgut, but also in amnioserosal cells, which also contribute to the process, albeit cbt transcripts were not detected in that tissue. At later embryonic stages, Cbt is expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system, and is detected in axons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Most of these expression patterns are recapitulated by GFP reporter gene constructs driven by different cbt genomic regions. Moreover, they have been further validated by immunostainings of embryos from other Drosophila species, thus suggesting that Cbt function during embryogenesis appears to be conserved in evolution.

  19. Bright-field analysis of phi29 DNA packaging motor using a magnetomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Li; Zhang, Hui; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan; Savran, Cagri A

    2008-10-13

    We report a simple and robust magnetomechanical system for direct visual observation of the DNA packaging behavior of the bacteriophage phi29 in real time. The system comprises a micron-sized magnetic bead attached to the free end of the viral DNA, a magnet and a bright-field microscope. We show that the phi29 DNA packaging activity can be observed and dynamically analyzed at the single molecular level in bright field with a relatively simple system. With this system we also visually demonstrate the phi29 motor transporting a cargo 10 000 times the viral size.

  20. Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Biobased food packaging materials are gaining more attention owing to their intrinsic biodegradable nature and renewability. Selection of suitable biobased polymers for food packaging applications could be a tedious task with potential mistakes in choosing the best materials. In this paper, an expert system was developed using Exsys Corvid software to select suitable biobased polymer materials for packaging fruits, dry food and dairy products. If - Then rule based system was utilized to accomplish the material selection process whereas a score system was formulated to facilitate the ranking of selected materials. The expert system selected materials that satisfied all constraints and selection results were presented in suitability sequence depending on their scores. The expert system selected polylactic acid (PLA) as the most suitable material.

  1. Political Analysis through the Prince System. Learning Packages in the Policy Sciences, PS-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William D.; O'Leary, Michael K.

    This package introduces college students to the elements of the Prince System, a widely used system for making political forecasts and developing political strategies. Designed to be completed in two to three weeks, the two exercises enable students to (1) identify political issues that the Prince System can help them understand, (2) determine the…

  2. Eradicating Listeria monocytogenes from fully cooked franks by using an integrated pasteurization-packaging system.

    PubMed

    Murphy, R Y; Hanson, R E; Feze, N; Johnson, N R; Scott, L L; Duncan, L K

    2005-03-01

    Surface pasteurization by applying steam or hot water before or after packaging of processed foods may be used to eliminate pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes from ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. Surface pasteurization treatment with a mixture of pressurized steam and hot water was integrated into a continuous vacuum-packaging system to reduce L. monocytogenes from fully cooked franks. The franks (2.54 cm diameter by 15.24 cm length) were surface inoculated to contain up to 6 log CFU/cm2 L. monocytogenes. The inoculated franks were treated at 121 degrees C for 1.5 s in an arrangement of six franks per packaging chamber followed by immediate vacuum sealing of the top films of food packages in the same unit. A 3-log CFU/cm2 reduction of L. monocytogenes on fully cooked franks was obtained using the integrated pasteurization-packaging system. The pasteurization depth was 1.27 mm below the surfaces of the franks. This process provides a commercially applicable means of ensuring food safety by effectively eradicating L. monocytogenes from ready-to-eat meat and poultry products at the very last possible step of food packaging before reaching retail consumers.

  3. EASApprox® skin-stretching system: A secure and effective method to achieve wound closure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingzhi; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Tao; Liu, Song; Li, Gang; Liu, Zhaochang; Huang, Jingyang; Chen, Song; Li, Linan; Guo, Li; Qiu, Yang; Wan, Jiajia; Liu, Yuejian; Wu, Tao; Wang, Xiaoyong; Lu, Ming; Wang, Shouyu

    2017-01-01

    Large skin defects are commonly observed in the clinic and have attracted much attention recently. Therefore, finding an effective solution for large skin defects is a global problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the EASApprox® skin-stretching system for closing large skin defects. Skin defects (5×5 cm) were created on the forearms of 9 Bama miniature pigs, which were randomly divided into the following three groups: Direct suture, the new EASApprox® skin-stretching device and Kirschner wires. Microcirculation was assessed before surgery and after wound closure. Following the different treatments, the defects were sutured, and wound healing was assessed based on a clinical score. Furthermore, microscopic and ultramicroscopic structures were evaluated, including collagen, elastic fibers and the microvessel density. Significant differences in the clinical score and microvessel density were observed among the groups. Additionally, the mean length obtained for elastic fibers was larger than that obtained for the other two groups. Finally, the new EASApprox® skin-stretching device resulted in successful wound management and with only minor side effects on skin histology and microcirculation. Therefore, this method has the potential to be used for healing large skin defects. PMID:28672963

  4. TRA Closure Plan REV 0-9-20-06 HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007

    SciTech Connect

    Winterholler, K.

    2007-01-31

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump were characterized as having managed hazardous waste. The reactor drain tank and canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  5. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information contained in this report includes system certification, system functional description, system configuration, system specification, system performance and other documents pertaining to the progress and the design of the system. This system, which is intended for use in the normal single-family residence, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and Government-furnished Site Data Acquisition.

  6. Percutaneous Vascular Closure System Based on an Extravascular, Bioabsorbable Polyglycolic Plug (ExoSeal): Results from 1000 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamusella, P; Wissgott, C; Jahnke, T; Brossmann, J; Scheer, F; Lüdtke, CW; Andresen, R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a percutaneous closure system based on a polyglycolic acid plug for achieving hemostasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study from 2011 to 2014, a percutaneous vascular closure system (ExoSeal) was used in 1000 patients (mean age 70.6 ± 10.2 years), using antegrade and retrograde techniques within the context of an angiographic intervention. The system was used in conjunction with transfemoral approaches with a sheath size of 6F. Post the intervention (on the following day and after 6 weeks), follow-up was conducted clinically and using color-coded duplex ultrasound. RESULTS Immediate hemostasis was achieved in 939/1000 patients (93.9%). In the remaining 61 cases, a correct positioning of the polyglycolic acid plug was not possible because of malfunctioning of the device, massive vascular wall calcifications, postoperative scar tissue, or too steep a puncture angle. In these cases, manual compression was successful. There was one retroperitoneal bleeding requiring transfusion. Minor complications were observed (7.4% in total) with 10 pseudoaneurysm (1%), 63 inguinal hematomas (up to 3 cm; 6.3%), and 1 stenosis (0.1%). CONCLUSION Safe and effective hemostasis is possible with the percutaneous ExoSeal closure system at puncture sizes of 6F. PMID:26085789

  7. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007

    SciTech Connect

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-30

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for the Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  8. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M.; Cruz, N.F. da; Simões, P.; Marques, R.C.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  9. Terahertz MMICs and Antenna-in-Package Technology at 300 GHz for KIOSK Download System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Takuro; Kosugi, Toshihiko; Song, Ho-Jin; Hamada, Hiroshi; El Moutaouakil, Amine; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Matsuzaki, Hideaki; Yaita, Makoto; Kagami, Osamu

    2016-12-01

    Toward the realization of ultra-fast wireless communications systems, the inherent broad bandwidth of the terahertz (THz) band is attracting attention, especially for short-range instant download applications. In this paper, we present our recent progress on InP-based THz MMICs and packaging techniques based on low-temperature co-fibered ceramic (LTCC) technology. The transmitter MMICs are based on 80-nm InP-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Using the transmitter packaged in an E-plane split-block waveguide and compact lens receiver packaged in LTCC multilayered substrates, we tested wireless data transmission up to 27 Gbps with the simple amplitude key shifting (ASK) modulation scheme. We also present several THz antenna-in-packaging solutions based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology. A vertical hollow (VH) SIW was applied to a compact medium-gain SIW antenna and low-loss interconnection integrated in LTCC multi-layer substrates. The size of the LTCC antennas with 15-dBi gain is less than 0.1 cm3. For feeding the antenna, we investigated an LTCC-integrated transition and polyimide transition to LTCC VH SIWs. These transitions exhibit around 1-dB estimated loss at 300 GHz and more than 35 GHz bandwidth with 10-dB return loss. The proposed package solutions make antennas and interconnections easy to integrate in a compact LTCC package with an MMIC chip for practical applications.

  10. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  11. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  12. Synthesis of Tree-Structured Computing Systems through Use of Closures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-29

    closures up the tree. A closure is a procedure or function definition together with an environment, i.e., a set of name/value pairs. When a closure...Then T(V?)=O(F(n) log n). Proof: Note that the form of the definition of V1’ precludes sequentiality and bidirectionality. We are using value semantics...T(V’)- max(T(V1+’)/2j), T(Vl+%+l)/21)) + T(G) ( definition , nonsequentiality) < coF((u-I + 1)/2)lg((u-I + 1),2) + T(V’) + T(G) (by induction) < coF(u

  13. Heat transfer characteristics of current primary packaging systems for pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Hibler, Susanne; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-11-01

    In the field of freeze-drying, the primary packaging material plays an essential role. Here, the packaging system not only contains and protects the drug product during storage and shipping, but it is also directly involved in the freeze-drying process itself. The heat transfer characteristics of the actual container system influence product temperature and therefore product homogeneity and quality as well as process performance. Consequently, knowledge of the container heat transfer characteristics is of vital importance for process optimization. It is the objective of this review article to provide a summary of research focused on heat transfer characteristics of different container systems for pharmaceutical freeze-drying. Besides the common tubing and molded glass vials and metal trays, more recent packaging solutions like polymer vials, LYOGUARD® trays, syringes, and blister packs are discussed. Recent developments in vial manufacturing are also taken into account.

  14. Carbon balance in bioregenerative life support systems: some effects of system closure, waste management, and crop harvest index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2003-01-01

    In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems with bioregenerative components, plant photosynthesis would be used to produce O2 and food, while removing CO2. Much of the plant biomass would be inedible and hence must be considered in waste management. This waste could be oxidized (e.g., incinerated or aerobically digested) to resupply CO2 to the plants, but this would not be needed unless the system were highly closed with regard to food. For example, in a partially closed system where some of the food is grown and some is imported, CO2 from oxidized waste when combined with crew and microbial respiration could exceed the CO2 removal capability of the plants. Moreover, it would consume some O2 produced from photosynthesis that could have been used by the crew. For partially closed systems it would be more appropriate to store or find other uses for the inedible biomass and excess carbon, such as generating soils or growing woody plants (e.g., dwarf fruit trees). Regardless of system closure, high harvest crops (i.e., crops with a high edible to total biomass ratio) would increase food production per unit area and O2 yields for systems where waste biomass is oxidized to recycle CO2. Such interlinking effects between the plants and waste treatment strategies point out the importance of oxidizing only that amount of waste needed to optimize system performance. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  15. Carbon balance in bioregenerative life support systems: some effects of system closure, waste management, and crop harvest index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2003-01-01

    In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems with bioregenerative components, plant photosynthesis would be used to produce O2 and food, while removing CO2. Much of the plant biomass would be inedible and hence must be considered in waste management. This waste could be oxidized (e.g., incinerated or aerobically digested) to resupply CO2 to the plants, but this would not be needed unless the system were highly closed with regard to food. For example, in a partially closed system where some of the food is grown and some is imported, CO2 from oxidized waste when combined with crew and microbial respiration could exceed the CO2 removal capability of the plants. Moreover, it would consume some O2 produced from photosynthesis that could have been used by the crew. For partially closed systems it would be more appropriate to store or find other uses for the inedible biomass and excess carbon, such as generating soils or growing woody plants (e.g., dwarf fruit trees). Regardless of system closure, high harvest crops (i.e., crops with a high edible to total biomass ratio) would increase food production per unit area and O2 yields for systems where waste biomass is oxidized to recycle CO2. Such interlinking effects between the plants and waste treatment strategies point out the importance of oxidizing only that amount of waste needed to optimize system performance. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  16. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  17. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  18. Earth resources technology system standalone software package: Description and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. W.

    1975-01-01

    A user's guide and program description for the ERTS-B Stand-Alone Software Package is presented. This package was developed to compute the Keplerian elements at the descending node, the Brouwer mean elements at the node, the averaged Brouwer Mean Elements, and other orbital parameters for the orbits of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS). The typical input for the program is an ephemeris file which resulted from a definitive orbit generated over a two day arc using the Cowell option in the Definitive Orbit Determination System (DODS) or the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS).

  19. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P < 0.05). However, materials still retained at least 76% iron chelating capacity. Additionally, the influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while

  20. Simulated Leaching (Migration) Study for a Model Container-Closure System Applicable to Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Egert, Thomas; Hendricker, Alan; Castner, James; Feinberg, Tom; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank; Markovic, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    A simulating leaching (migration) study was performed on a model container-closure system relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products. This container-closure system consisted of a linear low-density polyethylene bottle (primary container), a polypropylene cap and an elastomeric cap liner (closure), an adhesive label (labeling), and a foil overpouch (secondary container). The bottles were filled with simulating solvents (aqueous salt/acid mixture at pH 2.5, aqueous buffer at pH 9.5, and 1/1 v/v isopropanol/water), a label was affixed to the filled and capped bottles, the filled bottles were placed into the foil overpouch, and the filled and pouched units were stored either upright or inverted for up to 6 months at 40 °C. After storage, the leaching solutions were tested for leached substances using multiple complementary analytical techniques to address volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile organic and inorganic extractables as potential leachables.The leaching data generated supported several conclusions, including that (1) the extractables (leachables) profile revealed by a simulating leaching study can qualitatively be correlated with compositional information for materials of construction, (2) the chemical nature of both the extracting medium and the individual extractables (leachables) can markedly affect the resulting profile, and (3) while direct contact between a drug product and a system's material of construction may exacerbate the leaching of substances from that material by the drug product, direct contact is not a prerequisite for migration and leaching to occur.LAY ABSTRACT: The migration of container-related extractables from a model pharmaceutical container-closure system and into simulated drug product solutions was studied, focusing on circumstances relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products. The model system was constructed specifically to address the migration of extractables from labels applied to the outside of the primary

  1. Numerical simulation of heterogeneous fractured gas reservoir systems with turbulence and closure stress effects

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Although techniques for designing a fracture treatment are available, the intended results of these techniques are often not attained. The evaluation of fracturing treatments on low permeability gas wells is required to both optimize the fracturing design and form prediction calculations of a treatments effect. This study primarily investigates the effect of fracture height on the performance of vertically fractured wells. The effects of layered media, turbulance, and closure pressure are included in this work. Consider that a well, intercepted by a vertical fracture, is in the center of a squared drainage system with closed outer boundary. Any increase in well productivity will be determined by fracture parameters, which are: fracture length, height, fracture conductivity, and location of the fracture in the formaton. On the basis of the analysis of fluid flow in porous media, the problem solving technique used in this study is the numerical method. A three-dimensional finite difference fully implicit model was written for this. In addition, the Sparse Matrix technique was used as a solver. Furthermore, Slices Source Over Relaxation was used as an iterative method for solving routines. Presented here are the numerical results of the three-dimensional model for a well intercepting a vertical fracture wth finite conductivity. The results are presented in the general form of dimensionless variables. Type curves considering the effect of fracture height on well performance are included. In addition, type curves for turbulent flow in the fracture are also obtained. Finally, other important contributions of this work are the data showing the effect of layered formation on fractured well performance.

  2. Endoscopic closure instead of surgery to close an ileal pouch fistula with the over-the-scope clip system

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yao; Gong, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2017-01-01

    An ileal pouch fistula is an uncommon complication after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Most patients who suffer from an ileal pouch fistula will need surgical intervention. However, the surgery can be invasive and has a high risk compared to endoscopic treatment. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was initially developed for hemostasis and leakage closure in the gastrointestinal tract during flexible endoscopy. There have been many successes in using this approach to apply perforations to the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, this approach has not been used for ileal pouch fistulas until currently. In this report, we describe one patient who suffered a leak from the tip of the “J” pouch and was successfully treated with endoscopic closure via the OTSC system. A 26-year-old male patient had an intestinal fistula at the tip of the “J” pouch after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis procedure. He received endoscopic treatment via OTSC under intravenous anesthesia, and the leak was closed successfully. Endoscopic closure of a pouch fistula could be a simpler alternative to surgery and could help avoid surgery-related complications. PMID:28250903

  3. Prototype residential solar-energy system-installation package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Installation guidelines for architects and engineers discussing solar-heating system built in Togus, Maine are presented. Includes brief, functional description of system and summary of operation. Drawings complement text.

  4. Prototype residential solar-energy system-installation package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Installation guidelines for architects and engineers discussing solar-heating system built in Togus, Maine are presented. Includes brief, functional description of system and summary of operation. Drawings complement text.

  5. Installation package for a Sunspot Cascade Solar Water Heating System

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Elcam, Incorporated of Santa Barbara, California, has developed two solar water heating systems. The systems have been installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed instalation plans and specifications. In addition, it provides instruction on operation, maintenance and installation of solar hot water systems.

  6. Innovative active packaging systems to prolong the shelf life of Mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Conte, A; Scrocco, C; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2007-05-01

    In this work the effectiveness of different antimicrobial packaging systems on the microbial quality decay kinetics during storage of Mozzarella cheese was evaluated. Lemon extract, at 3 different concentrations, was used as active agent, in combination with brine and with a gel solution made of sodium alginate. Shelf life tests were run at 15 degrees C to simulate thermal abuse. The cell load of spoilage and dairy functional microorganisms were monitored at regular time intervals during storage. By fitting the experimental data through a modified version of the Gompertz equation, the shelf life of dairy products packaged in the different systems was calculated. Results show an increase in the shelf life of all active packaged Mozzarella cheeses, confirming that the investigated substance may exert an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms responsible for spoilage phenomena without affecting the functional microbiota of the product.

  7. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  8. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  9. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  10. PLATSIM: A Simulation and Analysis Package for Large-Order Flexible Systems. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    The software package PLATSIM provides efficient time and frequency domain analysis of large-order generic space platforms. PLATSIM can perform open-loop analysis or closed-loop analysis with linear or nonlinear control system models. PLATSIM exploits the particular form of sparsity of the plant matrices for very efficient linear and nonlinear time domain analysis, as well as frequency domain analysis. A new, original algorithm for the efficient computation of open-loop and closed-loop frequency response functions for large-order systems has been developed and is implemented within the package. Furthermore, a novel and efficient jitter analysis routine which determines jitter and stability values from time simulations in a very efficient manner has been developed and is incorporated in the PLATSIM package. In the time domain analysis, PLATSIM simulates the response of the space platform to disturbances and calculates the jitter and stability values from the response time histories. In the frequency domain analysis, PLATSIM calculates frequency response function matrices and provides the corresponding Bode plots. The PLATSIM software package is written in MATLAB script language. A graphical user interface is developed in the package to provide convenient access to its various features.

  11. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  12. Management of major postsurgical gastroesophageal intrathoracic leaks with an endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system.

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, Jochen; Brangewitz, Mira; Kubicka, Stefan; Jackobs, Steffan; Winkler, Michael; Neipp, Michael; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Manns, Michael P; Schneider, Andrea S

    2010-02-01

    Endoscopic treatment options for postsurgical intrathoracic leaks include injection of fibrin glue, clip application, and stent placement. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (E-VAC) may be an effective treatment option. To demonstrate that E-VAC is an effective endoscopic treatment option for closure of major intrathoracic postsurgical leaks. A prospective, single-center study at an academic medical center. Eight consecutive patients with major intrathoracic postsurgical leaks. Endoscopic placement of transnasal draining tubes, armed with a size-adjusted sponge at their distal end, in the necrotic anastomotic cavities, followed by continuous suction. Sponge and drainage were changed twice weekly. Patients were followed-up for 193 +/- 137 days. Successful leak closure. Successful closure of leaks was achieved in 7 of 8 patients (88%) after a mean of 23 +/- 8 days. A median of 7 endoscopic interventions was necessary. No major treatment-associated short-term or long-term (follow-up, 193 +/- 137 days) complications were noted. Small sample size, single-center study, and lack of randomization. E-VAC is an effective endoscopic treatment modality for major postsurgical intrathoracic leaks. (This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT00876551.).

  13. Work Systems Package Automatic Tool Interchange. Laboratory Study Shows That Automating Certain WSP Functions Is Feasible.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-10

    SYSTEMS CENTER Q D SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92152 SEP 1 19 ’ I .1 NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER. SAN DIEGO. CA 92152 AN ACTIVITY OF THE NAVAL MATERIAL... TN 360, NOSC Informal Progress Report, Fiscal Year 19771 Work Systems Package (WSP) Program, by RL Wernli, I April 1978. NOSC TNs are informal doc...There were no known automated robotic systems that worked in the deep ocean. 2. The known high precision robotics ( NASA and assembly line automation

  14. Documentation pckage for the RFID temperature monitoring system (Of Model 9977 packages at NTS).

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-02-20

    The technical basis for extending the Model 9977 shipping package periodic maintenance beyond the one-year interval to a maximum of five years is based on the performance of the O-ring seals and the environmental conditions. The DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature monitoring system for use by the facility personnel at DAF/NTS. The RFID temperature monitoring system, depicted in the figure below, consists of the Mk-1 RFId tags, a reader, and a control computer mounted on a mobile platform that can operate as a stand-alone system, or it can be connected to the local IT network. As part of the Conditions of Approval of the CoC, the user must complete the prescribed training to become qualified and be certified for operation of the RFID temperature monitoring system. The training course will be administered by Argonne National Laboratory on behalf of the Headquarters Certifying Official. This is a complete documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system of the Model 9977 packagings at NTS. The documentation package will be used for training and certification. The table of contents are: Acceptance Testing Procedure of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Acceptance Testing Result of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Performance Test of the Single Bolt Seal Sensor for the Model 9977 Packaging; Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags for Nevada Test Site; Results of Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags; Results of Thermal Calibration of Second Batch of MK-I RFID Tags; Procedure for Installing and Removing MK-1 RFID Tag on Model 9977 Drum; User Guide for RFID Reader and Software for Temperature Monitoring of Model 9977 Drums at NTS; Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) for the ARG-US System; Quality Category for the RFID Temperature Monitoring System; The

  15. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include system candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test.

  16. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  17. Fiber optic engineering sensor system concept design review data package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-04-01

    The use of fiber optic technology in shipboard IC systems has several conceptual advantages over existing systems including improved reliability, weight savings, and advanced signal quality. Our analysis of mission needs leads us to the conclusion that the following design elements are paramount from the aspect of satisfactory mission performance. The sub-systems chosen for application of fiber optic technology are generally those which involve monitoring of dynamic systems or security check points and the subsequent sounding of appropriate signals when alarm conditions occur. Clearly these systems must be extremely reliable, but in addition to the more typical failure criteria associated with system breakdown, the Fiber Optic Engineering Sensor System (FOESS) must be accurate; i.e., there must be a minimum of false alarm signals transmitted to the operators else the alarm system will soon be ignored, or worse, deenergized. Philosophically, the desired FOESS reliability (defined as the probability that the system will be in a satisfactory operating condition at a random point in time) should approach unity; likewise, the probability of false alarms should approach zero.

  18. Assessment and Assurance of Microelectronics Packaging Technology of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the packaging technology. In the case of MEMS the microstructures (active elements) often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it 'measures to assure the MEMS technology by lowering the risk to zero. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided assurance of MEMS technology is sufficiently addressed nondestructively. This technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's safety and mission assurance goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively by teaming-up with the other NASA centers using the limited resources available. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS

  19. Assessment and Assurance of Microelectronics Packaging Technology of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the packaging technology. In the case of MEMS the microstructures (active elements) often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it 'measures to assure the MEMS technology by lowering the risk to zero. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided assurance of MEMS technology is sufficiently addressed nondestructively. This technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's safety and mission assurance goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively by teaming-up with the other NASA centers using the limited resources available. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS

  20. Preliminary design package for Sunspot Domestic Hot Water Heating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design review includes a drawing list, auto-control logic, measurement definitions, and other document pertaining to the solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control transport, auxiliary energy, and site data acquisition.

  1. Installation package for SIMS prototype system 2, solar hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The prototype system 2 solar hot water was designed for use in a single family dwelling and consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, energy transport, and control. Guidelines are presented for utilization in the development of detailed installation plans and specifications. Instruction on operation, maintenance, and repair of the system is discussed.

  2. FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Vanica

    1995-06-14

    The primary objective of this analysis is to capture new inputs relative to the design of the Fuel Supply System (FSS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The new inputs are analyzed and changes to the Fuel Supply System are made as necessary.

  3. Staphylococcal pathogenicity island DNA packaging system involving cos-site packaging and phage-encoded HNH endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Carpena, Nuria; Alonso, Juan C.; Novick, Richard P.; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are the prototypical members of a widespread family of chromosomally located mobile genetic elements that contribute substantially to intra- and interspecies gene transfer, host adaptation, and virulence. The key feature of their mobility is the induction of SaPI excision and replication by certain helper phages and their efficient encapsidation into phage-like infectious particles. Most SaPIs use the headful packaging mechanism and encode small terminase subunit (TerS) homologs that recognize the SaPI-specific pac site and determine SaPI packaging specificity. Several of the known SaPIs do not encode a recognizable TerS homolog but are nevertheless packaged efficiently by helper phages and transferred at high frequencies. In this report, we have characterized one of the non–terS-coding SaPIs, SaPIbov5, and found that it uses two different, undescribed packaging strategies. SaPIbov5 is packaged in full-sized phage-like particles either by typical pac-type helper phages, or by cos-type phages—i.e., it has both pac and cos sites—a configuration that has not hitherto been described for any mobile element, phages included—and uses the two different phage-coded TerSs. To our knowledge, this is the first example of SaPI packaging by a cos phage, and in this, it resembles the P4 plasmid of Escherichia coli. Cos-site packaging in Staphylococcus aureus is additionally unique in that it requires the HNH nuclease, carried only by cos phages, in addition to the large terminase subunit, for cos-site cleavage and melting. PMID:24711396

  4. Staphylococcal pathogenicity island DNA packaging system involving cos-site packaging and phage-encoded HNH endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Carpena, Nuria; Alonso, Juan C; Novick, Richard P; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R

    2014-04-22

    Staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are the prototypical members of a widespread family of chromosomally located mobile genetic elements that contribute substantially to intra- and interspecies gene transfer, host adaptation, and virulence. The key feature of their mobility is the induction of SaPI excision and replication by certain helper phages and their efficient encapsidation into phage-like infectious particles. Most SaPIs use the headful packaging mechanism and encode small terminase subunit (TerS) homologs that recognize the SaPI-specific pac site and determine SaPI packaging specificity. Several of the known SaPIs do not encode a recognizable TerS homolog but are nevertheless packaged efficiently by helper phages and transferred at high frequencies. In this report, we have characterized one of the non-terS-coding SaPIs, SaPIbov5, and found that it uses two different, undescribed packaging strategies. SaPIbov5 is packaged in full-sized phage-like particles either by typical pac-type helper phages, or by cos-type phages--i.e., it has both pac and cos sites--a configuration that has not hitherto been described for any mobile element, phages included--and uses the two different phage-coded TerSs. To our knowledge, this is the first example of SaPI packaging by a cos phage, and in this, it resembles the P4 plasmid of Escherichia coli. Cos-site packaging in Staphylococcus aureus is additionally unique in that it requires the HNH nuclease, carried only by cos phages, in addition to the large terminase subunit, for cos-site cleavage and melting.

  5. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of {ital Title} 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, {open_quote}{open_quote}Part 71{close_quote}{close_quote} (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy{close_quote}s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, {ital Transit} {ital Drop} {ital Procedure} (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G{close_quote}s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G{close_quote}s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  7. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  8. TEST & EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE HEDGEHOG-II PACKAGING SYSTEMS DOT-7A TYPE A CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.L.

    2003-12-29

    This report documents the US. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A compliance test and evaluation results for the Hedgehog-II packaging systems. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The approved packaging configurations described within this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids transported in the approved 1 L glass bottle assembly shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 1.6. Liquids transported in all other approved configurations shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 2.0. The solid contents, including packaging, are limited in weight to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations described in this report may be transported by air, and have been evaluated as meeting the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT requirements.

  9. AlgoRun: a Docker-based packaging system for platform-agnostic implemented algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Abdelrahman; Vera-Licona, Paola; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Favre, Thibauld

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing need in bioinformatics for easy-to-use software implementations of algorithms that are usable across platforms. At the same time, reproducibility of computational results is critical and often a challenge due to source code changes over time and dependencies. The approach introduced in this paper addresses both of these needs with AlgoRun, a dedicated packaging system for implemented algorithms, using Docker technology. Implemented algorithms, packaged with AlgoRun, can be executed through a user-friendly interface directly from a web browser or via a standardized RESTful web API to allow easy integration into more complex workflows. The packaged algorithm includes the entire software execution environment, thereby eliminating the common problem of software dependencies and the irreproducibility of computations over time. AlgoRun-packaged algorithms can be published on http://algorun.org, a centralized searchable directory to find existing AlgoRun-packaged algorithms. AlgoRun is available at http://algorun.org and the source code under GPL license is available at https://github.com/algorun laubenbacher@uchc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  11. Physical packaging and organization of the drift chamber electronics system for the Stanford Large Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Freytag, M.L.; Mazaheri, G.; Olsen, J.; Paffrath, L.

    1990-10-01

    In this paper the logical organization, physical packaging, and operation of the drift chamber electronics for the SLD at SLAC is described. The system processes signals from approximately 7000 drift wires and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged on printed circuit boards within the detector. The circuits reside on signal-processing motherboards, controller boards, signal-transition boards, power-distribution boards, and fiber-optics-to-electrical conversion boards. The interaction and interconnection of these boards with respect to signal and control flow are presented. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Fluid Migration Patterns in Gas Hydrate System of Four-Way-Closure Ridge Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsieh; Berndt, Christian; Lin, Saulwood

    2016-04-01

    Four-Way-Closure (4WC) Ridge shows great potential as a hydrate prospect from collected multitude of marine geophysical datasets offshore southwestern Taiwan. The aim of my study is to better understand the fluid migration patterns and the possible source locations of the methane at this site. It is a cold seep site with an elongated NW-SE trending anticlinal ridge, which is formed by fault-related folds in the frontal segment of the lower slope domain of the Taiwan accretionary prism along its convergent boundary. So I detail recognized the regional feature structures of the 4WC Ridge, including the thrust faulting and a seismic chimney beneath the seepage sites. I plan to study the temperature perturbation at the 4WC Ridge to better understand gas hydrate system there. To quantify the amount of temperature perturbation near the fault zone, we need to correct the temperature field data for other geological processes. One important correction we want to make concerns the topographic effects on the shallow crust temperature field. So we used 3D finite element method to quantify how much temperature perturbation can be attributed to the local bathymetry at the 4WC Ridge. This model will give us a temperature field based on pure thermal conduction. Then, we can compare the model temperature field with the temperature field derived from thousands of BSRs from the seismic cube, and interpret any resulting temperature discrepancy. As our previous study, we known several geological processes can cause such a discrepancy, including advective fluid migration. If the fault zone fluid migration hypothesis is correct and gas hydrate system reacts to the deep warm fluids from below it, we expect that the BSR will become shallower near the fluid pathways, and the BSR-based temperature field might be a few degrees Celsius higher than in the 3D thermal conductive temperature field. Otherwise, the two temperature fields should be similar. This study is important for hydrate

  13. Prospective, randomized, single blinded pilot study of a new FlatWire based sternal closure system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unstable steel wire cerclage following open heart surgery may result in increased pain, sternal cut-through, non-union, or dehiscence. These complications lead to longer hospital stays, increased cost, higher morbidity, and patient dissatisfaction. The Figure 8 FlatWire Sternal Closure System is a new construct which is a simple, intuitive, and inexpensive alternative for primary sternal repair following open heart surgery. Prior bench-top testing of FlatWire has demonstrated superior strength and stiffness compared to traditional steel wire. We present our initial experience in a prospective, randomized, single blinded pilot study utilizing this FDA approved system. Methods Sixty-three patients undergoing elective complete sternotomies at a single institution were randomly assigned to receive either the Figure 8 FlatWire or standard steel wire cerclage. All surgeries were performed by a single board certified cardiothoracic surgeon. Data collected included: Age, BMI, pump time, off pump to surgical stop time, length of hospital stay after surgery, cost from time of surgery to discharge, and pain on a visual analog pain scale on the day of discharge, day 30, and day 60. Results The groups were well matched. Patients receiving the Figure 8 FlatWire (33) had a reduction in length of stay compared to patients receiving steel wire circlage (30), but it was not statistically significant (6.8 vs. 7.8 days respectively, p < 0.093). Additionally those with the FlatWire reported significantly decreased pain at day of discharge (3.07 vs. 4.92 points on pain scale, p < 0.0066), with similar pain scores at 30 and 60 days. Off pump to surgery stop time was increased by 15.9 minutes in patients receiving the FlatWire vs. steel wires (55.7 vs. 71.6 minutes, p = 0.00025). Mean cost from surgery until discharge was $87,820.98 in the FlatWire group vs. $91,930.29 in the steel wire group (p < 0.3082). Conclusion Early clinical results suggest that

  14. Design package for a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains sufficient information to assemble complete tested residential flat-plate solar heating system. Descriptive material provides design, performance, and hardware specifications for utilization by architectural engineers, and contractors in procurement, installation, operation, and maintenance of similar solar applications.

  15. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary design review on the development of a prototype solar heating system for single family dwellings is presented. The collector, storage, transport, control, and site data acquisition subsystems are described.

  16. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  17. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  18. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  19. Multiple internal seal ring micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum packaging method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum packaging method that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  20. Multiple internal seal right micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum package that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  1. ONEOptimal: A Maple Package for Generating One-Dimensional Optimal System of Finite Dimensional Lie Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qian; Hu, Xiao-Rui; Chen, Yong

    2014-02-01

    We present a Maple computer algebra package, ONEOptimal, which can calculate one-dimensional optimal system of finite dimensional Lie algebra for nonlinear equations automatically based on Olver's theory. The core of this theory is viewing the Killing form of the Lie algebra as an invariant for the adjoint representation. Some examples are given to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the program.

  2. White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    ARL-TN-0727 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications ...Laboratory White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P...Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack

  3. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  4. DPI: Symplectic mapping for binary star systems for the Mercury software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, D.

    2015-04-01

    DPI is a FORTRAN77 library that supplies the symplectic mapping method for binary star systems for the Mercury N-Body software package (ascl:1201.008). The binary symplectic mapping is implemented as a hybrid symplectic method that allows close encounters and collisions between massive bodies and is therefore suitable for planetary accretion simulations.

  5. Using the Metric System in Health Careers. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carolyn

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on using the metric system. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, an additional resources list, a word game (handout), and student completion cards to issue to…

  6. Packaging and transportation system for K-Basin spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, A.T.

    1998-03-03

    This paper describes the cask/transportation system that was designed, procured and delivered to the Hanford K-Basin site at Richland, Washington. The performance requirements and design of the various components -- cask, trailer with cask tie-down system, and the cask operation equipment for the load-out pit -- will be discussed. The presentation will include the details of the factory acceptance testing and its results. The performance requirements for the cask/transportation system was dictated by the constraints imposed by the large number of high priority shipments and the spent fuel pool environment, and the complex interface requirements with other equipment and facility designs. The results of the testing form the basis for the conclusion that the system satisfies the site performance requirements. The cask/transportation system design was driven by the existing facility constraints and the limitations imposed by the large number of shipments over a short two-year period. This system may be useful information for other DOE facilities that may be or will be in a similar situation.

  7. Review and analysis of dense linear system solver package for distributed memory machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narang, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    A dense linear system solver package recently developed at the University of Texas at Austin for distributed memory machine (e.g. Intel Paragon) has been reviewed and analyzed. The package contains about 45 software routines, some written in FORTRAN, and some in C-language, and forms the basis for parallel/distributed solutions of systems of linear equations encountered in many problems of scientific and engineering nature. The package, being studied by the Computer Applications Branch of the Analysis and Computation Division, may provide a significant computational resource for NASA scientists and engineers in parallel/distributed computing. Since the package is new and not well tested or documented, many of its underlying concepts and implementations were unclear; our task was to review, analyze, and critique the package as a step in the process that will enable scientists and engineers to apply it to the solution of their problems. All routines in the package were reviewed and analyzed. Underlying theory or concepts which exist in the form of published papers or technical reports, or memos, were either obtained from the author, or from the scientific literature; and general algorithms, explanations, examples, and critiques have been provided to explain the workings of these programs. Wherever the things were still unclear, communications were made with the developer (author), either by telephone or by electronic mail, to understand the workings of the routines. Whenever possible, tests were made to verify the concepts and logic employed in their implementations. A detailed report is being separately documented to explain the workings of these routines.

  8. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  9. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  10. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-28

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Septic Systems” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank · CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool · CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks · CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Closure activities were conducted from September to November 2009 in accordance with the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 563. The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure.

  12. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, aw and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  14. Characterization of laser-optical systems packaged for use in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Michelle; Morelli, Gregg

    2007-09-01

    The characterization of laser-optical subsystems packaged for survivability in harsh environments is crucial for the development of robust laser-optical firing systems. Previously, custom mounts and bonded optical assemblies were environmentally tested to ensure their survivability1. The results verified the sub-assemblies would enable the design of a laser-optical initiation system that could be fielded for use in extreme conditions. A design package, which utilized the proven opto-mechanical sub-assemblies, was selected. This design was based on past experience and desired performance criteria. The packaged laser-optical assembly was tested to the same environmental levels as the sub-assemblies. This test regiment encompassed the harshest environments currently utilized. Temperature tests were performed ranging from a maximum of +75 degrees C to a minimum of -55 degrees C, allowing for a two hour soak at each temperature set point. Vibration tests were performed to a maximum level of 15.5 grms for forty seconds in each of three critical axes. Shock tests were performed until failure which was an impulse level of 5700 G's with a 1.1 millisecond long pulse. The laser-optical assembly was visually inspected and functionally tested before and after each test to verify survival. As designed, the system was intended to be hermetically sealed via laser welding. Therefore the visual inspection of the interior was performed post mortem. Experimental results obtained from the environmental tests will be discussed as will their impact on future packaging strategies.

  15. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  16. Space shuttle/food system study. Package feasibility study, modifications 3S, 4C and 5S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An optimum feeding system for the space shuttle was presented. This system consisted of all rehydratable type foods which were enclosed in a 4 in. x 4 in. x 1 in. flexible package. A feasibility follow-on study was conducted, and two acceptable, feasible prototypes for this package are described.

  17. pyBSM: A Python package for modeling imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMaster, Daniel A.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2017-05-01

    There are components that are common to all electro-optical and infrared imaging system performance models. The purpose of the Python Based Sensor Model (pyBSM) is to provide open source access to these functions for other researchers to build upon. Specifically, pyBSM implements much of the capability found in the ERIM Image Based Sensor Model (IBSM) V2.0 along with some improvements. The paper also includes two use-case examples. First, performance of an airborne imaging system is modeled using the General Image Quality Equation (GIQE). The results are then decomposed into factors affecting noise and resolution. Second, pyBSM is paired with openCV to evaluate performance of an algorithm used to detect objects in an image.

  18. Bat-compatible closures of abandoned underground mines in national park system units

    SciTech Connect

    Burghardt, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Because bat habitat is threatened by increased urban development, deforestation, and exploitation of caves, abandoned mines have become critical to the survival of numerous bat species. To date, the National Park Service has placed 71 bat-compatible closures in 11 parks. Habitat surveys for bats and other species are an integral part of the abandoned mine inventory process. When surveys outside mines slated for closure reveal potential habitat, qualified wildlife biologists accompanied by experienced abandoned mine safety personnel conduct internal surveys. Several internal surveys are often useful to determine various species using a mine for different purposes through the seasons of the year. Once the determination is made that a mine slated for closure merits habitat preservation, gates are designed to suit the specific needs of resident species. Construction takes place in a season when the mine is uninhabited, or at a time and in a manner that will cause the least disturbance. The National Park Service and Bat Conservation International recently developed an interpretive warning sign which attempts to prevent vandalism of bat gates by educating the public on the potential hazards inside the mine, the value of bats in ecosystems, and the importance of bat conservation efforts. These signs are available through Bat Conservation International.

  19. Mid infrared LHS system packaging using flexible waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chung

    1987-01-01

    As mid IR fiber optic systems are rapidly approaching a reality, so is the feasibility of fiber optic laser heterodyne systems. Laser heterodyne spectroscopy for high resolution monitoring of atmospheric gaseous pollutants is necessarily in the mid IR, the region in which the absorption signature of gaseous species is most prominent. It so happens that the lowest theoretical loss due to Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering also lies in the mid IR. Prospects of highly efficient laser heterodyne systems are thus very good. Such fibers are now beginning to be commercially available, and a test program is being conducted for such fibers with ambient temperature ranging from cryogenic to above room, and stringest mechanical flexibility requirements. Preliminary results are encouraging. A program is being started to explore the possibility of mid IR fiber optic device applications, by taking advantage of this phonon rich region. The potential long interaction length in fibers coupled with predicted extremely low losses point to stimulated Brillouin scattering based devices in the mW range. The generation of backscattered sBs at low laser powers is significant not only as an ultimate power limiting factor for laser transmission in fibers in the mid IR, but also the presence of frequency-shifted multiple order sBs Stokes and antiStokes lines will certainly have severe effect on the laser beats crucial in high resolution heterodyne spectroscopy.

  20. Feature test report for the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1995-03-17

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Equipment Engineering group performed feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) in the 305 Cold Test Facility from January 30, 1995, to February 1, 1995. Feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) was performed for the following reasons: To assess the feasibility of using ``drop-out`` vessels to collect small debris (<2.5 cm) in MK-II fuel canisters while transferring sludge to the Weasel Pit. To evaluate system performance under conditions similar to those in the K-Basins (e.g. submerged under 4.9 meters of water and operated with long handled tools) while using a surrogate sludge mixed with debris. To determine if canister weight could be used to predict the volume of sludge and/or debris contained within the canisters during system operation.

  1. Demonstration of a Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System Suitable for Jet Turbofan Engine Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Meredith, Roger D.; Harsh, Kevin; Pilant, Evan; Usrey, Michael W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the development and characterization of a packaged pressure sensor system suitable for jet engine health monitoring is demonstrated. The sensing system operates from 97 to 117 MHz over a pressure range from 0 to 350 psi and a temperature range from 25 to 500 deg. The sensing system consists of a Clapp-type oscillator that is fabricated on an alumina substrate and is comprised of a Cree SiC MESFET, MIM capacitors, a wire-wound inductor, chip resistors and a SiCN capacitive pressure sensor. The pressure sensor is located in the LC tank circuit of the oscillator so that a change in pressure causes a change in capacitance, thus changing the resonant frequency of the sensing system. The chip resistors, wire-wound inductors and MIM capacitors have all been characterized at temperature and operational frequency, and perform with less than 5% variance in electrical performance. The measured capacitive pressure sensing system agrees very well with simulated results. The packaged pressure sensing system is specifically designed to measure the pressure on a jet turbofan engine. The packaged system can be installed by way of borescope plug adaptor fitted to a borescope port exposed to the gas path of a turbofan engine.

  2. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  3. Electronic scanning pressure measuring system and transducer package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F. (Inventor); Parra, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    An electronic scanning pressure system that includes a plurality of pressure transducers is examined. A means obtains an electrical signal indicative of a pressure measurement from each of the plurality of pressure transducers. A multiplexing means is connected for selectivity supplying inputs from the plurality of pressure transducers to the signal obtaining means. A data bus connects the plurality of pressure transducers to the multiplexing means. A latch circuit is connected to supply control inputs to the multiplexing means. An address bus is connected to supply an address signal of a selected one of the plurality of pressure transducers to the latch circuit. In operation, each of the pressure transducers is successively scanned by the multiplexing means in response to address signals supplied on the address bus to the latch circuit.

  4. Interfaces between statistical analysis packages and the ESRI geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.

    1980-01-01

    Interfaces between ESRI's geographic information system (GIS) data files and real valued data files written to facilitate statistical analysis and display of spatially referenced multivariable data are described. An example of data analysis which utilized the GIS and the statistical analysis system is presented to illustrate the utility of combining the analytic capability of a statistical package with the data management and display features of the GIS.

  5. Test program for transmitter experiment package and heat pipe system for the communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depauw, J. F.; Reader, K. E.; Staskus, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    The test program is described for the 200 watt transmitter experiment package and the variable conductance heat pipe system which are components of the high-power transponder aboard the Communications Technology Satellite. The program includes qualification tests to demonstrate design adequacy, acceptance tests to expose latent defects in flight hardware, and development tests to integrate the components into the transponder system and to demonstrate compatibility.

  6. Common Ada Missile Packages. Phase 2. (CAMP-2). Volume 1. CAMP Parts and Parts Composition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    FILE COPY . ... ^voi AFATL-TR-88-62, VOL I Common Ada Missile Packages—Phase 2 (CAMP-2) ^ Volume I. CAMP Parts and Parts Composition...s«cürttyC>a««cat/ofl) Common Ada Missile Packages-Phase 2 (CAMP-2). Volur.ie I: CAMP Parts and Parts Composition System 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Reusable Software, Missile Software, Software Generators, Ada parts , Composition, Systems, Software Parts 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if

  7. Closure device

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D. E.

    1985-06-11

    A closure device connectible to a well head through which the polished rod of a rod string extends into a well tubing for operating pump means for moving well fluids to a surface flow conductor, the closure device having a tubular ram provided with a packing or plug for closing an annular passage between the polished rod and a tubular body connected to the well head above a lateral port of the tubular body, the tubular ram and the tubular body having thread means for moving the plug between an operative lower position wherein it closes the annular passage when the rod string is stationary and on inoperative upper position; seal means between the ram and the polished rod spaced above the plug; and a plurality of independent seal means between the ram and the tubular body operative when the plug is in its inoperative position. The plug of the closure device is especially adapted to operate under high temperature and pressure conditions of the well, as during steam injection operations when the rod string is stationary, to protect the seal means from high pressures and temperatures as well as any fluids which may be corrosive or otherwise deleterious to the substance of which the seal means are made.

  8. IMAPS Device Packaging Conference 2017 - Engineered Micro Systems & Devices Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta

    2017-01-01

    NASA field center Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, AL), has invested in advanced wireless sensor technology development. Developments for a wireless microcontroller back-end were primarily focused on the commercial Synapse Wireless family of devices. These devices have many useful features for NASA applications, good characteristics and the ability to be programmed Over-The-Air (OTA). The effort has focused on two widely used sensor types, mechanical strain gauges and thermal sensors. Mechanical strain gauges are used extensively in NASA structural testing and even on vehicle instrumentation systems. Additionally, thermal monitoring with many types of sensors is extensively used. These thermal sensors include thermocouples of all types, resistive temperature devices (RTDs), diodes and other thermal sensor types. The wireless thermal board will accommodate all of these types of sensor inputs to an analog front end. The analog front end on each of the sensors interfaces to the Synapse wireless microcontroller, based on the Atmel Atmega128 device. Once the analog sensor output data is digitized by the onboard analog to digital converter (A/D), the data is available for analysis, computation or transmission. Various hardware features allow custom embedded software to manage battery power to enhance battery life. This technology development fits nicely into using numerous additional sensor front ends, including some of the low-cost printed circuit board capacitive moisture content sensors currently being developed at Auburn University.

  9. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  10. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  11. Data processing unit and power system for the LANL REM instrument package. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, W.

    1994-03-01

    The NEPSTP spacecraft needs highly reliable instrumentation to measure the nuclear reactor health and performance. These reactor measurements are essential for initial on-orbit phase operations and documentation of performance over time. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the guidance of W. C. Feldman, principal investigator, has designed the Radiation Environment Monitoring (REM) package to meet these needs. The instrumentation package contains two neutron detectors, one gamma-ray detector, a data processing unit, and an instrument power system. The REM package is an integration of quick turn-around, state of the practice technology for detectors, data processors, and power systems. A significant portion of REM consists of subsystems with flight history. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has been tasked by LANL to design support electronics, including the Data Processing Unit (DPU) and Power System for REM. The goal for this project is to use technologies from current programs to speed up and simplify the design process. To meet these design goals, the authors use an open architecture VME bus for the DPU and derivatives of CASSINI power supplies for the instrument power system. To simplify integration and test activities, they incorporate a proven software development strategy and tool kits from outside vendors. The objective of this report is to illustrate easily incorporated system level designs for the DPU, power system and ground support electronics (GSE) in support of the important NEPSTP program.

  12. Effect of packaging systems and pressure fluids on inactivation of Clostridium botulinum spores by combined high pressure and thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Patazca, Eduardo; Morrissey, Travis R; Loeza, Viviana; Reddy, N Rukma; Skinner, Guy E; Larkin, John W

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have been published on the inactivation of bacterial spores by using high pressure processing in combination with heat. None of the studies investigated the effect of the packaging system or the pressurizing fluid on spore inactivation. The objective of this study was to select and validate an appropriate packaging system and pressure transfer fluid for inactivation of Clostridium botulinum spores by using high pressure processing in combination with thermal processing. Inactivation of spores packaged in three packaging systems (plastic pouches, cryovials, and transfer pipettes) was measured in two pressure test systems (laboratory-scale and pilot-scale) at 700 MPa and >105°C. Total destruction (>6.6-log reduction) of the spores packaged in the graduated tube part of transfer pipettes was obtained after processing for up to 10 min at 118°C and 700 MPa in both pressure test systems, compared with the spores packaged either in plastic pouches or cryovials. Reduction of spores packaged in plastic pouches was lowest (<4.8 log) for both pressure test systems when processed at the same conditions (i.e., 700 MPa and 118°C). Within the pilot-scale pressure system, increasing the process temperature from 118 to 121°C at 700 MPa for 10 min resulted in only a small increase in spore reduction (<5.1 log) for spores packaged in plastic pouches, whereas there were no recoverable spores for either of the other two packaging systems. Use of plastic pouches for packaging spores in inactivation kinetic studies could lead to erroneous conclusions about the effect of high pressure in combination with heat. BioGlycol is the pressure-heat transfer fluid of choice, as compared with Duratherm oil, to maximize the temperature response rate during pressurization within the laboratory-scale pressure test system.

  13. The ALEXIS data processing package: An IDL-based system

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.J.; Smith, B.W.; Edwards, B.C.

    1991-12-31

    The ALEXIS experiment is a mini-satellite containing six wide angle EUV/ultrasoft x-ray telescopes. Its purpose is to map out the sky in three narrow (5%) bandpasses around 66, 71, and 93 eV. The 66 and 71 eV bandpasses are centered on intense Fe emission lines which are characteristic of million-degree plasmas such as the one thought to produce the soft x-ray background. The 93 eV bandpass is not near any strong emission lines and is more sensitive to continuum sources. The emission will be launched on the Pegasus Air-Launched Vehicle in the first quarter of 1992 into a 400-nautical-mile, high-inclination orbit and will be controlled entirely from a small ground station located at Los Alamos. The project is a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the University of California-Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory. The six telescopes are arranged in three pairs. As the satellite spins twice a minute they scan the entire anti-solar hemisphere. Each f/1 telescope consists of a spherical, multilayer-coated mirror with a curved, microchannel plate detector located at the prime focus. The multilayer coatings determine the bandpasses of the telescopes. The field of each telescope is 30 degrees with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree, limited by spherical aberration. The data processing requirements for ALEXIS are large. Each event in one of the six telescopes is telemetered to the ground with its time of arrival and position on the detector. This information must be folded with the aspect solution for the satellite to reconstruct the direction on the sky from which the photon came. Because of the way the six telescopes scan the sky, the effective exposure calculations is also very compute-intensive. ALEXIS may generate up to 100 megabytes of raw data per day, which are converted into a gigabyte per day of processed data. The entire analysis system is built on a set of SPARCstation platforms.

  14. A New PC and LabVIEW Package Based System for Electrochemical Investigations.

    PubMed

    Stević, Zoran; Andjelković, Zoran; Antić, Dejan

    2008-03-15

    The paper describes a new PC and LabVIEW software package based system forelectrochemical research. An overview of well known electrochemical methods, such aspotential measurements, galvanostatic and potentiostatic method, cyclic voltammetry andEIS is given. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been adapted for systemscontaining large capacitances. For signal generation and recording of the response ofinvestigated electrochemical cell, a measurement and control system was developed, basedon a PC P4. The rest of the hardware consists of a commercially available AD-DA converterand an external interface for analog signal processing. The interface is a result of authorsown research. The software platform for desired measurement methods is LabVIEW 8.2package, which is regarded as a high standard in the area of modern virtual instruments. Thedeveloped system was adjusted, tested and compared with commercially available systemand ORCAD simulation.

  15. The ALEXIS data processing package: An IDL based system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, J. J.; Smith, B. W.; Edwards, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    processing job for ALEXIS is sizable, the programming staff is small. To maximize programming efficiency, and to make the best use of tools available in the public domain, we chose IDL as our software development platform. IDL was used from the start of instrument development through flight. We use IDL as a top-level executive for the processing tasks (replacing Unix shell scripts), as a device independent graphics engine, as a database manager, and as a final data manipulator. IDL routines spawn special purpose C programs to perform detailed telemetry deconvolution and other specialized functions. We discuss the use of IDL and C within the processing and archiving strategy for the ALEXIS data anlaysis system as implemented on a SPARCstation platform. We also show results from our End-to-End software simulation capability as processed by our analysis codes.

  16. A case study of packaging waste collection systems in Portugal - Part I: Performance and operation analysis.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Graça; Gomes, Ana; Santos, Pedro; Ramos, Mário; Cardoso, João; Silveira, Ana; Pires, Ana

    2017-03-01

    The need to increase packaging recycling rates has led to the study and analysis of recycling schemes from various perspectives, including technical, economic, social, and environmental. This paper is part one of a three-part study devoted to comparing two recyclable packaging waste collection systems operating in western Portugal: a mixed collection system, where curbside and drop-off collections are operated simultaneously (but where the curbside system was introduced after the drop-off system), and an exclusive drop-off system. This part of the study focuses on analyzing the operation and performance of the two waste collection systems. The mixed collection system is shown to yield higher material separation rates, higher recycling rates, and lower contamination rates compared with the exclusive drop-off system, a result of the curbside component in the former system. However, the operational efficiency of the curbside collection in the mixed system is lower than the drop-off collection in the mixed system and the exclusive drop-off system, mainly because of inefficiency of collection. A key recommendation is to ensure that the systems should be optimized in an attempt to improve performance. Optimization should be applied not only to logistical aspects but also to citizens' participation, which could be improved by conducting curbside collection awareness campaigns in the neighborhoods that have a mixed system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used.

  18. Integrated thermophilic submerged aerobic membrane bioreactor and electrochemical oxidation for pulp and paper effluent treatment--towards system closure.

    PubMed

    Qu, X; Gao, W J; Han, M N; Chen, A; Liao, B Q

    2012-07-01

    A novel integrated thermophilic submerged aerobic membrane bioreactor (TSAMBR) and electrochemical oxidation (EO) technology was developed for thermomechanical pulping pressate treatment with the aim of system closure. The TSAMBR was able to achieve a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 88.6 ± 1.9-92.3 ± 0.7% under the organic loading rate of 2.76 ± 0.13-3.98 ± 0.23 kg COD/(m(3) d). An optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.1 ± 0.1d was identified for COD removal. Cake formation was identified as the dominant mechanism of membrane fouling. The EO of the TSAMBR permeate was performed using a Ti/SnO(2)-Sb(2)O(5)-IrO(2) electrode. After 6-h EO, a complete decolourization was achieved and the COD removal efficiency was increased to 96.2 ± 1.2-98.2 ± 0.3%. The high-quality effluent produced by the TSAMBR-EO system can be reused as process water for system closure in pulp and paper mill.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2003-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well.

  20. Left Atrial Appendage Closure Device With Delivery System: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nevis, Immaculate; Falk, Lindsey; Wells, David; Higgins, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia, and 15% to 20% of those who have experienced stroke have atrial fibrillation. Treatment options to prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation include pharmacological agents such as novel oral anticoagulants or nonpharmacological devices such as the left atrial appendage closure device with delivery system (LAAC device). The objectives of this health technology assessment were to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the LAAC device versus novel oral anticoagulants in patients without contraindications to oral anticoagulants and versus antiplatelet agents in patients with contraindications to oral anticoagulants. Methods We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis. We also conducted an economic literature review, economic evaluation, and budget impact analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the LAAC device compared with novel oral anticoagulants and oral antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin). We also spoke with patients to better understand their preferences, perspectives, and values. Results Seven randomized controlled studies met the inclusion criteria for indirect comparison. Five studies assessed the effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants versus warfarin, and two studies compared the LAAC device with warfarin. No studies were identified that compared the LAAC device with aspirin in patients in whom oral anticoagulants were contraindicated. Using the random effects model, we found that the LAAC device was comparable to novel oral anticoagulants in reducing stroke (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; credible interval [Cr.I] 0.63–1.05). Similarly, the reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality was comparable between the LAAC device and novel oral anticoagulants (OR 0.71; Cr.I 0.49–1.22). The LAAC device was found to be superior to novel oral anticoagulants in preventing hemorrhagic stroke (OR 0.45; Cr.I 0.29–0.79), whereas novel oral

  1. Development of damage assessment package for building with isolation system and its application to 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Akira; Ichimura, Ken

    2012-04-01

    We developed a damage assessment package to assess buildings with various isolation systems. The package provides seven items to be used for damage assessment based on ARX method, MOESP method and double integration of acceleration data. The necessary condition for the package is to have a monitoring system with accelerometers at least at three levels i.e. on foundation, isolation layer and on top floor or roof of the building. Using this package, the performance of the isolation systems as well as superstructure during the earthquake can be quantitatively estimated. The package was tested for a 7-story base-isolated building in Yokohama, Japan. The building experienced the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake of the moment magnitude 9.0.

  2. ESPResSo++: A modern multiscale simulation package for soft matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, Jonathan D.; Brandes, Thomas; Lenz, Olaf; Arnold, Axel; Bevc, Staš; Starchenko, Vitaliy; Kremer, Kurt; Stuehn, Torsten; Reith, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    The redesigned Extensible Simulation Package for Research on Soft matter systems (ESPResSo++) is a free, open-source, parallelized, object-oriented simulation package designed to perform many-particle simulations, principally molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo, of condensed soft matter systems. In addition to the standard simulation methods found in well-established packages, ESPResSo++ provides the ability to perform Adaptive Resolution Scheme (AdResS) simulations which are multiscale simulations of molecular systems where the level of resolution of each molecule can change on-the-fly. With the main design objective being extensibility, the software features a highly modular C++ kernel that is coupled to a Python user interface. This makes it easy to add new algorithms, setup a simulation, perform online analysis, use complex workflows and steer a simulation. The extreme flexibility of the software allows for the study of a wide range of systems. The modular structure enables scientists to use ESPResSo++ as a research platform for their own methodological developments, which at the same time allows the software to grow and acquire the most modern methods. ESPResSo++ is targeted for a broad range of architectures and is licensed under the GNU General Public License.

  3. Novel technique of creating a seal for the vacuum-assisted closure system application in complex head and neck wounds.

    PubMed

    Tian, Brian; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; Tan, Hiang Khoon; Tay, Ai Choo; Soo, Khee Chee; Tan, Ngian Chye

    2016-12-01

    Achieving a good seal for the application of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) system in complex head and neck wounds is difficult. A case series of 4 patients who developed postoperative orocutaneous or pharyngocutaneous fistulas were studied. A sterile green glove was used as a sealant together with the VAC system. With utilization of a green glove, a good seal for the VAC system was obtained. This gave ample time to cleanse the wound and allow granulation tissue to form before proceeding on to the next stage of treatment. A green glove technique allows for a good seal for the VAC system to work, especially when applied to complex head and neck wounds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2523-E2526, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Groundwater Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, Paul D.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Williams, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2006-01-31

    This report presents data and interpreted information that supports the groundwater module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) used in Hanford Assessments. The objective of the groundwater module is to predict movement of radioactive and chemical contaminants through the aquifer to the Columbia River or other potential discharge locations. This data package is being revised as part of the deliverables under the Characterization of Systems Project (#49139) aimed at providing documentation for assessments being conducted under the Hanford Assessments Project (#47042). Both of these projects are components of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessments Projects, managed by the Management and Integration Project (#47043).

  5. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature heat pipe experiment package power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of a self-contained Direct Energy Transfer Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package is presented. The power system operated successfully for the entire mission. Data recorded by the onboard recorder shows that the system operated within design specifications. Other than unanticipated overcharging of the battery, the power system operated as expected for nearly 32,000 low earth orbit cycles, and was still operational when tested after the LDEF recovery. Some physical damage was sustained by the solar array panels due to micrometeoroid hits, but there were not electrical failures.

  6. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    An overview of a self contained Direct Energy Transfer (DET) Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) Experiment. A brief synopsis of the flight characteristics of the power system are presented to illustrate the system's capability to function successfully in a low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment. The successful space flight operations of the battery, solar arrays, and power system electronics during the flight period of almost six years (approximately 32,000 LEO cycles) are discussed.

  7. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature heat pipe experiment package power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of a self-contained Direct Energy Transfer Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package is presented. The power system operated successfully for the entire mission. Data recorded by the onboard recorder shows that the system operated within design specifications. Other than unanticipated overcharging of the battery, the power system operated as expected for nearly 32,000 low earth orbit cycles, and was still operational when tested after the LDEF recovery. Some physical damage was sustained by the solar array panels due to micrometeoroid hits, but there were not electrical failures.

  8. Next-generation avionics packaging and cooling 'test results from a prototype system'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seals, J. D.

    The author reports on the design, material characteristics, and test results obtained under the US Air Force's advanced aircraft avionics packaging technologies (AAAPT) program, whose charter is to investigate new designs and technologies for reliable packaging, interconnection, and thermal management. Under this program, AT&T Bell Laboratories has completed the preliminary testing of and is evaluating a number of promising materials and technologies, including conformal encapsulation, liquid flow-through cooling, and a cyanate ester backplane. A fifty-two module system incorporating these and and other technologies has undergone preliminary cooling efficiency, shock, sine and random vibration, and maintenance testing. One of the primary objectives was to evaluate the interaction compatibility of new materials and designs with other components in the system.

  9. Usefulness of a new gelatin glue sealant system for dural closure in a rat durotomy model.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shuko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Watertight dural closure is imperative after neurosurgical procedures, because inadequately treated leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can have serious consequences. We used a rat durotomy model to test the usefulness of a new gelatin glue as a dural sealant in a rat model of transdural CSF leakage. All rats were randomly divided into one of the following three treatment groups: no application (control group: N = 18), application of fibrin glue (fibrin glue group: N = 18), and application of the new gelatin glue (new gelatin glue group: N = 18). The craniotomy side was re-opened, and CSF leakage was checked and recorded at 1, 7, and 28 days postoperatively. The new gelatin glue was adequate for stopping CSF leakage; no leakage was observed at postoperative days 1 or 7, and leakage was observed in only one rat at postoperative day 28. This result was statistically significant when compared to the control group (P = 0.002, P = 0.015, P = 0.015, respectively). The pathologic score of the new gelatin group was not different from that of the control or fibrin glue groups. We conclude that our new gelatin glue provides effective watertight closure 1, 7, and 28 days after operation in the rat durotomy model.

  10. The vacuum-assisted closure system for the treatment of deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Tatjana M; Fleck, Michael; Moidl, Reinhard; Czerny, Martin; Koller, Rupert; Giovanoli, Pietro; Hiesmayer, Michael J; Zimpfer, Daniel; Wolner, Ernst; Grabenwoger, Martin

    2002-11-01

    The VAC system (vacuum-assisted wound closure) is a noninvasive active therapy to promote healing in difficult wounds that fail to respond to established treatment modalities. The system is based on the application of negative pressure by controlled suction to the wound surface. The method was introduced into clinical practice in 1996. Since then, numerous studies proved the effectiveness of the VAC System on microcirculation and the promotion of granulation tissue proliferation. Eleven patients (5 men, 6 women) with a median age of 64.4 years (range 50 to 78 years) with sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting = 5, aortic valve replacement = 5, ascending aortic replacement = 1) were fitted with the VAC system by the time of initial surgical debridement. Complete healing was achieved in all patients. The VAC system was removed after a mean of 9.3 days (range 4 to 15 days), when systemic signs of infection resolved and quantitative cultures were negative. In 6 patients (54.5%), the VAC system was used as a bridge to reconstructive surgery with a pectoralis muscle flap, and in the remaining 5 patients (45.5%), primary wound closure could be achieved. Intensive care unit stay ranged from 1 to 4 days (median 1 day). Duration of hospital stay varied from 13 to 45 days (median 30 days). In-hospital mortality was 0%, and 30-day survival was 100%. The VAC system can be considered as an effective and safe adjunct to conventional and established treatment modalities for the therapy of sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery.

  11. 40 CFR 265.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and...

  12. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and manage them...

  13. Some possibilities of a closure degree increase and matter turnover intensification in the bioregenerative life support system BIOS-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Velichko, V. V.; Degermendzhy, Á. G.; Lasseur, Ch.; Lamaze, B.

    The problems of scientific-technical substantiation of perspective joint IBP-ESA works on imitation of functioning of stationary bioregenerative life support systems BLSS on Moon and or Mars are discussed With this purpose the possibilities of matter turnover intensification and closure degree increase which can be achieved after modernization of the BIOS-3 BLSS designed and constructed at Institute of Biophysics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences IBP SB RAS Russia are considered These works are performed in the frame of INTAS IA project under the joint SB RAS-ESA financial support Specifically at the expense of intensity increase of photosynthetic active radiation from 150 to 250 Wt m 2 the productivity of photosynthesizing unit on oxygen and biomass is supposed to increase on 50 on average The given substantiation is based upon analysis of carried out preliminary experiments in a laboratory environment and in the BIOS-3 facility and also on series of experiments carried out at present time The results of technical reconstruction of lighting and thermoregulation systems demonstrating practical possibility of these plans implementation are produced On the grounds of mass exchange processes intensification the problems of a crew supply with vegetarian food and oxygen under a smaller photosynthesizing unit size are considered Some possibilities of the humans wastes utilization under combination of physicochemical and biological methods and necessary technical decisions allowing closure increase of matter turnover are

  14. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  15. A Packaged Self-Powered System with Universal Connectors Based on Hybridized Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bojing; Zheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Hong; Yao, Yan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-03

    A packaged self-powered system by hybridizing nanogenerators (PSNGS) is demonstrated. The performance of the PSNGS is tested in a biofluid and used for powering an electronic thermometer. Select waterproof universal connectors are designed and fabricated for energy and signal transmission. This PSNGS and the connectors can significantly advance the development of self-powered implanted medical devices and wearable/portable electronics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Post mortem results of laser-optical system packaged for use in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Michelle R.

    2008-08-01

    The design and packaging of laser-optical system was tested to harsh environments outside lab conditions and post mortem activities will be discussed. Previously, custom mounts and bonded optical assemblies were environmentally tested to ensure their survivability. The results verified the sub-assemblies would enable the design of a laser-optical initiation system that could be fielded for use in extreme conditions. The design package, which utilized the proven opto-mechanical sub-assemblies, was then tested to the same levels as the sub-assemblies. The test regiment encompassed the harshest environments currently utilized. Temperature tests were performed ranging from a maximum of +75 degrees C to a minimum of -55 degrees C, allowing for two hour soak at each temperature set point. Vibration tests were performed to a maximum level of 15.5 grms for forty seconds in each of three critical axes. Shock tests were performed to a maximum impulse level of 5700 G's for the sub-assemblies with a 1.1 millisecond long pulse; whereas the packaged laser system maximum level reached was 3700 G's at 1.1 millisecond long pulse. The laser-optical assembly was visually inspected and functionally tested before and after each test to verify survival. As designed, the system covers were laser welded shut for hermetic seal. The only open port was the laser output for testing and verification of laser performance. No optical cables were utilized. Therefore the visual inspection of the interior was performed post mortem. The post mortem results will be discussed as will the potential of redesigns on future packaging strategies.

  17. DNA packaging induced by micellar aggregates: a novel in vitro DNA condensation system.

    PubMed

    Ghirlando, R; Wachtel, E J; Arad, T; Minsky, A

    1992-08-11

    Evidence for a conceptually novel DNA packaging process is presented. X-ray scattering, electron microscopy, and circular dichroism measurements indicate that in the presence of positively charged micellar aggregates and flexible anionic polymers, such as negatively charged polypeptides or single-stranded RNA species, a complex is formed in which DNA molecules are partially embedded within a micellar scaffold and partially condensed into highly packed chiral structures. Based on studies of micelle-DNA and micelle-flexible anionic polymer systems, as well as on the known effects of a high charge density upon the micellar organization, a DNA packaging model is proposed. According to this model, the DNA induces the elongation of the micelles into rodlike aggregates, forming a closely packed matrix in which the DNA molecules are immobilized. In contrast, the flexible anionic polymers stabilize clusters of spherical micelles which are proposed to effect a capping of the rodlike micelles, thus arresting their elongation and creating surfactant-free segments of the DNA that are able to converge and collapse. Thus, unlike other in vitro DNA packaging systems, in which condensation follows encounters between charge-neutralized DNA molecules, a prepackaging phase where the DNA is immobilized within a matrix is proposed in this case. Cellular and nuclear membranes have been implicated in DNA packaging processes in vivo, and negatively charged polyelectrolytes were shown to be involved in the processes. These observations, combined with the basic tenets of the DNA condensation system described here, allow for the progression to the study of more elaborate model systems and thus might lead to insights into the nature and roles of the intricate in vivo DNA-membrane complexes.

  18. Programmed packaging of multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2010-05-01

    A programmed packaging strategy to develop a multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system (MENS) is presented. To this end, we took specific advantage of using in-house tailored liposomes that have been recently shown to exhibit intrinsic endosomal rupture properties that allow plasmid DNA to escape from endosomes and to enter the nucleus with extremely high efficiency. Transfection efficiency experiments on NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicate that MENS is a promising transfection candidate.

  19. Post mortem results of laser-optical system packaged for use in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Michelle R.

    2008-08-28

    In this study, the design and packaging of laser-optical system was tested to harsh environments outside lab conditions and post mortem activities will be discussed. Previously, custom mounts and bonded optical assemblies were environmentally tested to ensure their survivability. The results verified the sub-assemblies would enable the design of a laser-optical initiation system that could be fielded for use in extreme conditions. The design package, which utilized the proven opto-mechanical sub-assemblies, was then tested to the same levels as the sub-assemblies. The test regiment encompassed the harshest environments currently utilized. Temperature tests were performed ranging from a maximum of +75 degrees C to a minimum of -55 degrees C, allowing for two hour soak at each temperature set point. Vibration tests were performed to a maximum level of 15.5 grms for forty seconds in each of three critical axes. Shock tests were performed to a maximum impulse level of 5700 G's for the sub-assemblies with a 1.1 millisecond long pulse; whereas the packaged laser system maximum level reached was 3700 G's at 1.1 millisecond long pulse. The laser-optical assembly was visually inspected and functionally tested before and after each test to verify survival. As designed, the system covers were laser welded shut for hermetic seal. The only open port was the laser output for testing and verification of laser performance. No optical cables were utilized. Therefore the visual inspection of the interior was performed post mortem. Finally, the post mortem results will be discussed as will the potential of redesigns on future packaging strategies.

  20. Stability of lamb loin stored under refrigeration and packed in different modified atmosphere packaging systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rafaella de Paula Paseto; Freire, Maria Teresa de Alvarenga; de Paula, Elisa Silva Maluf; Kanashiro, Ana Livea Sayuri; Catunda, Fernanda Antunes Pinto; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho; Trindade, Marco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems (vacuum, 75% O2+25% CO2 and 100% CO2) on the stability of lamb loins stored at 1±1°C for 28 days. Microbiological (counts of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophic microorganisms, coliform at 45°C, coagulase-positive staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria and presence of Salmonella), physical and chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], objective color, pH, water loss from cooking [WLC] and shear force), sensory (acceptance testing using a 9-point hedonic scale) and gas composition analyses were performed. Lamb meat remained stable with respect to the majority of the evaluated physical and chemical indexes and within the standards established by Brazilian legislation for pathogenic microorganisms throughout the storage period in all three packaging systems. However, with respect to psychrotrophic microorganisms, 100% CO2 packaging system provided increased stability despite presenting lower appearance preference.

  1. System-in-package LTCC platform for 3D RF to millimeter wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation shows recent trends and results in 3D Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics (LTCC) modules in applications from RF to millimeter waves. The system-in-package LTCC platform is a true three dimensional module technology. LTCC is a lightweight multi-layer technology having typically 6-20 ceramic layers and metallizations between. The metallization levels i.e different metal layers can be patterned and connected together with metal vias. Passive devices can also be fabricated on LTCC while active devices and other chips are connected with flip-chip, wire bonding or soldering. In addition to passives directly fabricated to LTCC, several different technologies/ chips can be hybrid integrated to the same module. LTCC platform is also well suited for the realization of antenna arrays for microwave and millimeter wave applications. Potential applications are ranging from short range communications to space and radars. VTT has designed, fabricated and characterized microwave and millimeter wave packages for Radio Frequency (RF) Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as active devices. Also, several types of system-in-package modules have been realized containing hybrid integrated CMOS and GaAs MMICs and antenna arrays.

  2. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 12: PEP data item descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Contractor information requirements necessary to support the power extension package project of the space shuttle program are specified for the following categories of data: project management; configuration management; systems engineering and test; manufacturing; reliability, quality assurance and safety; logistics; training; and operations.

  3. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 5: PEP environmental specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This specification establishes the natural and induced environments to which the power extension package may be exposed during ground operations and space operations with the shuttle system. Space induced environments are applicable at the Orbiter attach point interface location. All probable environments are systematically listed according to each ground and mission phase.

  4. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  5. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  6. System-in Package of Integrated Humidity Sensor Using CMOS-MEMS Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2015-10-01

    Temperature/humidity microchips with micropump were fabricated using a CMOS-MEMS process and combined with ZigBee modules to implement a sensor system in package (SIP) for a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) and/or a wireless communication system. The current of a diode temperature sensor to temperature and a normalized current of FET humidity sensor to relative humidity showed linear characteristics, respectively, and the use of the micropump has enabled a faster response. A wireless reception module using the same protocol as that in transmission systems processed the received data within 10 m and showed temperature and humidity values in the display.

  7. Decontamination of Bacillus subtilis Spores in a Sealed Package Using a Non-thermal Plasma System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keener, Kevin M.; Jensen, J. L.; Valdramidis, V. P.; Byrne, E.; Connolly, J.; Mosnier, J. P.; Cullen, P. J.

    The safety of packaged food and medical devices is a major concern to consumers and government officials. Recent inventions (PK-1 and PK-2) based on the principles of non-thermal, atmospheric plasma has shown significant reduction in bacterial contamination inside a sealed package. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PK-1 and PK-2 systems in the reduction of Bacillus subtilis spores using packages containing air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). The experimental design consisted of the following parameters: (1) two voltage conditions: 13.5 kV with 1.0 cm electrode gap (PK-1) and 80 kV with 4.5 cm electrode gap (PK-2), (2) two treatment conditions: inside and outside the field of ionization, (3) PK-1 and PK-2 optimized treatment times: 300 and 120 s, respectively, and (4) two package gas types: air and modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). Measurements included: (1) bacterial reductions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. atrophaeus), (2) ozone, nitrous oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide concentrations, and (3) relative humidity. Bacillus subtilis (1.7 × 106/strip) were loaded into sterile uncovered petri dishes and treated with ionization generated in packages using air or MA gas blend. Samples were treated for 300 s (PK-1) or 120 s (PK-2) and stored at room ­temperature for 24 h. Results documented relative humidity (RH) ranged from 20% to 30%. After 300 s of PK-1 treatment (13.5 kV/44 W/1.0 cm gap), ozone concentrations were 6,000 ppm (air) and 7,500 ppm (MA). After 120 s of PK-2 treatment (80 kV/150 W/4.5 cm), ozone concentrations were 7,500 ppm (air) and 12,000 ppm (MA). Ozone and NOx concentrations were non-detect (ND) after 24 h. PK-1 carbon monoxide levels were <20 ppm (air) and <100 ppm (MA) after 24 h. The PK-2 carbon monoxide levels were <20 ppm (air) and <400 ppm (MA) after 24 h. Treatments showed reductions in spores of greater than 6 log10 after 24 h. Reductions were maintained without additional re

  8. Cyperus esculentus tolerance to an environmental effect in view of a closure problem in bioregenerative life support systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motorin, Nickolay; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Velitchko, Vladimir

    At the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for the first time chufa (Cyperus esculentus L) was used as the source of vegetative fats in a human diet. However the problem of increase of closure level of mass exchange processes in BLSS demands the selection of the most highly productive species, the study of the culture tolerance to environmental factors. Thereupon chufa response to light intensity changes, atmosphere CO2 concentrations and soil salinization are estimated in the given work Analysis of different chufa species exposed three most perspective chufa species. The experiments with different atmosphere CO2 concentrations and different levels of soil salinization on the background of an increased level of PAR intensity equal to 220 W/m2 were carried out. Sharp inhibition of chufa photosynthetic productivity at NaCl concentration of 10 g/l and more was established; whereas under lower NaCl concentrations that phenomenon was not observed. Peculiarities of the effect of different CO2 concentrations in the range from 0.03% to 0.9% on chufa photosynthetic productivity are discussed. On the grounds of obtained quantitative characteristics of chufa response towards the effect of environmental factors investigated growing regimes of the given culture contributing to a closure increase of mass exchange in BLSS are proposed.

  9. PLATSIM: An efficient linear simulation and analysis package for large-order flexible systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Periman; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1995-01-01

    PLATSIM is a software package designed to provide efficient time and frequency domain analysis of large-order generic space platforms implemented with any linear time-invariant control system. Time domain analysis provides simulations of the overall spacecraft response levels due to either onboard or external disturbances. The time domain results can then be processed by the jitter analysis module to assess the spacecraft's pointing performance in a computationally efficient manner. The resulting jitter analysis algorithms have produced an increase in speed of several orders of magnitude over the brute force approach of sweeping minima and maxima. Frequency domain analysis produces frequency response functions for uncontrolled and controlled platform configurations. The latter represents an enabling technology for large-order flexible systems. PLATSIM uses a sparse matrix formulation for the spacecraft dynamics model which makes both the time and frequency domain operations quite efficient, particularly when a large number of modes are required to capture the true dynamics of the spacecraft. The package is written in MATLAB script language. A graphical user interface (GUI) is included in the PLATSIM software package. This GUI uses MATLAB's Handle graphics to provide a convenient way for setting simulation and analysis parameters.

  10. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  11. Closure of sea level and mass budgets from various observing systems during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Dieng, H.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the sea level budget approach, this study investigates the residuals between observed global mean sea level (GMSL) and the sum of components (steric sea level and ocean mass) for the period 2003/05 to present. The objective is to identify the impact of errors in one or several components of the sea level budget equation in the residual time series. We consider a large number of data sets as processed by different groups: six altimetry products for the GMSL, four Argo products plus two ocean reanalyses for the steric sea level and four GRACE-based ocean mass products. We find that over the study time span, the observed differences (in terms of trend and interannual variability) in the residuals may exceed the formal residual uncertainties, depending on the data set combination. In addition to missing contributions (e.g., deep ocean below 2000m, Argo data gaps in the Indonesian seas and Gulf of Mexico), errors in each term of the sea level budget equation (i.e., altimetry-based sea level, steric sea level and Grace-based ocean mass) contribute at various degrees to the residuals, thus prevent from closing the sea level budget. We also review recent published results on closure of the sea level budget and provide a status of current uncertainties. We next focus on the mass component and compare the various GRACE-based ocean mass products to the sum of individual mass components (ice sheet and glaciers mass balances, land water storage, atmospheric water vapor) using a variety of different data sets (including from the ESA Climate Change Initiative Project). As for the sea level budget, we discuss uncertainties of each term of the mass equation and assess the degree of closure of the mass budget.

  12. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  13. Nontemplate-driven polymers: clues to a minimal form of organization closure at the early stages of living systems.

    PubMed

    Freire, Miguel Ángel

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of the first polymers played an essential role in the transition from the physicochemical to the biological domain, a perception that embodied many different world paradigms relying on only one primal polymer. However, biological complexity would have appeared with an increasing set of associated chemistries and molecular interactions of many different macromolecules. In agreement with this notion, here, the purpose is to focus specific attention on current knowledge of modern biochemistry of a set of widespread polymers likely present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor synthesized by nontemplate-driven reactions with references to their abiotic synthesis. The proposed overview describes the manner in which these polymers could have organized around two polymerization reaction cycles and integrated into a minimal organizational closure at the early stages of living systems, independently of template replication processes. This hypothesis could provide an alternative conceptual framework to evaluate a plausible scenario addressing the transition from nonliving to protocellular systems.

  14. A Description and Analysis of the German Packaging Take-Back System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The German packaging ordinance is an example of legislated extended producer responsibility (also known as product take-back). Consumers can leave packaging with retailers, and packagers are required to pay for their recycling and disposal. It can be considered to be successful in reducing waste, spurring the redesign of packaging to be more…

  15. A Description and Analysis of the German Packaging Take-Back System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The German packaging ordinance is an example of legislated extended producer responsibility (also known as product take-back). Consumers can leave packaging with retailers, and packagers are required to pay for their recycling and disposal. It can be considered to be successful in reducing waste, spurring the redesign of packaging to be more…

  16. A case study of packaging waste collection systems in Portugal - Part II: Environmental and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Ana; Sargedas, João; Miguel, Mécia; Pina, Joaquim; Martinho, Graça

    2017-03-01

    An understanding of the environmental impacts and costs related to waste collection is needed to ensure that existing waste collection schemes are the most appropriate with regard to both environment and cost. This paper is Part II of a three-part study of a mixed packaging waste collection system (curbside plus bring collection). Here, the mixed collection system is compared to an exclusive curbside system and an exclusive bring system. The scenarios were assessed using life cycle assessment and an assessment of costs to the waste management company. The analysis focuses on the collection itself so as to be relevant to waste managers and decision-makers who are involved only in this step of the packaging life cycle. The results show that the bring system has lower environmental impacts and lower economic costs, and is capable of reducing the environmental impacts of the mixed system. However, a sensitivity analysis shows that these results could differ if the curbside collection were to be optimized. From economic and environmental perspectives, the mixed system has few advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Fluorinel Dissolution Process Makeup and Cooling and Heating Systems Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan Tank Systems INTEC-066, INTEC-067, INTEC-068, and INTEC-072

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Davis

    2007-05-01

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the fluorinel dissolution process makeup and cooling and heating systems located in the Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage Facility (CPP-666), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The systems to be closed include waste piping associated with the fluorinel dissolution process makeup systems. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards.

  18. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-6 Closure for manhole. (a) Each...

  19. System and Method for Providing a Climate Data Analytic Services Application Programming Interface Distribution Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John L. (Inventor); Duffy, Daniel Q. (Inventor); Tamkin, Glenn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system, method and computer-readable storage devices for providing a climate data analytic services application programming interface distribution package. The example system can provide various components. The system provides a climate data analytic services application programming interface library that enables software applications running on a client device to invoke the capabilities of a climate data analytic service. The system provides a command-line interface that provides a means of interacting with a climate data analytic service by issuing commands directly to the system's server interface. The system provides sample programs that call on the capabilities of the application programming interface library and can be used as templates for the construction of new client applications. The system can also provide test utilities, build utilities, service integration utilities, and documentation.

  20. An evaluation of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, W.W.

    1982-03-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of child-resistant closures, required under the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970, in reducing the incidence of accidental ingestions of 15 regulated substances among children less than 5 years of age. The regulated substances include aspirin, acetaminophen, prescription drugs, and household chemicals. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and the National Center for Health Statistics were analyzed to determine ingestion and death rates associated with these substances over a five-year-period. The ingestion rate for all substances that require child-resistant closures has declined from 5.7/1,000 children in 1973 to 3.4/1,000 children in 1978. It is estimated that child-resistant closure have prevented nearly 200,000 accidental ingestions since 1973. Over the past 20 years, the death rate due to poisonings of children has declined from 2.0/100,000 children to 0.5/100,000.

  1. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  2. FREQ: A computational package for multivariable system loop-shaping procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giesy, Daniel P.; Armstrong, Ernest S.

    1989-01-01

    Many approaches in the field of linear, multivariable time-invariant systems analysis and controller synthesis employ loop-sharing procedures wherein design parameters are chosen to shape frequency-response singular value plots of selected transfer matrices. A software package, FREQ, is documented for computing within on unified framework many of the most used multivariable transfer matrices for both continuous and discrete systems. The matrices are evaluated at user-selected frequency-response values, and singular values against frequency. Example computations are presented to demonstrate the use of the FREQ code.

  3. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal.

  4. Status of integrated performance assessment of the waste packages and engineered barrier system

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Performance assessment of the engineered barrier system for a nuclear waste repository combines information from relevant disciplines and predicts the net long-term performance of the EBS in unites of regulatory goals for performance. The performance assessment models are specific to the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada site. Early assessments are used for project planning and feedback. The EBS scenarios activity develops the scenarios and the consequent event sequences. Initial model development for single waste packages indicates that the radionuclide release rate performance is sensitive to the water flux, element solubilities, and/or the mode of water contact with the waste. The latter in turn depends on local scale hydrology and the modes of corrosion for the container material. For the release rate summed over waste packages, variations among waste packages and their near-field environments are anticipated. These variations place demands on data acquisition and modeling, as well as modulate the impact of localized changes of conditions. Sampling in uncertainty assessment is a subsequent step in examining the reliability of predictions made in the performance assessments. Advances made in sampling methods are referenced. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 3: PEP analysis and tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The objectives, conclusions, and approaches for accomplishing 19 specific design and analysis activities related to the installation of the power extension package (PEP) into the Orbiter cargo bay are described as well as those related to its deployment, extension, and retraction. The proposed cable handling system designed to transmit power from PEP to the Orbiter by way of the shuttle remote manipulator system is described and a preliminary specification for the gimbal assembly, solar array drive is included.

  6. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.; Green, D.J.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio, is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched uranium than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the is documented in Reference 4.

  7. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks (Reference 3). Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a tram of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4.

  8. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-06-22

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion.

  9. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure device must be... subchapter). A torque wrench must be used in securing the flange with a corresponding torque of no more than...

  10. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure device must be... subchapter). A torque wrench must be used in securing the flange with a corresponding torque of no more than...

  11. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure device must be... subchapter). A torque wrench must be used in securing the flange with a corresponding torque of no more than...

  12. Injectable Ceramic Microcast Silicon Carbonitride (SiCN) Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) for Extreme Temperature Environments with Extension: Micro Packages for Nano-Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEM (MEMS) FOR EXTREME TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS WITH EXTENSION: MICRO -PACKAGES FOR NANO -DEVICES University of Colorado at Boulder...MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEM (MEMS) FOR EXTREME TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS WITH EXTENSION: MICRO -PACKAGES FOR NANO -DEVICES 6. AUTHOR(S) Victor M...investigate a new micro -packaging technology to create a high-vacuum, sealed environment for nano -devices integrated with other electronic or RF

  13. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP.

  14. Individual differences in response to uncertainty and decision making: The role of behavioral inhibition system and need for closure.

    PubMed

    Jaśko, Katarzyna; Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, Aneta; Kossowska, Małgorzata; Czarna, Anna Z

    In two studies, we examined the influence of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and need for closure (NFC) on information processing in decision making. We expected that BIS would regulate behavior in a decisional context and that this relationship would be mediated by epistemic motivation expressed by NFC. In addition, drawing on contradictory findings in the literature on anxiety, NFC, and information processing, we investigated the moderating role of decision rules. The results supported our predictions. BIS was strongly and positively related to NFC, and through NFC it was related to decision-making style. Moreover, decision task characteristics moderated the relationship between NFC and decision making. When a task did not offer a confident decision rule, high NFC participants prolonged the information search more than low NFC individuals. However, when a reliable strategy was suggested, high NFC participants behaved in line with it. These results are discussed within an uncertainty management framework.

  15. Nutrient recycling systems of Biosphere 2. Litterfall, decomposition, and wastewater recycling: results from the 1991-1993 closure experiment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M

    1997-01-01

    Important aspects of nutrient recycling in Biosphere 2 were plant litterfall/leaf decomposition in the terrestrial biomes and sewage and wastewater processing by a constructed wetland system. During the second year of closure, annual litterfall ranged from 1317 +/- 283 g/m2 in the lowland rainforest to 141 +/- 58 g/m2 in the desert sand dune area. Litterfall patterns followed different seasonal regimes in the biomes. Leaf decomposition averaged 90%/year in Biosphere 2, with the smallest leaf loss in the desert biome. For maintenance of soil fertility in the agricultural area, inedible crop material and domestic animal manure was composted, and human waste products and wastewater from people, labs, and domestic animals was processed in a 41-m2 constructed wetland. The wetland produced 1200 kg of fodder and remaining nutrients were returned to the soils via irrigation water.

  16. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Basin Facility Basin Water Treatment System - Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S. K.

    2007-11-07

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Basin Water Treatment System located in the Basin Facility (CPP-603), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet future milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The system to be closed includes units and associated ancillary equipment included in the Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan and Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank Systems INTEC-077 and INTEC-078 that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The Basin Water Treatment System will be closed in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265, to achieve "clean closure" of the tank system. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards for the Basin Water Treatment Systems.

  17. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  18. Modular modeling system for building distributed hydrologic models with a user-friendly software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, S.; Ray, P. A.; Brown, C.

    2015-12-01

    A software package developed to facilitate building distributed hydrologic models in a modular modeling system is presented. The software package provides a user-friendly graphical user interface that eases its practical use in water resources-related research and practice. The modular modeling system organizes the options available to users when assembling models according to the stages of hydrological cycle, such as potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and snow/glacier melting processes. The software is intended to be a comprehensive tool that simplifies the task of developing, calibrating, validating, and using hydrologic models through the inclusion of intelligent automation to minimize user effort, and reduce opportunities for error. Processes so far automated include the definition of system boundaries (i.e., watershed delineation), climate and geographical input generation, and parameter calibration. Built-in post-processing toolkits greatly improve the functionality of the software as a decision support tool for water resources system management and planning. Example post-processing toolkits enable streamflow simulation at ungauged sites with predefined model parameters, and perform climate change risk assessment by means of the decision scaling approach. The software is validated through application to watersheds representing a variety of hydrologic regimes.

  19. Laser-assisted skin closure at 1.32 microns: the use of a software-driven medical laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dew, Douglas K.; Hsu, Tung M.; Hsu, Long S.; Halpern, Steven J.; Michaels, Charles E.

    1991-06-01

    This study investigated the use of a computerized 1 .3 micron Nd:YAG laser to seal approximated wound edges in pig skin. The medical laser system used was the DLS Type 1 , 1 .32 micron Nd:YAG laser (Laser Surgery Software, Inc.). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of laser assisted skin closure using the DLS YAG laser in a large animal model. Effectiveness was judged on the basis of wound dehiscence, infection, unusual healing result and consistency of results. Comparative cosmetic result was also evaluated. In this study, the DLS YAG laser was used to close scalpel-induced, full-thickness wounds. The pig model was chosen for its many integumentary similarities to man. Controls included scalpel-induced wounds closed using suture, staple and some with norepair. After adequate anesthesia was achieved, the dorsum of Yucutan pigs (approximately 75- 100 pounds) each was clipped with animal hair clippers from the shoulder area to the hind legs. The area was then shaved with a razor blade, avoiding any inadvertent cuts or abrasions of the skin. The dorsum was divided into four rows of four parallel incisions made by a #15 scalpel blade. Full-thickness incisions, 9 cm long, were placed over the dorsum of the pigs and then closed either with one loosely approximating Prolene" suture (the "no repair' group), multiple interrupted 6-0 nylon sutures, staples or laser. The experimental tissue sealing group consisted of 1 69 laser assisted closures on 1 3 pigs. Sutured control wounds were closed with 6-0 nylon, full thickness, simple, interrupted sutures. Eight sutures were placed 1 cm apart along the 9 cm incision. Stapled control wounds were approximated using two evenly spaced 3-0 VicryP' sub-dermal sutures and the dermis closed using Proximate' skin staples. Eight staples were placed 1 cm apart along the 9 cm incision. The no-repair incisions were grossly approximated using a single 2-0 Prolene full thickness, simple, interrupted suture located at the

  20. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR THE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM - ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-04-12

    The purpose of the fire hazards analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in accordance with US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7h (Reference 4.4.7.4). This document will assess the fire hazard risk within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) fuel supply system, Package 1E, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: (1) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils do not exceed an acceptable level. (2) Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR).

  1. Configurations of high-frequency ultrasonics complex vibration systems for packaging in microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Harada, Yoshiki; Ihara, Shigeru; Kasahara, Kohei; Shimizu, Masanori; Ueoka, Tetsugi

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic high-frequency complex vibrations are effective for various ultrasonic high-power applications. Three types of ultrasonic complex vibration system with a welding tip vibrating elliptical to circular locus for packaging in microelectronics were studied. The complex vibration sources are using (1) a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter with diagonal slits that is driven only by a longitudinal vibration source, (2) a complex transverse vibration rod with several stepped parts that is driven by two longitudinal vibration source crossed at a right angle and (3) a longitudinal vibration circular disk and three longitudinal transducers that are installed at the circumference of the disk.

  2. Laser beam scanning system for irradiation in an external quadrangular form for soldering of quad flat package IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Hitoshi; Homma, Tetsuya

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new soldering process and a system for a quad flat package IC (QFP-IC). The incident line-formed laser beam converted by this system can realize an external quadrangular form line for the non-contact regional heating, to provide thin and light weight electronic packages as required. The laser beam pumped by an yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser oscillator is split into four beams. Using a galvano motor, which can scan the reflection mirror with high frequencies, the laser beam can change the heating line. The soldering time for QFP-IC of 100 pins with the 0.65 mm pitch was 6 s. As the regional heating just only junctions, the temperature in the resin package was lower than 141 °C after solder fusion. From the experimental result, it is confirmed that this method is less damage to a resin package than a conventional whole heating method.

  3. [CORBA-based design and packaging of picture archiving and communication system object].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zu-jin; Sun, An-yu

    2009-10-01

    Regionalization has become one of the most important trends in the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) due to the existence of large amounts of information islands. The conventional PACS designed according to the DICOM standard on the basis of the C/S structure fails to meet the demand of regional information system maintenance. A regional PACS system based on common object request broker architecture (CORBA) distributed technology is therefore proposed and implemented. This article describes the design and packaging of the PACS objects. When mounting a series of separate logical and related functional PACS objects on the ORB bus, the multi-scale PACS systems can be established. This method eliminates the limitation of the C/S structure and offers good compatibility and scalability.

  4. StochDecomp--Matlab package for noise decomposition in stochastic biochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Jetka, Tomasz; Charzyńska, Agata; Gambin, Anna; Stumpf, Michael P H; Komorowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Stochasticity is an indispensable aspect of biochemical processes at the cellular level. Studies on how the noise enters and propagates in biochemical systems provided us with non-trivial insights into the origins of stochasticity, in total, however, they constitute a patchwork of different theoretical analyses. Here we present a flexible and widely applicable noise decomposition tool that allows us to calculate contributions of individual reactions to the total variability of a system's output. With the package it is, therefore, possible to quantify how the noise enters and propagates in biochemical systems. We also demonstrate and exemplify using the JAK-STAT signalling pathway that the noise contributions resulting from individual reactions can be inferred from data experimental data along with Bayesian parameter inference. The method is based on the linear noise approximation, which is assumed to provide a reasonable representation of analyzed systems. http://sourceforge.net/p/stochdecomp/

  5. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure

    PubMed Central

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Materials and Methods: Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Conclusion: Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media. PMID:25709675

  6. Microfluidics on compliant substrates: recent developments in foldable and bendable devices and system packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Bonnie L.

    2012-04-01

    Microfluidics is revolutionizing laboratory methods and biomedical devices, offering new capabilities and instrumentation in multiple areas such as DNA analysis, proteomics, enzymatic analysis, single cell analysis, immunology, point-of-care medicine, personalized medicine, drug delivery, and environmental toxin and pathogen detection. For many applications (e.g., wearable and implantable health monitors, drug delivery devices, and prosthetics) mechanically flexible polymer devices and systems that can conform to the body offer benefits that cannot be achieved using systems based on conventional rigid substrate materials. However, difficulties in implementing active devices and reliable packaging technologies have limited the success of flexible microfluidics. Employing highly compliant materials such as PDMS that are typically employed for prototyping, we review mechanically flexible polymer microfluidic technologies based on free-standing polymer substrates and novel electronic and microfluidic interconnection schemes. Central to these new technologies are hybrid microfabrication methods employing novel nanocomposite polymer materials and devices. We review microfabrication methods using these materials, along with demonstrations of example devices and packaging schemes that employ them. We review these recent developments and place them in the context of the fields of flexible microfluidics and conformable systems, and discuss cross-over applications to conventional rigid-substrate microfluidics.

  7. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system- Interim topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials.

  8. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology. pyunicorn is available online at https://github.com/pik-copan/pyunicorn. Reference: J.F. Donges, J. Heitzig, B. Beronov, M. Wiedermann, J. Runge, Q.-Y. Feng, L. Tupikina, V. Stolbova, R.V. Donner, N. Marwan, H.A. Dijkstra, and J. Kurths, Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package, Chaos 25, 113101 (2015), DOI: 10.1063/1.4934554, Preprint: arxiv.org:1507.01571 [physics.data-an].

  9. PCG: A software package for the iterative solution of linear systems on scalar, vector and parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, W.; Carey, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    A great need exists for high performance numerical software libraries transportable across parallel machines. This talk concerns the PCG package, which solves systems of linear equations by iterative methods on parallel computers. The features of the package are discussed, as well as techniques used to obtain high performance as well as transportability across architectures. Representative numerical results are presented for several machines including the Connection Machine CM-5, Intel Paragon and Cray T3D parallel computers.

  10. GLESP package for full sky CMB maps data analysis and its realization in the FADPS data processing system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Naselsky, P. D.; Novikov, D. I.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Novikov, I. D.; Christensen, P. R.; Chiang, L.-Y.

    2005-05-01

    A new scheme of sky pixelization GLESP (Gauss-LEgendre Sky Pixelization) is developed for CMB maps. The scheme is based on the Gauss-Legendre polynomials zeros and allows one to create strict orthogonal expansion of the map. A corresponding code has been implemented and comparison with other methods has been done. The package has been realized using basic principles of the FADPS data reduction system. The structure and the main procedures of the package are described.

  11. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  12. Trends in antimicrobial food packaging systems: Emitting sachets and absorbent pads

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Active antimicrobial packaging interacts with packaged food and headspace to reduce, retard, or even inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Sachets and pads are one of the most successful applications of active food packaging. This review discusses recent developments of antim...

  13. The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) Modeling Package for Space Vehicle Flow System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jason; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) is a modeling software package that combines nodal analysis and the hydraulic-electric analogy to simulate fluid, electrical, and thermal flow systems. GUNNS is developed by L-3 Communications under the TS21 (Training Systems for the 21st Century) project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), primarily for use in space vehicle training simulators at JSC. It has sufficient compactness and fidelity to model the fluid, electrical, and thermal aspects of space vehicles in real-time simulations running on commodity workstations, for vehicle crew and flight controller training. It has a reusable and flexible component and system design, and a Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing capability for rapid GUI-based simulator development, ease of maintenance, and associated cost savings. GUNNS is optimized for NASA's Trick simulation environment, but can be run independently of Trick.

  14. WinTRAX: A raytracing software package for the design of multipole focusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grime, G. W.

    2013-07-01

    The software package TRAX was a simulation tool for modelling the path of charged particles through linear cylindrical multipole fields described by analytical expressions and was a development of the earlier OXRAY program (Grime and Watt, 1983; Grime et al., 1982) [1,2]. In a 2005 comparison of raytracing software packages (Incerti et al., 2005) [3], TRAX/OXRAY was compared with Geant4 and Zgoubi and was found to give close agreement with the more modern codes. TRAX was a text-based program which was only available for operation in a now rare VMS workstation environment, so a new program, WinTRAX, has been developed for the Windows operating system. This implements the same basic computing strategy as TRAX, and key sections of the code are direct translations from FORTRAN to C++, but the Windows environment is exploited to make an intuitive graphical user interface which simplifies and enhances many operations including system definition and storage, optimisation, beam simulation (including with misaligned elements) and aberration coefficient determination. This paper describes the program and presents comparisons with other software and real installations.

  15. Silicone-oil-based subvisible particles: their detection, interactions, and regulation in prefilled container closure systems for biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Felsovalyi, Flora; Janvier, Sébastien; Jouffray, Sébastien; Soukiassian, Hervé; Mangiagalli, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    Recent increased regulatory scrutiny concerning subvisible particulates (SbVPs) in parenteral formulations of biologics has led to the publication of numerous articles about the sources, characteristics, implications, and approaches to monitoring and detecting SbVPs. Despite varying opinions on the level of associated risks and method of regulation, nearly all industry scientists and regulators agree on the need for monitoring and reporting visible and subvisible particles. As prefillable drug delivery systems have become a prominent packaging option, silicone oil, a common primary packaging lubricant, may play a role in the appearance of particles. The goal of this article is to complement the current SbVP knowledge base with new insights into the evolution of silicone-oil-related particulates and their interactions with components in prefillable systems. We propose a "toolbox" for improved silicone-oil-related particulate detection and enumeration, and discuss the benefits and limitations of approaches for lowering and controlling silicone oil release in parenterals. Finally, we present surface cross-linking of silicone as the recommended solution for achieving significant SbVP reduction without negatively affecting functional performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Orbiter door closure tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acres, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Safe reentry of the shuttle orbiter requires that the payload bay doors be closed and securely latched. Since a malfunction in the door drive or bulkhead latch systems could make safe reentry impossible, the requirement to provide tools to manually close and secure the doors was implemented. The tools would disconnect a disabled door or latch closure system and close and secure the doors if the normal system failed. The tools required to perform these tasks have evolved into a set that consists of a tubing cutter, a winch, a latching tool, and a bolt extractor. The design, fabrication, and performance tests of each tool are described.

  17. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

    2011-03-24

    Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

  18. Local crack closure measurements: Development of a measurement system using computer vision and a far-field microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M.A.; Zhao, W.; McNeill, S.R.; Helm, J.D.; Piascik, R.S.; Riddell, W.T.

    1999-07-01

    An accurate and relatively simple methodology for estimating crack closure loads has been developed. Using this method, measurements may be taken at a user-specified position behind the crack tip during the entire fatigue crack growth process. The methodology has three distinct components: (a) an imaging system having adequate magnification with minimal distortion, (b) a simple, Windows-based procedure for image acquisition and image analysis, and (c) techniques for applying a random, high contrast pattern on the specimen's surface. To meet the imaging requirements, a far-field microscope objective capable of high magnifications was employed to image small regions on the order of 0.5 mm by 0.5 mm. The regions were near the crack tip. To meet the requirements of a user-friendly system, a Windows-based data-acquisition interface was developed to run the system on a common PC. Using the interface, images are acquired automatically during a loading/unloading cycle and stored digitally. Image analysis is performed on the saved images to rapidly obtain the crack opening displacement as a function of load; these data are used to estimate the crack closure load. Finally, two methodologies for applying a random, high-contrast pattern with average sizes of 4 to 20 {micro}m were developed. The first method uses 11 {micro}m filter paper and a low-pressure compressed air supply to apply small particles of photocopier toner powder to the surface of the specimen. The second method uses contact lithography to achieve a random pattern with smaller feature sizes, on the order of 2 to 8 {micro}m. Baseline tests of the overall system have demonstrated that it is both easy to use and accurate. Specifically, (a) the PC interface has demonstrated that images can be acquired automatically while the loading frame is cycling at 0.01 Hz, and (b) the crack tip opening displacement data have been shown to have errors on the order of 0.05 pixels for the toner powder patterns, corresponding to

  19. A comparison of the Health Star Rating system when used for restaurant fast foods and packaged foods.

    PubMed

    Dunford, Elizabeth K; Wu, Jason H Y; Wellard-Cole, Lyndal; Watson, Wendy; Crino, Michelle; Petersen, Kristina; Neal, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    In June 2014, the Australian government agreed to the voluntary implementation of an interpretive 'Health Star Rating' (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system for packaged foods. The aim of the system is to make it easier for consumers to compare the healthiness of products based on number of stars. With many Australians consuming fast food there is a strong rationale for extending the HSR system to include fast food items. To examine the performance of the HSR system when applied to fast foods. Nutrient content data for fast food menu items were collected from the websites of 13 large Australian fast-food chains. The HSR was calculated for each menu item. Statistics describing HSR values for fast foods were calculated and compared to results for comparable packaged foods. Data for 1529 fast food products were compared to data for 3810 packaged food products across 16 of 17 fast food product categories. The mean HSR for the fast foods was 2.5 and ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 and corresponding values for the comparator packaged foods were 2.6 and 0.5 to 5.0. Visual inspection of the data showed broadly comparable distributions of HSR values across the fast food and the packaged food categories, although statistically significant differences were apparent for seven categories (all p < 0.04). In some cases these differences reflected the large sample size and the power to detect small variations across fast foods and packaged food, and in others it appeared to reflect primarily differences in the mix of product types within a category. These data support the idea that the HSR system could be extended to Australian fast foods. There are likely to be significant benefits to the community from the use of a single standardised signposting system for healthiness across all fresh, packaged and restaurant foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Features of control systems analysis with discrete control devices using mathematical packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, E. M.; Faerman, V. A.

    2017-02-01

    The article contains presentation of basic provisions of the theory of automatic pulse control systems as well as methods of analysis of such systems using the mathematical software widespread in the academic environment. The pulse systems under research are considered as analogues systems interacting among themselves, including sensors, amplifiers, controlled objects, and discrete parts. To describe such systems, one uses a mathematical apparatus of difference equations as well as discrete transfer functions. To obtain a transfer function of the open-loop system, being important from the point of view of the analysis of control systems, one uses mathematical packages Mathcad and Matlab. Despite identity of the obtained result, the way of its achievement from the point of view of user’s action is various for the specified means. In particular, Matlab uses a structural model of the control system while Mathcad allows only execution of a chain of operator transforms. It is worth noting that distinctions taking place allow considering transformation of signals during interaction of the linear and continuous parts of the control system from different sides. The latter can be used in an educational process for the best assimilation of the course of the control system theory by students.

  1. Value Engineering Study for Closing Waste Packages Containing TAD Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2005-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management announced their intention to have the commercial utilities package spent nuclear fuel in shielded, transportable, ageable, and disposable containers prior to shipment to the Yucca Mountain repository. This will change the conditions used as a basis for the design of the waste package closure system. The environment is now expected to be a low radiation, low contamination area. A value engineering study was completed to evaluate possible modifications to the existing closure system using the revised requirements. Four alternatives were identified and evaluated against a set of weighted criteria. The alternatives are (1) a radiation-hardened, remote automated system (the current baseline design); (2) a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system (with personnel intervention if necessary); (3) a nonradiation-hardened, semi-automated system with personnel access for routine manual operations; and (4) a nonradiation-hardened, fully manual system with full-time personnel access. Based on the study, the recommended design is Alternative 2, a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system. It is less expensive and less complex than the current baseline system, because nonradiation-hardened equipment can be used and some contamination control equipment is no longer needed. In addition, the inclusion of remote automation ensures throughput requirements are met, provides a more reliable process, and provides greater protection for employees from industrial accidents and radiation exposure than the semi-automated or manual systems. Other items addressed during the value engineering study as requested by OCRWM include a comparison to industry canister closure systems and corresponding lessons learned; consideration of closing a transportable, ageable, and disposable canister; and an estimate of the time required to perform a demonstration of the recommended closure system.

  2. Comparison of different moment-closure approximations for stochastic chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Schnoerr, David; Sanguinetti, Guido; Grima, Ramon

    2015-11-14

    In recent years, moment-closure approximations (MAs) of the chemical master equation have become a popular method for the study of stochastic effects in chemical reaction systems. Several different MA methods have been proposed and applied in the literature, but it remains unclear how they perform with respect to each other. In this paper, we study the normal, Poisson, log-normal, and central-moment-neglect MAs by applying them to understand the stochastic properties of chemical systems whose deterministic rate equations show the properties of bistability, ultrasensitivity, and oscillatory behaviour. Our results suggest that the normal MA is favourable over the other studied MAs. In particular, we found that (i) the size of the region of parameter space where a closure gives physically meaningful results, e.g., positive mean and variance, is considerably larger for the normal closure than for the other three closures, (ii) the accuracy of the predictions of the four closures (relative to simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm) is comparable in those regions of parameter space where all closures give physically meaningful results, and (iii) the Poisson and log-normal MAs are not uniquely defined for systems involving conservation laws in molecule numbers. We also describe the new software package MOCA which enables the automated numerical analysis of various MA methods in a graphical user interface and which was used to perform the comparative analysis presented in this paper. MOCA allows the user to develop novel closure methods and can treat polynomial, non-polynomial, as well as time-dependent propensity functions, thus being applicable to virtually any chemical reaction system.

  3. Modeling and analysis of equipment managers in manufacturing execution systems for semiconductor packaging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, F T; Yang, H C; Luo, T L; Feng, C; Jeng, M

    2000-01-01

    Equipment Managers (EMs) play a major role in a Manufacturing Execution System (MES). They serve as the communication bridge between the components of an MES and the equipment. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel methodology for developing analytical and simulation models for the EM such that the validity and performance of the EM can be evaluated. Domain knowledge and requirements are collected from a real semiconductor packaging factory. By using IDEFO and state diagrams, a static functional model and a dynamic state model of the EM are built. Next, these two models are translated into a Petri net model. This allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. The EM net model is then expanded into the MES net model. Therefore, the performance of an EM in the MES environment can be evaluated. These evaluation results are good references for design and decision making.

  4. LISP: a laser imaging simulation package for developing and testing laser vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kung C.

    1993-01-01

    The difficulties commonly encountered in developing laser imaging technologies are: (1) high cost of the laser system, and (2) time and cost involved in modeling and maneuvering a physical environment for the desired scenes. In contrast to the real imaging systems, computer generated laser images provide researchers with fast, accurate, cost-effective data for testing and developing algorithms. The laser imaging simulation package (LISP) described in this paper provides an interactive solid modeler that allows users to construct the artificial environment by various solid modelling techniques. Two fast ray tracing algorithms were developed and discussed in this paper for generating the near realistic laser data of any desired scene. These computer generated laser data facilitates the researchers in developing laser imaging algorithms. Thus, LISP not only provides an ideal testbed for developing and testing algorithms, but also an opportunity to explore the limitation of laser imaging applications.

  5. An Inverter Packaging Scheme for an Integrated Segmented Traction Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin; Ayers, Curtis William; Wiles, Randy H

    2013-01-01

    The standard voltage source inverter (VSI), widely used in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) traction drives, requires a bulky dc bus capacitor to absorb the large switching ripple currents and prevent them from shortening the battery s life. The dc bus capacitor presents a significant barrier to meeting inverter cost, volume, and weight requirements for mass production of affordable EVs/HEVs. The large ripple currents become even more problematic for the film capacitors (the capacitor technology of choice for EVs/HEVs) in high temperature environments as their ripple current handling capability decreases rapidly with rising temperatures. It is shown in previous work that segmenting the VSI based traction drive system can significantly decrease the ripple currents and thus the size of the dc bus capacitor. This paper presents an integrated packaging scheme to reduce the system cost of a segmented traction drive.

  6. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik V.; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology.

  7. Experimental thermal characterization of concrete to be used in CP5.2 packaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Frano, R.; Maggini, A.; Aquaro, D.

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the experimental evaluation of the thermal conductivity of a concrete matrix to be used for embedding LILW bituminised Wastes into the packaging system. Such a type of packaging, identified with the acronym CP5.2, has been also qualified by executing at the Lab. Scalbatraio of Dep. of Civil and Industrial Engineering of the University of Pisa, an experimental test campaign accordingly to the IAEA regulations. In particular, the knowledge of the thermal conductivity is important because of the fire or furnace test to carry out in oven at 800 °C for 30 minutes. These data allowed to simulate pre-test conditions and to set up safety and operational fire test procedures. The concrete thermal conductivity was obtained by performing hot wire tests on cylindrical concrete samples for temperatures ranging from 100° to about 800°C. Thermal conductivity is determined at steady state condition. Results indicate a monotonically reduction of the thermal conductivity as the temperature increases. The comparison with concrete thermal conductivity data available in literature indicates a quite good agreement. Finally, visual and X-ray inspection of sample did not highlight the presence of micro/macro damages that would have affected the thermal performance of the concrete under study.

  8. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package.

    PubMed

    Donges, Jonathan F; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik V; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology.

  9. Characterization of the Aerosol Instrument Package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Berg, Marcel; Tettig, Frank; Franke, Harald; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2C) consists of two modified Butanol based CPCs (Model Grimm 5.410) and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). A thermodenuder at 250°C is placed upstream the second CPC, thus the number concentrations of the total aerosol and the non-volatile aerosol fraction is measured. The Sky OPC measures the size distribution in the rage theoretically up to 32 μ m. Because of the inlet cut off diameter of D50=3 μ m we are using the 16 channel mode in the range of 250 nm - 2.5 μ m at 1 Hz resolution. In this presentation the IAGOS Aerosol package is characterized for pressure levels relevant for the planned application, down to cruising level of 150 hPa including the inlet system. In our aerosol lab we have tested the system against standard instrumentation with different aerosol test substances in a long duration test. Particle losses are characterized for the inlet system. In addition first results for airborne measurements are shown from a first field campaign.

  10. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box, Partial

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    SciTech Connect

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  13. Consumer perceptions of front-of-package labelling systems and healthiness of foods.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Nathalie; Barlow Gale, Karine; Harvey, Karen L; Binnie, Mary Ann; Pasut, Laura

    2013-09-19

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of four different front-of-package (FOP) labelling systems on consumer perception and purchasing intent of food, and whether these systems help consumers select a balanced pattern of eating. The four FOP labelling systems studied included two nutrient-specific systems ‒ the Traffic Light (TL) and the Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) ‒ and two summary indicator systems ‒ NuVal(®) and My-5(®). Phase 1 was a small study with 36 participants to determine consumer understanding of the four FOP labelling systems and to inform the development of the questions for Phase 2, which consisted of a survey of 2,200 adults obtained through an online panel. Although the TL and GDA were rated similar to the Nutrition Facts table in terms of attributes, these FOP systems were considered more visually appealing. Consumers indicated that the numeric summary indicator systems did not provide sufficient information. Approximately half of the respondents indicated that the FOP systems would help them make healthier choices. However, due to the limitations of each, consumers often misinterpreted a food's healthiness compared to their baseline perceptions. Similarly, consumers' intent to purchase based on the FOP system did not show a consistent pattern. Although well received by consumers, FOP labelling systems can lead to confusion depending on perceived understanding of the system used. The nutrient-specific systems tend to be preferred by most consumers; however, the overall impact on selecting healthier eating patterns has yet to be demonstrated.

  14. A numerical simulation package for analysis of neutronics and thermal fluids of space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anghaie, S.; Feller, G.J. ); Peery, S.D.; Parsley, R.C. )

    1993-01-20

    A system of computer codes for engineering simulation and in-depth analysis of nuclear and thermal fluid design of nuclear thermal rockets is developed. The computational system includes a neutronic solver package, a thermal fluid solver package and a propellant and materials property package. The Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system code is incorporated with computational modules specific to nuclear powered engines. ROCETS features a component based performance architecture that interfaces component modules into the user designed configuration, interprets user commands, creates an executable FORTRAN computer program, and executes the program to provide output to the user. Basic design features of the Pratt Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket concept and its operational performance are analyzed and simulated.

  15. Summary strategy for compliance with postclosure requirements for the waste package for the Salt Repository Project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This document presents a summary of the strategy of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) to show compliance with the requirements for the waste package after permanent closure of the repository at the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The postclosure requirements that govern the performance of the waste package are those in 10 CFR 60.113 for substantially complete containment of the waste and for gradual release of radionuclides after the containment period, and for the postclosure design requirements in 10 CFR 60.135. Also, the waste package plays a role in showing compliance with the total system release requirement in 40 CFR 191.13. 12 refs.

  16. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-06-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  17. North Portal Fuel Storage System Fire Hazard Analysis-ESF Surface Design Package ID

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of the fire hazard analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within the individual fire areas. This document will only assess the fire hazard analysis within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package ID, which includes the fuel storage system area of the North Portal facility, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: 1.1.1--This analysis, performed in accordance with the requirements of this document, will satisfy the requirements for a fire hazard analysis in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A. 1.1.2--Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. 1.1.3--Provide input to the ESF Basis For Design (BFD) Document. 1.1.4 Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (Paragraph 3.8).

  18. CAST: a new program package for the accurate characterization of large and flexible molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Grebner, Christoph; Becker, Johannes; Weber, Daniel; Bellinger, Daniel; Tafipolski, Maxim; Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2014-09-15

    The presented program package, Conformational Analysis and Search Tool (CAST) allows the accurate treatment of large and flexible (macro) molecular systems. For the determination of thermally accessible minima CAST offers the newly developed TabuSearch algorithm, but algorithms such as Monte Carlo (MC), MC with minimization, and molecular dynamics are implemented as well. For the determination of reaction paths, CAST provides the PathOpt, the Nudge Elastic band, and the umbrella sampling approach. Access to free energies is possible through the free energy perturbation approach. Along with a number of standard force fields, a newly developed symmetry-adapted perturbation theory-based force field is included. Semiempirical computations are possible through DFTB+ and MOPAC interfaces. For calculations based on density functional theory, a Message Passing Interface (MPI) interface to the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-accelerated TeraChem program is available. The program is available on request.

  19. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  20. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  1. Variations on the Closure of a Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard L.

    1975-01-01

    The author observes that checking the closure property is redundant for most number systems and therefore hard for students to understand. He defines several systems which are not closed, develops two concepts related to closure, and provides many related examples. (SD)

  2. Photonic integrated system-in-package platform for Tb/s silicon-plasmonic router

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekin, Tolga; Suna, Alpaslan; Gili de Villasante, Oriol; Tcheg, Paul; Wang, Bei; Lutzmann, Sascha; Bouhlal, Bouchaib; Pleros, Nikos; Kriezis, Emmanouil; Baus, Matthias; Karl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    In today's Peta-flop High-Performance Computing (HPC) machines the size and power consumption appear to be daunting issues, signifying that new technological and architectural considerations will be required in order to be able to move towards Exascale-computing powers. Whereas silicon photonics emerges as a powerful technology for low-loss and high bandwidth optical connectivity in integrated circuit environments, servers and network switches are already consolidating into high-density blade enclosures in order to reduce space and cooling requirements. These determine new tasks for switching infrastructures of miniature data networks: the next generation of routing circuitry has to provide high throughput capabilities while keeping in line with the requirements of small foot-print, low power consumption and low latency. Next generation computing architectures are needed with ultra low power consumption; ultra high performance with novel photonic interconnection technologies. The objective of the recently proposed high bandwidth Photonics Interconnection Layer for Converged Microsystems using System-in-Package Technology, namely PICSiP, is to develop a CMOS compatible underlying technology to enable next generation optical computing architectures. In this work, we present a silicon photonics based integrated system-in-package platform (PICSiP) for Tb/s router application. As routing platform employ three different technologies: silicon photonics, plasmonics and electronics. Compatibility between various components has to be ensured to allow for their seamless interfacing and interoperability. The 4x4 router architecture exploits a SOI platform employing 340x400nm2 waveguide structures and hosting four 7:1 SOI multiplexing circuits, four photodiodes, an electronic IC control circuit and the 4x4 dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton (DLSPP)-based switching matrix.

  3. Multiple nucleocapsid packaging of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus accelerates the onset of systemic infection in Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Washburn, J O; Lyons, E H; Haas-Stapleton, E J; Volkman, L E

    1999-01-01

    Among the nucleopolyhedroviruses (Baculoviridae), the occlusion-derived virus (ODV), which initiates infection in host insects, may contain only a single nucleocapsid per virion (the SNPVs) or one to many nucleocapsids per virion (the MNPVs), but the significance of this difference is unclear. To gain insight into the biological relevance of these different packaging strategies, we compared pathogenesis induced by ODV fractions enriched for multiple nucleocapsids (ODV-M) or single nucleocapsids (ODV-S) of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) containing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. In time course experiments wherein newly molted fourth-instar Trichoplusia ni were challenged with doses of ODV-S or ODV-M that yielded the same final mortality ( approximately 70%), we characterized viral foci as either being restricted to the midgut or involving tracheal cells (the secondary target tissue, indicative of systemic infection). We found that while the timing of primary infection by ODV-S and ODV-M was similar, ODV-S established significantly more primary midgut cell foci than ODV-M, but ODV-M infected tracheal cells at twice the rate of ODV-S. The more efficient establishment of tracheal infections by ODV-M decreased the probability that infections were lost by midgut cell sloughing, explaining why higher numbers of primary infections established by ODV-S within larvae were needed to achieve the same final mortality. These results showed that the multiple nucleocapsid packaging strategy of AcMNPV accelerates the onset of irreversible systemic infections and may indicate why MNPVs have wider individual host ranges than SNPVs.

  4. Space shuttle food system study: Food and beverage package development, modification 8S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A new, highly utile rehydration package was developed for foods in zero gravity. Rehydratable foods will become more acceptable as a result of their overall rehydration capability and improved palatability. This new package design is greatly enhanced by the specified spacecraft condition of atmospheric pressure; the pressure differential between the atmosphere and the package carries the functional responsibility for rapid food rehydration without excess package manipulation by the consumer. Crew acceptance will further be enhanced by less manipulation, hotter rehydration water temperatures and the ability to hold the foods at preparation temperatures until they are consumed.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site.

  6. Afghanistan's basic package of health services: its development and effects on rebuilding the health system.

    PubMed

    Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Feroz, Ferozuddin; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding. The methods used for assessing change were to review health outcome and health system indicator changes from 2004 to 2011 structured along World Health Organisation's six building blocks of health system strengthening. BPHS implementation contributed to success in improving health status by translating policy and strategy into practical interventions, focusing health services on priority health problems, clearly defining the services to be delivered at different service levels and helped the Ministry to exert its stewardship role. BPHS was expanded nationwide by contracting out its provision of services to non-governmental organisations. As a result, access to and utilisation of primary health care services in rural areas increased dramatically because the number of BPHS facilities more than doubled; access for women to basic health care improved; more deliveries were attended by skilled personnel; supply of essential medicines increased; and the health information system became more functional.

  7. Afghanistan's Basic Package of Health Services: Its development and effects on rebuilding the health system

    PubMed Central

    Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Feroz, Ferozuddin; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding. The methods used for assessing change were to review health outcome and health system indicator changes from 2004 to 2011 structured along World Health Organisation's six building blocks of health system strengthening. BPHS implementation contributed to success in improving health status by translating policy and strategy into practical interventions, focusing health services on priority health problems, clearly defining the services to be delivered at different service levels and helped the Ministry to exert its stewardship role. BPHS was expanded nationwide by contracting out its provision of services to non-governmental organisations. As a result, access to and utilisation of primary health care services in rural areas increased dramatically because the number of BPHS facilities more than doubled; access for women to basic health care improved; more deliveries were attended by skilled personnel; supply of essential medicines increased; and the health information system became more functional. PMID:24865404

  8. Sophono Alpha System and subtotal petrosectomy with external auditory canal blind sac closure.

    PubMed

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Turchetta, Rosaria; Iannella, Giannicola; Valperga di Masino, Riccardo; di Masino, Riccardo Valpega; de Vincentiis, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a new acoustic device, the so-called Sophono Alpha System, has been introduced into clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess Sophono Alpha System hearing aids in ten patients suffering from recurrent chronic middle ear disease who underwent subtotal petrosectomy. Presence of mixed hearing loss with bone conduction thresholds better than or equal to 45 dB was present in each patient. Audiometric tests were performed before and after Sophono implantation and using a conventional bone conduction hearing aid (hearing glasses). Speech audiometry data (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score) were also collected. Speech recognition threshold in dB and percentage of word recognition score at 65 dB were subsequently calculated. After implantation and activation of the Sophono Alpha System, audiological data showed an average air conduction value of 42.1 dB. By comparing this data with the values of air conduction following subtotal petrosectomy, an average acoustic improvement of 29.7 dB could be calculated. The hearing results showed significantly better outcomes of Sophono Alpha System vs. conventional bone conduction aid. Indications to MRI use in patients undergoing Sophono Alpha System implantation are also provided.

  9. Real-Time Soils Characterization and Analyses Systems Used at Ohio Closure Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, Lyle Gene; Carpenter, Michael Vance; Giles, John Robert; Hartwell, John Kelvin; Danahy, R.

    2003-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  10. Drop tests of the redesigned 9975 package June 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.

    2000-06-01

    A redesigned closure for the 9975, based on that employed on the DT-22 family of packages, has been developed. The tests reported here qualify the redesigned package with respect to the requirements of 10 CFR 71. ln order to ensure that the vessel and its closure were tested in the most challenging condition, each of the packages was subjected to a Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) preconditioning test followed by the Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) 30 ft drop and puncture pin tests. The tests demonstrated the ability of the 9975 with the redesigned closure to withstand the RAC drop test sequence.

  11. A new control system hardware architecture for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope prime focus instrument package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramiller, Chuck; Taylor, Trey; Rafferty, Tom H.; Cornell, Mark E.; Rafal, Marc; Savage, Richard

    2010-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) will be undergoing a major upgrade as a precursor to the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX‡). As part of this upgrade, the Prime Focus Instrument Package (PFIP) will be replaced with a new design that supports the HETDEX requirements along with the existing suite of instruments and anticipated future additions. This paper describes the new PFIP control system hardware plus the physical constraints and other considerations driving its design. Because of its location at the top end of the telescope, the new PFIP is essentially a stand-alone remote automation island containing over a dozen subsystems. Within the PFIP, motion controllers and modular IO systems are interconnected using a local Controller Area Network (CAN) bus and the CANOpen messaging protocol. CCD cameras that are equipped only with USB 2.0 interfaces are connected to a local Ethernet network via small microcontroller boards running embedded Linux. Links to ground-level systems pass through a 100 m cable bundle and use Ethernet over fiber optic cable exclusively; communications are either direct or through Ethernet/CAN gateways that pass CANOpen messages transparently. All of the control system hardware components are commercially available, designed for rugged industrial applications, and rated for extended temperature operation down to -10 °C.

  12. ODT Based Closure Model for Non-Premixed Combustion LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jeffery Scott

    An LES closure method for turbulent non-premixed combustion using data from standalone ODT simulations is developed and validated. An ODT simulation provides a complete view of turbulent combustion including detailed chemistry within a single dimension through spatially (in 1D) and temporally resolved solutions for thermo chemical scalars and a stochastic description of turbulent advection. A unique closure technique removes the limitations associated with prescribed FDF distributions by using the resolved ODT statistics to construct joint scalar distributions needed for LES closure. These distributions are combined with other ODT statistics to construct closure tables for filtered variables such as density and chemical source terms. The tabulated closure follows the classical integration over state-space combining joint distributions with statistics from dependent variables. The temperature and mixture fraction are considered for this joint FDF as they can be combined to provide a complete view of the chemical and thermal state of the overall system within a non-premixed combustion problem. The ODT simulations are used to extract filtered and unfiltered correlations representing FDF distributions for each of the state-defining scalars; and kernel density functions are used to convert the sample datasets into smooth distributions that represent FDFs found within ODT statistics. A stand-alone ODT simulation is configured to generate the statistics and data needed for the closure model construction. The ODT domain selected to match the target problem domain is a one-dimensional axisymmetric piloted jet. This configuration is capable of capturing many of the features of a turbulent jet diffusion flame much like a spatially resolved DNS simulation but at a fraction of the cost. For each realization, the state variables are filtered and stored in vector form with the "instantaneous" values for each term included in the unclosed set required in the LES domain. Model

  13. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  14. 76 FR 53999 - Safety Notice: Transportation of DOT Special Permit Packages in Commerce

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...) alternative means of testing or closure, (iii) reuse of the packaging in general, (iv) alternative hazard communication requirements, (v) alternative segregation requirements, or (vi) transportation of forbidden... requirements can result in breakdowns in hazard communication, packaging failures, property damage, injury...

  15. Utilization of a continuous external tissue expansion system to assist in primary closure of a large anterolateral thigh donor site defect.

    PubMed

    Silver, Andrew G; Baynosa, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Primary closure of a large anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap donor site defect with the assistance of an external tissue expansion system is presented. The dimensions of this donor site (12 cm × 40 cm) and its percentage of leg circumference (34%) would make this site likely to require skin grafting or further flap coverage based on the results of previously published literature.

  16. Multiple-Group Analysis Using the sem Package in the R System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evermann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-group analysis in covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important technique to ensure the invariance of latent construct measurements and the validity of theoretical models across different subpopulations. However, not all SEM software packages provide multiple-group analysis capabilities. The sem package for the R…

  17. Paperless Work Package Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, Jr., William R.; Morrell, Jr., Otto K.; Morrison, Dan; Ferrell, Jerrod; Connelley, Sherry; Hall, Tommy; Carzoli, Mary; Hott, Ken; Zylka, Sandy; Wong, Roger; Dang, Ling; Kalyani, Nik; Pearson, Terry; Rogers, Mark; Mannis, Nathan; Bakke, Dave; Shoner, Bruce; Vogel, Loring; Davis, Pat; Hitselberger, Charlie

    2014-07-31

    Paperless Work Package (PWP) System is a computer program process that takes information from Asset Suite, provides a platform for other electronic inputs, Processes the inputs into an electronic package that can be downloaded onto an electronic work tablet or laptop computer, provides a platform for electronic inputs into the work tablet, and then transposes those inputs back into Asset Suite and to permanent SRS records. The PWP System will basically eliminate paper requirements from the maintenance work control system. The program electronically relays the instructions given by the planner to work on a piece of equipment which is currently relayed via a printed work package. The program does not control/approve what is done. The planner will continue to plan the work package, the package will continue to be routed, approved, and scheduled. The supervisor reviews and approves the work to be performed and assigns work to individuals or to a work group. (The supervisor conducts pre job briefings with the workers involved in the job) The Operations Manager (Work Controlling Entity) approves the work package electronically for the work that will be done in his facility prior to work starting. The PWP System will provide the package in an electronic form. All the reviews, approvals, and safety measures taken by people outside the electronic package does not change from the paper driven work packages.

  18. Force-linearization closure for non-Markovian Langevin systems with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Sarah A. M.; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the Fokker-Planck (FP) description of classical stochastic systems with discrete time delay. The non-Markovian character of the corresponding Langevin dynamics naturally leads to a coupled infinite hierarchy of FP equations for the various n -time joint distribution functions. Here, we present an approach to close the hierarchy at the one-time level based on a linearization of the deterministic forces in all members of the hierarchy starting from the second one. This leads to a closed equation for the one-time probability density in the steady state. Considering two generic nonlinear systems, a colloidal particle in a sinusoidal or bistable potential supplemented by a linear delay force, we demonstrate that our approach yields a very accurate representation of the density as compared to quasiexact numerical results from direct solution of the Langevin equation. Moreover, the results are significantly improved against those from a small-delay approximation and a perturbation-theoretical approach. We also discuss the possibility of accessing transport-related quantities, such as escape times, based on an additional Kramers approximation. Our approach applies to a wide class of models with nonlinear deterministic forces.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  20. BOLIVAR and GULFREX MCS Data Constrain Closure of the Grenada Backarc Basin During Oblique Collision Between the Lesser Antilles Arc System and Northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, T. J.; Mann, P.; Christeson, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles evolved from the mid-Cretaceous as an extensional arc system formed above a steeply dipping slab of Atlantic oceanic crust. The arc became extensional during the Paleocene - early Eocene along normal faults at the eastern edge of the basin as the present-day Lesser Antilles chain rifted away from the Aves Ridge. Backarc rifting ceased during the early Eocene, leaving the 140 km wide 3 km deep Grenada backarc basin. Sediment accumulation reached nearly 8 km during the Paleogene with another 1.5 km of sediments accumulating during the Neogene. In this presentation, we combine newly acquired MCS lines from the BOLIVAR study with existing GULFREX data collected in 1975 to document the structural and stratigraphic effects of closure of the Grenada backarc basin because of the progressive, oblique collision between the Lesser Antilles arc system and northern South America. The southern end of the Grenada basin has been narrowed from an undeformed width of approximately 100 km to a deformed width of 30 km, and rotated nearly 90 degrees to the west as the arc system obliquely collides with the South American margin. Shortening of the colliding backarc basin is mainly accommodated by inversion of Paleogene normal faults on the eastern edge of the basin, folding, low-angle thrust faults, and possibly shale diapirism. We propose that this closure in the area is a backthrusting response during Oligocene - late Miocene closure along the leading edge of the oblique arc-continent collision in the Eastern Venezuelan basin.

  1. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  2. Implement the RFID position based system of automatic tablets packaging machine for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Hsiang; Lai, Yeong-Lin; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Patient safety has been regarded as the most important quality policy of hospital management. The medicine dispensing definitely plays an influential role in the Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards. The problem we are going to discuss in this paper is that the function of detecting mistakes does not exist in the Automatic Tablets packaging machine (ATPM) in the hospital pharmacy department when the pharmacists implement the replenishment of cassettes. In this situation, there are higher possibilities of placing the wrong cassettes back to the wrong positions, so that the human errors will lead to a crucial impact on total inpatients undoubtedly. Therefore, this study aims to design the RFID (Radio frequency identification) position based system (PBS) for the ATPM with passive high frequency (HF) model. At first, we placed the HF tags on each cassette and installed the HF readers on the cabinets for each position. Then, the system works on the reading loop to verify ID numbers and positions on each cassette. Next, the system would detect whether the orbit opens or not and controls the readers' working power consumption for drug storage temperature. Finally, we use the RFID PBS of the ATPM to achieve the goal of avoiding the medication errors at any time for patient safety.

  3. Cabled butterfly closure: a novel technique for sternal closure.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Shashank; Flom, Beau; Dyke, Cornelius

    2012-10-01

    Impaired sternal wound healing remains problematic after median sternotomy and can lead to significant morbidity after cardiac surgical procedures. Although metal plating systems exist for closing the sternum, their use is limited by expense and practicality, and simple wire closure remains the most common technique to close the sternum. We describe a cabling technique for sternal closure that is secure, uses standard sternal wire, and may be used on every patient. We have used the technique routinely in 291 patients with no sternal dehiscence or wound healing problems.

  4. Scaling of Fiber Laser Systems Based on Novel Components and High Power Capable Packaging and Joining Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    l ri Laser Splicing/ Welding r li i / l i Contact Bonding t t i Wafer Level Bonding Mineralic, Fusion. Anodic, Eutectic, Glass-frit, liquid...diode Bonding and Packaging of Optical Components Solder Bumping Thickfilm Au Metallization Laser diode Fiber Assembly element Asphere Ceramic System

  5. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS HANDBOOK A GUIDE TO "PACKAGED" FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES WITH REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this handbook is to highlight information appropriate to small systems with an emphasis on filtration and disinfection technologies and how they can be "packaged" with remote monitoring and control technologies to provide a healthy and affordable solution for small ...

  6. Adaptice-step time integration package for stiff, nonstiff and multi-rate systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    ARKode is part of a software family called SUNDIALS: SUite of Nonlinear and Differential/ALgebraic equation Solvers [1]. The ARKode solver library provides an adaptive-step time integration package for stiff, nonstiff and multi-rate systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using Runge Kutta methods [2].

  7. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS HANDBOOK A GUIDE TO "PACKAGED" FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES WITH REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this handbook is to highlight information appropriate to small systems with an emphasis on filtration and disinfection technologies and how they can be "packaged" with remote monitoring and control technologies to provide a healthy and affordable solution for small ...

  8. Evaluation of Aquaponics Techniques for Enhancing Productivity and Degree of Closure of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Highfield, Eric

    A number of researchers in space bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) have advocated the inclusion of fish-rearing. Fish have relatively high feed to production ratios and can utilize some waste products from other system components. In recent years, there has been much advance in an approach to combining fish-culture with hydroponically-grown crops called “aquaponics”. Aquaponics systems vary but generally include: fish-rearing unit, settling basin, biofilter, hydroponic plant unit and sump where water is pumped back and the cycle continues. Aquaponics research and application has grown since these systems have the potential to increase overall productivity of both crops and fish. Since the fish waste is used as the growth medium of the food plants, there are environmental benefits in reduced discharge of nutrient-rich wastewater which has been one of the drawbacks of conventional aquaculture. In addition, since water use is reduced 95+% over field agriculture, since water from the hydroponic tanks is fed back to the fish tanks and water is recycled apart from evapotranspiration losses, conservation of water resources and applications in water-limited arid regions are other benefits fueling the spread of aquaponics around the world. These considerations also make utilization of aquaponic approaches desirable in BLSS for space application. This paper will examine some recent research results with aquaponics and explore how it might be utilized for food production and reduction of consumables in space life support. In addition, a review and comparison with other fish-culture options previously advanced will evaluate whether aquaponics can improve production efficiency, reduce inputs and better recycle critical resources. Finally, we will explore whether for the space environment, even more advanced aquaponics systems are possible where consumables such as fish-food can be partially or completely supplied from other subsystems of the BLSS and ET water

  9. MODFLOW-2000 Ground-Water Model?User Guide to the Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction (SUB) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, Jorn; Leake, S.A.; Galloway, D.L.; Wilson, Alicia M.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents a computer program, the Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction (SUB) Package, to simulate aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. The SUB Package simulates elastic (recoverable) compaction and expansion, and inelastic (permanent) compaction of compressible fine-grained beds (interbeds) within the aquifers. The deformation of the interbeds is caused by head or pore-pressure changes, and thus by changes in effective stress, within the interbeds. If the stress is less than the preconsolidation stress of the sediments, the deformation is elastic; if the stress is greater than the preconsolidation stress, the deformation is inelastic. The propagation of head changes within the interbeds is defined by a transient, one-dimensional (vertical) diffusion equation. This equation accounts for delayed release of water from storage or uptake of water into storage in the interbeds. Properties that control the timing of the storage changes are vertical hydraulic diffusivity and interbed thickness. The SUB Package supersedes the Interbed Storage Package (IBS1) for MODFLOW, which assumes that water is released from or taken into storage with changes in head in the aquifer within a single model time step and, therefore, can be reasonably used to simulate only thin interbeds. The SUB Package relaxes this assumption and can be used to simulate time-dependent drainage and compaction of thick interbeds and confining units. The time-dependent drainage can be turned off, in which case the SUB Package gives results identical to those from IBS1. Three sample problems illustrate the usefulness of the SUB Package. One sample problem verifies that the package works correctly. This sample problem simulates the drainage of a thick interbed in response to a step change in head in the adjacent aquifer and closely matches the analytical solution. A second sample problem

  10. EQ3/6, a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems: Package overview and installation guide (Version 7.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T.J.

    1992-09-14

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This report describes version 7.0. The major components of the package include: EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code; EQ6, a reaction path code which models water/rock interaction or fluid mixing in either a pure reaction progress mode or a time mode; EQPT, a data file preprocessor, EQLIB, a supporting software library; and five supporting thermodynamic data files. The software deals with the concepts of thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamic disequilibrium, and reaction kinetics. The five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer`s equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25{degree}C only to 0--300{degree}C. EQPT takes a formatted data file (a data0 file) and writes an unformatted near-equivalent called a datal file, which is actually the form read by EQ3NR and EQ6. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of partial equilibrium or disequilibrium. It is also required to initialize an EQ6 calculation. EQ6 models the consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a set of reactants which react irreversibly. It can also model fluid mixing and the consequences of changes in temperature. This code operates both in a pure reaction progress frame and in a time frame.

  11. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  13. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  14. Extractables characterization for five materials of construction representative of packaging systems used for parenteral and ophthalmic drug products.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Castner, James; Egert, Thomas; Feinberg, Tom; Hendricker, Alan; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Shaw, Arthur; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and elastomeric materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging systems used to manufacture, store, deliver, and/or administer drug products. Characterizing extractables from such materials is a necessary step in establishing their suitability for use in these applications. In this study, five individual materials representative of polymers and elastomers commonly used in packaging systems and devices were extracted under conditions and with solvents that are relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products (PODPs). Extraction methods included elevated temperature sealed vessel extraction, sonication, refluxing, and Soxhlet extraction. Extraction solvents included a low-pH (pH = 2.5) salt mixture, a high-pH (pH = 9.5) phosphate buffer, a 1/1 isopropanol/water mixture, isopropanol, and hexane. The resulting extracts were chemically characterized via spectroscopic and chromatographic means to establish the metal/trace element and organic extractables profiles. Additionally, the test articles themselves were tested for volatile organic substances. The results of this testing established the extractables profiles of the test articles, which are reported herein. Trends in the extractables, and their estimated concentrations, as a function of the extraction and testing methodologies are considered in the context of the use of the test article in medical applications and with respect to establishing best demonstrated practices for extractables profiling of materials used in PODP-related packaging systems and devices. Plastic and rubber materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging/delivery systems for drug products. Characterizing the extractables from these materials is an important part of determining that they are suitable for use. In this study, five materials representative of plastics and rubbers used in packaging and medical devices were extracted by several means, and the extracts were analytically

  15. Investigation of packaging systems for shelled walnuts based on oxygen absorbers.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pernille N; Sørensen, Gitte; Brockhoff, Per; Bertelsen, Grete

    2003-08-13

    Storage of nuts at a high oxygen concentration results in rancid nuts whereas storage at a low oxygen concentration results in fine-tasting nuts. During a 13 month experiment, packaging of walnuts with an oxygen absorber was compared to packaging in nitrogen or atmospheric air. At the same time, the effects of oxygen permeability of the packaging material and storage temperature (11 and 21 degrees C) were investigated by determination of hexanal and rancid taste of the walnuts. The optimal storage condition for walnuts is at 11 degrees C or lower, eventually combined with an oxygen absorber. However, without chilled storage and use of an oxygen absorber, it is possible to obtain an acceptable quality of walnuts with a packaging material having a very low oxygen permeability (e.g., laminate with EVOH) combined with nitrogen flushing. The results also revealed that the development of hexanal during time can be described by a second-order polynomial regression model.

  16. Future trends in electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshabini, Aicha; Wang, Gangqiang; Barlow, Fred

    2006-03-01

    Electronic packaging is traditionally defined as the back-end process that transforms bare integrated circuits (IC) into functional products. As the IC feature size decreases and the size of silicon wafer increases, the cost per IC is reduced and the performance is enhanced. The future IC chips will be larger in size, have more input/output terminals (I/Os), and require higher power. In addition to the advancements in IC technology, electronic packaging is also driven by the market requirements for low cost, small size, and multi-functional electronic products. In response to these requirements, packaging related areas such as design, packaging architectures, materials, processes, and manufacturing equipment are all changing rapidly. Wafer-level packaging (WLP) offers the benefits of low cost and smallest size for single chip packages, since the package is done at wafer level other than individual die. After packages reach the horizontal limit of dimensions, 3D stacking solution provides more efficient packages through expanding packages in the vertical dimension. Functional integration is achieved with 3D stacking architectures. System in package (SiP), one of the solutions to system integration, incorporates electronics, non-electronic devices such as optical devices, biological devices, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), etc, and interconnection in a single package, to form smart structures or microsystems. MEMS devices require specialized packaging to serve new market applications. This paper and presentation describe the technology requirements and challenges of these advancing packaging areas. The potential solutions and future trends are presented.

  17. Polycrystalline silicon germanium for fabrication, release, and packaging of microelectromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, John Mccaslin

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium has recently proven to be a compelling alternative to polysilicon for micromachining. Low temperature fabrication of micromechanical structures is possible, which enables their modular integration with conventional electronics. The deposition and crystallization temperatures are significantly lower than for polysilicon, and low-stress, low-resistivity structural films can be achieved with little or no annealing. Poly-Ge can be used as a hydrogen peroxide-soluble sacrificial layer, so a wide variety of microfabrication materials can withstand the release etch. Several aspects of our research on poly-SiGe micromachining are presented in this dissertation. First, a "handbook" of poly-SiGe processing for MEMS is given, along with an overview of the advantages of this material system. An extensive study of the etching of poly-Ge sacrificial layers by heated hydrogen peroxide is presented. The dissolution of poly-Ge is limited by the dissolution of a GeO2 surface layer, and the activation energy was determined to be 9.3 kcal/mol. The etch rate was determined to be roughly 0.5 mum/min at 90°C, which is 4--6 orders of magnitude faster than structural films containing 20--60% Ge. The reaction was determined to be limited partly by the reaction rate and partly by diffusion, and diffusion limits on the order of 1 mm were observed. The fabrication of robust, high-aspect-ratio poly-SiGe structures by a thin film micromolding process (hexsil) is presented. Due to the excellent conformality of poly-Ge compared to SiO2 sacrificial layers, precise replication of the mold wafer was achieved. A gimbal/microactuator fabricated in this process enabled a critical dimension to be reduced from 7 to 4.5 mum when compared to a device made in a conventional process. Poly-SiGe hexsil was also used to fabricate micromachined caps for a precision MEMS packaging technology. In this process, the hexsil caps were fabricated on a mold wafer and transferred to a

  18. Design of temperature-immunization system packaging for the resonant pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anlin; Zhang, Chenying; Wang, Huan; He, Yong; Sun, Daoheng; Wang, Lingyun; Du, Xiaohui; Gu, Dandan

    2017-03-01

    Based on the study of the material matching and structure cooperating, this paper mainly explores a new packaging structure with low thermal mismatches which can enhance the accuracy and stability of the resonant pressure sensor. According to the finite element simulation, the rule of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and the depth of the groove on the substrate, which has an influence on the temperature sensitivity, could be obtained. By analyzing the effect of temperature on the resonant frequency, it shows the temperature sensitivity of the new packaging structure is -0.97 Hz/∘C in 20 kPa, under the temperature range of 30∘C to 80∘C. After analyzing resonant frequency stability at different temperatures, it is found that the time for achieving stability at different temperatures of the new packaging structure is at least 10 min less than that of TO packaging structure. The average frequency’s relative variation ratio of the new packaging structure at different temperatures remains roughly the same, and the variation range is within ±0.005% as time changes. These results indicate that the new packaging structure has the characteristic of great temperature-immunization.

  19. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  20. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  1. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  2. A 60GHz-Band 3-Dimensional System-in-Package Transmitter Module with Integrated Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    A low cost, ultra small Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver module with integrated antenna is one of the key technologies for short range millimeter-wave wireless communication. This paper describes a 60GHz-band transmitter module with integrated dipole antenna. The module consists of three pieces of low-cost organic resin substrate. These substrates are vertically stacked by employing Cu ball bonding 3-dimensional (3-D) system-in-package (SiP) technology and the MMIC's are mounted on each organic substrates by using Au-stud bump bonding (SBB) technique. The planer dipole antenna is fabricated on the top of the stacked organic substrate to avoid the influence of the grounding metal on the base substrate. At 63GHz, maximum actual gain of 6.0dBi is obtained for fabricated planar dipole antenna. The measured radiation patterns are agreed with the electro-magnetic (EM) simulated result, therefore the other RF portion of the 3-D front-end module, such as flip chip mounted IC's on the top surface of the module, does not affect the antenna characteristics. The results show the feasibility of millimeter-wave low cost, ultra small antenna integrated module using stacked organic substrates.

  3. Security Package for the VAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, V. J.; Benigue, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Four programs deal with intruders and resource managment. Package available from COSMIC provides DEC VAX-11/780 with certain "deterent" security features. Although packages is not comprehensive security system, of interest for any VAX installation where security is concern.

  4. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  5. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An array deployment assembly, power regulation and control assembly, the necessary interface, and display and control equipment comprise the power extension package (PEP) which is designed to provide increased power and duration, as well as reduce fuel cell cryogen consumption during Spacelab missions. Compatible with all currently defined missions and payloads, PEP imposes minimal weight and volume penalties on sortie missions, and can be installed and removed as needed at the launch site within the normal Orbiter turnaround cycle. The technology on which it is based consists of a modified solar electric propulsion array, standard design regulator and control equipment, and a minimally modified Orbiter design. The requirements from which PEP was derived, and the system and its performance capabilities are described. Features of the recommended project are presented.

  6. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  7. System design package for SIMS prototype system 2, solar hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design and assembly of a solar hot water system is presented. A prototype system designed for use in a single family dwelling is investigated in terms of the following subsystems: collector, storage, energy transport, and control.

  8. A new version of Scilab software package for the study of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeianu, C. C.; Felea, D.; Beşliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Grossu, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    This work presents a new version of a software package for the study of chaotic flows, maps and fractals [1]. The codes were written using Scilab, a software package for numerical computations providing a powerful open computing environment for engineering and scientific applications. It was found that Scilab provides various functions for ordinary differential equation solving, Fast Fourier Transform, autocorrelation, and excellent 2D and 3D graphical capabilities. The chaotic behaviors of the nonlinear dynamics systems were analyzed using phase-space maps, autocorrelation functions, power spectra, Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Various well-known examples are implemented, with the capability of the users inserting their own ODE or iterative equations. New version program summaryProgram title: Chaos v2.0 Catalogue identifier: AEAP_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAP_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1275 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7135 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Scilab 5.1.1. Scilab 5.1.1 should be installed before running the program. Information about the installation can be found at http://wiki.scilab.org/howto/install/windows. Computer: PC-compatible running Scilab on MS Windows

  9. Health and Safety Management Plan for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-04

    This Health and Safety Management Plan (HSMP) presents safety and health policies and a project health and safety organizational structure designed to minimize potential risks of harm to personnel performing activities associated with Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objectives of the Pu SPS are to design, fabricate, install, and startup of a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxides and metals, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. This HSMP is intended as an initial project health and safety submittal as part of a three phase effort to address health and safety issues related to personnel working the Pu SPS project. Phase 1 includes this HSMP and sets up the basic approach to health and safety on the project and addresses health and safety issues related to the engineering and design effort. Phase 2 will include the Site Specific Construction health and Safety Plan (SSCHSP). Phase 3 will include an additional addendum to this HSMP and address health and safety issues associated with the start up and on-site test phase of the project. This initial submittal of the HSMP is intended to address those activities anticipated to be performed during phase 1 of the project. This HSMP is intended to be a living document which shall be modified as information regarding the individual tasks associated with the project becomes available. These modifications will be in the form of addenda to be submitted prior to the initiation of each phase of the project. For additional work authorized under this project this HSMP will be modified as described in section 1.4.

  10. WDM package enabling high-bandwidth optical intrasystem interconnects for high-performance computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrage, J.; Soenmez, Y.; Happel, T.; Gubler, U.; Lukowicz, P.; Mrozynski, G.

    2006-02-01

    From long haul, metro access and intersystem links the trend goes to applying optical interconnection technology at increasingly shorter distances. Intrasystem interconnects such as data busses between microprocessors and memory blocks are still based on copper interconnects today. This causes a bottleneck in computer systems since the achievable bandwidth of electrical interconnects is limited through the underlying physical properties. Approaches to solve this problem by embedding optical multimode polymer waveguides into the board (electro-optical circuit board technology, EOCB) have been reported earlier. The principle feasibility of optical interconnection technology in chip-to-chip applications has been validated in a number of projects. For reasons of cost considerations waveguides with large cross sections are used in order to relax alignment requirements and to allow automatic placement and assembly without any active alignment of components necessary. On the other hand the bandwidth of these highly multimodal waveguides is restricted due to mode dispersion. The advance of WDM technology towards intrasystem applications will provide sufficiently high bandwidth which is required for future high-performance computer systems: Assuming that, for example, 8 wavelength-channels with 12Gbps (SDR1) each are given, then optical on-board interconnects with data rates a magnitude higher than the data rates of electrical interconnects for distances typically found at today's computer boards and backplanes can be realized. The data rate will be twice as much, if DDR2 technology is considered towards the optical signals as well. In this paper we discuss an approach for a hybrid integrated optoelectronic WDM package which might enable the application of WDM technology to EOCB.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    The following site closure activities were performed at the CAU 428 site located at the TTR and are documented in this report: Preplanning and site preparation; Excavating and removing impacted soil; Removing septic tank contents; Closing septic tanks by filling them with clean soil; Collecting verification samples to verify that COCs have been removed to approved levels; Backfilling the excavations to surface grade with clean soil; Disposal of excavated materials following applicable federal, state, and DOE/NV regulations in accordance with Section 2.3 of the CAP (DOE/NV, 2000); and Decontamination of equipment as necessary. Closure was accomplished following the approved CAP (DOE/NV, 2000). Verification sample data demonstrate that all COCs were removed to the remediation standards. Therefore, the site is clean-closed.

  12. Transgastrically placed endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system as an addition to transgastric necrosectomy in necrotizing pancreatitis (with video).

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, Jochen; Kubicka, Stefan; Lankisch, Tim O; Wirth, Thomas; Patecki, Margret; Hiss, Marcus; Manns, Michael P; Schneider, Andrea S

    2012-12-01

    Endoscopic transluminal débridement of infected pancreatic necrosis has been proved to be an important alternative to surgical débridement. Recently, endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (EVAC) has been described as a new effective treatment option in upper intestinal anastomotic leaks. To test whether the EVAC can be applied to transgastrically accessible infected cavities. Single-center case study. Academic medical center. Two patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. Successful closure of leak. We successfully applied EVAC to treat transgastrically accessible necrotic cavities. Small case number. EVAC might be an important additional endoscopic treatment option for infected pancreatic necrosis, especially if established endoscopic treatment options fail. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  14. Method Development for Container Closure Integrity Evaluation via Headspace Gas Ingress by Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Victor, Ken G; Levac, Lauren; Timmins, Michael; Veale, James

    2017-07-20

    USP <1207.1> Section 3.5 states that "A deterministic leak test method having the ability to detect leaks at the product's maximum allowable leakage limit is preferred when establishing the inherent integrity of a container-closure system." Ideally, container closure integrity (CCI) of parenteral packaging would be evaluated by measuring a physical property that is sensitive to the presence of any package defect that breaches package integrity by increasing its leakage above its maximum allowable leakage limit (MALL). The primary goals of the work presented herein were to demonstrate the viability of the non-destructive, deterministic method known as laser-based gas headspace analysis for evaluating CCI and to provide a physical model for predicting leak rates for a variety of container volumes, headspace conditions and defect sizes. The results demonstrate that laser-based headspace analysis provides sensitive, accurate and reproducible measurements of the gas ingress into glass vial-stopper package assemblies that are under either diffusive or effusive leak conditions. Two different types of positive controls were examined. First, laser-drilled micro-holes in thin metal disks that were crimped on top of 15R glass vials served as positive controls with a well-characterized defect geometry. For these, a strong correlation was observed between the measured ingress parameter and the size of the defect for both diffusive and effusive conditions. Second, laser-drilled holes in the wall of glass vials served as controls that more closely simulate "real world" defects. Due to their complex defect geometries, their diffusive and effusive ingress parameters did not necessarily correlate; this is an important observation that has significant implications for standardizing the characterization of container defects. Regardless, laser-based headspace analysis could readily differentiate positive and negative controls for all leak conditions and the results provide a guide for

  15. Microbiological and physicochemical properties of fresh retail cuts of beef packaged under an advanced vacuum skin system and stored at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Carreira, Luis; Franco, Carlos; Vázquez, Beatriz I; Fente, Cristina; Cepeda, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    The effect of an advanced vacuum skin packaging system on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of fresh retail cuts of beef (including meat portions from six different anatomical regions) stored at 4 degrees C was compared with the effect of traditional vacuum packaging. The vacuum skin packaging system whose effect on meat quality was evaluated in this work displayed two remarkable features: (i) the instantaneous heating of the lower surface of the upper film of the package before the film descended over the meat surface and (ii) the tight disposition of the plastic film on the meat surface, which avoided wrinkles and purges. Throughout storage at 4 degrees C, rates of bacterial growth were statistically significantly slower in beef portions processed with the vacuum skin packaging system than in those processed with traditional vacuum packaging, with average differences of 2.07, 1.60, and 1.25 log CFU/g in counts of aerobic mesophiles, anaerobes, and lactic acid bacteria, respectively. pH values were statistically significantly lower for beef portions packaged with the vacuum skin system than for those that were vacuum packaged in the traditional manner, probably because of the relative predominance of lactic acid bacteria observed in such samples, which coincided with both higher meat firmness values and a slower meat tenderization process. The vacuum skin system prevented the appearance of undesirable coloration on the meat surface and also significantly improved the commercial color of the meat as determined on the basis of luminosity (L*) and the redness (a*). Overall, the quality (as determined by microbiological and physicochemical analyses and by visual examination) of fresh retail cuts of beef packaged with the vacuum skin system and stored at 4 degrees C was higher than that of meat samples processed with the traditional vacuum-packaging system.

  16. TEX macro packages

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, M.E.

    1985-02-26

    This manual is documentation for the macro packages that are available with the TEX82 system distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group, Engineering Research Division, Electronics Engineering Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. TEX is a computerized typesetting system created by Professor Donald E. Knuth at Stanford University. Macro packages have been developed to extend the capabilities of TEX and aid the user in generating various types of output (e.g., chapter format, letter format, memo format, and viewgraphs).

  17. Tabulation of thermodynamic data for chemical reactions involving 58 elements common to radioactive waste package systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    The rate of release and migration of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository to the biosphere is dependent on chemical interactions between groundwater, the geologic host rock, and the radioactive waste package. For the purpose of this report, the waste package includes the wasteform, canister, overpack, and repository backfill. Chemical processes of interest include sorption (ion exchange), dissolution, complexation, and precipitation. Thermochemical data for complexation and precipitation calculations for 58 elements common to the radioactive waste package are presented. Standard free energies of formation of free ions, complexes, and solids are listed. Common logarithms of equilibrium constants (log K's) for speciation and precipitation reactions are listed. Unless noted otherwise, all data are for 298.15/sup 0/K and one atmosphere.

  18. Novel Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) Packaging for the Skin of the Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrin, M. Ann; Osiander, Robert; Lehtonen, John; Farrar, Dawnielle; Douglas, Donya; Swanson, Ted

    2004-01-01

    This paper includes a discussion of the novel packaging techniques that are needed to place MEMS based thermal control devices on the skin of various satellites, eliminating the concern associated with potential particulates &om integration and test or the launch environment. Protection of this MEMS based thermal device is achieved using a novel polymer that is both IR transmissive and electrically conductive. This polymer was originally developed and qualified for space flight application by NASA at the Langley Research Center. The polymer material, commercially known as CPI, is coated with a thin layer of ITO and sandwiched between two window-like frames. The packaging of the MEMS based radiator assembly offers the benefits of micro-scale devices in a chip on board fashion, with the level of protection generally found in packaged parts.

  19. An R package for the design, analysis and operation of reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Sean; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We present a new R package - named "reservoir" - which has been designed for rapid and easy routing of runoff through storage. The package comprises well-established tools for capacity design (e.g., the sequent peak algorithm), performance analysis (storage-yield-reliability and reliability-resilience-vulnerability analysis) and release policy optimization (Stochastic Dynamic Programming). Operating rules can be optimized for water supply, flood control and amenity objectives, as well as for maximum hydropower production. Storage-depth-area relationships are in-built, allowing users to incorporate evaporation from the reservoir surface. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software for global studies using thousands of reservoirs from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database fed by historical monthly inflow time series from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. The package is freely available through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).

  20. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.