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Sample records for packaging onsite nitrogen

  1. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  2. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    SciTech Connect

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) SERF cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-10-24

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) documents the ability of the Special Environmental Radiometallurgy Facility (SERF) Cask to meet the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B quantities (up to highway route controlled quantities) of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This document shall be used to ensure that loading, tie down, transport, and unloading of the SERF Cask are performed in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  5. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Obrien, J.H.

    1997-02-24

    The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for cesium chloride capsules with type W overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1997-09-15

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) documents the evaluation of a new basket design and overpacked cesium chloride capsule payload for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask in accordance with the onsite transportation requirements of the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping manual, WHC-CM-2-14. This design supports the one-time onsite shipment of 16 cesium chloride capsules with Type W overpacks from the 324 Building to the 224T Building at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The SEP is valid for a one-time onsite shipment or until August 1, 1998, whichever occurs first.

  10. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) multicanister overpack cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-07-14

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) documents the safety of shipments of irradiated fuel elements in the MUlticanister Overpack (MCO) and MCO Cask for a highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile package. This SARP evaluates the package during transfers of (1) water-filled MCOs from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and (2) sealed and cold vacuum dried MCOs from the CVDF in the 100 K Area to the Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area.

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  12. Onsite wastewater system nitrogen contributions to groundwater in coastal North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, C P; O'Driscoll, M A; Deal, N E; Lindbo, D L; Thieme, S C; Zarate-Bermudez, M A

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to evaluate the nitrogen contributions from two onsite wastewater systems (sites 1 and 2) to groundwater and adjacent surface waters in coastal Beaufort County, North Carolina. Groundwater levels and water quality parameters including total nitrogen, nitrogen species, temperature, and pH were monitored from October 2009 to May 2010. Nitrogen was also tested in groundwater from deeper irrigation or drinking water wells from the two sites and six additional neighboring residences. Mean total nitrogen concentrations in groundwater beneath onsite wastewater systems 1 and 2 were 34.3 +/- 16.7 mg/L and 12.2 +/- 2.9 mg/L, respectively, and significantly higher than background groundwater concentrations (< 1 mg/L). Groundwater in the deeper wells appeared not to be influenced by the onsite systems. Groundwater nitrogen concentrations typically decreased with distance down-gradient from the systems, but were still elevated relative to background conditions more than 15 m from the systems and near the estuary. This was a pioneering effort to better understand the link of onsite systems, the fate of nitrogen in the environment, and public health.

  13. Onsite Wastewater System Nitrogen Contributions to Groundwater in Coastal North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, C.P.; O’Driscoll, M.A.; Deal, N.E.; Lindbo, D.L.; Thieme, S.C.; Zarate-Bermudez, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to evaluate the nitrogen contributions from two onsite wastewater systems (sites 1 and 2) to groundwater and adjacent surface waters in coastal Beaufort County, North Carolina. Groundwater levels and water quality parameters including total nitrogen, nitrogen species, temperature, and pH were monitored from October 2009 to May 2010. Nitrogen was also tested in groundwater from deeper irrigation or drinking water wells from the two sites and six additional neighboring residences. Mean total nitrogen concentrations in groundwater beneath onsite wastewater systems 1 and 2 were 34.3 ± 16.7 mg/L and 12.2 ± 2.9 mg/L, respectively, and significantly higher than background groundwater concentrations (<1 mg/L). Groundwater in the deeper wells appeared not to be influenced by the onsite systems. Groundwater nitrogen concentrations typically decreased with distance down-gradient from the systems, but were still elevated relative to background conditions more than 15 m from the systems and near the estuary. This was a pioneering effort to better understand the link of onsite systems, the fate of nitrogen in the environment, and public health. PMID:24437045

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  15. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) decontaminated equipment self-container

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnke, W.M.

    1998-09-29

    The purpose of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is to demonstrate that specific decontaminated equipment can be safely used as its own self-container. As a Decontaminated Equipment Self-Container (also referred to as a self-container), no other packaging, such as a burial box, would be required to transport the equipment onsite. The self-container will consist of a piece of equipment or apparatus which has all readily removable interior contamination removed, all of its external openings sealed, and all external surfaces decontaminated to less than 2000 dpm/100 cm for gamma-emitting radionuclides and less than 220 dpm/100 CM2 for alpha-emitting radionuclides.

  16. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  17. Nitrogen removal pathway of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in on-site aged refuse bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Youcai; Xie, Bing; Peng, Qing; Hassan, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-05-01

    The nitrogen removal pathways and nitrogen-related functional genes in on-site three-stage aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) treating landfill leachate were investigated. It was found that on average 90.0% of CODCr, 97.6% of BOD5, 99.3% of NH4(+)-N, and 81.0% of TN were removed with initial CODCr, BOD5, NH4(+)-N, and TN concentrations ranging from 2323 to 2754, 277 to 362, 1237 to 1506, and 1251 to 1580 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the functional genes amoA, nirS and anammox 16S rRNA gene were found to coexist in every bioreactor, and their relative proportions in each bioreactor were closely related to the pollutant removal performance of the corresponding bioreactor, which indicated the coexistence of multiple nitrogen removal pathways in the ARB. Detection of anammox expression proved the presence of the anammox nitrogen removal pathway during the process of recirculating mature leachate to the on-site ARB, which provides important information for nitrogen management in landfills.

  18. Enhanced nitrogen removal with an onsite aerobic cyclic biological treatment unit.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Roger W; Senthill, Atiim; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Agsalda, Jessica; Lindbo, Glen D

    2015-01-01

    Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA, Section 6217) necessitate the requirement that onsite wastewater disposal units located near impaired surface waters or groundwater to provide at least 50% nitrogen removal. Approximately 38% of Hawaii households use onsite systems including septic tanks and cesspools that cannot meet this requirement. Upgrades to aerobic treatment units (ATUs) are a possible compliance solution. In Hawaii, ATUs must meet National Sanitation Foundation Standard 40 (NSF40) Class I effluent criteria. Previously, a multi-chamber, flow-through, combined attached/suspended growth type ATU (OESIS-750) and presently, a sequencing batch type ATU (CBT 0.8KF-210) were evaluated for NSF40 compliance, nutrient removal capability (NSF245), and adaptability for water reuse (NSF350). Both units easily achieved the NSF40 Class I effluent criteria. While the OESIS-750 achieved only 19% nitrogen removal, the CBT unit achieved 81% nitrogen removal, meeting the NSF245 criteria and CZARA requirements for applications in critical wastewater disposal areas. In addition, the CBT consistently produced effluent with turbidity less than 2 NTU (NSF350) and UVT254 greater than 70%, facilitating the production of unrestricted-use recycled water.

  19. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  20. 75 FR 20391 - Agrium U.S., Inc., Kenai Nitrogen Operation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From NMS (Nana...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Agrium U.S., Inc., Kenai Nitrogen Operation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From NMS (Nana Management Systems) and Heat & Frost Insulation, Inc., Kenai, AK; Amended Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration...

  1. Modeling potential vadose-zone transport of nitrogen from onsite wastewater systems at the development scale.

    PubMed

    Heatwole, Kirkley K; McCray, John E

    2007-04-01

    Water in the urban front-range corridor of Colorado has become an increasingly critical resource as the state faces both supply issues as well as anthropogenic degradation of water quality in several aquifers used for drinking water. A proposed development (up to 1100 homes over two quarter-quarter sections) at Todd Creek, Colorado, a suburb of Westminster located about 20 miles northeast of Denver, is considering use of onsite wastewater systems (OWS) to treat and remove domestic wastewater. Local health and environmental agencies have concerns for potential impacts to local water quality. Nitrogen treatment in the vadose zone and subsequent transport to ground water at a development scale is the focus of this investigation. The numerical model HYDRUS 1D was used, with input based on site-specific data and several transport parameters estimated from statistical distribution, to simulate nitrate concentrations reaching ground water. The model predictions were highly sensitive to mass-loading of nitrogen from OWS and the denitrification rate coefficient. The mass loading is relatively certain for the large number of proposed OWS. However, reasonable values for the denitrification rate coefficients vary over three orders of magnitude. Using the median value from a cumulative frequency distribution function, based on rates obtained from the literature, resulted in simulated output nitrate concentrations that were less than 1% of regulatory maximum concentrations. Reasonable rates at the lower end of the reported range, corresponding to lower 95% confidence interval estimates, result in simulated nitrate concentrations reaching groundwater above regulatory limits.

  2. Modeling potential vadose-zone transport of nitrogen from onsite wastewater systems at the development scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heatwole, Kirkley K.; McCray, John E.

    2007-04-01

    Water in the urban front-range corridor of Colorado has become an increasingly critical resource as the state faces both supply issues as well as anthropogenic degradation of water quality in several aquifers used for drinking water. A proposed development (up to 1100 homes over two quarter-quarter sections) at Todd Creek, Colorado, a suburb of Westminster located about 20 miles northeast of Denver, is considering use of onsite wastewater systems (OWS) to treat and remove domestic wastewater. Local health and environmental agencies have concerns for potential impacts to local water quality. Nitrogen treatment in the vadose zone and subsequent transport to ground water at a development scale is the focus of this investigation. The numerical model HYDRUS 1D was used, with input based on site-specific data and several transport parameters estimated from statistical distribution, to simulate nitrate concentrations reaching ground water. The model predictions were highly sensitive to mass-loading of nitrogen from OWS and the denitrification rate coefficient. The mass loading is relatively certain for the large number of proposed OWS. However, reasonable values for the denitrification rate coefficients vary over three orders of magnitude. Using the median value from a cumulative frequency distribution function, based on rates obtained from the literature, resulted in simulated output nitrate concentrations that were less than 1% of regulatory maximum concentrations. Reasonable rates at the lower end of the reported range, corresponding to lower 95% confidence interval estimates, result in simulated nitrate concentrations reaching groundwater above regulatory limits.

  3. Meteorological Influences on Nitrogen Dynamics of a Coastal Onsite Wastewater Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    O’Driscoll, M.A.; Humphrey, C. P.; Deal, N.E.; Lindbo, D.L.; Zarate-Bermudez, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) can contribute nitrogen (N) to coastal waters. In coastal areas with shallow groundwater, OWTS are likely affected by meteorological events. However, the meteorological influences on temporal variability of N exports from OWTS are not well documented. Hydrogeological characterization and seasonal monitoring of wastewater and groundwater quality were conducted at a residence adjacent to the Pamlico River Estuary, North Carolina during a two-year field study (October 2009–2011). Rainfall was elevated during the first study year, relative to the annual mean. In the second year, drought was followed by extreme precipitation from Hurricane Irene. Recent meteorological conditions influenced N speciation and concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) beneath the OWTS drainfield was dominated by nitrate during the drought; during wetter periods ammonium and organic N were common. Effective precipitation (P-ET) affected OWTS TDN exports because of its influence on groundwater recharge and discharge. Groundwater nitrate-N concentrations beneath the drainfield were typically higher than 10 mg/l when total bi-weekly precipitation was less than evapotranspiration (precipitation deficit: P15 m downgradient of the drainfield. Although OWTS nitrate inputs caused elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations between the drainfield and the estuary, the majority of nitrate was attenuated via denitrification between the OWTS and 48 m to the estuary. However, DON originating from the OWTS was mobile and contributed to elevated TDN concentrations along the groundwater flowpath to the estuary. PMID:25602204

  4. Meteorological influences on nitrogen dynamics of a coastal onsite wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, M A; Humphrey, C P; Deal, N E; Lindbo, D L; Zarate-Bermudez, M A

    2014-11-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) can contribute nitrogen (N) to coastal waters. In coastal areas with shallow groundwater, OWTS are likely affected by meteorological events. However, the meteorological influences on temporal variability of N exports from OWTS are not well documented. Hydrogeological characterization and seasonal monitoring of wastewater and groundwater quality were conducted at a residence adjacent to the Pamlico River Estuary, North Carolina, during a 2-yr field study (October 2009-2011). Rainfall was elevated during the first study year, relative to the annual mean. In the second year, drought was followed by extreme precipitation from Hurricane Irene. Recent meteorological conditions influenced N speciation and concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) beneath the OWTS drainfield was dominated by nitrate during the drought; during wetter periods, ammonium and organic N were common. Effective precipitation (precipitation [P] minus evapotranspiration [ET]) affected OWTS TDN exports because of its influence on groundwater recharge and discharge. Groundwater nitrate-N concentrations beneath the drainfield were typically higher than 10 mg/L when total biweekly precipitation was less than evapotranspiration (precipitation deficit: P < ET). Overall, groundwater TDN concentrations were elevated above background concentrations at distances >15 m downgradient of the drainfield. Although OWTS nitrate inputs caused elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations between the drainfield and the estuary, the majority of nitrate was attenuated via denitrification between the OWTS and 48 m to the estuary. However, DON originating from the OWTS was mobile and contributed to elevated TDN concentrations along the groundwater flowpath to the estuary. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Nitrogen and carbon dynamics beneath on-site wastewater treatment systems in Pitt County, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Katie L; Humphrey, Charles P; Mitra, Siddhartha; O'Driscoll, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWS) are a potentially significant non-point source of nutrients to groundwater and surface waters, and are extensively used in coastal North Carolina. The goal of this study was to determine the treatment efficiency of four OWS in reducing total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations before discharge to groundwater and/or adjacent surface water. Piezometers were installed for groundwater sample collection and nutrient analysis at four separate residences that use OWS. Septic tank effluent, groundwater, and surface water samples (from an adjacent stream) were collected four times during 2012 for TDN and DOC analysis and pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen measurements. Treatment efficiencies from the tank to the groundwater beneath the drainfields ranged from 33 to 95% for TDN and 45 to 82% for DOC, although dilution accounted for most of the concentration reductions. There was a significant positive correlation between nitrate concentration and separation distance from trench bottom to water table and a significant negative correlation between DOC concentration and separation distance. The TDN and DOC transport (>15 m) from two OWS with groundwater saturated drainfield trenches was significant.

  6. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for onsite Transfer of plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchange columns

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-09-11

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the use of three U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 7A, Type A metal boxes (Capital Industries Part No. S 0600-0600-1080- 0104) to package 12 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange columns as low-level waste (LLW). The packages will be transferred from the 309 Building in the 300 Area to low level waste burial in the 200 West Area. Revision 1 of WHC-SD-TP-SEP-035 (per ECN No. 621467) documents that the boxes containing ion exchange columns and grout will maintain the payload under normal conditions of transport if transferred without the box lids

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  8. Transport of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems to Shallow Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, G.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge about the nutrients transport from the vadose zone of onsite wastewater treatment systems (commonly called septic systems) is crucial to protect groundwater quality as 25% of US population uses septic systems to discharge household wastewater. For example, our preliminary data showed that about 47% of applied water was recovered at 60-cm below drainfield of septic systems. This implies that contaminants present in wastewater, if not attenuated in the vadose zone, can be transported to shallow groundwater. This presentation will focus on the biophysical and hydrologic controls on the transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the vadose of two conventional (drip dispersal, gravel trench) and an advanced (with aerobic and anaerobic medias) system. These systems were constructed using two rows of drip pipe (37 emitters/mound) placed 0.3 m apart in the center of 6 m x 0.6 m drainfield. Each system received 120 L of wastewater per day. During 20-month period (May 2012 to December 2013), soil-water samples were collected from the vadose zone using suction cup lysimeters installed at 0.30, 0.60, and 1.05 m depth and groundwater samples were collected from piezometers installed at 3-3.30 m depth below the drainfield. A complimentary 1-year study using smaller drainfields (0.5 m long, 0.9 m wide, 0.9 m high) was conducted to obtain better insights in the vadose zone. A variety of instruments (multi-probe sensors, suction cup lysimeters, piezometers, tensiometers) were installed in the vadose zones. Results showed that nitrification controlled N evolution in drainfield and subsequent transport of N plumes (>10 mg/L) into groundwater. Most of the wastewater applied soluble inorganic P (>10 mg/L) was quickly attenuated in the drainfield due to fixation (sorption, precipitation) in the vadose zone (<0.10 mg/L), which was further reduced to <0.05 mg/L in groundwater. The hydrologic controls (primarily rainfall during June-September) facilitated transport of

  9. Fate and Transport of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, G.; De, M.; Danmowa, N.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to groundwater pollution is largely not quantified in most aquifers and watersheds in the world. Thus, the knowledge about the fate and transport of N and P from OWTS is needed to protect groundwater contamination. In Florida, porous sandy soils intensify the transport of N from drianfield of OWTS to shallow groundwater. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to investigate the dynamics of N and P transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in full scale OWTS. We constructed three mounds: (1) drip dispersal mound: 45 cm depth of sand below the emitters, followed by natural soil; (2) gravel trench mound: 45 cm depth of sand below the emitters, followed by 30 cm depth of gravels, and natural soil; and (3) advanced system mound: which contained aerobic (lingo-cellulosic) and anaerobic (sulfur) media for enhanced nitrification and denitrification before dispersing wastewater in the vadose zone. Each mound received 120 L of septic tank effluent (STE) per day (equivalent to maximum allowable rate of 3 L/ft2/day) from our facility (office and homes); STE was dosed 6 times at 4-hour intervals in a day. Soil water samples were collected from the mounds (vadose zone) by using suction cup lysimeters installed at 0.30, 0.60, and 1.05 m depth and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers installed at 3-3.30 m depth below mounds. We collected samples during May-Aug 2012 before STE delivery (3 events at 3-day intervals) and after STE delivery (10 events at 3-day intervals; 13 events at 7-day intervals). Collected samples (STE, soil water, groundwater) were analysed for pH, EC, chloride (Cl), and organic and inorganic N and P fractions. The ranges of pH, EC, and Cl of STE (26 events) were 6.9-7.7, 1.01-1.33 d

  10. Fate of nitrogen during volume reduction of human urine using an on-site volume reduction system.

    PubMed

    Pahore, Muhammad Masoom; Ushijima, K; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried to assess the effect of a mixture of salts, urea and creatinine on water evaporation from urine using an on-site volume reduction system in long-term experiments. Subsequently, the fate of nitrogen during volume reduction of urine was also assessed. The water evaporation rate, salt accumulation in the gauze sheet, concentrations of urea and ammonia-N, and pH of urine were measured periodically. Based on the results, a mass balance of nitrogen in concentrated urine was calculated for a moderate evaporating condition. The results revealed that steady-state evaporation was observed throughout the experiment period without any inhibition due to salt accumulation. Salt concentration in the gauze sheet reached steady-state illustrating the possibility of salt falling back to the tank from the sheet. No significant reduction of urea was observed for a moderate evaporating condition, which indicates inhibition of urea hydrolysis by the high concentration of the mixture of salts, urea and creatinine in the urine. In contrast, for a low evaporating condition, the pH of the urine increased to 8.9, which indicates early urea hydrolysis, causing an offensive odour and ammonia loss to the air. In simple storage experiments, a mixture of salts, urea and creatinine amounting to 227-334 g L(-1) in urine inhibited urea hydrolysis, even with faecal contamination, at 25 degrees C, while urine samples containing a mixture of salts, urea and creatinine at less than 227 g L(-1) did not provide strong inhibition of hydrolysis.

  11. Adaptive Management Tools for Nitrogen: Nitrogen Index, Nitrogen Trading Tool and Nitrogen Losses Environmental Assessment Package (NLEAP-GIS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Average nitrogen (N) use efficiencies are approximately fifty percent and can be even lower for shallower rooted systems grown on irrigated sandy soils. These low N use efficiencies need to be increased if reactive N losses to the environmental are to be reduced. Recently, USDA-NRCS identified Adapt...

  12. Nitrogen Concentration and Load Patterns in Four Headwater Streams With a Gradient in Onsite Wastewater Treatment System Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliffe, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    In previous work where we measured nitrogen (N) concentrations in 24 small watersheds in Metropolitan Atlanta under base flow conditions, we found that most of the base-flow N originated from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) in watersheds with a high density of OWTS and from agriculture in watersheds with a low density of OWTS. However, the fraction of the total annual N load represented by the base-flow N concentrations could not be estimated because N concentrations were not sampled during storm events and there were no continuous measurements of stream flow. Our objective in this study was to determine the fraction of the total annual N load represented by base-flow N in four headwater streams with a gradient in OWTS density. The four streams selected from our original study had OWTS densities ranging from 20-230 systems km-2. From October 2012 to April 2014, stream discharge was measured at 15-min intervals and storm-flow and base-flow samples were collected using automated samplers. Nitrate (NO3-) concentrations were higher in base-flow than in storm-flow in three of the four streams, indicating a groundwater source of NO3-. TN loads were highest for the stream with the lowest OWTS density and the stream with the highest OWTS density. We attribute this to the effect of agriculture in the low density watershed and OWTS in the high density watershed. N loads at the extremes in OWTS densities in our study were comparable to high loads cited in the literature for pastures and suburban areas on OWTS. In the watershed with the highest OWTS density, base flow NO3- loads accounted for about 35% the total N loads. This indicates the important effect of OWTS on stream N loads.

  13. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ivan; Cooper, Jennifer; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  14. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  15. Simulation processes for the nitrogen loss and environmental assessment package (NLEAP).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nitrogen Loss and Environmental Assessment Package model with Geographic Information System (GIS) (NLEAP-GIS) has been updated to include a MS Windows© user interface and simulation code refinements for surface residue decay, N2O soil gas emissions, crop rooting, multiple simultaneous simulatio...

  16. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, John C.; Edwards, W. Scott; Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J.; West, Lori D.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  17. Confirmation of the Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Stream Base-Flow Nitrogen Concentrations in Urban Watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Hoghooghi, Nahal; Radcliffe, David E; Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Clarke, John S

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater and lawn fertilizer potentially contribute to degraded water quality in urban watersheds. Previously we described a study from 2011 to 2012 in which we examined the effect of the density of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) on nitrogen concentrations in 24 small streams in metropolitan Atlanta. Our objective in this study was to confirm that the impact on water quality that we observed was due to OWTS and not lawn fertilizer. We sampled the same 24 streams again in 2013 and 2014, representing watersheds ranging in area from 0.18 to 8.8 km. We conducted regression analysis of the effect of OWTS and season, used dual-isotope analysis (nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate) to identify sources and determine the effect of denitrification and mixing, and conducted stream walks to identify areas where animals had access to the streams. Twelve streams were characterized as high-density (HD, more than 75 systems km) OWTS and 12 as low-density (LD, less than 75 systems km) OWTS. Water samples were collected three times a year under base-flow conditions, from November 2011 to July 2014, and analyzed for nitrate (NO-N), ammonium (NH-N), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. Total nitrogen and NO-N concentrations increased linearly with increasing OWTS density above a threshold of about 75 OWTS km. Dual-isotope analysis of NO showed that stream NO originated predominantly from OWTS in HD watersheds and from a combination of animal waste and perhaps organic N in LD watersheds. Stream walks showed that livestock had access to some of the LD streams with high N concentrations. Our results confirm that HD OWTS can significantly degrade water quality at the watershed scale.

  18. Onsite and online FT-NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of total nitrogen and moisture content in poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, E; Castaldelli, G; Ferrari, G; Marchetti, M G; Pedrini, P; Aschonitis, V G

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen and moisture of manure are highly variable parameters and depend on animal type, husbandry techniques, environmental conditions and storage time. The precision in manure dose estimation for crops fertilization depends on the total nitrogen and moisture content just before its incorporation in the field. The aim of the study is to develop a Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy method to determine the total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN%) and moisture (M%) of different types of poultry manure prior to land application. Samples covering a wide range of poultry types and different husbandry conditions were obtained from farms of North-Eastern Italy in order to develop the method. The method was calibrated (R(2) = 0.94 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.99 for M%) and validated (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.95 for M%) in the laboratory. An external validation was also performed in situ with independent samples, of similar origin to the previous data set, which were collected just before application in the field. Spectra acquisitions for these samples were carried out using the same instrumentation which was placed in a special vehicle for monitoring campaigns. The results showed satisfactory prediction accuracy (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.93 for M%). Finally, an additional analysis was performed to discriminate the different types of poultry effluents. The TKN and M measurements in the disposal areas indicated that current agronomic practices lead to more than double poultry manure oversupply. The proposed FT-NIR methodology aims to improve the current fertilization management and environmental protection by providing fast and precise estimations of poultry manure doses prior to land application.

  19. Effect of nitrogen gas packaging on the quality and microbial growth of fresh-cut vegetables under low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Itoh, Kazuhiko

    2002-02-01

    Nitrogen (N2) gas packaging for fresh-cut vegetables (lettuce and cabbage) has been examined as a means of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for extending the shelf life of cut vegetables. Gas composition in enclosed packages that contained cut vegetables and were filled with 100% N2 had an oxygen (O2) concentration of 1.2 to 5.0% and a carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of 0.5 to 3.5% after 5 days of storage. An atmosphere of low concentrations of O2 and high CO2 conditions occurred naturally in the package filled with N2 gas. Degradation of cut vegetables in terms of appearance was delayed by N2 gas packaging. Because of this effect, the appearance of fresh-cut vegetables packaged with N2 gas remained acceptable at temperatures below 5 degrees C after 5 days. Treatment with acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) contributed to the acceptability of the vegetables' appearance at 5 and 10 degrees C in the air-packaging system. N2 gas packaging did not significantly affect the growth of microbial populations (total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bacillus cereus, and psychrotrophic bacteria) in or on cut vegetables at 1, 5, and 10 degrees C for 5 days. Microbial growth in or on the cut vegetables was inhibited at 1 degrees C for 5 days regardless of atmospheric conditions.

  20. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  1. Application of Electronic Nose for Measuring Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen and Total Viable Counts in Packaged Pork During Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Wang, Haibiao; Sun, Lingxia; Zhao, Gaiming; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to predict the total viable counts (TVC) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork using an electronic nose (E-nose), and to assess the freshness of chilled pork during storage using different packaging methods, including pallet packaging (PP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40% O2 /40% CO2 /20% N2 ). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the E-nose signals, and the results showed that the relationships between the freshness of chilled pork and E-nose signals could be distinguished in the loadings plots, and the freshness of chilled pork could be distributed along 2 first principal components. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to correlate TVC and TVB-N to E-nose signals. High F and R2 values were obtained in the MLR output of TVB-N (F = 32.1, 21.6, and 24.2 for PP [R2 = 0.93], VP [R2 = 0.94], and MAP [R2 = 0.95], respectively) and TVC (F = 34.2, 46.4, and 7.8 for PP [R2 = 0.98], VP [R2 = 0.89], and MAP [R2 = 0.85], respectively). The results of this study suggest that it is possible to use the E-nose technology to predict TVB-N and TVC for assessing the freshness of chilled pork during storage.

  2. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided.

  3. Microalgal biomass production and on-site bioremediation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide from flue gas using Chlorella sp. cultures.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Huang, Tzu-Ting; Lin, Chia-Jung; Ong, Seow-Chin; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    The growth and on-site bioremediation potential of an isolated thermal- and CO₂-tolerant mutant strain, Chlorella sp. MTF-7, were investigated. The Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultures were directly aerated with the flue gas generated from coke oven of a steel plant. The biomass concentration, growth rate and lipid content of Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultured in an outdoor 50-L photobioreactor for 6 days was 2.87 g L⁻¹ (with an initial culture biomass concentration of 0.75 g L⁻¹), 0.52 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹ and 25.2%, respectively. By the operation with intermittent flue gas aeration in a double-set photobioreactor system, average efficiency of CO₂ removal from the flue gas could reach to 60%, and NO and SO₂ removal efficiency was maintained at approximately 70% and 50%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that flue gas from coke oven could be directly introduced into Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultures to potentially produce algal biomass and efficiently capture CO₂, NO and SO₂ from flue gas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of municipal wastewater in full-scale on-site sand filter reduces BOD efficiently but does not reach requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Petteri; Sinkkonen, Aki; Zaitsev, Gennadi; Mäkinen, Esa; Grönroos, Timo; Romantschuk, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A traditional sand filter for treatment of household wastewater was constructed in the fall of 2012 at Biolinja 12, Turku, Finland. Construction work was led and monitored by an authorized wastewater treatment consultant. The filter was placed on a field bordered by open ditches from all sides in order to collect excess rain and snowmelt waters. The filter was constructed and insulated from the environment so that all outflowing water was accounted for. Untreated, mainly municipal, wastewater from Varissuo suburb was pumped from a sewer separately via three septic tanks (volume = 1 m(3) each) into the filters. Normally, wastewater was distributed to ground filters automatically according to pre-programmed schedule. Initially, the daily flow was 1200 L day(-1) to reflect the average organic load of a household of five persons (load: ca 237 g day(-1) BOD; 73 g day(-1) total N; and 10.4 g day(-1) total P). Later in the test, the flow rate was decreased first to 900 and then to 600 L day(-1) to better reflect the average volume produced by five persons. Volumes of inlet wastewater as well as treated water were monitored by magnetic flow meters. Samples were withdrawn from the inlet water, from the water entering the filters after the third septic tank, and from the outflowing water. After an initial adaption time, the reductions in BOD and chemical oxygen demand were constantly between 92 and 98%, showing that the biological degradation process in the filters functioned optimally and clearly comply with the national and EU standards. The reduction in total nitrogen and total phosphorus, however, reached required levels only during the first months of testing, apparently when buildup of microbial biomass was still ongoing. After this initial period of 3 months showing satisfactory reduction levels, the reduction of total nitrogen varied between 5 and 25% and total phosphorus mostly between 50 and 65%. Nitrification was efficient in the filter, but as

  5. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  6. Use of mustard flour to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef under nitrogen flushed packaging.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, D; Han, J H; Holley, R A

    2005-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the glucosinolates naturally present in non-deheated mustard flour could serve as a source of allyl and other isothiocyanates in sufficient quantity to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef at three different levels, during refrigerated storage of the meat under nitrogen. Mustard flour was mixed at 5%, 10% or 20% (w/w) with freshly ground beef, then the beef was inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 at either 3, 6 or < or =1.6 log10 cfu/g. The ground beef was formed into 100 g patties and each was placed in a bag of Nylon/EVOH/PE, which was back-flushed with 100% N2, heat-sealed and stored at 4 degrees C for < or =21 days. During storage, the allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) levels in package headspaces were determined by gas liquid chromatography. By 21 days, the levels present in treatments were not significantly different. After 21 days storage, there were 0.5, 3 and 5.4 log10 decreases in numbers of E. coli O157:H7 from the initial levels of 6 log10 cfu/g in meat containing 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When inoculated at 3 log10 cfu/g, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced to undetectable levels after 18, 12 and 3 days with 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used for E. coli recovery following its inoculation at < or =1.6 log10 cfu/g, 5% mustard did not completely eliminate the pathogen from ground beef stored for 6 days. The natural microflora of the ground beef which developed in vacuum packages was unaffected by the addition of 5% mustard flour but some inhibition was found at higher concentrations. Sensory evaluation of the cooked ground beef showed that there were no significant differences in the acceptability of meat treated with 5 or 10% mustard flour. However, panelists could distinguish untreated controls from mustard treatments, but considered the mustard-treated meat to be acceptable. These results showed that

  7. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...

  8. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...

  9. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  10. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 26 plants in 16 states in the United States. Of the total ammonia production capacity, 55% was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas. US producers operated at 66% of their rated capacity. In descending order, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, Agrium and PCS Nitrogen accounted for 81% of the US ammonia production capacity.

  11. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 12 companies at 27 plants in 15 states in the United States during 2011. Sixty-one percent of total U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2011, U.S. producers operated at about 84 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Four companies — CF Industries Holdings Inc.; Koch Nitrogen Co.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 77 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity.

  12. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is the principal source of fixed nitrogen. It was produced by 17 companies at 34 plants in the United States during 2003. Fifty-three percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock.

  13. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 25 plants in 16 states in the United States during 2006. Fifty-seven percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2006, U.S. producers operated at about 72 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, PCS Nitro-gen, and Agrium, in descending order, accounted for 79 percent U.S. ammonia production capacity. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  14. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  15. Model Test of Proposed Loading Rates for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    State regulatory agencies set standards for onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS), commonly known as septic systems, based on expected hydraulic performance and nitrogen (N) treatment in soils of differing texture. In a previous study, hydraulic loading rates were proposed fo...

  16. Model Test of Proposed Loading Rates for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    State regulatory agencies set standards for onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS), commonly known as septic systems, based on expected hydraulic performance and nitrogen (N) treatment in soils of differing texture. In a previous study, hydraulic loading rates were proposed fo...

  17. Comparison of argon-based and nitrogen-based modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial growth and product quality of chicken breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Ulrike; Rossaint, Sonja; Khanna, Meik-Ankush; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2013-05-01

    Poultry fillets were packaged under 6 different gas atmospheres (A: 15% Ar, 60% O2, 25% CO2; B: 15% N2, 60% O2, 25% CO2; C: 25% Ar, 45% O2, 30% CO2; D: 25% N2, 45% O2, 30% CO2; E: 82% Ar; 18% CO2; F: 82% N2, 18% CO2) and stored at 4°C. During storage, the growth of typical spoilage organisms (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacilli spp.) and total viable count were analyzed and modeled using the Gompertz function. Sensory analyses of the poultry samples were carried out by trained sensory panelists for color, odor, texture, drip loss, and general appearance. No significant difference in microbiological growth parameters was observed for fresh poultry stored under an argon-enriched atmosphere in comparison with nitrogen, except the B. thermosphacta stored under 82% argon. The sensory evaluation showed a significant effect of an argon-enriched atmosphere, particularly on color of meat stored under 15% argon (P < 0.05). In contrast, 25 and 82% argon concentrations in place of nitrogen showed no beneficial effect on sensory parameters.

  18. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  19. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  20. ON-SITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and low-emission vapor degreasing. The atmospheric and vacuum ...

  1. ON-SITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and low-emission vapor degreasing. The atmospheric and vacuum ...

  2. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: The ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.; Neuder, S.M.

    1987-02-01

    This document summarizes initial efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and a modified version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. Supplement 1 of NUREG/CR-3620 (1986) summarized modifications and improvements to the ONSITE/MAXI1 software package. This document summarizes a modified version of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program. This modified version of the computer program operates on a personal computer and permits the user to optionally select radiation dose conversion factors published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in their Publication No. 30 (ICRP 1979-1982) in place of those published by the ICRP in their Publication No. 2 (ICRP 1959) (as implemented in the previous versions of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program). The pathway-to-human models used in the computer program have not been changed from those described previously. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program and supporting data bases are included in the appendices of this document.

  3. The comparative effects of nitrogen and oxygen on the microflora of beef steaks in carbon dioxide-containing modified atmosphere vacuum skin-packaging (MA-VSP) systems.

    PubMed

    Coventry, M J; Hickey, M W; Mawson, R; Drew, P; Wan, J; Krause, D; Boghossian, V

    1998-06-01

    The effects of 80% oxygen-20% carbon dioxide (O2-CO2) and 80% nitrogen-20% carbon dioxide (N2-CO2) atmospheres were compared with respect to the microbial and sensory characteristics of vacuum skin-packaged grain-fed beef steaks stored at -1 and 4 degrees C. In both N2-CO2 and O2-CO2 atmospheres, lactobacilli were predominant over Brochothrix, pseudomonads, enterobacteria and yeasts and moulds. The results of the current investigation showed that the O2-CO2 atmospheres did not yield total viable counts in excess of 10(5) cfu cm-2 on beef steaks after 4 weeks of storage. However, the sensory analysis and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (as a measure of oxidative rancidity) of the products were unacceptable at this time. In contrast, the N2-CO2 atmospheres yielded maximum total viable counts of approximately 10(7) cfu cm-2 and the sensory analysis and TBA values of the product were judged to be acceptable after 4 weeks of storage at -1 degree C. These results indicate that sensory effects of the product were influenced to a greater extent by the chemical effects of high concentration of O2 on rancidity than by the high levels of lactobacilli.

  4. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

  5. On the Rocks: Microbiological Quality and Microbial Diversity of Packaged Ice in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Ho; Ab Samad, Liana S; Lwin, Phillip M; Riedel, Stefan F; Magin, Ashley; Bashir, Mina; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Lin, Wei-Jen

    2017-06-01

    Ice is defined as a food and is frequently used in direct contact with food and beverages. Packaged ice is commercially produced and can be easily found in grocery and convenience stores. However, the quality and safety of packaged ice products is not consistent. The Packaged Ice Quality Control Standards manual (PIQCS) published by the International Packaged Ice Association provides the quality and processing standards for packaged ice produced by its members. Packaged ice produced on the premise of stores (on-site packaged ice) is not required to be in compliance with these standards. In this study, packaged ice produced by manufacturing plants or by in-store bagger (ISB) machines and on-site packaged ice were compared for their microbiological quality and microbial diversity. Our results revealed that 19% of the 120 on-site packaged ice samples did not meet the PIQCS microbial limit of 500 CFU/mL (or g) and also the absence of coliforms and Escherichia coli . Staphylococci were found in 34% of the on-site packaged ice samples, most likely through contamination from the packaging workers. None of the ISB and manufactured packaged ice samples had unacceptable microbial levels, and all were devoid of staphylococci. Salmonella was absent in all samples analyzed in this study. Microbial community analysis of ice based on 16S/18S rRNA targeted sequencing revealed a much higher microbial diversity and abundance in the on-site packaged ice than in the ISB ice. Proteobacteria, especially Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, were the dominant bacterial groups in all samples tested. Most of these bacteria were oligotrophic; however, a few opportunistic or potential pathogens were found at low levels in the on-site packaged ice but not in the ISB packaged ice. The types of microbes identified may provide information needed to investigate potential sources of contamination. Our data also suggest a need for enforcement of processing standards during the on-site

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-05-22

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF`s pool.

  7. 42 CFR 424.517 - Onsite review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Onsite review. 424.517 Section 424.517 Public... Billing Privileges § 424.517 Onsite review. (a) CMS reserves the right, when deemed necessary, to perform onsite review of a provider or supplier to verify that the enrollment information submitted to CMS or its...

  8. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program. Supplement No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.; Neuder, S.M.

    1986-05-01

    The document entitled Intruder Dose Pathway Analysis of the Onsite Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: The ONSITE/MAXI1 Computer Program (1984) summarizes initial efforts to develop human-intrustion scenarios and a modified version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. This document is a supplement to that document and summarizes efforts to further modify and improve the ONSITE/MAXI1 software package. To facilitate cross-referencing, it follows the same format. Notable improvements to the software package include the capability to account for shielding conditions that represent noncompacted trash wastes and the option to indicate alternative land-use condition;s. This supplement contains a description of the implementation of these modifications. In addition, a series of discussions are included in an attempt to increase the user's understanding of the scenarios and dose calculation methods. These discussions respond to frequently asked questions about the mathematical models and use of the software. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program are included as Appendices A and B of this document. Appendix C lists external exposure dose-rate factor libraries.

  9. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  10. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  11. Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-10-05

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14.

  12. 78 FR 63901 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... actions stemming from the NRC's lessons-learned efforts associated with the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi... Regulations (10 CFR) to strengthen and integrate onsite emergency response capabilities, the NRC is making... public availability the regulatory basis to strengthen and integrate onsite emergency...

  13. CTBT on-site inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty.

  14. CTBT on-site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J. J.

    2014-05-09

    On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty.

  15. Pi-EEWS: a low cost prototype for on-site earthquake early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Vera, Angel; Morgado, Arturo; Rioja, Carlos; Davila, Jose Martin; Cabieces, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA), with the participation of the Cadiz University (UCA), have been developed the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS (regional approach) based on the SeisComP3 software package. This development has been done in the frame of the Spanish ALERT-ES (2011-2013) and ALERTES-RIM (2014-2016) projects, and now a days it is being tested in real time for south Iberia. Additionally, the ALERTES-SC3 system integrates an on-site EEWS software, developed by ROA-UCA, which is running for testing in real time in some seismic broad band stations of the WM network. Regional EEWS are not able to provide alerts in the area closet to the epicentre (blind zone), so a dense on-site EEWS is necessary. As it was mentioned, ALERTES-SC3 inludes the on-site software running on several WM stations but a more dense on-site stations are necessary to cover the blind zones. In order to densify this areas, inside of the "blind zones", a low cost on-site prototype "Pi-EEWS", based on a Raspberry Pi card and low cost acelerometers. In this work the main design ideas, the components and its capabilities will be shown.

  16. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  17. On-Site Renewable Energy Generation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes a variety of approaches that local governments can use to advance climate and energy goals by meeting some or all of their electricity needs through on-site renewable energy generation.

  18. On-Site Inspection for Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    and on-site in- spection in particular should be viewed as more than corolla - ries to arms control agreements. They also deserve attention as...missiles at, launch sites. This provi- sion could be verified by banning suitably sized facilities within an agreed "rapid reload" distance of launch sites...past and will con- tinue to do so in the future. 40 4 STRATEGY TO PROMOTE ON-SITE INSPECTION Our approach to verification will be to empha- size

  19. The reduction of packaging waste

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  20. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on simultaneous production of α-amylase and green food packaging polymer by Bacillus sp. CFR 67.

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, M S; Vijayendra, S V N; Joshi, G J; Shamala, T R

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources, including hydrolysates of rice bran and wheat bran, on simultaneous production of α-amylase (for hydrolysis of starch in food systems) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA, a green biopolymer, which can be used as a packing material for foods) by Bacillus sp. CFR 67 was studied by submerged fermentation. Amongst various carbon sources tested, glucose and sucrose supported production of significantly (P < 0.05) higher amount of α-amylase (66 U/ml) and PHA (444 mg/l), respectively. Of the nitrogen sources tested, ammonium acetate and beef extract led to the production of maximum amount of amylase (36 U/ml) and PHA (592 mg/l), respectively. Supplementation of the production medium with wheat bran hydrolysate (50 ml/l) produced significantly higher amounts of amylase (73 U/ml) and PHA (524 mg/l). Thus this study indicated the potential of agro-residues for the production of value added biomolecules, which can reduce the cost of production of these molecules and enables to reduce the pollution mainly caused by the use of non biodegradable plastics.

  1. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  2. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  3. On-Site Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2015-05-01

    Experiences and reflection have long been regarded as a foundation for pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers develop their PCK via reflection-in-action during their moment-to-moment classroom instruction. Drawing upon data sources including classroom observations, semi-structured interviews and stimulated recall interviews based on lesson videos, this study examined instances when four experienced teachers were found to invent new instructional strategies/representations on the spot during the lesson (referred to as on-site PCK development) in their first attempts at teaching a new topic. The study documented the moment-to-moment experiences of the teachers, including their reconstructed thought processes associated with these instances of on-site PCK development. An explanatory model of a three-step process comprising a stimulus, an integration process and a response was advanced to account for the on-site PCK development observed among the teachers. Three categories of stimulus that triggered on-site PCK development were identified. Factors influencing the integration process and, hence, the resulting response, included teachers' subject matter knowledge of the new topic, their general pedagogical knowledge and their knowledge of student learning difficulties/prior knowledge related to the new topic. Implications for teacher professional development in terms of how to enhance teachers' on-site PCK development are discussed.

  4. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Gus J.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Milbrath, B. D.; Jordan, D. V.; Warren, G. A.; Wilmer, N. G.

    2015-09-01

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—Osiris—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  5. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  6. 78 FR 1154 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan. DATES: Submit comments by February 22...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 & 52 RIN 3150-AJ11 Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory basis. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  7. 77 FR 23161 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan. DATES: Submit comments by June 18, 2012. Comments.... Background: Fukushima Dai-ichi and the NRC Regulatory Response III. Background: Onsite Emergency Response.... Background: Fukushima Dai-ichi and the NRC Regulatory Response On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0...

  8. Development of Onsite Transportation Safety Documents for Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Hand, Willard Thomas, Frank Sciacca, Manny Negrete, Susan Kelley

    2008-05-08

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders require each DOE site to develop onsite transportation safety documents (OTSDs). The Nevada Test Site approach divided all onsite transfers into two groups with each group covered by a standalone OTSD identified as Non-Nuclear and Nuclear. The Non-Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive hazardous material in less than Hazard Category (HC)-3 quantities and all chemically hazardous materials. The Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive material equal to or greater than HC-3 quantities and radioactive material mated with high explosives regardless of quantity. Both OTSDs comply with DOE O 460.1B requirements. The Nuclear OTSD also complies with DOE O 461.1A requirements and includes a DOE-STD-3009 approach to hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis as needed. All Nuclear OTSD proposed transfers were determined to be non-equivalent and a methodology was developed to determine if “equivalent safety” to a fully compliant Department of Transportation (DOT) transfer was achieved. For each HA scenario, three hypothetical transfers were evaluated: a DOT-compliant, uncontrolled, and controlled transfer. Equivalent safety is demonstrated when the risk level for each controlled transfer is equal to or less than the corresponding DOT-compliant transfer risk level. In this comparison the typical DOE-STD-3009 risk matrix was modified to reflect transportation requirements. Design basis conditions (DBCs) were developed for each non-equivalent transfer. Initial DBCs were based solely upon the amount of material present. Route-, transfer-, and site-specific conditions were evaluated and the initial DBCs revised as needed. Final DBCs were evaluated for each transfer’s packaging and its contents.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  10. ELUCIDATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONSITE AND OFFSITE SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.

    2013-06-19

    Federal regulations stipulate how radioactive materials are transported within the United States. However, the Department of Energy, under Department of Energy Order, has the authority to operate, within the boundaries of their physical site, to other stipulations. In many cases the DOE sites have internal reviews for onsite transfers that rival reviews performed by the regulatory authorities for offsite shipments. Most of the differences are in the level or type of packaging that is required, but in some cases it may be in the amount and type of material that is allowed to be transferred. This paper will describe and discuss those differences and it will discuss ways to effectively align the onsite rules for transferring materials with those for offsite shipment.

  11. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  12. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  13. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  14. FFTF railroad tank car safety evaluation for packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1996-10-25

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides evaluations necessary to approve transfer of the 8,000 gallon Liquid Waste Tank Car (LWTC) from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the 200 Areas. This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer cif the LWTC will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements. This fulfills onsite transportation requirements implemented in the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, WHC-CM-2-14.

  15. FFTF railroad tank car Safety Evaluation for Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1995-09-21

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides evaluations considered necessary to approve transfer of the 8,000 gallon Liquid Waste Tank Car (LWTC) from Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the 200 Areas. This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the LWTC will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements. This fulfills onsite transportation requirements implemented in the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, WHC-CM-2-14

  16. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were <1 mg/L; suggesting that >99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (<1.05-m soil profile depth). In the vadose zone of advanced system, heterotrophic and autrotrophic denitrification reduced nitrate-N concentrations to <0.12 mg/L, compared with >20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the

  17. 75 FR 66795 - TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... on-site at the Redmond, Washington location of the TTM Technologies. The amended notice applicable to... Employment and Training Administration TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site Leased Worker From Orbotech, Inc., Redmond, WA; Amended Certification...

  18. Carbon adsorption onsite for remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Githens, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental remediation options range from various offsite disposal methods to onsite concentration, treatment or storage. Onsite treatment using mobile carbon adsorption treatment systems has long been a favored option for remedial actions because of its proven performance in the clean-up of transportation spills, waste sites, runoff from chemical warehouse fires and many types of groundwater pollution. Carbon adsorption is fundamentally a concentration technology. It will, for example, preferentially concentrate organics. Following its use, the carbon is usually transported offsite for thermal regeneration (mobile regeneration is not generally available) or landfilled if certain contaminants such as PCBs are on the carbon. Most remediation projects are temporary in nature and involve removing contamination from finite areas to attain specific pollutant limits. The best way to approach these circumstances is to utilize mobile, rapidly deployed, modular units. With mobile pretreatment equipment, the field engineer can solve problems with control over cost and system performance.

  19. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  20. Transfer Cask Assembly Onsite Transfer of K-Basin Fuel at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    BRUBAKER, M.L.

    2002-07-01

    Packaging Technology, Inc. was awarded a contract for the design and fabrication of a unique 18.5-ton transportation system to be used on-site at Hanford, WA. Unique aspects include rectangular cask geometry, solid 7 inch-thick stainless steel construction, hinged lid with remotely operable quick release locking mechanism. The lid maintains shielding and material confinement integrity after hypothetical accident conditions, and is equipped with a hydrogen venting system. This paper presents how the project requirements were translated into a successful design, and includes a brief discussion of a confirmation test program.

  1. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  2. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  3. Earth rotation parameters from an on-site study of laser ranging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    A multi-faceted effort was maintained to achieve the following goals: (1) provide for state-of-the-art, on-site, near-real-time Earth orientation parameter determinations at levels of precision and accuracy commensurate with a 'quick-look' type of an analysis, using the lunar laser ranging (LLR) data type from the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS) and other LLR facilities around the world; (2) create a state-of-the-art, highly transportable, LLR-based Earth orientation solution package, which could be easily implemented at LLR facilities other than the MLRS; (3) accommodate, within the routine MLRS lunar range prediction and Earth orientation data analysis software packages, the standard set of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Solar System ephemerides, lunar librations, and Solar System partial derivatives; and (4) examine, wherever possible, opportunities for the performance of state-of-the-art, on-site, joint, simultaneous, quick-look analysis for Earth orientation parameters, using both MLRS lunar and LAGEOS (and, perhaps, Etalon) ranging observations, as well as from multiple LLR station observations. Excellent results were obtained at all levels of effort and it can be said that all of these goals were attained. The reader is referred to the complete series of our semi-annual reports for a full description of our efforts.

  4. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  5. Microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, A. J., Jr.

    1983-07-01

    Microelectronic packaging design problems for high-speed digital computers are discussed. The dense packing requirements of the task necessitate account be taken of proper cooling for the chips, minimization of distortion of signals, and efficient placement of the chips and terminals. The increase in the numbers of circuits in a chip has permitted manufacturing of multichip boards and elimination of some previously needed cards in the mainframe hierarchy. Electrical signals travel at about 15 cm/nsec through conductors on a board, a speed affected by the inductance and capacitance of the line, as well as its geometry. Signals in one line need to be prevented from jumping into another line passing close by. Any discontinuities can cause signal reflection, i.e., noise. Array formatting reduces the space necessary for chip connections and mounting. Interconnections between vertically stacked boards, vias, can be made into the grids. Air and water cooling systems are used for cooling the boards to temperatures which allow continued high-speed operation.

  6. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  7. Treatment of trace organic compounds in common onsite wastewater systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robert Siegrist,; Conn, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Onsite wastewater systems (OWS) have historically been relied on to treat conventional pollutants and pathogens in a fashion similar to that expected from centralized wastewater systems. However, based on the occurrence of, and potential effects from, contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters, OWS as well as centralized systems need to account for these compounds in system design and use. One group of contaminants involves organic compounds such as those associated with consumer product chemicals and pharmaceuticals, which are collectively referred to as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) due to their very low levels (e.g., ng/L to ug/L) relative to other pollutants. The question being confronted today is how best to account for TOrCs in onsite system design and use while also achieving other goals such as system simplicity, limited operation and maintenance requirements, low cost, and sustainability. In contrast to conventional pollutants such as nutrients and pathogens which have specific and achievable treatment goals, there are currently no enforceable treatment standards for TOrCs, which often have non-traditional toxicological endpoints (i.e. endocrine disruption). As highlighted in this paper, there are a large number of TOrCs that can be present in OWS and they have different properties, can be present at different frequencies of occurrence and concentrations, and have different susceptibilities to treatment in OWS. In general, based on the studies summarized in this paper, TOrCs normally should not require additional considerations beyond those for conventional pollutants and pathogens (e.g., nitrogen or bacteria and virus) during design and use of OWS. That said, there are situations where TOrCs could be a serious concern warranting special consideration in system design and use. In this paper, the frequency of occurrence of TOrCs and the range of concentrations encountered are highlighted. An evolving approach is outlined that could help assess the

  8. Evaluation of Approaches for Managing Nitrate Loading from On-Site Wastewater Systems near La Pine, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Weick, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and Deschutes County, to develop a better understanding of the effects of nitrogen from on-site wastewater disposal systems on the quality of ground water near La Pine in southern Deschutes County and northern Klamath County, Oregon. Simulation models were used to test the conceptual understanding of the system and were coupled with optimization methods to develop the Nitrate Loading Management Model, a decision-support tool that can be used to efficiently evaluate alternative approaches for managing nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems. The conceptual model of the system is based on geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data collected for this study, as well as previous hydrogeologic and water quality studies and field testing of on-site wastewater systems in the area by other agencies. On-site wastewater systems are the only significant source of anthropogenic nitrogen to shallow ground water in the study area. Between 1960 and 2005 estimated nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems increased from 3,900 to 91,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. When all remaining lots are developed (in 2019 at current building rates), nitrate loading is projected to reach nearly 150,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. Low recharge rates (2-3 inches per year) and ground-water flow velocities generally have limited the extent of nitrate occurrence to discrete plumes within 20-30 feet of the water table; however, hydraulic-gradient and age data indicate that, given sufficient time and additional loading, nitrate will migrate to depths where many domestic wells currently obtain water. In 2000, nitrate concentrations greater than 4 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg N/L) were detected in 10 percent of domestic wells sampled by Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Numerical simulation models were constructed at transect (2

  9. 7 CFR 205.403 - On-site inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.403 On-site inspections. (a) On-site inspections. (1... site that produces or handles organic products and that is included in an operation for which...

  10. 7 CFR 205.403 - On-site inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.403 On-site inspections. (a) On-site inspections. (1... site that produces or handles organic products and that is included in an operation for...

  11. 7 CFR 205.403 - On-site inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.403 On-site inspections. (a) On-site inspections. (1... site that produces or handles organic products and that is included in an operation for...

  12. 7 CFR 205.403 - On-site inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.403 On-site inspections. (a) On-site inspections. (1... site that produces or handles organic products and that is included in an operation for...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1230 - Onsite review program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Onsite review program. 404.1230 Section 404.1230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY... Its Agreement § 404.1230 Onsite review program. To ensure that the services of employees covered by a...

  14. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Treesearch

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  15. Small recirculating filters for nitrogen reduction.

    PubMed

    Piluk, R J; Byers, B R

    2001-09-01

    Concerned about the negative impacts of nitrogen loading from septic systems on the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Maryland's Anne Arundel County Health Department has pioneered the use of small recirculating sand filters to reduce nitrogen in effluent from residential septic systems. Recirculating sand filters can reduce the total nitrogen in septic-tank effluent by up to 70 percent. Years of experience and the county's participation in the National Onsite Demonstration Project have led to modifications that make the filters more acceptable to homeowners. Use of alternative media, changes in flow patterns, and homeowner education have increased acceptance by homeowners.

  16. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ``Training.`` Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination.

  17. ALERTES-SC3 Early Warning System prototype for South Iberian Peninsula: on-site approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Gallego Carrasco, Javier; Martín Davila, José; Rioja del Rio, Carlos; Morgado, Arturo; Vera, Angel; Ciberia, Angel; Cabieces, Roberto; Strollo, Angelo; Hanka, Winfried; Carranza, Marta

    2016-04-01

    In recent years several Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) have been developed for different parts of the world. The area between SW Cape St. Vicente and the Strait of Gibraltar is one of the most seismically active zones in the Ibero-Maghrebian region, with predominantly moderate and superficial seismicity, but also big events with associated tsunamis are well documented in the area, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In the frame of the ALERT-ES (2011-2013) and ALERTES-RIM (2014-2016) Spanish projects, the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS, regional approach, prototype has been developed at the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and is being tested in near real time for south Iberia. This prototype, based on the SeisComP3 software package, is largely based on algorithms derived from the analysis of the first seconds of the P wave records. Calculation of several parameters are carried out, mainly the characteristic period (τc) and the displacement peak (Pd), but also the velocity peak (Pv), the maximum period (τPmáx), among others. In order to warm the areas closest to the hypocentre, places located inside the "blind zone", a on-site EEWS has also been developed by ROA and integrated in the ALERTES-SC3 prototype. From the on-site approach, a warm level is declared from one station as a function of the estimated characteristic period (τc) and the displacement Peak (Pd), although the earthquake location and therefore the lead time available remains unknown. This on-site EEWS is being tested in several Western Mediterranean net (WM) stations as ARNO (Arenosillo, Huelva,Spain) or CHAS (Chafarinas island, North Africa, Spain). Also an on-site low cost station is being developed based in low cost accelerometers. In this work the current state of the on-site EEWS developed, its integration in the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS system and the low cost seismic stations are shown.

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  19. Addendum to the Safety Analysis Report for the Steel Waste Packaging. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, S R

    1996-02-15

    The Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Steel Waste Package requires additional analyses to support the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste and special-case waste from the 324 building hot cells to PUREX for interim storage. This addendum provides the analyses required to show that this waste can be safely shipped onsite in the configuration shown.

  20. Training in medical informatics: combining onsite and online instruction.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, L; Marin, H F; Marques, E P; Masssad, E; Greenes, R A

    2001-01-01

    The Internet is promoting active exchange of teaching materials and discussion among geographically distant collaborators. We envision that training in medical informatics can be better achieved if both onsite and online instruction are combined, provided that cultural and technological barriers are anticipated and the training program is prepared accordingly. We describe our Brazil/USA program in medical informatics, which includes components of on-site and online education, and discuss lessons learned during its ongoing implementation. Three onsite courses and one workshop have been planned, and two online courses are being developed.

  1. NRC hopes to discourage lengthy onsite storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Now it has become clear why last year's partial voiding of the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act was seen as significant in some quarters. On June 19, 1992, the US Supreme Court ruled that the passage requiring states to take title to LLW produced within their borders was unconstitutional (NN, July 1992, p. 17). This did not change the facts that LLW is still being generated, and that interstate compacts with licensed disposal sites are now empowered to refuse LLW from outside the compacts. Still, state officials had a reason to be relieved-because they knew that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was at work on a regulation that would have made them take title to LLW, at a radwaste generator's request, at any time after January 1, 1996, if the state did not have access to a licensed disposal site. The court ruling has forced the NRC to take this passage out of the proposal, but the agency has still gone ahead and published draft amendments intended to establish long-term onsite storage as the last resort option for LLW management.

  2. On-site wastewater technologies in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K

    2001-01-01

    Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique 'wet composting' system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

  3. Packaging of MEMS microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiertag, Gregor; Winter, Matthias; Leidl, Anton

    2009-05-01

    To miniaturize MEMS microphones we have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding. In this new packaging technology MEMS and ASIC are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate. The package is sealed by a laminated polymer foil and by a metal layer. The sound port is on the bottom side in the ceramic substrate. In this paper the packaging technology is explained in detail and results of electro-acoustic characterization and reliability testing are presented. We will also explain the way which has led us from the packaging of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) components to the packaging of MEMS microphones.

  4. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  5. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  6. 75 FR 71464 - Shorewood Packaging, a Subsidiary of International Paper Company, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 54187). The workers produce cigarette cartons. The initial investigation resulted in a... country the production of articles like or directly competitive with cigarette cartons; that neither the... with cigarette cartons; that the subject workers are not adversely affected secondary workers; and the...

  7. Preprototype nitrogen supply subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Fort, J. H.; Schubert, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design and development of a test stand for the Nitrogen Generation Module (NGM) and a series of tests which verified its operation and performance capability are described. Over 900 hours of parametric testing were achieved. The results from this testing were then used to design an advanced NGM and a self contained, preprototype Nitrogen Supply Subsystem. The NGM consists of three major components: nitrogen generation module, pressure controller and hydrazine storage tank and ancillary components. The most important improvement is the elimination of all sealing surfaces, achieved with a total welded or brazed construction. Additionally, performance was improved by increasing hydrogen separating capability by 20% with no increase in overall packaging size.

  8. 42 CFR 412.532 - Special payment provisions for patients who are transferred to onsite providers and readmitted to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... onsite acute care hospital, an onsite IRF, or an onsite psychiatric facility or unit that meets the... psychiatric hospital or unit, or an onsite SNF, as described in paragraph (a) of this section, and... its Medicare inpatients discharged from the onsite IRF, the onsite psychiatric hospital or unit,...

  9. 42 CFR 412.532 - Special payment provisions for patients who are transferred to onsite providers and readmitted to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... onsite acute care hospital, an onsite IRF, or an onsite psychiatric facility or unit that meets the... psychiatric hospital or unit, or an onsite SNF, as described in paragraph (a) of this section, and... its Medicare inpatients discharged from the onsite IRF, the onsite psychiatric hospital or unit,...

  10. Green Power Partnership Top 30 On-site Generation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. These partners are generating and consuming the most green power on-site within the GPP.

  11. 42 CFR 493.1836 - State onsite monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... onsite monitoring. (a) Application. (1) CMS may require continuous or intermittent monitoring of a plan of correction by the State survey agency to ensure that the laboratory makes the improvements...

  12. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  13. Creative Thinking Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  14. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  15. On-Site Oxy-Lance Size Reduction of South Texas Project Reactor Vessel Heads - 12324

    SciTech Connect

    Posivak, Edward; Keeney, Gilbert; Wheeler, Dean

    2012-07-01

    On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of mildly radioactive large components has been accomplished at other operating plants. On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of more radioactive components like Reactor Vessel Heads had previously been limited to decommissioning projects. Building on past decommissioning and site experience, subcontractors for South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) developed an innovative integrated system to control smoke, radioactive contamination, worker dose, and worker safety. STP's innovative, easy to use CEDM containment that provided oxy lance access, smoke control, and spatter/contamination control was the key to successful segmentation for cost-effective and ALARA packaging and transport for disposal. Relative to CEDM milling, STP oxy-lance segmentation saved approximately 40 person- REM accrued during 9,000 hours logged into the radiological controlled area (RCA) during more than 3,800 separate entries. Furthermore there were no personnel contamination events or respiratory uptakes of radioactive material during the course of the entire project. (authors)

  16. On-Site Field-Feeding Waste to Energy Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    ON-SITE FIELD- FEEDING WASTE TO ENERGY CONVERTER L. Knowlton* and D. Pickard U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering...field- feeding generates tons of solid waste that is a costly logistic burden, requiring personnel, vehi- cles, and fuel that could otherwise be used for...unutilized energy potential. An On-site Field- feeding Waste to Energy Converter (OFWEC) ca- pability would reduce waste into non-hazardous byprod

  17. ADVANCED ELECTRONIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MICROMINIATURIZATION (ELECTRONICS), *PACKAGED CIRCUITS, CIRCUITS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, MANUFACTURING, NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, RESISTANCE (ELECTRICAL), SEMICONDUCTORS, TESTS, THIN FILMS (STORAGE DEVICES), WELDING.

  18. Added value for on-site fuel cells through equipment and application integration

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.

    1996-12-31

    On-site fuel cell power plants are not an exciting new electricity generating technology. They are an economic and beneficial addition to the operating systems of commercial buildings and industrial facilities. ONSI Corporation is part of International Fuel Cells Corporation and is jointly owned by United Technologies Corporation, Toshiba, and Ansaldo. ONSI has proven in the last three years that initial demand for packaged fuel cell power plants, like our 200 kW PC25{trademark} fuel cell shown in Figure 1, comes from the commercial building sector. However, this sector and the companies which service it are only tangentially interested in fuel cells as an emerging electricity generating technology. What they are most interested in is how the PC25 can integrate into their building`s system; how it can deliver energy efficient dollars to the bottom line, and how it can deliver operating benefits to their business.

  19. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  20. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Conn, Kathleen E; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Gregory K; Siegrist, Robert L

    2006-12-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from <1% to >99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments.

  1. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  2. Corporate travel medicine: benefit analysis of on-site services.

    PubMed

    Prince, T S; Spengler, S E; Collins, T R

    2001-01-01

    Corporations with employees who travel internationally address their travel-related medical needs in a variety of ways. Options utilized include corporate medical departments, local health departments, and local clinics, both contracted and independent. A travel clinic at a university medical center routinely provided preventive travel medicine services for many of the local companies. Two of these companies had on-site medical clinics which routinely saw patients for occupational and personal health reasons. At these companies , the university travel clinic assisted in moving employee travel medicine services to the on-site clinic. Direct and indirect costs for new, predeparture employee travel care at each company were compared before, and after, the move on-site. When measured per patient, total cost savings associated with the on-site travel clinic were greater than 15% at both companies (17%, 25%), primarily due to the value of the employees' time saved with decreased travel. Utilization increased at one company by 24% over the first 8 months and lead to higher overall cost, but this cost increase was only 4%. Informal assessments of the value of the on-site service at both companies was uniformly positive. For certain corporate settings, on-site clinics may be effective ways of providing travel medicine services.

  3. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches for On-Site Non-Potable Water (2016 Southwest Onsite Wastewater Conference)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the reuse of alternative water sources continues to gain popularity, public utilities and other stakeholders are seeking guidance on pathogen treatment requirements and monitoring approaches for nonpotable use of onsite collected waters.  Given that alternative water...

  4. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches for On-Site Non-Potable Water (2016 Southwest Onsite Wastewater Conference)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the reuse of alternative water sources continues to gain popularity, public utilities and other stakeholders are seeking guidance on pathogen treatment requirements and monitoring approaches for nonpotable use of onsite collected waters.  Given that alternative water...

  5. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of participation onsite during a... Participants § 79.33 Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. (a... his or her onsite participation; (vi) The dates of the claimant's assignment onsite; and (vii) As full...

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  7. Extended precision software packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A description of three extended precision packages is presented along with three small conversion subroutines which can be used in conjunction with the extended precision packages. These extended packages represent software packages written in FORTRAN 4. They contain normalized or unnormalized floating point arithmetic with symmetric rounding and arbitrary mantissa lengths, and normalized floating point interval arithmetic with appropriate rounding. The purpose of an extended precision package is to enable the user to use and manipulate numbers with large decimal places as well as those with small decimal places where precision beyond double precision is required.

  8. Advancements in meat packaging.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  10. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    SciTech Connect

    Gangolells, Marta Casals, Miquel Forcada, Núria Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  11. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.

    PubMed

    González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

    2014-11-01

    The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    SciTech Connect

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  13. Indicators: Nitrogen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nitrogen, like phosphorus, is a critical nutrient required for all life. Nitrogen can occur in rivers and streams, lakes, and coastal waters in several forms including ammonia (NH3), nitrates (NO3), and nitrites (NO2).

  14. Review of pathogen treatment reductions for onsite non ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Communities face a challenge when implementing onsite reuse of collected waters for non-potable purposes given the lack of national microbial standards. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) can be used to predict the pathogen risks associated with the non-potable reuse of onsite-collected waters; the present work reviewed the relevant QMRA literature to prioritize knowledge gaps and identify health-protective pathogen treatment reduction targets. The review indicated that ingestion of untreated, onsite-collected graywater, rainwater, seepage water and stormwater from a variety of exposure routes resulted in gastrointestinal infection risks greater than the traditional acceptable level of risk. We found no QMRAs that estimated the pathogen risks associated with onsite, non-potable reuse of blackwater. Pathogen treatment reduction targets for non-potable, onsite reuse that included a suite of reference pathogens (i.e., including relevant bacterial, protozoan, and viral hazards) were limited to graywater (for a limited set of domestic uses) and stormwater (for domestic and municipal uses). These treatment reductions corresponded with the health benchmark of a probability of infection or illness of 10−3 per person per year or less. The pathogen treatment reduction targets varied depending on the target health benchmark, reference pathogen, source water, and water reuse application. Overall, there remains a need for pathogen reduction targets that are heal

  15. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  16. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  17. On-site Analysis of Explosives in Various Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J G; Nunes, P; Whipple, R E; Alcaraz, A

    2006-01-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed several different strategies and technologies for the on-site detection of explosives. These on-site detection techniques include a colorimetric test, thin layer chromatography (TLC) kit and portable gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The screening of suspicious containers on-site and the search for trace explosive residue in a post-blast forensic investigation are of great importance. For these reasons, LLNL's Forensic Science Center has developed a variety of fieldable detection technologies to screen for a wide range of explosives in various matrices and scenarios. Ideally, what is needed is a fast, accurate, easy-to-use, pocket-size and inexpensive field screening test for explosives.

  18. GENERAL PURPOSE ADA PACKAGES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Ten families of subprograms are bundled together for the General-Purpose Ada Packages. The families bring to Ada many features from HAL/S, PL/I, FORTRAN, and other languages. These families are: string subprograms (INDEX, TRIM, LOAD, etc.); scalar subprograms (MAX, MIN, REM, etc.); array subprograms (MAX, MIN, PROD, SUM, GET, and PUT); numerical subprograms (EXP, CUBIC, etc.); service subprograms (DATE_TIME function, etc.); Linear Algebra II; Runge-Kutta integrators; and three text I/O families of packages. In two cases, a family consists of a single non-generic package. In all other cases, a family comprises a generic package and its instances for a selected group of scalar types. All generic packages are designed to be easily instantiated for the types declared in the user facility. The linear algebra package is LINRAG2. This package includes subprograms supplementing those in NPO-17985, An Ada Linear Algebra Package Modeled After HAL/S (LINRAG). Please note that LINRAG2 cannot be compiled without LINRAG. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some are oriented for avionics applications. All are designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Several of the packages use conventions introduced by other programming languages. A package of string subprograms is based on HAL/S (a language designed for the avionics software in the Space Shuttle) and PL/I. Packages of scalar and array subprograms are taken from HAL/S or generalized current Ada subprograms. A package of Runge-Kutta integrators is patterned after a built-in MAC (MIT Algebraic Compiler) integrator. Those packages modeled after HAL/S make it easy to translate existing HAL/S software to Ada. The General-Purpose Ada Packages program source code is available on two 360K 5.25" MS-DOS format diskettes. The software was developed using VAX Ada v1.5 under DEC VMS v4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler and it should execute either interactively or in batch. The largest package

  19. Paperless Work Package Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, Jr., William R.; Morrell, Jr., Otto K.; Morrison, Dan; Ferrell, Jerrod; Connelley, Sherry; Hall, Tommy; Carzoli, Mary; Hott, Ken; Zylka, Sandy; Wong, Roger; Dang, Ling; Kalyani, Nik; Pearson, Terry; Rogers, Mark; Mannis, Nathan; Bakke, Dave; Shoner, Bruce; Vogel, Loring; Davis, Pat; Hitselberger, Charlie

    2014-07-31

    Paperless Work Package (PWP) System is a computer program process that takes information from Asset Suite, provides a platform for other electronic inputs, Processes the inputs into an electronic package that can be downloaded onto an electronic work tablet or laptop computer, provides a platform for electronic inputs into the work tablet, and then transposes those inputs back into Asset Suite and to permanent SRS records. The PWP System will basically eliminate paper requirements from the maintenance work control system. The program electronically relays the instructions given by the planner to work on a piece of equipment which is currently relayed via a printed work package. The program does not control/approve what is done. The planner will continue to plan the work package, the package will continue to be routed, approved, and scheduled. The supervisor reviews and approves the work to be performed and assigns work to individuals or to a work group. (The supervisor conducts pre job briefings with the workers involved in the job) The Operations Manager (Work Controlling Entity) approves the work package electronically for the work that will be done in his facility prior to work starting. The PWP System will provide the package in an electronic form. All the reviews, approvals, and safety measures taken by people outside the electronic package does not change from the paper driven work packages.

  20. GENERAL PURPOSE ADA PACKAGES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Ten families of subprograms are bundled together for the General-Purpose Ada Packages. The families bring to Ada many features from HAL/S, PL/I, FORTRAN, and other languages. These families are: string subprograms (INDEX, TRIM, LOAD, etc.); scalar subprograms (MAX, MIN, REM, etc.); array subprograms (MAX, MIN, PROD, SUM, GET, and PUT); numerical subprograms (EXP, CUBIC, etc.); service subprograms (DATE_TIME function, etc.); Linear Algebra II; Runge-Kutta integrators; and three text I/O families of packages. In two cases, a family consists of a single non-generic package. In all other cases, a family comprises a generic package and its instances for a selected group of scalar types. All generic packages are designed to be easily instantiated for the types declared in the user facility. The linear algebra package is LINRAG2. This package includes subprograms supplementing those in NPO-17985, An Ada Linear Algebra Package Modeled After HAL/S (LINRAG). Please note that LINRAG2 cannot be compiled without LINRAG. Most packages have widespread applicability, although some are oriented for avionics applications. All are designed to facilitate writing new software in Ada. Several of the packages use conventions introduced by other programming languages. A package of string subprograms is based on HAL/S (a language designed for the avionics software in the Space Shuttle) and PL/I. Packages of scalar and array subprograms are taken from HAL/S or generalized current Ada subprograms. A package of Runge-Kutta integrators is patterned after a built-in MAC (MIT Algebraic Compiler) integrator. Those packages modeled after HAL/S make it easy to translate existing HAL/S software to Ada. The General-Purpose Ada Packages program source code is available on two 360K 5.25" MS-DOS format diskettes. The software was developed using VAX Ada v1.5 under DEC VMS v4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler and it should execute either interactively or in batch. The largest package

  1. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  2. Performance of airlift MBR for on-site treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in urban areas of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Anh Tien; Bach, Dung Quang; Do, Uan Khac; Prieto, Ana; Lan Huong, Huynh Thi

    2016-11-01

    In many cities in Vietnam, wastewater generated in slaughterhouses is normally discharged directly into surface waters without treatment. Management of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) is difficult due to the lack of infrastructure for conveyance to centralized facilities. On-site treatment presents one cost-effective way of managing SHWW compared to mass improvement of infrastructure. This study evaluates the application of an airlift membrane bioreactor (AL-MBR) for on-site treatment of SHWW. The concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN) and NH4(+)-N in the simulated SHWW were 1,697 ± 317 mg/L, 891 ± 137 mg/L, 246 ± 65 mg/L and 171 ± 4.2 mg/L, respectively. The mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids in the aerobic and anoxic tanks were maintained at 5,000-6,000 mg/L. Air flow rate and cross flow velocity were maintained at 0.2 L/min and 0.8 m/s, respectively, to keep the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) stable at 0.8 bar and the membrane flux at 15-18 L/m(2) h bar (LMH/bar). The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 95 ± 1.9% and 70 ± 3.3%, respectively, at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.5 days. This study shows that GL-MBR is a promising on-site solution for SHWW treatment.

  3. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Neuder, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    Because of uncertainties associated with assessing the potential risks from onsite burials of radioactive waste, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has amended its regulations to provide greater assurance that buried radioactive material will not present a hazard to public health and safety. The amended regulations now require licensees to apply for approval of proposed procedures for onsite disposal pursuant to 10 CFR 20.302. The NRC technically reviews these requests on a case-by-case basis. These technical reviews require modeling potential pathways to man and projecting radiation dose commitments. This document contains a summary of our efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and to modify a version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. The documentation of the ONSITE/MAXI computer program is written for two audiences. The first (Audience A) includes persons concerned with the mathematical models and computer algorithms. The second (Audience B) includes persons concerned with exercising the computer program and scenarios for specific onsite disposal applications. Five sample problems are presented and discussed to assist the user in operating the computer program. Summaries of the input and output for the sample problems are included along with a discussion of the hand calculations performed to verify the correct operation of the computer program. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program with an abbreviated data base listing are included as Appendix 1 to this document. Finally, complete listings of the data base with listings of the special codes used to create the data base are included in Appendix 2 as a microfiche attachment to this document.

  4. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  5. Project Information Packages: Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    This brochure describes a new series of Project Information Packages, a U.S. Office of Education response to the need for a systematic approach to disseminating exemplary projects. The packages describe procedures for developing the necessary administrative support and management framework, as well as instructional methods and techniques. The six…

  6. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  7. Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.

    PubMed

    Hall, R

    2005-10-01

    Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.

  8. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-10-18

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described.

  9. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  10. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  11. RAPID ON-SITE METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The analysis of potentially hazardous air, water and soil samples collected and shipped to service laboratories off-site is time consuming and expensive. This Chapter addresses the practical alternative of performing the requisite analytical services on-site. The most significant...

  12. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL - REVISED FEBRUARY 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    This update of the 1980 Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems was developed to provide supplemental and new information for wastewater treatment professionals in both the public and private sectors. This manual is not intended to replace the previous man...

  13. Analysis of onsite measurements of scour at piers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Froehlich, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Existing onsite measurements of local scour at bridge piers were assembled and analyzed to obtain an equation that predicts the expected maximum depth of local scour at a bridge pier. A safety factor is suggested that provides a reasonable margin of error for design purposes.

  14. ONSITE WASTEWATER SYSTEMS: HOW DID WE GET HERE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper chronicles the history of onsite wastewater treatment over more than a Century in the US. The major research programs which came into existence since World War II have each contributed some advancement to certain facets of the answers to a relatively stable set of ques...

  15. The On-Site, Programmatic Approach to Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Charles C.; Case, Chester H.

    At present, community college in-service professional development programs are not top quality. Little, if any, budgetary support is allocated for them, and responsibility for planning and carrying them out is allocated to no one in particular. The few on-site in-service professional development programs now in operation exhibit common elements…

  16. All Indian Pueblo Council: On-Site Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The All Indian Pueblo Council and the University of New Mexico (AIPCUNM) jointly developed a program of on-site instruction, counseling, and advisement for Pueblo adults pursuing the Associate of Arts degree and the Bachelor of Science degree in Elementary Education. The expectation was that Native American children would learn more and feel…

  17. RAPID ON-SITE METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The analysis of potentially hazardous air, water and soil samples collected and shipped to service laboratories off-site is time consuming and expensive. This Chapter addresses the practical alternative of performing the requisite analytical services on-site. The most significant...

  18. Utility of onsite interviews in the pediatric surgery match.

    PubMed

    Downard, Cynthia D; Goldin, Adam; Garrison, Michelle M; Waldhausen, John; Langham, Max; Hirschl, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    The value of onsite interviews for the pediatric surgery match remains undefined despite substantial cost to applicants. This study assesses the impact of onsite interviews on the rank order lists submitted to the match by pediatric surgery residency training program directors (PDs). PDs were asked prospectively to evaluate pediatric surgery residency candidates based solely on their ERAS application and generate a "pre-interview rank list." Interviews were then held based on the usual practice of each program. PDs then submitted de-identified pre-interview and final rank lists. The impact of the interview process upon rank list movement of candidates was assessed. Of 44 programs, 16 (36%) provided data for analysis. Onsite interviews resulted in candidates moving a mean of 5.2 ± 1.2 rank positions, whereas candidates ranked in the first 5 positions moved an average of 4 ± 2 places, 81% of the initial top-ranked candidates moved out of this position, and 36% of top 10 candidates moved out of the top 10. Onsite interviews are high-stakes events which substantially affect the final rank order list in the pediatric surgery match. Programs should take these data into account when determining the number of interview invitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ONSITE WASTEWATER SYSTEMS: HOW DID WE GET HERE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper chronicles the history of onsite wastewater treatment over more than a Century in the US. The major research programs which came into existence since World War II have each contributed some advancement to certain facets of the answers to a relatively stable set of ques...

  20. Online and Onsite Training: When To Mix, When To Match.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Steve; Bianco, Terri

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of ways to blend onsite and online staff development training focuses on teachers' continuing education needs. Considers theory, modeling, and practice, and describes a collaborative program in a rural area in Ohio that offers a combination of online learning and live instruction that allows for peer interaction and practice. (LRW)

  1. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  2. Fast on-site Monte Carlo tool for dose calculations in CT applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Kolditz, Daniel; Beister, Marcel; Bohle, Robert; Kalender, Willi A

    2012-06-01

    size of 1.36 × 1.36 × 3.00 mm(3), calculation times of about 70 and 24 min were necessary with single-core and multiple-core central processing unit (CPU) solutions, respectively. Using GPUs, the same MC calculations were performed in 1.27 min (single card) and 0.65 min (two cards) without a loss in quality. Simulations were thus speeded up by factors up to 55 and 36 compared to single-core and multiple-core CPU, respectively. The performance scaled nearly linearly with the number of GPUs. Tests confirmed that the proposed GPU-based MC tool can be easily adapted to different types of CT scanners and used as service providers for fast on-site dose calculations. The Monte Carlo software package provides fast on-site calculation of 3D dose distributions in the CT suite which makes it a practical tool for any type of CT-specific application. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. A small, portable gas chromatograph-quadrupole mass spectrometer for on-site analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Coutts, G.; Alcaraz, A.; Bushman, J.; Cornish, J.

    1994-04-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the analytical tool of choice for the exact identification of unknown organic chemicals in environmental samples. Capillary gas chromatography, combined with the specific identification capabilities of mass spectrometry, allows the rapid and complete characterization of individual compounds in complex mixtures. As the technology has developed, many manufacturers have offered bench-top MS systems that provide a variety of analytical capabilities. Many instruments have been promoted as ``detectors for gas chromatography.`` More recently, manufacturers have offered integrated packages that can be transported to the field to provide analytical capabilities previously available only in the laboratory. The demonstrated field utility of these field-transportable units has triggered an interest in smaller, lighter weight, and more portable instruments. However, the current weight (>100 lb), large size, and laboratory-based power consumption requirements of these units is viewed as a liability by some potential field instrument users. Over the past several years, the interest in field-deployable instruments has resulted in research and development into smaller GC-MS systems designed with limited applications. While the development of these instruments is certainly worthwhile, a reliable and robust GC-MS instrument that clearly addresses the field-deployable needs for all environmental sampling and analysis would have considerable utility. We have developed portable instruments with analytical performance characteristics similar to those obtained with bench-top instruments. The current instrument, developed at LLNL and described here, was originally designed for use by on-site inspection teams supporting the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The portability and expanded capabilities of this integrated instrument now make it a useful tool for environmental monitoring and on-site analysis studies.

  4. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  5. 75 FR 32221 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... this certification to include leased workers from Andrews International, Inc. working on-site at the... Employment and Training Administration Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews International, Inc., Evansville, IN; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...

  6. 76 FR 19467 - Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... workers were sufficiently under the control of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters to be... Employment and Training Administration Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased... to workers of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters, including on-site leased workers from...

  7. STRUMPACK -- STRUctured Matrices PACKage

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    STRUMPACK - STRUctured Matrices PACKage - is a package for computations with sparse and dense structured matrix, i.e., matrices that exhibit some kind of low-rank property, in particular Hierarchically Semi Separable structure (HSS). Such matrices appear in many applications, e.g., FEM, BEM, Integral equations. etc. Exploiting this structure using certain compression algorithms allow for fast solution of linear systems and/or fast computation of matrix-vector products, which are the two main building blocks of matrix computations. STRUMPACK has presently two main components: a distributed-memory dense matrix computations package and a shared-memory sparse direct solver.

  8. Linking soil erosion to onsite financial cost: lessons from watersheds in the Blue Nile basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkossa, T.; Wudneh, A.; Desalegn, B.; Taye, G.

    2015-02-01

    The study was conducted in three watersheds (Dapo, Meja and Mizewa) in the Ethiopian part of the Blue Nile Basin to estimate the onsite cost of soil erosion using the productivity change approach, in which crop yield reduction due to plant nutrients lost with the sediment and runoff has been analyzed. For this purpose, runoff measurement and sampling was conducted during the main rainy season of 2011 at the outlet of two to three sub watersheds in each watershed. The sediment concentration of the runoff, and nitrogen and phosphorus content of the runoff and sediment were determined. Crop response functions were developed for the two plant nutrients based on data obtained from the nearest Agricultural Research Centers. The response functions were used to estimate crop yield reduction as a result of the lost N and P assuming there is no compensation through fertilization. The results show a significant yield reduction and resultant financial loss to the farmers. Considering only grain yield of maize (Zea mays), farmers at Dapo annually lose about 220 and USD 150 ha-1 due to the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. In view of the importance of the crop residues including as feed, the loss can be even greater. The study demonstrated that in addition to the long-term deterioration of land quality, the annual financial loss suffered by farmers is substantial. Therefore, on farm soil and water conservation measures that are suitable in biophysical and socio-economic terms in the landscapes and beyond need to be encouraged.

  9. Cold climate performance analysis of on-site domestic wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Household on-site septic systems with secondary wastewater treatment in Anchorage, Alaska, were sampled and analyzed for performance parameters during the winter to spring months. System types included intermittent dosing sand filters (ISF), three types of recirculating trickling filters (RTF), and suspended-growth aeration tanks. Total nitrogen from the trickling filter and aeration tank effluent was fairly uniform, at approximately 30 mg/L. Total suspended solids (TSS) means were mostly less than 15 mg/L. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) showed considerable variability, with means ranging from 9.2 mg/ L for ISFs up to 39.5 mg/L for one type of RTF, even though this type has shown excellent results in several test programs. The data suggested that effluent temperature within the sample range had almost no effect on effluent concentrations of BOD5 or TSS and only a small effect on the removal of total nitrogen. Non-climatic factors were probably of equal importance to treatment results.

  10. Nitrogen Index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a need to improve the management of nitrogen inputs to agricultural systems because they increase the potential for losses of reactive nitrogen to the environment, resulting in negative impacts to water and air resources. There is a need to reduce nitrate leaching, emissions of N2O from agr...

  11. 75 FR 28295 - Cummins Filtration, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower and Spherion Staffing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Cummins Filtration, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower and... workers of Cummins Filtration, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Lake Mills, Iowa. The...: All workers of Cummins Filtration, including on-site leased workers from Manpower and Spherion...

  12. 76 FR 5832 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Per Mar Security, Webster City, IA; Amended Certification Regarding... company reports that workers leased from Per Mar Security were employed ] on-site at the Webster City... is amending this certification to include workers leased from Per Mar Security working on-site at the...

  13. 42 CFR 137.366 - May the Secretary conduct onsite project oversight visits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Roles of the Secretary in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.366 May the Secretary conduct onsite project oversight visits? Yes, the Secretary may conduct onsite project... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May the Secretary conduct onsite project oversight...

  14. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  15. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  16. Onsite Portable Alarm System - Its Merit and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Recently an existence of the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) becomes popular. In general, the EEWS will be installed in a fixed observation site and it may consist of several separated components such as a sensing portion, A/D converter, an information processing potion and so on. The processed information for warning may be transmitted to network via fixed communication line, and therefore this kind of alarm system is called as Network Alarm System. On the other hand, after the severe earthquake damage, it is very important to save the disaster victims immediately. These rescue staffs are also under the risk of aftershocks and need a local alarm not depending on the network, so this kind of alarm can be called as Onsite Alarm. But the common early warning system is too complex to set onsite temporary, and even if possible to install, the alarm is too late to receive at the epicentral area. However, the new generation earthquake early warning system FREQL can issue the P wave alarm by minimum 0.2 seconds after P wave detection. And FREQL is characterized as the unique all-in-one seismometer with power unit. At the time of the 2004 Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu earthquake, a land slide attacked a car just passing. A hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department pulled the survivor, one baby, from the land slide area. During their activity the rescue team was exposed to the risk of secondary hazards caused by the aftershocks. It was clear that it is necessary to use a portable warning system to issue the onsite P wave alarm. Because FREQL was originally developed as portable equipment, Tokyo Fire Department asked us to modify it to the portable equipment with the loud sound and the light signal. In this moment, this portable FREQL has equipped in nation wide. When the hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department was sent to Pakistan as a task force for rescue work of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the portable FREQL was used as important onsite portable warning system and P

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-04-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  19. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  20. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  1. TEX macro packages

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, M.E.

    1985-02-26

    This manual is documentation for the macro packages that are available with the TEX82 system distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group, Engineering Research Division, Electronics Engineering Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. TEX is a computerized typesetting system created by Professor Donald E. Knuth at Stanford University. Macro packages have been developed to extend the capabilities of TEX and aid the user in generating various types of output (e.g., chapter format, letter format, memo format, and viewgraphs).

  2. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  3. Nanoliter MEMS package gas sampling to determine hermeticity.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Hochrein, James Michael; Padilla, Therese A.; Abraham, Ion Cristian

    2004-09-01

    Maintaining the integrity of the internal atmosphere of a hermetic device is essential for long-term component reliability because it is within this environment that all internal materials age. As MEMS package sizes decrease with miniaturization, characterization of the internal atmosphere becomes increasingly difficult. Typical transistor metal cans (e.g., TO-5 type) and large MEMS devices have internal volumes of tenths of a milliliter. Last year, gas-sampling methods for smaller-sized MEMS packages were developed and successfully demonstrated on volumes as low as 3 microliters (package outside dimensions: -1 x 2 x 5 mm). This year, we present gas sampling methods and results for a much smaller MEMS package having an internal volume of 30 nanoliters, two orders of magnitude lower than the previous small package. After entirely redesigning the previous sampling manifold, several of the 30 nanoliter MEMS were gas sampled successfully and results showed the intended internal gas atmosphere of nitrogen was sealed inside the package. The technique is a radical jump from previous methods because not only were these MEMS packages sampled, but also the gas from each package was analyzed dozens of times over the course of about 20 minutes. Additionally, alternate methods for gas analyses not using helium or fluorinert will be presented.

  4. Urbanisation effects on groundwater chemical quality: findings focusing on the nitrate problem from 2 African cities reliant on on-site sanitation.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Aidan A; Pedley, Steve; Hoadley, Alfred W; Kouonto Komou, Fatoumata; Haldin, Louis; Gibson, James; Breslin, Ned

    2007-09-01

    By 2010 Africa's urban population will have grown to over 420 million with on-site sanitation the predominant excreta disposal option. The use of on-site sanitation has important public health benefits but can result in large faecally derived loadings of nitrogen and chloride to groundwater resources. Nitrate is of particular concern, with elevated concentrations linked to potentially serious health problems. N and Cl can derive from natural sources so it is important to quantify the additional impact of human activities. Several authors have used empirical relationships between nitrate and chloride concentrations to assess the extent to which excreta influences groundwater quality. However, these relationships have assumed fixed loadings from excreta. Relationships between N and Cl have been extended here by adding country-specific estimates of average annual per capita nitrogen and chloride content of, and loading from, excreta. The results are compared with groundwater monitoring results from two very different mid-sized African cities (Timbuktu, Mali and Lichinga, Mozambique) where the vast majority of residents use on-site sanitation and are dependent on the subsurface water for drinking purposes. The results illustrate the impact of urbanisation on groundwater quality. They are compared with data from other African cities to allow the calculation of a general nitrate and chloride relationship for unsewered African urban areas. Potential interventions to help arrest rising nitrate levels and so provide a public health benefit are also examined.

  5. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  6. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  7. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  8. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  9. MX MPS Deployment, An On-Site Fallout Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-29

    AD-AO84 643 SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INC MCLEAN VA F/O 1S/S-7 MPS DEPLOYMENT, AN ON-SITE FALLOUT EVALUATION. CU) DEC TO R H CRAVER , J1 T MCSAHAN, E...MULLER ONAOOI-7S-C-O35O WdNCLASSIFIEO SAX-79-8ŚWA ONA-’&813F N ( ’/DNA 4813F zMX MPS DEPLOYMENT ’ An On-Site Fallout Evaluation R. H. Craver J. T. McGahan...Fal lout Evaluation 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER SAI-79-866-WA v’ 7. AUTHOR(,) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) R. H. Craver -1 J. T. McGahan DNA

  10. The feasibility of mobile computing for on-site inspection.

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, Karl Emanuel; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Blair, Dianna Sue

    2014-09-01

    With over 5 billion cellphones in a world of 7 billion inhabitants, mobile phones are the most quickly adopted consumer technology in the history of the world. Miniaturized, power-efficient sensors, especially video-capable cameras, are becoming extremely widespread, especially when one factors in wearable technology like Apples Pebble, GoPro video systems, Google Glass, and lifeloggers. Tablet computers are becoming more common, lighter weight, and power-efficient. In this report the authors explore recent developments in mobile computing and their potential application to on-site inspection for arms control verification and treaty compliance determination. We examine how such technology can effectively be applied to current and potential future inspection regimes. Use cases are given for both host-escort and inspection teams. The results of field trials and their implications for on-site inspections are discussed.

  11. ONSITE TRANSPORTATION AUTHORIZATION CHALLENGES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Loftin, B.; Hoang, D.; Maxted, M.

    2012-05-30

    Prior to 2008, transfers of radioactive material within the Savannah River Site (SRS) boundary, referred to as onsite transfers, were authorized by Transportation Safety Basis (TSB) documents that only required approval by the SRS contractor. This practice was in accordance with the existing SRS Transportation Safety Document (TSD). In 2008 the Department of Energy Savannah River Field Office (DOE-SR) requested that the SRS TSD be revised to require DOE-SR approval of all Transportation Safety Basis (TSB) documents. As a result, the primary SRS contractor embarked on a multi-year campaign to consolidate old or generate new TSB documents and obtain DOE-SR approval for each. This paper focuses on the challenges incurred during the rewriting or writing of and obtaining DOE-SR approval of all Savannah River Site Onsite Transportation Safety Basis documents.

  12. On-Site Construction Productivity Improvement Through Total Quality Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    abnormality if 3 out of 7 or 4 out of 10 points lie within zones drawn as follows: (1) Zone next to the central line when a line is drawn between both the... Joeseph M., Juran on Plannnina for Oualitv. New York: The Free Press, 1988. Oglesby, Clarkson H., Parker, Henry W., and Howell, Gregory A... 10 Figure 1-3 Juran’s Triple Role Concept for On-Site Construction Activity Process ........................ 16

  13. VIEW OF BUILDING 122 WHICH HOUSES THE ONSITE MEDICAL FACILITIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 122 WHICH HOUSES THE ON-SITE MEDICAL FACILITIES OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT AND THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND INTERNAL DOSIMETRY ORGANIZATIONS. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES, DIAGNOSIS, DECONTAMINATION, FIRST AID, X-RAY, MINOR SURGICAL TREATMENT, AND AMBULATORY ACTIVITIES ARE CARRIED OUT IN THIS BUILDING. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Kentucky pilot project for primary PCI without onsite CABG.

    PubMed

    Myers, John; Brock, Guy; Appana, Savitri; Gray, Laman

    2009-11-01

    The American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions strongly recommend that primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) should be performed in facilities that have an experienced cardiovascular surgical team available as emergency backup for all procedures. The current study investigates the medical soundness of allowing select facilities in Kentucky to perform primary PCI despite being devoid of onsite emergency backup capabilities. Two hospitals in the state of Kentucky, currently without emergency backup capabilities, have been allowed to perform primary PCIs for more than three years (beginning in April 2005) by the Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services. The two hospitals selected were of similar size (approximately 200 beds) and similar distances from hospitals with onsite emergency backup capabilities (approximately one hour). We performed an analysis evaluating if hospitals without backup surgical capability have similar outcomes when compared to hospitals with backup surgical capabilities. Outcome variables included: (1) mortality, (2) cardiac arrest as result of PCI, (3) emergency surgery performed as a result of PCI, and (4) door-to-balloon time. Our results suggest that there is no significant difference in any of the outcome variables studied between facilities with and without onsite emergency backup capabilities. Recommendations concerning primary PCI may need to be revisited. The principal outcomes associated with primary PCI were not significantly affected by whether a facility has onsite emergency backup capabilities. Therefore, we recommend that hospitals without backup surgical capabilities be allowed to perform primary PCI (with restrictions based on surgeon experience and the facilities' volume).

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  16. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  17. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  18. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  19. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  20. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  1. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  3. Shelf life study of fresh celery (Apium graveolens L.) grown under different nitrogen fertilization treatments.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Valeria; Muratore, Giuseppe; Russo, Marco Antonio; Belligno, Adalgisa

    2011-05-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is useful for obtaining higher growth and quality of productions, and the use of nitrogen fertilization is widespread. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen-rich fertilizers on quality characteristics of celery, shelf life tests of celery grown with 2 levels of nitrogen and 2 different nitrogen fertilizers were performed. The treatments of the celery samples were identified as follows: T1, mineral nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)); T2, mineral nitrogen (120 kg ha(-1)); T3, organic nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)); T4, organic nitrogen (120 kg ha(-1)); R4, residual organic nitrogen (120 kg ha(-1)); and C, untreated control. Celery plants were selected and packaged in either of the following 2 plastic films: antifog polyolefin (AFP) film or microperforated polypropylene (MPP) film. The nitrate contents, weight loss, hardness, changes in color parameters, and total phenols were studied for both packaging types during storage. The results demonstrated that celery fertilized with organic nitrogen and packaged in AFP film reached a shelf life of 37 d. The control sample packaged in MPP film was not marketable after 20 d, but the same untreated sample packaged in AFP film reached a shelf life of 30 d.

  4. MMIC packaging with Waffleline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. W.; Ellis, T. T.; Schineller, E. R.

    1990-06-01

    The design principle of Waffleline, a patented MMIC packaging technology, is discussed, and several recent applications are described and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and photographs. Standard Waffleline is a foil-covered waffle-iron-like grid with dielectric-coated signal and power wires running in the channels and foil-removed holes for mounting prepackaged chips or chip carriers. With spacing of 50 mils between center conductors, this material is applicable at frequencies up to 40 GHz; EHF devices require Waffleline with 25-mil spacing. Applications characterized include a subassembly for a man-transportable SHF satellite-communication terminal, a transmitter driver for a high-power TWT, and a 60-GHz receiver front end (including an integrated monolithic microstrip antenna, a low-noise amplifier, a mixer, and an IF amplifier in a 0.25-inch-thick 1.6-inch-diameter package). The high package density and relatively low cost of Waffleline are emphasized.

  5. Waste package reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table.

  6. AUTHORIZING THE DOT SPECIFICATION 6M PACKAGING FOR CONTINUED USE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Loftin, B.; Hoang, D.

    2010-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 6M packaging was in extensive use for more than 40 years for in-commerce shipments of Type B quantities of fissile and radioactive material (RAM) across the USA, among the Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and between facilities in the DOE production complex. In January 2004, the DOT Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) Agency issued a final rule in the Federal Register to ammend requirements in the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) pertaining to the transportation of radioactive materials. The final rule became effective on October 1, 2004. One of those changes discontinued the use of the DOT specification 6M, along with other DOT specification packagings, on October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was due to the fact that 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packagings (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 71 (10 CFR 71). The regulatory rules for the discontinued use have been edited in Title 49 of the CFR Parts 100-185, 2004 edition and thereafter. Prior to October 1, 2008, the use of the 6M within the boundaries of the Savannah River Site (SRS), called an onsite transfer, was governed by an onsite transportation document that referenced 49 CFR Parts 100-185. SRS had to develop an Onsite Safety Assessment (OSA) which was independent of 49 CFR in order to justify the continued use of the DOT Specification 6M for the transfer of radioactive material (RAM) at the SRS after October 1, 2008. This paper will discuss the methodology for and difficulties associated with authorizing the DOT Specification 6M Packaging for continued use at the Savannah River Site.

  7. Literacy and Numeracy on the Motorway: A Case Study of the Effects of the Inclusion of Literacy and Numeracy Competencies within the Civil Construction Industry Training Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ann; Searle, Jean

    The effects of the inclusion of literacy and numeracy competencies within Australia's civil construction industry training package were examined in a case study in Queensland. Data were collected through the following activities: interviews with trainers, workplace teachers, and workers; observations of training at an on-site training session on…

  8. Ada Namelist Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  9. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  10. Future trends in electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshabini, Aicha; Wang, Gangqiang; Barlow, Fred

    2006-03-01

    Electronic packaging is traditionally defined as the back-end process that transforms bare integrated circuits (IC) into functional products. As the IC feature size decreases and the size of silicon wafer increases, the cost per IC is reduced and the performance is enhanced. The future IC chips will be larger in size, have more input/output terminals (I/Os), and require higher power. In addition to the advancements in IC technology, electronic packaging is also driven by the market requirements for low cost, small size, and multi-functional electronic products. In response to these requirements, packaging related areas such as design, packaging architectures, materials, processes, and manufacturing equipment are all changing rapidly. Wafer-level packaging (WLP) offers the benefits of low cost and smallest size for single chip packages, since the package is done at wafer level other than individual die. After packages reach the horizontal limit of dimensions, 3D stacking solution provides more efficient packages through expanding packages in the vertical dimension. Functional integration is achieved with 3D stacking architectures. System in package (SiP), one of the solutions to system integration, incorporates electronics, non-electronic devices such as optical devices, biological devices, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), etc, and interconnection in a single package, to form smart structures or microsystems. MEMS devices require specialized packaging to serve new market applications. This paper and presentation describe the technology requirements and challenges of these advancing packaging areas. The potential solutions and future trends are presented.

  11. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  12. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  13. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  14. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  15. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  16. Nutrition Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

  17. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  18. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  19. Radiographic film package

    SciTech Connect

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  20. YWCA Vocational Readiness Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jeanne

    This document outlines, in detail, the Vocational Readiness Package for young girls, which is a week-long program utilizing simulation games and role-playing, while employing peer group counseling techniques to dramatize the realities concerning women in marriage and careers today. After three years of using this program, the authors have compiled…

  1. Packaging Materials Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.

    1991-10-30

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection . data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  2. Packaging materials properties data

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the US Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  3. Project Information Packages Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,…

  4. Type B drum packages

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998.

  5. Packaging, transportation of LLW

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, P.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation is an overview of the regulations and requirements for the packaging and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes. United States Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations governing the classification of wastes and the transport documentation are also described.

  6. The Superintendent's Compensation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzke, Eugene R.

    Guidelines are presented to help school boards evaluate superintendents and set up their compensation packages. The author describes informal and formal evaluation procedures and states his preference for the latter, since they promote mutual understanding between the superintendent and the board. A flow chart illustrates a superintendent…

  7. Jpetra Kernel Package

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael A.

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, written in Java. Jpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vector operations for Java developers. Jpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface. The most common implementation of this interface will be Java sockets.

  8. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  9. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  10. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  11. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2017-08-28

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F(-) removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F(-) removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F(-) at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On-Site Test for Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Lee, Dayong; Schwope, David M.; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral fluid (OF) testing offers noninvasive sample collection for on-site drug testing; however, to date, test performance for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) detection has had unacceptable diagnostic sensitivity. On-site tests must accurately identify cannabis exposure because this drug accounts for the highest prevalence in workplace drug testing and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. Methods Ten cannabis smokers (9 males, 1 female) provided written informed consent to participate in this institutional review board–approved study and smoked 1 6.8%-THC cigarette ad libitum. OF was collected with the Draeger DrugTest® 5000 test cassette and Quantisal™ device 0.5 h before and up to 22 h after smoking. Test cassettes were analyzed within 15 min (n = 66), and Quantisal GC-MS THC results obtained within 24 h. Final THC detection times and test performances were assessed at different cannabinoid cutoffs. Results Diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, and efficiency at DrugTest 5000's 5 μg/L screening cutoff and various THC confirmation cutoffs were 86.2–90.7,75.0 –77.8, and 84.8–87.9%, respectively. Last detection times were >22 h, longer than previously suggested. Confirmation of 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, absent in THC smoke, minimized the potential for passive OF contamination and still provided 22-h windows of detection, appropriate for workplace drug testing, whereas confirmation of cannabidiol, and/or cannabinol yielded shorter 6-h windows of detection, appropriate for DUID OF testing. Conclusions The DrugTest 5000 on-site device provided high diagnostic sensitivity for detection of cannabinoid exposure, and the selection of OF confirmation analytes and cutoffs provided appropriate windows of detection to meet the goals of different drug testing programs. PMID:22912396

  13. Onsite QTc interval screening for patients in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Ayman; Vayalapalli, Sreedevi; Byrd-Sellers, Johnita; Casarella, Jennifer; Drexler, Karen; Amar, Richard; Smith-Cox, Jocelyn; Lutchman, Tamara Shaw

    2010-01-01

    To improve the electrocardiogram screening process and early detection of patients at high risk for cardiac arrhythmias, the authors created a model in their clinic where they provided an onsite electrocardiogram screening that might be feasible and practical. The authors then performed a retrospective chart review to access the efficacy and feasibility of their new onsite procedure in identifying methadone maintained patients at high risk for cardiac arrhythmias. Records from all patients who are currently or had previously been maintained on methadone in the methadone maintenance program at the Atlanta VA Medical Center between 2002 and 2009 were evaluated. Of the 140 patients treated at the clinic between 2002 and 2009, 85 were excluded from the study because they had been treated as guests (had been in treatment in other clinics but received methadone dosing temporarily from our clinic), were treated in the clinic for less than 6 months, or dropped out of treatment. Thus, 55 patient charts were selected for review. Most patients (95%) received baseline and annual electrocardiogram screening. The average baseline QTc was (417 +/- 30) and most recent QTc (442 +/- 25). This QTc prolongation from baseline showed statistical significance (P < .0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline but was less than 450 ms (mean: 428 +/- 16, P = .008). Twenty-seven percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline of more 450 ms but was less than 500 ms (mean: 460 +/- 8, P < .0001). Six percent of patients had statistically significant QTc prolongation from baseline of more 500 ms (mean: 503 +/- 1.15, P = .027). Recent cocaine use was the only individual variable that showed statistically significant correlation with QTc prolongation (F = 6.98, P = .01). The authors demonstrated in this study that providing an onsite electrocardiogram screening with a focus on patient education and limiting

  14. Developing a training package.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Virginia; Donskoy, Anne-Laure

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a training package for service users and carers with an interest in NHS health and social care research. It demonstrates how the developers used their unique experience and expertise as service users and carers to inform their work. Design/methodology/approach Service users and carers, NHS Research and Development Forum working group members, supported by health professionals, identified a need for research training that was tailored to other service user and carer needs. After reviewing existing provision and drawing on their training and support experience, they developed a training package. Sessions from the training package were piloted, which evaluated positively. In trying to achieve programme accreditation and training roll-out beyond the pilots, the group encountered several challenges. Findings The training package development group formed good working relationships and a co-production model that proved sustainable. However, challenges were difficult to overcome owing to external factors and financial constraints. Practical implications Lessons learnt by the team are useful for other service users and carer groups working with health service professionals. Training for service users and carers should be designed to meet their needs; quality and consistency are also important. The relationships between service user and carer groups, and professionals are important to understanding joint working. Recognising and addressing challenges at the outset can help develop strategies to overcome challenges and ensure project success. Originality/value The training package was developed by service users and carers for other service users and carers. Their unique health research experience underpinned the group's values and training development.

  15. On-site worker-risk calculations using MACCS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, V.L.

    1993-05-01

    We have revised the latest version of MACCS for use with the calculation of doses and health risks to on-site workers for postulated accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado. The modifications fall into two areas: (1) an improved estimate of shielding offered by buildings to workers that remain indoors; and, (2) an improved treatment of building-wake effects, which affects both indoor and outdoor workers. Because the postulated accident can be anywhere on plant site, user-friendly software has been developed to create those portions of the (revised) MACCS input data files that are specific to the accident site.

  16. Biostimulation and bioaugmentation for on-site treatment of weathered diesel fuel in Arctic soil.

    PubMed

    Thomassin-Lacroix, E J M; Eriksson, M; Reimer, K J; Mohn, W W

    2002-08-01

    Bioremediation of weathered diesel fuel in Arctic soil at low temperature was studied both on-site in small-scale biopiles and in laboratory microcosms. The field study site was on Ellesmere Island (82 degrees 30'N, 62 degrees 20'W). Biostimulation was by fertilization with phosphorous and nitrogen. Bioaugmentation was with an enrichment culture originating from the field site. In biopiles, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were reduced from 2.9 to 0.5 mg/g of dry soil over a period of 65 days. In microcosms at 7 degrees C, TPH were reduced from 2.4 to 0.5 mg/g of dry soil over a period of 90 days. Inoculation had no effect on hydrocarbon removal in biopiles or in microcosms. Maximum TPH removal rates in the biopiles were approximately 90 micro g of TPH g(-1) of soil day(-1), occurring during the first 14 days when ambient temperature ranged from 0 to 10 degrees C. The fate of three phylotypes present in the inoculum was monitored using most-probable-number PCR, targeting 16S rRNA genes. Populations of all three phylotypes increased more than 100-fold during incubation of both uninoculated and inoculated biopiles. The inoculum increased the initial populations of the phylotypes but did not significantly affect their final populations. Thus, biostimulation on site enriched populations that were also selected in laboratory enrichment cultures.

  17. Security Package for the VAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, V. J.; Benigue, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Four programs deal with intruders and resource managment. Package available from COSMIC provides DEC VAX-11/780 with certain "deterent" security features. Although packages is not comprehensive security system, of interest for any VAX installation where security is concern.

  18. Food packaging history and innovations.

    PubMed

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  19. PAYLOAD PACKAGING DESIGN - ALOUETTE SATELLITE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A description of satellite packaging design , discussion of factors influencing design, and enumeration of some practical rules found generally useful during the payload packaging of the Alouette spacecraft is presented. (Author)

  20. Packaging legislation. Objectives and consequences.

    PubMed

    Christmann, H

    1995-05-01

    The recently published Directive on packaging and packaging waste makes new demands on the industry. This article highlights the key areas and raises some of the issues that must be confronted in the future.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrogen dioxide ; CASRN 10102 - 44 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  2. Benchmarking of RESRAD-OFFSITE : transition from RESRAD (onsite) toRESRAD-OFFSITE and comparison of the RESRAD-OFFSITE predictions with peercodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Biwer, B.

    2006-05-22

    The main purpose of this report is to document the benchmarking results and verification of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code as part of the quality assurance requirements of the RESRAD development program. This documentation will enable the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees and other stakeholders to use the quality-assured version of the code to perform dose analysis in a risk-informed and technically defensible manner to demonstrate compliance with the NRC's License Termination Rule, Title 10, Part 20, Subpart E, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E); DOE's 10 CFR Part 834, Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment''; and other Federal and State regulatory requirements as appropriate. The other purpose of this report is to document the differences and similarities between the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes so that users (dose analysts and risk assessors) can make a smooth transition from use of the RESRAD (onsite) code to use of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code for performing both onsite and offsite dose analyses. The evolution of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code from the RESRAD (onsite) code is described in Chapter 1 to help the dose analyst and risk assessor make a smooth conceptual transition from the use of one code to that of the other. Chapter 2 provides a comparison of the predictions of RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE for an onsite exposure scenario. Chapter 3 documents the results of benchmarking RESRAD-OFFSITE's atmospheric transport and dispersion submodel against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) CAP88-PC (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) and ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex-Long Term) models. Chapter 4 documents the comparison results of the predictions of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code and its submodels with the predictions of peer models. This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne

  3. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  4. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-03-09

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg(-1) and 8 μg kg(-1), respectively.

  5. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg−1 and 8 μg kg−1, respectively. PMID:28276454

  6. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg‑1 and 8 μg kg‑1, respectively.

  7. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  8. Use of leaching chambers for on-site sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    St Marseille, J G; Anderson, B C

    2002-03-01

    An innovative chamber system was installed for on-site sewage treatment beneath an active parking lot at a restaurant near Cornwall, Ontario. The configuration of this prototype system used polyethylene leaching chambers over which wastewater was allowed to trickle. The chambers were vented to the surface to provide direct, passive air transfer. This demonstration project was examined as a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative for a very constrained site. The leaching chambers were installed over a geotextile-covered sand filter bed. Chamber sidewall contact contributed an additional 50% to the total soil contact area hence justification for a footprint reduction. A labile carbon source (sawdust) was added into one half of the bed to encourage dissimilatory denitrification. Average hydraulic loading was 50 l m(-1) day(-1) (5 cm day(-1)). Treatment rates exceeded more than 4 orders of magnitude removal for E. coli; 90% biochemical oxygen demand; ammonium; and 99% total phosphorus. Nitrate-N on the carbon-amended side averaged 0.6 mg l(-1) compared with 8.6 mg l(-1) on the (non-carbon) control side. This project has demonstrated that effective on-site treatment can be accomplished. Flow and load equalization, pulse dosing, chamber venting, phosphorus precipitation, and denitrification were keys to treatment success. Applications include domestic and commercial sites.

  9. Onsite synthesis of thermally percolated nanocomposite for thermal interface material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obori, Masanao; Nita, Satoshi; Miura, Asuka; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2016-02-01

    To solve the problem of lack of thermal percolation in thermal interface materials (TIM), we propose a two-step synthesis method to realize thermally percolated nanofiber network in polymer matrix. First, by packing vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) on top of aluminum heat sink and integrally sintering the whole material, the aluminum partially melts and connects the VGCF network, forming a continuous thermal path, i.e., realizing thermal percolation. Second, the pores in the hybrid network are filled by Silicone oil to obtain a polymer nanocomposite. The direct synthesis of VGCF-aluminum network on the heat sink (onsite synthesis) omits pasting process of the TIM, and thus, removes the restriction on the network morphology. By this onsite synthesis method, we reinforce thermal contact not only between the nanofibers but also between nanofibers and the heat sink. By testing the developed TIM for thermal contact to silicon surface, we demonstrate the potential to significantly reduce thermal contact resistance from what can be achieved by a conventional TIM.

  10. The effectiveness of education as a tool to manage onsite septic systems.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Gary S

    2005-01-01

    Onsite septic systems meet the needs of homes that lack access to municipal services. Although they present an important source of contamination to receiving waters, they are given relatively little regulatory attention. Proper maintenance and use of onsite systems is simple and inexpensive, and can substantially decrease risk of system failure. In this study, information about onsite-system management was provided on a door-to-door basis at homes throughout northwest Ohio. Residents who received the educational program learned more about onsite-septic-system management, but the educational program did not significantly change their personal management practices. More intrusive management practices appear necessary to control pollution from this source.

  11. Smart Packaging Technologies and Their Application in Conventional Meat Packaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, Michael N.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    Preservative packaging of meat and meat products should maintain acceptable appearance, odour and flavour and should delay the onset of microbial spoilage. Typically fresh red meats are placed on trays and over-wrapped with an oxygen permeable film or alternatively, meats are stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (80% O2:20% CO2) (Georgala & Davidson, 1970). Cooked meats are usually stored in 70% N2:30% CO2 (Smiddy, Papkovsky, & Kerry, 2002). The function of oxygen in MAP is to maintain acceptable fresh meat colour and carbon dioxide inhibits the growth of spoilage bacteria (Seideman & Durland, 1984). Nitrogen is used as an inert filler gas either to reduce the proportions of the other gases or to maintain the pack shape (Bell & Bourke, 1996).

  12. Parenteral packaging waste reduction.

    PubMed

    Baetz, B W

    1990-08-01

    The consumption of pharmaceutical products generates waste materials which can cause significant environmental impact when incinerated or landfilled. The purpose of this work is to stimulate discussion among hospital pharmacists and purchasing managers relating to the waste management aspects of their purchasing decisions. As a case study example, a number of commercially available "single use" parenterals are evaluated from a waste reduction perspective, for both the product container and for the packaging of these containers. Glass vials are non-incinerable, and are currently non-recyclable due to the higher melting temperatures required for borosilicate glass. However, plastic vials are potentially both incinerable and recyclable. Packaging quantities are considerably lower for plastic vials on a unit container basis, and also vary to a measurable degree between different manufacturers for a given type of container material. From an environmental perspective, waste reduction potential should become an important criterion in the selection of pharmaceutical products for hospital use.

  13. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  14. TIDEV: Tidal Evolution package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Melita, M.; Zuluaga, J.; Portilla, B.; Sucerquia, M.; Miloni, O.

    2016-09-01

    TIDEV (Tidal Evolution package) calculates the evolution of rotation for tidally interacting bodies using Efroimsky-Makarov-Williams (EMW) formalism. The package integrates tidal evolution equations and computes the rotational and dynamical evolution of a planet under tidal and triaxial torques. TIDEV accounts for the perturbative effects due to the presence of the other planets in the system, especially the secular variations of the eccentricity. Bulk parameters include the mass and radius of the planet (and those of the other planets involved in the integration), the size and mass of the host star, the Maxwell time and Andrade's parameter. TIDEV also calculates the time scale that a planet takes to be tidally locked as well as the periods of rotation reached at the end of the spin-orbit evolution.

  15. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  16. Fair Package Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  17. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  18. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  19. Trilinos Web Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jonathan; Phenow, Michael N.; Sala, Marzio; Tuminaro, Ray S.

    2006-09-01

    WebTrilinos is a scientific portal, a web-based environment to use several Trilinos packages through the web. If you are a teaching sparse linear algebra, you can use WebTrilinos to present code snippets and simple scripts, and let the students execute them from their browsers. If you want to test linear algebra solvers, you can use the MatrixPortal module, and you just have to select problems and options, then plot the results in nice graphs.

  20. Navy packaging standardization thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

  1. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof.... 1337, on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC of Longview, Texas. An amended complaint was filed... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof...

  2. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  3. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine

    PubMed Central

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A.; O'Meara, Patrick F.; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Deshusses, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65–75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 Lbiogas/person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 Lbiogas/p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH3-N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment. PMID:27924135

  4. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine.

    PubMed

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A; O'Meara, Patrick F; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-11-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65-75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 Lbiogas/person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 Lbiogas/p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH3-N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment.

  5. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  6. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  7. Signatures of testing: On-site inspection technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J.J.; Carrigan, C.; Goldstein, P.; Jarpe, S.P.; Sweeney, J.; Pickles, W.L.; Wright, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and technologies for their detection as relevant to On-Site Inspection (OSI) for a comprehensive test-ban (CTB). Our experience with the US nuclear test program which has been primarily carried out at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Pacific Ocean. The goals of OSI are to resolve ambiguous events, reduce uncertainty, deter attempts at evasion, and provide responsive and technically competent means of confirming the occurrence of a nuclear explosion should deterrence fail. These goals would include finding evidence of an evasive nuclear explosion or evidence that the event was non-nuclear, such as an earthquake or large chemical explosion.

  8. Are cardiac interventions without onsite surgery worth the risk?

    PubMed Central

    van der Graaf, Y.

    2005-01-01

    There is a considerable decline in the use of CABG for failed PCI and the pressure to perform cardiac interventions in centres without onsite surgery is high. But is it necessary to increase the number of PCI centres in a densely populated country as the Netherlands? Advocates for expansion suggest a better patient outcome, but the evidence is not very solid. Arguments such as transport time are probably quite valid in large countries, but do not pertain to the Netherlands. Increasing the number of PCI centres will inevitably lead to fewer procedures per centre, per cardiologist and more complications and higher mortality. Waiting lists are no longer a relevant issue. Other less altruistic reasons might be the driving force. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is considered a commercially attractive intervention by cardiologists and institutions and seems to be the main motive for extension of the number of PCI centres. PMID:25696419

  9. Rate Structures for Customers With Onsite Generation: Practice and Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, L.; Takahashi, K.; Weston, F.; Murray, C.

    2005-12-01

    Recognizing that innovation and good public policy do not always proclaim themselves, Synapse Energy Economics and the Regulatory Assistance Project, under a contract with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), undertook a survey of state policies on rates for partial-requirements customers with onsite distributed generation. The survey investigated a dozen or so states. These varied in geography and the structures of their electric industries. By reviewing regulatory proceedings, tariffs, publications, and interviews, the researchers identified a number of approaches to standby and associated rates--many promising but some that are perhaps not--that deserve policymakers' attention if they are to promote the deployment of cost-effective DG in their states.

  10. Cytotechnologists and On-Site Evaluation of Adequacy

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jennifer A.; Novak, Anna; Ali, Syed Z.

    2013-01-01

    While fine needle aspiration (FNA) is certainly not a new biopsy technique, recent developments in advanced imaging techniques, molecular testing, and targeted therapies have coincided with a rapid increase in the number of FNA procedures being performed. Concurrently, the demand for on-site evaluation of adequacy (OSEA) has also increased, outstripping the capacity of available cytopathologists at some institutions. Among the several alternatives to cytopathologist-performed OSEA, cytotechnologist-attended OSEA stands out because it preserves the representation of the pathology service at the time of the procedure. Herein, we review the current literature about OSEA and the necessity of cytotechnologists to expand access of this useful pathology service to a broader patient population. We also examine how cytotechnologists are likely to fit into the emerging practice of telecytology. PMID:24255627

  11. Impacts of onsite greywater reuse on wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, Roni; Schütze, Manfred; Alex, Jens; Friedler, Eran

    2017-04-01

    Together with significant water savings that onsite greywater reuse (GWR) may provide, it may also affect the performance of urban sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In order to examine these effects, an integrated stochastic simulation system for GWR in urban areas was developed. The model includes stochastic generators of domestic wastewater streams and gross solids (GSs), a sewer network model which includes hydrodynamic simulation and a GS transport module, and a dynamic process model of the WWTP. The developed model was applied to a case study site in Israel. For the validation of the sewer simulator, field experiments in a real sewer segment were conducted. The paper presents the integration and implementation of these modules and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR scenarios on GS movement in sewers and on the performance of the WWTP.

  12. Advanced on-site power plant development technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A 30-cell, full area short stack containing advanced cell features was tested for 2900 hours. A stack acid addition approach was selected and will be evaluated on the stack at 5000 hours test time. A brassboard inverter was designed and fabrication was initiated. Evaluation of this brassboard inverter will take place in 1984. A Teflon coated commercial heat exchanger was selected as the preferred approach for the acid condenser. A reformer catalyst with significantly less pressure drop and equivalent performance relative to the 40-K baseline catalyst was selected for the development reformer. The early 40-kW field power plant history was reviewed and adjustments were made to the On-Site Technology Development Program to address critical component issues.

  13. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  14. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  15. 28 CFR 79.32 - Criteria for eligibility for claims by onsite participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for eligibility for claims by onsite participants. 79.32 Section 79.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Onsite...

  16. 13 CFR 120.1050 - On-site reviews and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operations management; (3) Credit administration; and (4) Compliance with Loan Program Requirements. (b) On... reviews. SBA may conduct on-site reviews of the SBA loan operations of SBA Lenders. The on-site review may... losses); (3) Management quality (including internal controls, loan portfolio management, and asset...

  17. 13 CFR 120.1050 - On-site reviews and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations management; (3) Credit administration; and (4) Compliance with Loan Program Requirements. (b) On... reviews. SBA may conduct on-site reviews of the SBA loan operations of SBA Lenders. The on-site review may... losses); (3) Management quality (including internal controls, loan portfolio management, and asset...

  18. 13 CFR 120.1050 - On-site reviews and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations management; (3) Credit administration; and (4) Compliance with Loan Program Requirements. (b) On... reviews. SBA may conduct on-site reviews of the SBA loan operations of SBA Lenders. The on-site review may... losses); (3) Management quality (including internal controls, loan portfolio management, and asset...

  19. 13 CFR 120.1050 - On-site reviews and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operations management; (3) Credit administration; and (4) Compliance with Loan Program Requirements. (b) On... reviews. SBA may conduct on-site reviews of the SBA loan operations of SBA Lenders. The on-site review may... losses); (3) Management quality (including internal controls, loan portfolio management, and asset...

  20. 42 CFR 488.9 - Onsite observation of accreditation organization operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Onsite observation of accreditation organization operations. 488.9 Section 488.9 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.9 Onsite observation of accreditation organization operations. As part of...

  1. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased... Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower Service Group... to the production of hematology reagents and instruments. The company reports that workers...

  2. 75 FR 41895 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Workers From Andrews International, Inc., M.H. Equipment, and Kenco Logistics Services, LLC, Evansville... that workers leased from MH Equipment and Kenco Logistics Services, LLC, were employed on-site at the... from MH Equipment and Kenco Logistics Services, LLC working on-site at the Evansville, Indiana location...

  3. 75 FR 11922 - Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., Ultimate Staffing (Roth Staffing Companies), and Aerotek, Cromwell, CT; Amended Certification Regarding... Healthcare, including on-site leased workers from Corestaff, Cromwell, Connecticut. The notice was published... workers leased from Ultimate Staffing and Aerotek were employed on-site at the Cromwell, Connecticut...

  4. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  5. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  6. 75 FR 70688 - Actel Corporation, Currently Known as Microsemi Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... On-Site Leased Workers From ATR International, Accountants, Inc. and Accountant Temps Mountain View... International, Accountants, Inc., and Accountant Temps, Mountain View, California. The notice was published in... Microsemi Corporation, including on-site leased workers from ATE International, Accountants, Inc.,...

  7. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Spherion, Securitas and ABM Janitorial Services... leased from ABM Janitorial Services North Central, Inc. was employed on-site at the Rock Island, Illinois... Department is amending this certification to include workers leased from ABM Janitorial Services...

  8. On-site availability of Legionella testing in acute care hospitals, United States.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Laurel E; Shaw, Kristin M S; McCollum, Jeffrey T; Dexter, Carol; Vagnone, Paula M Snippes; Thompson, Jamie H; Giambrone, Gregory; White, Benjamin; Thomas, Stepy; Carpenter, L Rand; Nichols, Megin; Parker, Erin; Petit, Susan; Hicks, Lauri A; Langley, Gayle E

    2014-07-01

    We surveyed 399 US acute care hospitals regarding availability of on-site Legionella testing; 300 (75.2%) did not offer Legionella testing on site. Availability varied according to hospital size and geographic location. On-site access to testing may improve detection of Legionnaires disease and inform patient management and prevention efforts.

  9. 7 CFR 3560.353 - Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews. 3560.353 Section 3560.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING....353 Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews. Generally, the Agency will provide the borrower prior...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.353 - Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews. 3560.353 Section 3560.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING....353 Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews. Generally, the Agency will provide the borrower prior...

  11. 13 CFR 120.1051 - Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations. 120.1051 Section 120.1051 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1051 Frequency of on-site reviews and...

  12. 13 CFR 120.1050 - On-site reviews and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On-site reviews and examinations. 120.1050 Section 120.1050 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1050 On-site reviews and examinations. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 12.31 - On-site wetland identification criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false On-site wetland identification criteria. 12.31 Section 12.31 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.31 On-site wetland identification criteria. (a) Hydric soils. (1)...

  14. 7 CFR 12.31 - On-site wetland identification criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false On-site wetland identification criteria. 12.31 Section 12.31 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.31 On-site wetland identification criteria. (a) Hydric soils. (1)...

  15. 7 CFR 12.31 - On-site wetland identification criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false On-site wetland identification criteria. 12.31 Section 12.31 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.31 On-site wetland identification criteria. (a) Hydric soils. (1)...

  16. 7 CFR 12.31 - On-site wetland identification criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false On-site wetland identification criteria. 12.31 Section 12.31 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.31 On-site wetland identification criteria. (a) Hydric soils. (1)...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.232-79 - Payment for on-site preparatory costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.232-79 Payment for on-site preparatory costs. As prescribed in 1832.111-70, insert the following clause: Payment for On-Site Preparatory Costs (SEP 1987) Costs associated with on... preparatory costs. 1852.232-79 Section 1852.232-79 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS...

  18. 75 FR 35901 - On-Site Completion of Construction of Manufactured Homes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Housing and Urban Development 24 CFR Parts 3282 and 3285 On-Site Completion of Construction of... On-Site Completion of Construction of Manufactured Homes AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... would establish a procedure whereby construction of new manufactured housing can be completed at the...

  19. On-site Assessment of the Women in Science Career Facilitation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenmeyer, Conrad; Lawrenz, Frances

    A study of the Women in Science Program, particularly the Career Facilitation Projects, was conducted through on-site visits to assess initial project functioning to determine whether alterations in the program guidelines should be recommended. Based on the individual on-site reports, findings and conclusions are presented, participants and…

  20. On-Site Social Surveys and the Determination of Social Carrying Capacity in Wildland Recreation Management

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. West

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that on-site surveys of user fail to measure crowding accurately because long time users who knew the area before the "crowds" came tend to feel the most crowded, and thus do not return. Such "displaced" users would not be included in current on-site survey samples. Results from a limited test at the Sylvania Recreation Area...

  1. 76 FR 54793 - Westpoint Home, Inc., Manufacturing Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Westpoint Home, Inc., Manufacturing Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Manpower, Greenville, AL; Westpoint Home, Inc., Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Manpower, Greenville, AL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  2. 75 FR 69469 - LSI Corporation, 1110 American Parkway, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spinnaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration LSI Corporation, 1110 American Parkway, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spinnaker, Allentown, PA; LSI Corporation, 555 Union Boulevard, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spinnaker, Allentown, PA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  3. 75 FR 66796 - Multina, USA, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Plattsburgh, NY; Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... working on-site at the ] Plattsburgh, New York location of Multina, USA. The amended notice applicable to... Employment and Training Administration Multina, USA, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Plattsburgh, NY; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

  4. 75 FR 63508 - Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Engineering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... certification to include workers leased from Adecco Engineering and Technical working on-site at the Norwich... Employment and Training Administration Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers... To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974,...

  5. 78 FR 48468 - Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site... to workers of Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, including on-site leased workers... Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division. The Department has determined that these...

  6. Understanding the Experience of CACREP On-Site Visiting Review Team Chairpersons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the experience of CACREP on-site review team members provides insight into the phenomenon of four counselor educators who have each served as a CACREP on-site visiting review team chairperson a minimum of three times. In total, the participants had been within the counselor education field for approximately 95 years and active within…

  7. Accountability Procedures Manual for On-Site Evaluations, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This Accountability Procedures Manual (APM) is designed to be used by Texas Education Agency staff and other education system personnel as a guide for on-site evaluations. It is the responsibility of each member of an on-site peer review team to become familiar with the contents of the APM. Quality peer review evaluations demand consistency,…

  8. 76 FR 14101 - Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions; Morristown, TN; Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Chicago, IL; Amended..., applicable to workers of Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., including on-site leased workers from...

  9. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.33 Section 79.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Onsite Participants § 79.33 Proof of...

  10. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.33 Section 79.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Onsite Participants § 79.33 Proof of...

  11. 75 FR 879 - National Semiconductor Corporation Arlington Manufacturing Site Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ..., ASML and Construction Mechanical Systems Arlington, TX; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... Mechanical Systems were employed on-site at the Arlington, Texas location of National Semiconductor... workers leased from ASML and Construction Mechanical Systems working on-site at the Arlington, Texas...

  12. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  13. New package for CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  14. The Kull IMC package

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A; Keen,N; Rathkopf, J

    1998-10-01

    We describe the Kull IMC package, and Implicit Monte Carlo Program written for use in A and X division radiation hydro codes. The Kull IMC has been extensively tested. Written in C++ and using genericity via the template feature to allow easy integration into different codes, the Kull IMC currently runs coupled radiation hydrodynamic problems in 2 different 3D codes. A stand-alone version also exists, which has been parallelized with mesh replication. This version has been run on up to 384 processors on ASCI Blue Pacific.

  15. Aristos Optimization Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ridzal, Danis

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the area of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.

  16. TASC Graphics Software Package.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    RD-I55 861 TSC GRPHICS SOFTWRE PCKRGE(U) NLYTIC SCIENCES i/I RD 𔄀-t CORP RERDING MA M R TANG DEC 82 TR-1946-6U~~cLss AFG L-TR-gi-1388 Fi9629-89-C...extensions were made to allow TGSP to use color graphics. 2.1 INTERACTIVE TGSP NCAR was designed to be a general plot package for use with many different...plotting devices. It is designed to accept high level commands and generate an intermediate set of commands called metacode and to then use device

  17. Comparison of Online and Onsite Bioinformatics Instruction for a Fully Online Bioinformatics Master’s Program

    PubMed Central

    Obom, Kristina M.; Cummings, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    The completely online Master of Science in Bioinformatics program differs from the onsite program only in the mode of content delivery. Analysis of student satisfaction indicates no statistically significant difference between most online and onsite student responses, however, online and onsite students do differ significantly in their responses to a few questions on the course evaluation queries. Analysis of student exam performance using three assessments indicates that there was no significant difference in grades earned by students in online and onsite courses. These results suggest that our model for online bioinformatics education provides students with a rigorous course of study that is comparable to onsite course instruction and possibly provides a more rigorous course load and more opportunities for participation. PMID:23653816

  18. Comparison of Online and Onsite Bioinformatics Instruction for a Fully Online Bioinformatics Master's Program.

    PubMed

    Obom, Kristina M; Cummings, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    The completely online Master of Science in Bioinformatics program differs from the onsite program only in the mode of content delivery. Analysis of student satisfaction indicates no statistically significant difference between most online and onsite student responses, however, online and onsite students do differ significantly in their responses to a few questions on the course evaluation queries. Analysis of student exam performance using three assessments indicates that there was no significant difference in grades earned by students in online and onsite courses. These results suggest that our model for online bioinformatics education provides students with a rigorous course of study that is comparable to onsite course instruction and possibly provides a more rigorous course load and more opportunities for participation.

  19. On-Site Pilot Study - Removal of Uranium, Radium-226 and Arsenic from Impacted Leachate by Reverse Osmosis - 13155

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, Allan; Everest, Chris; Rilling, Ken; Vandergaast, Gary; LaMonica, David

    2013-07-01

    Conestoga-Rovers and Associates (CRA-LTD) performed an on-site pilot study at the Welcome Waste Management Facility in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effectiveness of a unique leachate treatment process for the removal of radioactive contaminants from leachate impacted by low-level radioactive waste. Results from the study also provided the parameters needed for the design of the CRA-LTD full scale leachate treatment process design. The final effluent water quality discharged from the process to meet the local surface water discharge criteria. A statistical software package was utilized to obtain the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the results from design of experiment applied to determine the effect of the evaluated factors on the measured responses. The factors considered in the study were: percent of reverse osmosis permeate water recovery, influent coagulant dosage, and influent total dissolved solids (TDS) dosage. The measured responses evaluated were: operating time, average specific flux, and rejection of radioactive contaminants along with other elements. The ANOVA for the design of experiment results revealed that the operating time is affected by the percent water recovery to be achieved and the flocculant dosage over the range studied. The average specific flux and rejection for the radioactive contaminants were not affected by the factors evaluated over the range studied. The 3 month long on-site pilot testing on the impacted leachate revealed that the CRA-LTD leachate treatment process was robust and produced an effluent water quality that met the surface water discharge criteria mandated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the local municipality. (authors)

  20. Do On-Site Mental Health Professionals Change Pediatricians' Responses to Children's Mental Health Problems?

    PubMed

    McCue Horwitz, Sarah; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Green, Cori M; Foy, Jane M; Stein, Ruth E K

    2016-01-01

    To assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHPs) in primary care; to examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and to determine whether the presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians' comanaging or more frequently identifying, treating/managing, or referring mental health (MH) problems. Analyses included American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (n = 321). Measures included sociodemographics, practice characteristics, questions about on-site MHPs, comanagement of MH problems, and pediatricians' behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools, universities, health maintenance organizations, <100 visits per week, <80% of patients privately insured) and interactions of practice location (urban) with visits and patient insurance were associated with on-site MHPs. There was no overall association between colocation and comanagement, or whether pediatricians usually identified, treated/managed, or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported comanaging, there was an association with comanagement when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who comanage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with comanagement or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Laboratory and clinical evaluation of on-site urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Carlsson, Sten; Tusic, Marinela; Olsson, Robert; Franzen, Lisa; Hulten, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Products for on-site urine drug testing offer the possibility to perform screening for drugs of abuse directly at the point-of-care. This is a well-established routine in emergency and dependency clinics but further evaluation of performance is needed due to inherent limitations with the available products. Urine drug testing by an on-site product was compared with routine laboratory methods. First, on-site testing was performed at the laboratory in addition to the routine method. Second, the on-site testing was performed at a dependency clinic and urine samples were subsequently sent to the laboratory for additional analytical investigation. The on-site testing products did not perform with assigned cut-off levels. The subjective reading between the presence of a spot (i.e. negative test result) being present or no spot (positive result) was difficult in 3.2% of the cases, and occurred for all parameters. The tests performed more accurately in drug negative samples (specificity 96%) but less accurately for detecting positives (sensitivity 79%). Of all incorrect results by the on-site test the proportion of false negatives was 42%. The overall agreement between on-site and laboratory testing was 95% in the laboratory study and 98% in the clinical study. Although a high degree of agreement was observed between on-site and routine laboratory urine drug testing, the performance of on-site testing was not acceptable due to significant number of false negative results. The limited sensitivity of on-site testing compared to laboratory testing reduces the applicability of these tests.

  2. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  3. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  5. Signal processor packaging design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

    1993-10-01

    The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

  6. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  7. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  8. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  9. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  10. Investigation of packaging systems for shelled walnuts based on oxygen absorbers.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pernille N; Sørensen, Gitte; Brockhoff, Per; Bertelsen, Grete

    2003-08-13

    Storage of nuts at a high oxygen concentration results in rancid nuts whereas storage at a low oxygen concentration results in fine-tasting nuts. During a 13 month experiment, packaging of walnuts with an oxygen absorber was compared to packaging in nitrogen or atmospheric air. At the same time, the effects of oxygen permeability of the packaging material and storage temperature (11 and 21 degrees C) were investigated by determination of hexanal and rancid taste of the walnuts. The optimal storage condition for walnuts is at 11 degrees C or lower, eventually combined with an oxygen absorber. However, without chilled storage and use of an oxygen absorber, it is possible to obtain an acceptable quality of walnuts with a packaging material having a very low oxygen permeability (e.g., laminate with EVOH) combined with nitrogen flushing. The results also revealed that the development of hexanal during time can be described by a second-order polynomial regression model.

  11. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  12. Packaging investigation of optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhike, Zhang; Yu, Liu; Jianguo, Liu; Ninghua, Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Compared with microelectronic packaging, optoelectronic packaging as a new packaging type has been developed rapidly and it will play an essential role in optical communication. In this paper, we try to summarize the development history, research status, technology issues and future prospects, and hope to provide a meaningful reference. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2013AA014201, 2013AA014203) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61177080, 61335004, 61275031).

  13. 75 FR 55613 - Dupont Teijin Films Including On-Site Leased Workers From Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... September 22, 2009, applicable to workers of DuPont Teijin Films, including on-site leased workers from... issued as follows: All workers of DuPont Teijin Films, including on-site leased workers of Schenkers...

  14. 77 FR 14832 - Plumchoice, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plumchoice, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Balance..., Inc., including on-site leased workers from Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and... from Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource, Scarborough, Maine, who became...

  15. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  16. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  17. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  18. Comparison of central adjudication of outcomes and onsite outcome assessment on treatment effect estimates.

    PubMed

    Ndounga Diakou, Lee Aymar; Trinquart, Ludovic; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Barnes, Caroline; Yavchitz, Amelie; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2016-03-10

    Assessment of events by adjudication committees (ACs) is recommended in multicentre randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, its usefulness has been questioned. The aim of this systematic review was to compare 1) treatment effect estimates of subjective clinical events assessed by onsite assessors versus by AC, and 2) treatment effect estimates according to the blinding status of the onsite assessor as well as the process used to select events to adjudicate. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Google Scholar (25 August 2015 as the last updated search date), using a combination of terms to retrieve RCTs with commonly used terms to describe ACs. We included all reports of RCTs and the published RCTs included in reviews and meta-analyses that reported the same subjective outcome event assessed by both an onsite assessor and an AC. We extracted the odds ratio (OR) from onsite assessment and the corresponding OR from AC assessment and calculated the ratio of the odds ratios (ROR). A ratio of odds ratios < 1 indicated that onsite assessors generated larger effect estimates in favour of the experimental treatment than ACs. Data from 47 RCTs (275,078 patients) were used in the meta-analysis. We excluded 11 RCTs because of incomplete outcome data to calculate the OR for onsite and AC assessments. On average, there was no difference in treatment effect estimates from onsite assessors and AC (combined ROR: 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.04; I(2) = 0%, 47 RCTs). The combined ROR was 1.00 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.04; I(2) = 0%, 35 RCTs) when onsite assessors were blinded; 0.76 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.12, I(2) = 0%, two RCTs) when AC assessed events identified independently from unblinded onsite assessors; and 1.11 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.27, I(2) = 0%, 10 RCTs) when AC assessed events identified by unblinded onsite assessors. However, there was a statistically significant interaction between these subgroups

  19. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents.

  20. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  1. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  2. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  3. Dipstick format of an improved ELISA for on-site atrazine monitoring in water in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Uzma; Anwar-ul-Haq; Mahboob, Sadia

    2010-01-01

    A dipstick format was developed for on-site atrazine monitoring in water samples of different origins. It was derived from an in-house-developed ELISA based on polyclonal antibodies that also cross-react with hydroxyatrazine (30%) and terbuthylazine (17%). Test reagents were evaluated for temperature and pH stabilities and rapidity for field applications. Reagents performed well within a temperature range of 20-30 degrees C and were tolerant to alkaline pH (up to 8.5) of the assay buffering system. Tracer incubation time could be reduced to 40 min. Bovine serum albumin addition (1%) in the assay buffer improved assay performance, giving 50% B/B0 (IC50) of 65 ng/L and the lowest LOD of 2 ng/L at 90% B/B0 (IC10). The dipstick ELISA format was standardized on a membrane support. Nylon membrane, positively charged, was superior to PVDF for qualitative or semiquantitative analysis regarding color intensity and stability. Tracer incubation time was further reduced to 30 min with a lowest LOD of 0.1 microg/L. For real sample screening with dipsticks, acceptable results were obtained for water. Significant correlation was found between dipstick and plate ELISA results. Validation using GC with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector and HPLC indicated that dipstick signals in aged water samples, which were mainly due to hydroxyatrazine, were significantly above European Commission regulations of 0.1 microg/L. However, dipsticks were superior, fast, and cost-effective.

  4. 75 FR 453 - FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek Contract Engineering..., applicable to workers of FLSmidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, including on-site leased...-site leased workers from Clarke Consulting, Inc. were also employed on-site at FLSmidth, Inc.,...

  5. 75 FR 10505 - FCI USA, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Inc., Mount Union, PA; Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration FCI USA, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Inc... January 22, 2010, applicable to workers of FCI USA, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Manpower... issued as follows: All workers of FCI USA, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Inc...

  6. 75 FR 10822 - FCI USA, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Inc.; Mount Union, PA; Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration FCI USA, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Inc... January 22, 2010, applicable to workers of FCI USA, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Manpower... issued as follows: All workers of FCI USA, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Inc...

  7. 75 FR 77665 - Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career... Corporation, including on-site leased workers from Career Solutions TEC Staffing, Fort Smith, Arkansas. The...: All workers of Whirlpool Corporation, including on-site leased workers from Career Solutions...

  8. 75 FR 452 - Applied Materials, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Services, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Materials, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Services, Aerotek, Inc., CDI IT... Materials, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Adecco Employment Services, Aerotek, Inc., CDI IT.... Information shows that on-site leased workers from CDI IT Solution, Inc. had their wages reported under a...

  9. 75 FR 5147 - Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site... Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten Staffing Services New Bedford, MA; Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten Staffing Services Dartmouth, MA...

  10. 75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger..., including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee Falls... Maysteel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS,...

  11. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated Logistics and Including On-Site Workers From Span... Systems, LLC, North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group, including on-site leased workers from...

  12. 78 FR 61389 - Sanyo Solar of Oregon, LLC, Wafer Slicing and Quality Control Operations, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Brown and Dunton and Cirk Solutions, Inc., Salem, Oregon..., including on-site leased workers from Brown and Dunton, Inc., Salem, Oregon. The Department's notice of..., including on-site leased workers from Brown and Dunton, Inc., Salem, Oregon, who became totally or partially...

  13. 75 FR 10318 - Venta-Airwasher, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Metro Staffing, Snelling and Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... and Office Team working on-site at the Itasca, Illinois location of Venta-Airwasher, LLC. The amended..., LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Metro Staffing, Snelling and Office Team Itasca, IL... leased workers from Metro Staffing, Snelling and Office Team were employed on-site at the...

  14. 75 FR 26793 - Beam Global Spirits & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Global Spirits & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business Health... Assistance on March 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Beam Global Spirits & Wine, including on-site leased... employed on-site at the Cincinnati, Ohio location of Beam Global Spirits & Wine. The Department has...

  15. 75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job... determine that workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville, Pennsylvania, including on-site leased... workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville, Pennsylvania, including on-site leased workers from...

  16. 75 FR 452 - Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Workers From Elite Staffing, Inc.; Cozad, NE; Tenneco, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...] Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Workers From Elite Staffing, Inc.; Cozad, NE; Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Leased Workers of Elite Staffing, Inc.; Monroe, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... include on-site leased workers from Elite Staffing, Inc. The Notice of amendment will soon be published...

  17. 76 FR 13662 - Pass & Seymour/Legrand a Subsidiary of Legrand North America; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Select Staffing, also Known as Real Time Staffing Services, and... on-site leased workers from Select Staffing and Aerotek, Concord, North Carolina. The workers... the subject firm. The company reports that Select Staffing, an on-site leased firm, is also known...

  18. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  19. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  20. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  1. The LISA Technology Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The UP is in the late stages of development -- all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the UP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the UP delivery.

  2. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-10-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  3. Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F. N.; LLNL,

    1982-04-23

    PCHIP (Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package) is a set of subroutines for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and "visually pleasing" interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contain both 'steep' and 'flat' sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application. In PCHIP, all piecewise cubic functions are represented in cubic Hermite form; that is, f(x) is determined by its values f(i) and derivatives d(i) at the breakpoints x(i), i=1(1)N. PCHIP contains three routines - PCHIM, PCHIC, and PCHSP to determine derivative values, six routines - CHFEV, PCHFE, CHFDV, PCHFD, PCHID, and PCHIA to evaluate, differentiate, or integrate the resulting cubic Hermite function, and one routine to check for monotonicity. A FORTRAN 77 version and SLATEC version of PCHIP are included.

  4. DROP TESTS RESULTS OF REVISED CLOSURE BOLT CONFIGURATION OF THE STANDARD WASTE BOX, STANDARD LARGE BOX 2, AND TEN DRUM OVERPACK PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    May, C.; Opperman, E.; Mckeel, C.

    2010-04-15

    The Transuranic (TRU) Disposition Project at Savannah River Site will require numerous transfers of radioactive materials within the site boundaries for sorting and repackaging. The three DOT Type A shipping packagings planned for this work have numerous bolts for securing the lids to the body of the packagings. In an effort to reduce operator time to open and close the packages during onsite transfers, thus reducing personnel exposure and costs, an evaluation was performed to analyze the effects of reducing the number of bolts required to secure the lid to the packaging body. The evaluation showed the reduction to one-third of the original number of bolts had no effect on the packagings capability to sustain vibratory loads, shipping loads, internal pressure loads, and the loads resulting from a 4-ft drop. However, the loads caused by the 4-ft drop are difficult to estimate and the study recommended each of the packages be dropped to show the actual effects on the package closure. Even with reduced bolting, the packagings were still required to meet the 49 CFR 178.350 performance criteria for Type A packaging. This paper discusses the effects and results of the drop testing of the three packagings.

  5. Romanian experience on packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, G.

    2007-07-01

    With more than twenty years ago, the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), through its Reliability and Testing Laboratory, was licensed by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body- CNCAN and to carry out qualification tests [1] for packages intended to be used for the transport and storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials, generated by Romanian nuclear facilities [2] are packaged in accordance with national [3] and the IAEA's Regulations [1,6] for a safe transport to the disposal center. Subjecting these packages to the normal and simulating test conditions accomplish the evaluation and certification in order to prove the package technical performances. The paper describes the qualification tests for type A and B packages used for transport and storage of radioactive materials, during a period of 20 years of experience. Testing is used to substantiate assumption in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural response. The Romanian test facilities [1,3,6] are used to simulate the required qualification tests and have been developed at INR Pitesti, the main supplier of type A packages used for transport and storage of low radioactive wastes in Romania. The testing programme will continue to be a strong option to support future package development, to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on radioactive material packages or component sections, such as packages used for transport of radioactive sources to be used for industrial or medical purposes [2,8]. The paper describes and contain illustrations showing some of the various tests packages which have been performed during certain periods and how they relate to normal conditions and minor mishaps during transport. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design there are also presented and commented. (authors)

  6. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  7. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  8. On-Site Detection as a Countermeasure to Chemical Warfare/Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Seto, Y

    2014-01-01

    On-site monitoring and detection are necessary in the crisis and consequence management of wars and terrorism involving chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin. The analytical performance required for on-site detection is mainly determined by the fatal vapor concentration and volatility of the CWAs involved. The analytical performance for presently available on-site technologies and commercially available on-site equipment for detecting CWAs interpreted and compared in this review include: classical manual methods, photometric methods, ion mobile spectrometry, vibrational spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sensors, and other methods. Some of the data evaluated were obtained from our experiments using authentic CWAs. We concluded that (a) no technologies perfectly fulfill all of the on-site detection requirements and (b) adequate on-site detection requires (i) a combination of the monitoring-tape method and ion-mobility spectrometry for point detection and (ii) a combination of the monitoring-tape method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction, and gas chromatography with a trap and special detectors for continuous monitoring. The basic properties of CWAs, the concept of on-site detection, and the sarin gas attacks in Japan as well as the forensic investigations thereof, are also explicated in this article.

  9. Acoustical analysis of trained and untrained singers onsite before and after prolonged voice use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christophe E.

    Controlled acoustic environments are important in voice research. Recording environment affects the quality of voice recordings. While sound booths and anechoic chambers are examples of controlled acoustic environments widely used in research, they are both costly and not portable. The long-term goal of this project is to compare the voice usage and efficiency of trained and untrained singers onsite immediately before and after vocal performance. The specific goal of this project is the further of development a Portable Sound Booth (PSB) and standardization of onsite voice recording procedures under controlled conditions. We hypothesized that the simple and controlled acoustic environment provided by the PSB would enable consistent reliable onsite voice recordings and the immediate differences as a consequence of voice usage were measurable. Research has suggested that it would be possible to conduct onsite voice recordings. Proof of concept research titled "Construction and Characterization of a Portable Sound Booth for Onsite Measurement" was conducted before initiating the full research effort. Preliminary findings revealed that: (1) it was possible to make high-quality voice recordings onsite, (2) the use of a Portable Sound Booth (PSB) required further acoustic characterization of its inherent acoustic properties, and (3) testable differences before and after performance were evident. The specific aims were to (1) develop and refine onsite objective voice measurements in the PSB and (2) evaluate use of the PSB to measure voice quality changes before and after voice usage.

  10. NUHOWS - Storage and Transportation of Irradiated Reactor Components in Large Packages - 13439

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, Glen A.

    2013-07-01

    Most irradiated reactor components (hardware such as Control Rod Blades, Fuel Channels, Poison Curtains, etc.) generated at reactors previously required significant processing for size reduction due to the available transportation casks not being physically capable of containing unprocessed material. As of July 1, 2008, disposal for this typical waste class (B and C) became inaccessible (for the major part of the nation) due to the Barnwell, SC disposal facility being closed to all but its three compact states (CT, NJ and SC). Currently in the United States, most facilities are storing their irradiated hardware on-site in the spent fuel pools. Until recently with the opening of the Waste Control Specialists' Texas disposal facility, utilities faced the challenges of spent fuel pool space and capacity management. However, even with WCS's disposal availability, the site currently has annual Curie limitations for disposal, which will continue to promote interim on-site storage until such time as disposal is available. In response, Transnuclear Inc., (TN) an AREVA company, proceeded with designing a new large Radioactive Waste Container (RWC) that can be used to package irradiated hardware without the need for significant processing. The design features of the RWC allows for intermittent loadings of the hardware for better packaging efficiency, higher packaging density, space savings and reduced cost. This RWC is also compatible with TN's on-site modular vault storage system. Once completely loaded, the RWC can be transported to an on-site storage facility, an off-site storage facility and/or an available disposal facility. To accommodate the transportation, TN has designed a large transportation cask, the MP197HB. As the original design was for transporting fuel, it contains the necessary shielding to allow for the transport of unprocessed irradiated reactor components, while significantly reducing the amount of irradiated hardware shipments required with the use of

  11. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  12. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  13. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  14. Packaging perspective, 1910-1985

    Treesearch

    John W. Koning; James F. Laundrie

    1985-01-01

    For 75 years the Forest Products Laboratory has been concerned for the wise use of wood. One of the major uses of wood is packaging. This report summarizes the research reports completed in packaging and relates the output in terms of forest management and return on the taxpayer’s investment.

  15. Microelectronics/electronic packaging potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandeau, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The trend toward smaller and lighter electronic packages was examined. It is suggested that electronic packaging engineers and microelectronic designers closely associate and give full attention to optimization of both disciplines on all product lines. Extensive research and development work underway to explore innovative ideas and make new inroads into the technology base, is expected to satisfy the demands of the 1980's.

  16. Status of PERST-5 package

    SciTech Connect

    Gomin, E. A.; Gurevich, M. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V. Sidorenko, V. D.; Druzhinin, V. E.; Zhirnov, A. P.; Rozhdestvenskiy, I. M.

    2012-12-15

    The methods and algorithms used in the PERST-5 package are described. This package is part of the MCU-5 code and is intended for neutron-physical calculation of the cells and parts of nuclear reactors using a generalized method of first collision probabilities.

  17. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  18. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  19. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  20. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  1. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  2. Negotiating a fair compensation package.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Thomas L

    2005-01-01

    At the end of the day, compensation packages must be fair for both you and your employer. Employers should conduct an economic analysis to determine what they can afford to offer and calculate the economic return that they should rightfully receive. Understanding the employer's side of the equation is equally important in developing a win/win compensation package for yourself.

  3. Modeling the Effects of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrate Loads Using SWAT in an Urban Watershed of Metropolitan Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Hoghooghi, Nahal; Radcliffe, David E; Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Jeong, Jaehak

    2017-05-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) can be a source of nitrogen (N) pollution in both surface and ground waters. In metropolitan Atlanta, GA, >26% of homes are on OWTSs. In a previous article, we used the Soil Water Assessment Tool to model the effect of OWTSs on stream flow in the Big Haynes Creek Watershed in metropolitan Atlanta. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs, including failing systems, on nitrate as N (NO-N) load in the same watershed. Big Haynes Creek has a drainage area of 44 km with mainly urban land use (67%), and most of the homes use OWTSs. A USGS gauge station where stream flow was measured daily and NO-N concentrations were measured monthly was used as the outlet. The model was simulated for 12 yr. Overall, the model showed satisfactory daily stream flow and NO-N loads with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.62 and 0.58 for the calibration period and 0.67 and 0.33 for the validation period at the outlet of the Big Haynes Watershed. Onsite wastewater treatment systems caused an average increase in NO-N load of 23% at the watershed scale and 29% at the outlet of a subbasin with the highest density of OWTSs. Failing OWTSs were estimated to be 1% of the total systems and did not have a large impact on stream flow or NO-N load. The NO-N load was 74% of the total N load in the watershed, indicating the important effect of OWTSs on stream loads in this urban watershed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  5. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  6. Nanocomposite Sensors for Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. ON-SITE SOLID PHRASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. A I -L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition. An on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent has been developed. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-sol

  8. ON-SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are required to verify that a target analyte has been found by comparison with the mass spectra of fragrance compounds in the NIST mass spectral library. A I -L sample usually provides insufficient analyte for full scan data acquisition. This paper describes an on-site extraction method developed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)- Las Vegas Nevada - for synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for a wide array of synthetic musks. Quantification of these compounds was achieved from the full-scan data directly, without the need to acquire SIM data. The detection limits obtained with this method are an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from liquid-liquid and other solid phase extraction methods. This method is highly reproducible, and recoveries ranged from 80 to 97% in spiked sewage treatment plant effluent. The high rate of sorbent-sample mass transfer eliminated the need for a methanolic activation step, which reduced extraction time, labor, and solvent use, More samples could be extracted in the field at lower cost. After swnple extraction, the light- weight cartridges ar

  9. On-site digital heritage inventory development at Bat, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Miki, T.; Kuronuma, T.; Oguchi, T.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the on-site development of a local-scale digital heritage inventory (DHI) of the Bronze Age site at Bat in the interior of Oman. The goal of this inventory project was to share geospatial and archaeological information of tombs and other built structures with researchers and government agents to conduct cultural heritage management, scientific research, outreach, and education. To this end, the Bat Digital Heritage Inventory (BatDHI) was compiled at the local office by incorporating previous survey records, which were concurrently crosschecked and updated by ground-truth surveys. The current version of the BatDHI was implemented using a combination of a network-access-ready database application, open source geographical information system, and web-based map engine. This system assisted both fieldwork and management works including decision making and planning. This inventory project exemplified a transdisciplinary research, in which researchers and societal stakeholders collaborated for co-design of research agendas, co-production of knowledge, and co-dissemination of outcomes.

  10. Advanced on-site power plant development technology program

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    The subject contract was initiated in August 1982 and the technical effort concluded in April 1989. The purpose of the technical effort was to establish a technology base for 200-kW on-site fuel cell power plants. It was conducted in two phases: (1) Component evaluation; and (2) Full-scale system verification. This contract was supplemented by a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract which was conducted in the 1981--1986 time period. This GRI contract concentrated on 200-kW scale component design, thermal management/water treatment system analysis and redesign and advanced DC/AC inverter development. The component evaluation phase generally included subscale component tests, scale-up to full-size 200-kW hardware and full-size hardware tests of the cell stack (in Tasks 1 and 2), the power conditioner (in Task 3), the heat exchangers and ancillary components (in Task 4), and the fuel processor (in Task 5). The full-size cell stack, fuel processor, heat exchangers, and ancillary components from the component development tasks were integrated into a dc system called the Verification Test Article (VTA). The VTA which was fabricated and tested under Task 7 allowed for system integration issues associated with the cell stack, fuel processor, thermal management, and water treatment subsystems to be explored under conditions similar to an actual fuel cell power plant. Key accomplishments of this contract are described. 193 figs., 37 tabs.

  11. On-site formation of emulsions by controlled air plugs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaowen; Hui, Wenli; Hao, Chonglei; Yue, Wanqing; Yang, Mengsu; Cui, Yali; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-02-26

    Air plugs are usually undesirable in microfluidic systems because of their detrimental effect on the system's stability and integrity. By controlling the wetting properties as well as the topographical geometry of the microchannel, it is reported herein that air plugs can be generated in pre-defined locations to function as a unique valve, allowing for the on-site formation of various emulsions including single-component droplets, composite droplets with droplet-to-droplet concentration gradient, blood droplets, paired droplets, as well as bubble arrays without the need for precious flow control, a difficult task with conventional droplet microfluidics. Moreover, the self-generated air valve can be readily deactivated (turned off) by the introduction of an oil phase, allowing for the on-demand release of as-formed droplets for downstream applications. It is proposed that the simple, yet versatile nature of this technique can act as an important method for droplet microfluidics and, in particular, is ideal for the development of affordable lab-on-a-chip systems without suffering from scalability and manufacturing challenges that typically confound the conventional droplet microfluidics.

  12. A potentiometric biosensor for rapid on-site disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Alexey; Gray, Darren W; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Shields, Niall; Montrose, Armelle; Creedon, Niamh; Lovera, Pierre; O'Riordan, Alan; Mooney, Mark H; Vogel, Eric M

    2016-05-15

    Quantitative point-of-care (POC) devices are the next generation for serological disease diagnosis. Whilst pathogen serology is typically performed by centralized laboratories using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA), faster on-site diagnosis would infer improved disease management and treatment decisions. Using the model pathogen Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1) this study employs an extended-gate field-effect transistor (FET) for direct potentiometric serological diagnosis. BHV-1 is a major viral pathogen of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD), the leading cause of economic loss ($2 billion annually in the US only) to the cattle and dairy industry. To demonstrate the sensor capabilities as a diagnostic tool, BHV-1 viral protein gE was expressed and immobilized on the sensor surface to serve as a capture antigen for a BHV-1-specific antibody (anti-gE), produced in cattle in response to viral infection. The gE-coated immunosensor was shown to be highly sensitive and selective to anti-gE present in commercially available anti-BHV-1 antiserum and in real serum samples from cattle with results being in excellent agreement with Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and ELISA. The FET sensor is significantly faster than ELISA (<10 min), a crucial factor for successful disease intervention. This sensor technology is versatile, amenable to multiplexing, easily integrated to POC devices, and has the potential to impact a wide range of human and animal diseases.

  13. Benefits of On-Site Management of Environmental Restoration Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Michael J. ,P.E.; Wood, Craig, R.E.M.; Kwiecinski, Daniel, P.E.; Alanis, Saul

    2003-02-27

    As Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) began assessing options under which to conduct the remediation of environmental restoration sites, it became clear that the standard routes for permanent disposal of waste contaminated with hazardous materials would be difficult. Publicly, local citizens' groups resisted the idea of large volumes of hazardous waste being transported through their communities. Regulations for the off-site disposal are complicated due to the nature of the environmental restoration waste, which included elevated tritium levels. Waste generated from environmental restoration at SNL/NM included debris and soils contaminated with a variety of constituents. Operationally, disposal of environmental restoration waste was difficult because of the everchanging types of waste generated during site remediation. As an alternative to standard hazardous waste disposal, SNL/NM proposed and received regulatory approval to construct a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). By containing the remediation wastes on-site, SNL/NM's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program managed to eliminate transportation concerns from the public, worked with regulatory agencies to develop a safe, permanent disposal, and modified the waste disposal procedures to accommodate operational changes. SNL/NM accomplished the task and saved approximately $200 million over the life of the CAMU project, as compared to off-site disposal options.

  14. Customized online and onsite training for rabies-control officers.

    PubMed

    Bourhy, Hervé; Troupin, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Meslin, François-Xavier; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Kraehenbuhl, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    It is difficult to deliver adequate training for people working in rabies control in low and middle-income countries. Popular e-learning systems for low-income settings are not well suited to developing and testing practical skills, including laboratory methods. We customized training in rabies control methods for African professionals and students from different disciplines. Trainees participated in preparatory online sessions, evaluations and exercises before and after a 12-day workshop. Trainees and mentors continued to interact through an online forum up to one year after the workshop. In Africa, 15,000 deaths from rabies occur each year due to a lack of awareness, inaccessibility of post-exposure prophylaxis, inadequate or absent canine rabies-control programmes and lack of governmental financial support. Thirty two trainees - working in health departments, hospitals, veterinary stations and research institutes - were selected to participate; 28 completed the course and passed the final evaluation. Pilot rabies investigation programmes were developed, and two manuscripts submitted for publication. An online forum facilitated further progress for a year after the workshop. A combination of customized online and onsite training is suitable for teaching disease-control personnel in low-income countries. Participation in this course enabled trainees to advocate for the development of national disease-control strategies. Mentoring is needed to develop a strong network of experts in similar settings.

  15. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Jin, S K; Park, J H; Jung, S W; Lyu, H J

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP.

  16. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hur, S. J.; Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Jung, S. W.; Lyu, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP. PMID:25049769

  17. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; O`Hara, F.M. Jr.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO{sub 2} concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, plants` response to elevated CO{sub 2} levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost.

  18. A nondestructive leak detection method for flexible food packages using hydrogen as a tracer gas.

    PubMed

    Hurme, E U; Ahvenainen, R

    1998-09-01

    A nondestructive leak detection method developed at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) was tested for both gas-flushed and vacuum flexible packages. In the method, a gas package containing 0.5 to 5.0% (vol/vol) hydrogen in nitrogen was positioned in a test chamber, a controlled vacuum was pulled in the chamber through a pipe connected to a hydrogen sensor, and leaking packages were detected by the sensor as increased H2 concentration. The H2 tracer gas (0.5 to 5.0%) was introduced into leaking finished vacuum packages at 200 kPa pressure. Within 1 to 4 s the developed test method was able to detect leaks down to 10 to 15 microns and 20 to 30 microns in diameter in commercially manufactured gas-flushed packages filled with roasted meat balls and vacuum packages filled with ground coffee, respectively. Before leak testing, the vacuum packages were charged with H2 for 30 s. The sensitivity and leak detection time of the test method were improved when the H2 concentration in the package was increased and when the free space in the test chamber was decreased. The evaluated H2 concentrations did not affect the sensory or microbiological quality of the roasted meat balls. This study clearly demonstrated that the hydrogen tracer gas leak detection method has potential to be further developed as a fast, nondestructive, on-line leak testing apparatus for flexible packages with or without a headspace.

  19. Advanced on-site power plant development technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    A 30-cell stack was tested for 7200 hours. At 6000 hours the stack was successfully refilled with acid with no loss of performance. A second stack containing the advanced Configuration B cell package was fabricated and assembled for testing in 1985. A 200-kW brassboard inverter was successfully evaluated, verifying the design of the two-bridge ASCR circuit design. A fuel processing catalyst train was tested for 2000 hours verifying the catalyst for use in a 200-kW development reformer. The development reformer was fabricated for evaluation in 1985. The initial test plan was prepared for a 200-kW verification test article.

  20. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  1. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  2. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  3. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products... for risk reduction....

  4. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing at periodic intervals only (i.e., other than initial design qualification testing), at ambient... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation of packagings and packages for testing...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.602 Preparation of packagings...

  5. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  6. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  7. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  8. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  9. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  10. 78 FR 8586 - PEPSICO, Inc., Business & Information Solutions (BIS) Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration PEPSICO, Inc., Business & Information Solutions (BIS) Division..., Inc., Business & Information Solutions (BIS) Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Cognizant Technology Solutions and Infosys Technologies Ltd. Bradenton, FL; Amended Certification Regarding...

  11. 77 FR 48550 - Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering... Feature Mastering Division, Hollywood, California (subject firm). The worker group also included on-site... related to post-production services for films. The initial investigation resulted in a...

  12. Field Sampling and Selecting On-Site Analytical Methods for Explosives in Soil

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this issue paper is to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods fordetecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils.

  13. 78 FR 8587 - Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including... Worker Adjustment Assistance on August 2, 2012, applicable to workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance... that workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, including on-site leased...

  14. 76 FR 36579 - Onsite Consultation Agreements; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... respect to the application of occupational safety and health requirements under the Act or under State... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Onsite Consultation Agreements; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY...

  15. On-Site Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting of Composite Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateri, M.; Khosravi, M.

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for cost reduction of future space missions by manufacturing parts on foreign planets. The suitability of Selective Laser Melting process for on-site production of metallic, ceramic and glass products on mars is examined.

  16. Wilderness Recreation Demand: A Comparison of Travel Cost and On-Site Cost Models

    Treesearch

    J.M. Bowker; A. Askew; L. Seymour; J.P. Zhu; D. English; C.M. Starbuck

    2009-01-01

    This study used travel cost and on-site day cost models, coupled with the Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring data, to examine the demand for and value of recreation access to designated Wilderness.

  17. 78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including... Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The worker group includes on-site leased... Company, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who were engaged in employment...

  18. 78 FR 69878 - First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Tapfin, Staffworks, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From... Staffing, St. Petersburg, Florida; First Advantage Corporation, Charlotte, North Carolina, First Advantage Corporation, Bolingbrook, Illinois; First Advantage Corporation, Dallas, Texas; First Advantage...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.903 - Permits, alterations, and on-site structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Information for...) Installation of on-site structures. Each accessory building and structure is designed to support all of its...

  20. On-Site Renewable Energy Generation: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes a variety of approaches that local governments can use to advance climate and energy goals by meeting some or all of their electricity needs through on-site renewable energy generation.

  1. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... encompass preoperational testing of electrical power systems used to meet current Station Blackout... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory...

  2. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Group, Kelly Mitchell, Collaborative Technologies, Partners Consulting, Glotel (Adecco), Innovative...), Comsys, Apex, Fountain Group, Kelly Mitchell, Collaborative Technologies, Partners Consulting, Glotel..., Diagnostics Division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Comsys, Apex, Fountain Group, Kelly...

  3. EPA’s Research to Support On-Site Non-potable Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the reuse of alternative water sources continues to gain popularity, public utilities and other stakeholders are seeking guidance on pathogen treatment requirements and monitoring approaches for nonpotable use of onsite collected water (e.g. combined wastewater, graywater, sto...

  4. 78 FR 28632 - Hutchinson Technology Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Doherty Staffing Hutchinson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hutchinson Technology Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Doherty Staffing Hutchinson, Minnesota; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... Assistance on September 7, 2011, applicable to workers of Hutchinson Technology Inc., Hutchinson, Minnesota...

  5. A sensitive rapid on-site immunoassay for heavy metal contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.; Blake, D.; Flowers, G.

    1996-05-02

    This project concerns the development of immunoassays for heavy metals that will permit the rapid on-site analysis of specific heavy metals, including lead and chromium in water and soil samples. 2 refs.

  6. Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost...high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging requirements. The program balanced the need for...near term component and wafer-level vacuum packaging with the development of advanced high density wafer-level packaging solutions. Three vacuum

  7. Nonemergency PCI at hospitals with or without on-site cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Alice K; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Massaro, Joseph M; Cutlip, Donald E; Carrozza, Joseph P; Marks, Anthony D; Murphy, Nancy; Romm, Iyah K; Biondolillo, Madeleine; Mauri, Laura

    2013-04-18

    Emergency surgery has become a rare event after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether having cardiac-surgery services available on-site is essential for ensuring the best possible outcomes during and after PCI remains uncertain. We enrolled patients with indications for nonemergency PCI who presented at hospitals in Massachusetts without on-site cardiac surgery and randomly assigned these patients, in a 3:1 ratio, to undergo PCI at that hospital or at a partner hospital that had cardiac surgery services available. A total of 10 hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery and 7 with on-site cardiac surgery participated. The coprimary end points were the rates of major adverse cardiac events--a composite of death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, or stroke--at 30 days (safety end point) and at 12 months (effectiveness end point). The primary end points were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle and were tested with the use of multiplicative noninferiority margins of 1.5 (for safety) and 1.3 (for effectiveness). A total of 3691 patients were randomly assigned to undergo PCI at a hospital without on-site cardiac surgery (2774 patients) or at a hospital with on-site cardiac surgery (917 patients). The rates of major adverse cardiac events were 9.5% in hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery and 9.4% in hospitals with on-site cardiac surgery at 30 days (relative risk, 1.00; 95% one-sided upper confidence limit, 1.22; P<0.001 for noninferiority) and 17.3% and 17.8%, respectively, at 12 months (relative risk, 0.98; 95% one-sided upper confidence limit, 1.13; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The rates of death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stroke (the components of the primary end point) did not differ significantly between the groups at either time point. Nonemergency PCI procedures performed at hospitals in Massachusetts without on-site surgical services were noninferior to procedures performed at hospitals

  8. Nutrition program quality assurance through a formalized process of on-site program review.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this goal. Observation and interaction with staff allow a comprehensive understanding of strengths, weaknesses, and emerging issues. This information provides managers with timely feedback to strengthen and improve all aspects of nutrition programming.

  9. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, compare on-site medical waste treatment facilities with off-site systems and find the best location of medical waste treatment. To assess the current on-site facilities, four provinces (and 40 active hospitals) were selected to participate in the survey. For comparison of on-site and off-site facilities (due to non availability of an installed off-site facility) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed. The result indicated that most on-site medical waste treating systems have problems in financing, planning, determining capacity of installations, operation and maintenance. AHP synthesis (with inconsistency ratio of 0.01 < 0.1) revealed that, in total, the off-site treatment of medical waste was in much higher priority than the on-site treatment (64.1% versus 35.9%). According to the results of study it was concluded that the off-site central treatment can be considered as an alternative. An amendment could be made to Iran’s current medical waste regulations to have infectious-hazardous waste sent to a central off-site installation for treatment. To begin and test this plan and also receive the official approval, a central off-site can be put into practice, at least as a pilot in one province. Next, if it was practically successful, it could be expanded to other provinces and cities. PMID:24739145

  10. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mohammadyarei, Taher; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, compare on-site medical waste treatment facilities with off-site systems and find the best location of medical waste treatment. To assess the current on-site facilities, four provinces (and 40 active hospitals) were selected to participate in the survey. For comparison of on-site and off-site facilities (due to non availability of an installed off-site facility) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed. The result indicated that most on-site medical waste treating systems have problems in financing, planning, determining capacity of installations, operation and maintenance. AHP synthesis (with inconsistency ratio of 0.01 < 0.1) revealed that, in total, the off-site treatment of medical waste was in much higher priority than the on-site treatment (64.1% versus 35.9%). According to the results of study it was concluded that the off-site central treatment can be considered as an alternative. An amendment could be made to Iran's current medical waste regulations to have infectious-hazardous waste sent to a central off-site installation for treatment. To begin and test this plan and also receive the official approval, a central off-site can be put into practice, at least as a pilot in one province. Next, if it was practically successful, it could be expanded to other provinces and cities.

  11. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  12. Project VISION (Very Intensive Scientific Intercurricular On-Site Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roig, Gustavo A.

    1999-01-01

    Project VISION (Very Intensive Scientific Intercurricular On-Site Education) is a joint effort among NASA/John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida International University, Universidad del Turabo, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and the Caguas/Gurabo Public Schools in Puerto Rico. The project's main mission is to institutionalize change among the elementary and middle school science and math teachers at participating schools so that their students receive continuously enriched instruction in the principles of science and math through the use of hands-on and minds-on experiments called learning modules. These leaming modules incorporate the national science and math education standards provided by the National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessments and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, respectively. The use of learning modules that require hands-on and minds-on activities in a classroom setting garners great enthusiasm and motivation on the part of the target students for the understanding of the lesson's underlying math and science principles. With this enthusiasm and motivation, comes acceptance, attention, participation, discipline, acquiescence, and collaboration. Additionally, the use of hands-on activities may also require learning through a gamut of senses. Not only can the student use his/her eyes and ears during these activities, but most times, they can also use their senses of touch, smell, and taste, as well as intuition. Learning is, therefore, achieved using most or all the human senses. The combination of motivation/enthusiasm and the use of multiple senses creates an ideal environment conducive to leaming at a profound level.

  13. Project VISION (Very Intensive Scientific Intercurricular On-Site Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roig, Gustavo A.

    1999-01-01

    Project VISION (Very Intensive Scientific Intercurricular On-Site Education) is a joint effort among NASA/John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida International University, Universidad del Turabo, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and the Caguas/Gurabo Public Schools in Puerto Rico. The project's main mission is to institutionalize change among the elementary and middle school science and math teachers at participating schools so that their students receive continuously enriched instruction in the principles of science and math through the use of hands-on and minds-on experiments called learning modules. These leaming modules incorporate the national science and math education standards provided by the National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessments and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, respectively. The use of learning modules that require hands-on and minds-on activities in a classroom setting garners great enthusiasm and motivation on the part of the target students for the understanding of the lesson's underlying math and science principles. With this enthusiasm and motivation, comes acceptance, attention, participation, discipline, acquiescence, and collaboration. Additionally, the use of hands-on activities may also require learning through a gamut of senses. Not only can the student use his/her eyes and ears during these activities, but most times, they can also use their senses of touch, smell, and taste, as well as intuition. Learning is, therefore, achieved using most or all the human senses. The combination of motivation/enthusiasm and the use of multiple senses creates an ideal environment conducive to leaming at a profound level.

  14. Greywater characterization and loadings - Physicochemical treatment to promote onsite reuse.

    PubMed

    Noutsopoulos, C; Andreadakis, A; Kouris, N; Charchousi, D; Mendrinou, P; Galani, A; Mantziaras, I; Koumaki, E

    2017-06-04

    Greywater is the wastewater produced in bathtubs, showers, hand basins, kitchen sinks, dishwashers and laundry machines. Segregation of greywater and blackwater and on site greywater treatment in order to promote its reuse for toilet flushing and/or garden irrigation is an interesting option especially in water deficient areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the different greywater sources in Greek households and to evaluate the performance of alternative physicochemical treatment systems to treat several types of greywater. Based on the results average daily greywater production was equal to 98 L per person per day and accounts for approximately 70-75% of the total household wastewater production (135 L per person per day). Among the different sources, laundry and kitchen sink are the main contributors to the total greywater load of organic carbon, suspended solids and surfactants, whereas dishwasher and bathroom greywater are the main sources of phosphorus and endocrine disrupting chemicals respectively. Depending on sources, greywater accounts for as low as 15% of the total wastewater load of organic carbon (in the case of light greywater sources), to as high as 74% of the total load organic load (in the case of the heavy greywater sources). On the other hand, the nutrients load of greywater is limited. The application of a physical treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, granular activated carbon filtration and disinfection can provide for a final effluent with high quality characteristics for onsite reuse, especially when treating light greywater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  16. Chapter 14. New tools to assess nitrogen management for conservation of our biosphere

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are several tools that can be used to assess the effects of management on nitrogen (N) losses to the environment. The Nitrogen Loss and Environmental Assessment Package (NLEAP) is an improved and renamed version of the DOS program that was called the Nitrate Leaching and Economic Analysis Pack...

  17. Buffer distances for on-site sewage systems in Sydney's drinking water catchments.

    PubMed

    Charles, K; Roser, D; Ashbolt, N; Deere, D; McGuinness, R

    2003-01-01

    Pathogens and nutrients released from on-site sewage systems represent a risk to surface and ground water quality, particularly where there are sensitive receiving waters such as in drinking water catchments. Buffer zones between on-site systems and waterways are one barrier used to protect water quality. The increased time and distance they provide increases the opportunities for the effluent purification functions of the soil to occur. A risk management model is proposed to assess the efficacy of the buffer zones in Sydney's drinking water catchments. The model is the basis for the development of performance based setback distances for on-site systems from waterways, and incorporates stochastic analysis of pathogen and nutrient transport in the environment and consideration of the effluent quality variability from on-site systems. Catchment-scale integration of contaminant transport is employed to facilitate a risk assessment of on-site systems. The risk management model also allows for the impact of on-site system management and maintenance on catchment water quality to be assessed through scenario building and feedback mechanisms.

  18. Performance evaluation of three on-site adulterant detection devices for urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Tarnai, Lisa D

    2002-10-01

    The performance of three on-site adulterant detection devices that assess the integrity of urine specimens collected for drug-of-abuse testing was evaluated: the Intect 7, MASK Ultra Screen, and Adultacheck 4. Intect 7 simultaneously tests creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, pH, specific gravity, and the presence of bleach and pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC). Mask Ultra Screen tests creatinine, nitrite, pH, specific gravity, and oxidants, and Adultacheck 4 tests creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, and pH. Urine specimens were prepared with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration regulated analytes at 50% above the cut-off concentrations. Stealth, Urine Luck, Instant Clean ADD-IT-ive, and KLEAR were added individually to the drug-added urine specimens so that their concentrations reflected the "optimum" usage reported in their package inserts and 25% above and below that optimum. Stealth is reported to be peroxidase; Urine Luck is believed to be PCC; Instant Clean ADD-it-ive reportedly contains glutaraldehyde, and Klear is a nitrite. The following diluents/adulterants were added at 25%, 33%, and 50% of the volume of drug-added urine: distilled water, bleach, ammonia, and vinegar. Of the devices tested, Intect 7 proved to be the most sensitive, and it correctly indicated the presence of adulterant or diluent in all samples tested. In order to do so, all indication pads had to be assessed in concert. Adultacheck 4 specifically assesses four characteristics of urine integrity and is therefore very limited in detecting the use of several popular adulterants that are commercially available. Although it correctly assessed the four characteristics, it did not detect the use of Stealth, Urine Luck, or Instant Clean ADD-it-ive. Mask Ultra Screen can potentially detect a broader range of adulterants than Adultacheck 4. However, in practice, it only detected them at levels well above their optimum usage, making it less efficacious than Intect 7. Clearly, the

  19. Large area LED package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  20. Spack: the Supercomputing Package Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Gamblin, T.

    2013-11-09

    The HPC software ecosystem is growing larger and more complex, but software distribution mechanisms have not kept up with this trend. Tools, Libraries, and applications need to run on multiple platforms and build with multiple compliers. Increasingly, packages leverage common software components, and building any one component requires building all of its dependencies. In HPC environments, ABI-incompatible interfaces (likeMPI), binary-incompatible compilers, and cross-compiled environments converge to make the build process a combinatoric nightmare. This obstacle deters many users from adopting useful tools, and others waste countless hours building and rebuilding tools. Many package managers exist to solve these problems for typical desktop environments, but none suits the unique needs of supercomputing facilities or users. To address these problems, we have Spack, a package manager that eases the task of managing software for end-users, across multiple platforms, package versions, compilers, and ABI incompatibilities.

  1. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  2. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  3. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  4. Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2010-02-01

    Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

  5. Handling difficult materials: Aseptic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lieb, K.

    1994-03-01

    Since aseptic packages, or drink boxes, were introduced in the US in the early 1980s, they have been praised for their convenience and berated for their lack of recyclability. As a result, aseptic packaging collection has been linked with that of milk cartons to increase the volume. The intervening years since the introduction of aseptic packaging have seen the drink box industry aggressively trying to create a recycling market for the boxes. Communities and schools have initiated programs, and recycling firms have allocated resources to see whether recycling aseptic packaging can work. Drink boxes are now recycled in 2.3 million homes in 15 states, and in 1,655 schools in 17 states. They are typically collected in school and curbside programs with other polyethylene coated (laminated) paperboard products such a milk cartons, and then baled and shipped to five major paper companies for recycling at eight facilities.

  6. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  7. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  8. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    FINAL REPORT Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials SERDP Project WP-1478 MAY 2010 Dr.Chris Schwier Metabolix... Bioplastic Packaging Materials 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER SI 1478 Dr. Chris Schwier 5e. TASK...polymers were produced using blends of branched, long chain-length PHA polymers with linear PHA polymers.      15. SUBJECT TERMS Bioplastic

  9. TRU waste transportation package development

    SciTech Connect

    Eakes, R. G.; Lamoreaux, G. H.; Romesberg, L. E.; Sutherland, S. H.; Duffey, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures. (DLC)

  10. Packaging food for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolprasert, Vanee

    2016-12-01

    Irradiation can play an important role in reducing pathogens that cause food borne illness. Food processors and food safety experts prefer that food be irradiated after packaging to prevent post-irradiation contamination. Food irradiation has been studied for the last century. However, the implementation of irradiation on prepackaged food still faces challenges on how to assess the suitability and safety of these packaging materials used during irradiation. Irradiation is known to induce chemical changes to the food packaging materials resulting in the formation of breakdown products, so called radiolysis products (RP), which may migrate into foods and affect the safety of the irradiated foods. Therefore, the safety of the food packaging material (both polymers and adjuvants) must be determined to ensure safety of irradiated packaged food. Evaluating the safety of food packaging materials presents technical challenges because of the range of possible chemicals generated by ionizing radiation. These challenges and the U.S. regulations on food irradiation are discussed in this article.

  11. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  12. REPORT OF ON-SITE INSPECTION WORKSHOP-16

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J

    2009-07-07

    The central issue addressed by this workshop was the task of making the on-site inspection (OSI) part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification system operationally ready at entry into force of the Treaty. It is recognized, and this was emphasized by the 2008 OSI Integrated Field Exercise (IFE), that it is not possible to develop every part of the OSI regime simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to prioritize the approach to OSI readiness. The reviews of the IFE have pointed to many elements of OSI readiness that still need development. The objective of this workshop was to provide priorities for the path forward for Working Group B to consider. Several critical areas have been identified that are related to the development of OSI readiness: (1) Technology development: Priorities are radionuclide and noble gas sampling and analysis, visual observation, multispectral/infrared imaging methods, active seismic methods and the recognition of the importance of signatures. (2) Organizational development: Priorities are health and safety, the Operations Support Centre, the Equipment Storage and Maintenance Facility, information technology data flow and communications. (3) Resources: The expertise to develop key parts of the OSI regime is not available within the current OSI Division staff. To develop these aspects of the regime will require more staff or supplements to the staff with cost-free experts or other means. Aspects of the system that could benefit from more staff include radionuclide and noble gas detection methods, data flow and communications, visual observation, multispectral/infrared methods and health and safety. As the path forward, participants of this workshop recognized a need to optimize the development of OSI priorities. The outcome of this workshop is to suggest for consideration an operational approach to OSI readiness that utilizes results of an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of OSI elements versus their relative

  13. Global Scale Methane Emissions from On-Site Wastewater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Guan, K.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Pit latrines and other on-site sanitation methods are important forms of wastewater management at the global scale, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for more than 1.7 billion people in developing and middle-income regions. Latrines have also been identified as major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste in pits. Understanding the greenhouse gas footprint of different wastewater systems is essential for sustainable water resource development and management. Despite this importance, CH4 emissions from decentralized wastewater treatment have received little attention in the scientific literature, and the rough calculations underlying government inventories and integrated assessment models do not accurately capture variations in emissions within and between countries. In this study, we improve upon earlier efforts and develop the first spatially explicit approach to quantifying latrine CH4 emissions, combining a high-resolution geospatial analysis of population, urbanization, and water table (as an indicator of anaerobic decomposition pathways) with CH4 emissions factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Country-level health and sanitation surveys were used to determine latrine utilization in 2000 and predict usage in 2015. 18 representative countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were selected for this analysis to illustrate regional variations in CH4 emissions and to include the greatest emitting nations. Our analysis confirms that pit latrines are a globally significant anthropogenic CH4 source, emitting 4.7 Tg CH4 yr-1 in the countries considered here. This total is projected to decrease ~25% by 2015, however, driven largely by rapid urbanization in China and decreased reliance on latrines in favor of flush toilets. India has the greatest potential for large growth in emissions in the post-2015 period, since public health campaigns to end open defecation

  14. Scoping studies of the alternative options for defueling, packaging, shipping, and disposing of the TMI-2 spent fuel core

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert T.

    1980-09-01

    A portion of this fuel will be shipped to nuclear facilities to perform detailed physical examinations. Removal of this fuel from the TMI-2 core is also a significant step in the eventual cleanup of this facility. The report presents a scoping study of the technical operations required for defueling and canning. The TMI fuel when canned could be stored in the spent fuel storage pool. After a period of on-site storage, it is expected that the bulk of the fuel will be shipped off-site for either storage or reprocessing. Evaluation is made of the technical, economic, and institutional factors associated with alternate approaches to disposition of this fuel. Recommendations are presented concerning future generic development tasks needed for the defueling, packaging, on-site shipping of this fuel.

  15. Stand Density Effects on Biomass Allocation Patterns and Subsequent Soil Nitrogen Demand

    Treesearch

    Christopher A. Dicus; Thomas J. Dean

    1998-01-01

    Growth and yield data from a loblolly pine plantation in southeastern Louisiana were obtained yearly from 1993 to 1996 on numbered trees within two stands initially planted on a 1.22- by 1.22-meter spacing, and two stands planted on a 2.44- by 2.44-meter spacing. Using allometric equations derived from a 1994 on-site destructive harvest, cited nitrogen...

  16. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  17. Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program - Part IV: Onsite review handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Onsite Review Handbook contains criteria to be used in evaluating the management systems required for initial or continued participation in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP), verifying and calculating rates of injury experience, the Onsite Review report format, and sample questions to be used during onsite interviews. This document should be used in conjunction with the first three DOE-VPP manuals (Part I: Program Elements, Part II: Procedures Manual, and Part III: Application Guidelines). This document is intended to assist Onsite Review team members and DOE contractors in evaluating safety and health programs, and to serve as guidance for DOE-VPP participants in performing their required annual evaluation. Requests for additional information or any questions may be addressed to a DOE-VPP Coordinator in the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Policy. The term contractor used throughout this document refers to an applicant to, or a participant in, the DOE-VPP. The term subcontractor refers to any organization that is contracted by the applicant or participant to do work at the site under review. The DOE-VPP Onsite Review Criteria contained in Appendix A provide guidance for evaluating a site`s implementation of the program requirements given in Part I: Program Elements. The program requirements are in bold italicized type, followed by guidance for ensuring implementation. Part I should be consulted for a complete description of the program requirements. These criteria should be used by team members whenever possible, but are not intended to be all inclusive. Determination of adequate implementation of the DOE-VPP requirements is at the team members` discretion. Guidance for calculating recordable injury and lost workday incidence rates is contained in Appendix B. The OSHA injury/illness records review and the associated calculations should be performed by Onsite Review Team members during the pre-onsite planning visit.

  18. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  19. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  20. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  1. Think INSIDE the Box: Package Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark; Painter, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Most products people purchase, keep in their homes, and often discard, are typically packaged in some way. Packaging is so prevalent in daily lives that many of take it for granted. That is by design-the expectation of good packaging is that it exists for the sake of the product. The primary purposes of any package (to contain, inform, display,…

  2. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  3. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  4. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  5. 27 CFR 19.276 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Scales used to weigh packages designed to hold 10 wine gallons or less shall indicate weight in ounces or... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package scales. 19.276... Package scales. Proprietors shall ensure the accuracy of scales used for weighing packages of spirits...

  6. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  7. Think INSIDE the Box: Package Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark; Painter, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Most products people purchase, keep in their homes, and often discard, are typically packaged in some way. Packaging is so prevalent in daily lives that many of take it for granted. That is by design-the expectation of good packaging is that it exists for the sake of the product. The primary purposes of any package (to contain, inform, display,…

  8. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Stephen E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Fradkin, Steven C.

    2016-05-31

    Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake. Natural abundance ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) measured in plant tissue growing in nearshore areas of the lake indicate that the major source of nitrogen used by these primary producing plants is derived mainly from atmospherically fixed nitrogen in an undeveloped forested ecosystem. Exceptions to this pattern occurred in the Barnes Point area where elevated δ15N ratios indicate that effluent from septic systems also contribute nitrogen to filamentous-periphytic algae growing in the littoral zone of that area. Near the Lyre River outlet of Lake Crescent, the δ15N of filamentous-periphytic algae growing in close proximity to the spawning areas of a unique species of trout show little evidence of elevated δ15N indicating that nitrogen from on-site septic systems is not a substantial source of nitrogen for these plants. The δ15N data corroborate estimates that nitrogen input to Lake Crescent from septic sources is comparatively small relative to input from motor vehicle exhaust and vegetative sources in undeveloped forests, including litterfall, pollen, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees (Alnus rubra). Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources.

  9. On-site removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from leachate by aged refuse bioreactor: Effects of microbial community and operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Su, Yinglong; Wang, Jiaxin; Huang, Zhiting; Xie, Bing

    2017-07-01

    The abuse of antibiotics has raised the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, which will pose potential risk to human health. Leachate, generated during the landfill treatment of municipal solid waste, is the important hotspot of the antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and no effective on-site treatment has been put forward for preventing ARGs dissemination. Herein, the aged refuse bioreactor was employed to remove antibiotics and ARGs from leachate, and the great removal performance was observed. For the detected antibiotics, the total removal efficiency was about 76.75%, and sulfanilamide and macrolide were removed with high efficiencies (>80%). Among the target ARGs, tetracycline and macrolide resistance genes (tetM, tetQ and ermB) were eliminated with 1.2-2.0 orders of magnitude. The occurrences of ARGs did not correlated with water quality parameters such as COD, total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate and nitrite, but closely linked to the variations of the bacterial community structure. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the significant correlations between four genera and the distribution of ARGs, which implied that these key genera (including potential pathogens) drove the ARGs removal. Furthermore, the hydraulic loading test confirmed that the aged refuse bioreactor was capable of achieving high removal efficiencies even under shock loading for the higher loading was negative for the proliferations of potential ARGs hosts. This study suggested that aged refuse bioreactor could be a promising way for antibiotics and ARGs on-site removal from leachate.

  10. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  11. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency.

  12. 75 FR 60333 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... materials packages may be considered a bulk packaging. The September 1, 2006 NPRM definition for ``bulk... erroneously stated Large Packagings would contain hazardous materials without an intermediate packaging,...

  13. Two-Dimensional Pnictogen Honeycomb Lattice: Structure, On-Site Spin-Orbit Coupling and Spin Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason; Tian, Wen-Chuan; Wang, Wei-Liang; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Because of its novel physical properties, two-dimensional materials have attracted great attention. From first-principle calculations and vibration frequencies analysis, we predict a new family of two-dimensional materials based on the idea of octet stability: honeycomb lattices of pnictogens (N, P, As, Sb, Bi). The buckled structures of materials come from the sp3 hybridization. These materials have indirect band gap ranging from 0.43 eV to 3.7 eV. From the analysis of projected density of states, we argue that the s and p orbitals together are sufficient to describe the electronic structure under tight-binding model, and the tight-binding parameters are obtained by fitting the band structures to first-principle results. Surprisingly large on-site spin-orbit coupling is found for all the pnictogen lattices except nitrogen. Investigation on the electronic structures of both zigzag and armchair nanoribbons reveals the possible existence of spin-polarized ferromagnetic edge states in some cases, which are rare in one-dimensional systems. These edge states and magnetism may exist under the condition of high vacuum and low temperature. This new family of materials would have promising applications in electronics, optics, sensors, and solar cells. PMID:26122870

  14. Smart packaging for the monitoring of fish freshness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacquit, Alexis; Lau, King Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2005-06-01

    The development of chromo-reactive sensor spots for real time monitoring of fish freshness is described. The on-package sensor spots incorporating an immobilized pH sensitive dye, respond through visible colour change to basic volatile spoilage compounds collectively known as Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N). Trials on fresh fish filets have verified that the sensor can be employed for real time monitoring of fish spoilage. The sensor response can be interrogated with a simple, inexpensive reflectance colorimeter that we have developed based on two LEDs and a photodetector.

  15. Reference waste package environment report

    SciTech Connect

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

  16. Capillary-driven automatic packaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuzhe; Hong, Lingfei; Nie, Baoqing; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-04-21

    Packaging continues to be one of the most challenging steps in micro-nanofabrication, as many emerging techniques (e.g., soft lithography) are incompatible with the standard high-precision alignment and bonding equipment. In this paper, we present a simple-to-operate, easy-to-adapt packaging strategy, referred to as Capillary-driven Automatic Packaging (CAP), to achieve automatic packaging process, including the desired features of spontaneous alignment and bonding, wide applicability to various materials, potential scalability, and direct incorporation in the layout. Specifically, self-alignment and self-engagement of the CAP process induced by the interfacial capillary interactions between a liquid capillary bridge and the top and bottom substrates have been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed with scalable implications. High-precision alignment (of less than 10 µm) and outstanding bonding performance (up to 300 kPa) has been reliably obtained. In addition, a 3D microfluidic network, aligned and bonded by the CAP technique, has been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this facile yet robust packaging technique for emerging microfluidic and bioengineering applications.

  17. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    PubMed

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.

  18. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Alizadeh, Mina; Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Farshchian, Mohammad Reza; Ganbari, Mohammad; Shakerkhatibi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment) was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests) indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  19. Method for computing marginal costs associated with on-site energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.

    1980-08-01

    A method for calculating long-run marginal costs for an electric utility is described. The method is especially suitable for computing the marginal costs associated with the use of small on-site energy technologies, i.e., cogenerators, solar heating and hot water systems, wind generators, etc., which are interconnected with electric utilities. In particular, both the costs a utility avoids when power is delivered to it from a facility with an on-site generator and marginal cost to the utility of supplementary power sold to the facility can be calculated. A utility capacity expansion model is used to compute changes in the utility's costs when loads are modified by the use of the on-site technology. Changes in capacity-related costs and production costs are thus computed in an internally consistent manner. The variable nature of the generation/load pattern of the on-site technology is treated explicitly. The method yields several measures of utility costs that can be used to develop rates based on marginal avoided costs for on-site technologies as well as marginal cost rates for conventional utility customers.

  20. Evaluation of a human on-site urine multidrug test for emergency use with dogs.

    PubMed

    Teitler, Joan B

    2009-01-01

    A rapid, human on-site urine multidrug test was used to screen canine urine samples for the presence of five illegal drugs and drugs from three commonly abused drug classes. Each sample was sent to a toxicology laboratory for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) validation. On-site test results and GC/MS assays confirmed that the human on-site test kit did identify barbiturates, opiates, benzodiazepines, and amphetamines/methamphetamines in urine from dogs that had received these common illicit drugs/drug classes either intravenously and/or orally. However, neither the on-site test kit nor the GC/MS individual assays for marijuana or methadone, a synthetic opiate, were effective in identifying marijuana and methadone in urine from dogs with suspected or known exposure. No index of suspicion was seen for exposure to phencyclidines or cocaine during the study period, and no exposures were indicated by the on-site test results. Overall, the test is a rapid, readily available, affordable, and useful complement to the veterinarian's clinical consideration and professional judgment.