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Sample records for packed hcp structure

  1. Thermodynamics of dilute 3He-4He solid solutions with hcp structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishko, K. A.

    2018-02-01

    To interpret the anomalies in heat capacity CV(T) and temperature-dependent pressure P(T) of solid hexagonal close-packed (hcp) 4He we exploit the model of hcp crystalline polytype with specific lattice degrees of freedom and describe the thermodynamics of impurity-free 4He solid as superposition of phononic and polytypic contributions. The hcp-based polytype is a stack of 2D basal atomic monolayers on triangular lattice packed with arbitrary long (up to infinity) spatial period along the hexagonal c axis perpendicular to the basal planes. It is a crystal with perfect ordering along the layers, but without microscopic translational symmetry in perpendicular direction (which remains, nevertheless, the rotational crystallographic axis of third order, so that the polytype can be considered as semidisordered system). Each atom of the hcp polytype has twelve crystallographic neighbors in both first and second coordination spheres at any arbitrary packing order. It is shown that the crystal of such structure behaves as anisotropic elastic medium with specific dispersion law of phonon excitations along c axis. The free energy and the heat capacity consist of two terms: one of them is a normal contribution [with CV(T) ˜ T3] from phonon excitations in an anisotropic lattice of hexagonal symmetry, and another term (an "excessive" heat) is a contribution resulted by packing entropy from quasi-one-dimensional system of 2D basal planes on triangular lattice stacked randomly along c axis without braking the closest pack between neighboring atomic layers. The excessive part of the free energy has been treated within 1D quasi-Ising (lattice gas) model using the transfer matrix approach. This model makes us possible to interpret successfully the thermodynamic anomaly (heat capacity peak in hcp 4He) observed experimentally.

  2. Stabilizing the hexagonal close packed structure of hard spheres with polymers: Phase diagram, structure, and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edison, John R.; Dasgupta, Tonnishtha; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2016-08-01

    We study the phase behaviour of a binary mixture of colloidal hard spheres and freely jointed chains of beads using Monte Carlo simulations. Recently Panagiotopoulos and co-workers predicted [Nat. Commun. 5, 4472 (2014)] that the hexagonal close packed (HCP) structure of hard spheres can be stabilized in such a mixture due to the interplay between polymer and the void structure in the crystal phase. Their predictions were based on estimates of the free-energy penalty for adding a single hard polymer chain in the HCP and the competing face centered cubic (FCC) phase. Here we calculate the phase diagram using free-energy calculations of the full binary mixture and find a broad fluid-solid coexistence region and a metastable gas-liquid coexistence region. For the colloid-monomer size ratio considered in this work, we find that the HCP phase is only stable in a small window at relatively high polymer reservoir packing fractions, where the coexisting HCP phase is nearly close packed. Additionally we investigate the structure and dynamic behaviour of these mixtures.

  3. High-entropy alloys in hexagonal close-packed structure

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Michael C.; Zhang, B.; Guo, S. M.; ...

    2015-08-28

    The microstructures and properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) based on the face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic structures have been studied extensively in the literature, but reports on HEAs in the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure are very limited. Using an efficient strategy in combining phase diagram inspection, CALPHAD modeling, and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, a variety of new compositions are suggested that may hold great potentials in forming single-phase HCP HEAs that comprise rare earth elements and transition metals, respectively. Lastly, experimental verification was carried out on CoFeReRu and CoReRuV using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersion spectroscopy.

  4. Crystal structure of secretory protein Hcp3 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Osipiuk, Jerzy; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2011-03-01

    The Type VI secretion pathway transports proteins across the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen infecting humans, uses the type VI secretion pathway to export specific effector proteins crucial for its pathogenesis. The HSI-I virulence locus encodes for several proteins that has been proposed to participate in protein transport including the Hcp1 protein, which forms hexameric rings that assemble into nanotubes in vitro. Two Hcp1 paralogues have been identified in the P. aeruginosa genome, Hsp2 and Hcp3. Here, we present the structure of the Hcp3 protein from P. aeruginosa. The overall structure of the monomer resembles Hcp1 despite the lack of amino-acid sequence similarity between the two proteins. The monomers assemble into hexamers similar to Hcp1. However, instead of forming nanotubes in head-to-tail mode like Hcp1, Hcp3 stacks its rings in head-to-head mode forming double-ring structures.

  5. The relative energy of fcc and hcp foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, D.; Weaire, D.; Drenckhan, W.; Hutzler, S.

    2015-06-01

    The energies of face-centred cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) monodisperse foams, associated with their total surface area, are equal in the wet and dry limits, in the usual model. We prove that for all intermediate values of liquid fraction, hcp has lower energy. Energy considerations are thus not sufficient to explain the observed preference for crystallization into fcc over hcp in experiments using monodisperse bubbles.

  6. Pressure-induced fcc to hcp phase transition in Ni-based high entropy solid solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fuxiang; Zhao, Shijun; Jin, Ke; ...

    2017-01-04

    In this research, pressure-induced phase transition from the fcc to a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure wasfound in NiCoCrFe solid solution alloy starting at 13.5 GPa. The phase transition is very sluggish and the transition did not complete at ~ 40 GPa. The hcp structure is quenchable to ambient pressure. Only a very small amount (<5%) of hcp phase was found in the isostructural NiCoCr ternary alloy up to the pressure of 45 GPa and no obvious hcp phase was found in NiCoCrFePd system till to 74 GPa. Ab initio Gibbs free energy calculations indicated the energy differences between the fccmore » and the hcp phases for the three alloys are very small, but they are sensitive to temperature. Finally, the critical transition pressure in NiCoCrFe varies from 1 GPa at room temperature to 6 GPa at 500 K.« less

  7. Pressure-induced fcc to hcp phase transition in Ni-based high entropy solid solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F. X.; Zhao, Shijun; Jin, Ke

    2017-01-04

    A pressure-induced phase transition from the fcc to a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure was found in NiCoCrFe solid solution alloy starting at 13.5 GPa. The phase transition is very sluggish and the transition did not complete at ~40 GPa. The hcp structure is quenchable to ambient pressure. Only a very small amount (<5%) of hcp phase was found in the isostructural NiCoCr ternary alloy up to the pressure of 45 GPa and no obvious hcp phase was found in NiCoCrFePd system till to 74 GPa. Ab initio Gibbs free energy calculations indicated the energy differences between the fcc and themore » hcp phases for the three alloys are very small, but they are sensitive to temperature. The critical transition pressure in NiCoCrFe varies from ~1 GPa at room temperature to ~6 GPa at 500 K.« less

  8. FCC-HCP coexistence in dense thermo-responsive microgel crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthickeyan, D.; Joshi, R. G.; Tata, B. V. R.

    2017-06-01

    Analogous to hard-sphere suspensions, monodisperse thermo-responsive poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel particles beyond a volume fraction (ϕ) of 0.5 freeze into face centered cubic (FCC)-hexagonal close packed (HCP) coexistence under as prepared conditions and into an FCC structure upon annealing. We report here FCC-HCP coexistence to be stable in dense PNIPAM microgel crystals (ϕ > 0.74) with particles in their deswollen state (referred to as osmotically compressed microgel crystals) and the FCC structure with particles in their swollen state by performing annealing studies with different cooling rates. The structure of PNIPAM microgel crystals is characterized using static light scattering technique and UV-Visible spectroscopy and dynamics by dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS studies reveal that the particle motion is diffusive at short times in crystals with ϕ < 0.74 and sub-diffusive at short times in PNIPAM crystals with ϕ > 0.74. The observed sub-diffusive behavior at short times is due to the overlap (interpenetration) of the dangling polymer chains between the shells of neighbouring PNIPAM microgel particles. Overlap is found to disappear upon heating the crystals well above their melting temperature, Tm due to reduction in the particle size. Annealing studies confirm that the overlap of dangling polymer chains between the shells of neighbouring PNIPAM spheres is responsible for the stability of FCC-HCP coexistence observed in osmotically compressed PNIPAM microgel crystals. Results are discussed in the light of recent reports of stabilizing the HCP structure in hard sphere crystals by adding interacting polymer chains.

  9. Mechanism and energetics of dislocation cross-slip in hcp metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-10-01

    Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals such as Mg, Ti, and Zr are lightweight and/or durable metals with critical structural applications in the automotive (Mg), aerospace (Ti), and nuclear (Zr) industries. The hcp structure, however, brings significant complications in the mechanisms of plastic deformation, strengthening, and ductility, and these complications pose significant challenges in advancing the science and engineering of these metals. In hcp metals, generalized plasticity requires the activation of slip on pyramidal planes, but the structure, motion, and cross-slip of the associated dislocations are not well established even though they determine ductility and influence strengthening. Here, atomistic simulations in Mg reveal the unusual mechanism of dislocation cross-slip between pyramidal I and II planes, which occurs by cross-slip of the individual partial dislocations. The energy barrier is controlled by a fundamental step/jog energy and the near-core energy difference between pyramidal dislocations. The near-core energy difference can be changed by nonglide stresses, leading to tension-compression asymmetry and even a switch in absolute stability from one glide plane to the other, both features observed experimentally in Mg, Ti, and their alloys. The unique cross-slip mechanism is governed by common features of the generalized stacking fault energy surfaces of hcp pyramidal planes and is thus expected to be generic to all hcp metals. An analytical model is developed to predict the cross-slip barrier as a function of the near-core energy difference and applied stresses and quantifies the controlling features of cross-slip and pyramidal I/II stability across the family of hcp metals.

  10. Mechanism and energetics of 〈c + a〉 dislocation cross-slip in hcp metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Curtin, W A

    2016-10-04

    Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals such as Mg, Ti, and Zr are lightweight and/or durable metals with critical structural applications in the automotive (Mg), aerospace (Ti), and nuclear (Zr) industries. The hcp structure, however, brings significant complications in the mechanisms of plastic deformation, strengthening, and ductility, and these complications pose significant challenges in advancing the science and engineering of these metals. In hcp metals, generalized plasticity requires the activation of slip on pyramidal planes, but the structure, motion, and cross-slip of the associated [Formula: see text] dislocations are not well established even though they determine ductility and influence strengthening. Here, atomistic simulations in Mg reveal the unusual mechanism of [Formula: see text] dislocation cross-slip between pyramidal I and II planes, which occurs by cross-slip of the individual partial dislocations. The energy barrier is controlled by a fundamental step/jog energy and the near-core energy difference between pyramidal [Formula: see text] dislocations. The near-core energy difference can be changed by nonglide stresses, leading to tension-compression asymmetry and even a switch in absolute stability from one glide plane to the other, both features observed experimentally in Mg, Ti, and their alloys. The unique cross-slip mechanism is governed by common features of the generalized stacking fault energy surfaces of hcp pyramidal planes and is thus expected to be generic to all hcp metals. An analytical model is developed to predict the cross-slip barrier as a function of the near-core energy difference and applied stresses and quantifies the controlling features of cross-slip and pyramidal I/II stability across the family of hcp metals.

  11. Mechanism and energetics of 〈c + a〉 dislocation cross-slip in hcp metals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals such as Mg, Ti, and Zr are lightweight and/or durable metals with critical structural applications in the automotive (Mg), aerospace (Ti), and nuclear (Zr) industries. The hcp structure, however, brings significant complications in the mechanisms of plastic deformation, strengthening, and ductility, and these complications pose significant challenges in advancing the science and engineering of these metals. In hcp metals, generalized plasticity requires the activation of slip on pyramidal planes, but the structure, motion, and cross-slip of the associated 〈c+a〉 dislocations are not well established even though they determine ductility and influence strengthening. Here, atomistic simulations in Mg reveal the unusual mechanism of 〈c+a〉 dislocation cross-slip between pyramidal I and II planes, which occurs by cross-slip of the individual partial dislocations. The energy barrier is controlled by a fundamental step/jog energy and the near-core energy difference between pyramidal 〈c+a〉 dislocations. The near-core energy difference can be changed by nonglide stresses, leading to tension–compression asymmetry and even a switch in absolute stability from one glide plane to the other, both features observed experimentally in Mg, Ti, and their alloys. The unique cross-slip mechanism is governed by common features of the generalized stacking fault energy surfaces of hcp pyramidal planes and is thus expected to be generic to all hcp metals. An analytical model is developed to predict the cross-slip barrier as a function of the near-core energy difference and applied stresses and quantifies the controlling features of cross-slip and pyramidal I/II stability across the family of hcp metals. PMID:27647908

  12. Thermal equation of state of hcp-iron: Constraint on the density deficit of Earth's solid inner core: THERMAL EQUATION OF STATE OF HCP-IRON

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Yingwei; Murphy, Caitlin; Shibazaki, Yuki

    We conducted high-pressure experiments on hexagonal close packed iron (hcp-Fe) in MgO, NaCl, and Ne pressure-transmitting media and found general agreement among the experimental data at 300 K that yield the best fitted values of the bulk modulus K 0 = 172.7(±1.4) GPa and its pressure derivative K 0'= 4.79(±0.05) for hcp-Fe, using the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Using the derived thermal pressures for hcp-Fe up to 100 GPa and 1800 K and previous shockwave Hugoniot data, we developed a thermal equation of state of hcp-Fe. The thermal equation of state of hcp-Fe is further used to calculate themore » densities of iron along adiabatic geotherms to define the density deficit of the inner core, which serves as the basis for developing quantitative composition models of the Earth's inner core. We determine the density deficit at the inner core boundary to be 3.6%, assuming an inner core boundary temperature of 6000 K.« less

  13. Effect of the fcc-hcp martensitic transition on the equation of state of solid krypton up to 140 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, A. D.; Garbarino, G.; Briggs, R.; Svitlyk, V.; Morard, G.; Bouhifd, M. A.; Jacobs, J.; Irifune, T.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.

    2018-03-01

    Solid krypton (Kr) undergoes a pressure-induced martensitic phase transition from a face-centered cubic (fcc) to a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure. These two phases coexist in a very wide pressure domain inducing important modifications of the bulk properties of the resulting mixed phase system. Here, we report a detailed in situ x-ray diffraction and absorption study of the influence of the fcc-hcp phase transition on the compression behavior of solid krypton in an extended pressure domain up to 140 GPa. The onset of the hcp-fcc transformation was observed in this study at around 2.7 GPa and the coexistence of these two phases up to 140 GPa, the maximum investigated pressure. The appearance of the hcp phase is also evidenced by the pressure-induced broadening and splitting of the first peak in the XANES spectra. We demonstrate that the transition is driven by a continuous nucleation and intergrowth of nanometric hcp stacking faults that evolve in the fcc phase. These hcp stacking faults are unaffected by high-temperature annealing, suggesting that plastic deformation is not at their origin. The apparent small Gibbs free-energy differences between the two structures that decrease upon compression may explain the nucleation of hcp stacking faults and the large coexistence domain of fcc and hcp krypton. We observe a clear anomaly in the equation of state of the fcc solid at ˜20 GPa when the proportion of the hcp form reaches ˜20 % . We demonstrate that this anomaly is related to the difference in stiffness between the fcc and hcp phases and propose two distinct equation of states for the low and high-pressure regimes.

  14. Reconstructive structural phase transitions in dense Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yansun; Klug, Dennis D.

    2012-07-01

    The question raised recently about whether the high-pressure phase transitions of Mg follow a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) → body centered cubic (bcc) or hcp → double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) → bcc sequence at room temperature is examined by the use of first principles density functional methods. Enthalpy calculations show that the bcc structure replaces the hcp structure to become the most stable structure near 48 GPa, whereas the dhcp structure is never the most stable structure in the pressure range of interest. The characterized phase-transition mechanisms indicate that the hcp → dhcp transition is also associated with a higher enthalpy barrier. At room temperature, the structural sequence hcp → bcc is therefore more energetically favorable for Mg. The same conclusion is also reached from the simulations of the phase transitions using metadynamics methods. At room temperature, the metadynamics simulations predict the onset of a hcp → bcc transition at 40 GPa and the transition becomes more prominent upon further compression. At high temperatures, the metadynamics simulations reveal a structural fluctuation among the hcp, dhcp, and bcc structures at 15 GPa. With increasing pressure, the structural evolution at high temperatures becomes more unambiguous and eventually settles to a bcc structure once sufficient pressure is applied.

  15. Reconstructive structural phase transitions in dense Mg.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yansun; Klug, Dennis D

    2012-07-04

    The question raised recently about whether the high-pressure phase transitions of Mg follow a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) → body centered cubic (bcc) or hcp → double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) → bcc sequence at room temperature is examined by the use of first principles density functional methods. Enthalpy calculations show that the bcc structure replaces the hcp structure to become the most stable structure near 48 GPa, whereas the dhcp structure is never the most stable structure in the pressure range of interest. The characterized phase-transition mechanisms indicate that the hcp → dhcp transition is also associated with a higher enthalpy barrier. At room temperature, the structural sequence hcp → bcc is therefore more energetically favorable for Mg. The same conclusion is also reached from the simulations of the phase transitions using metadynamics methods. At room temperature, the metadynamics simulations predict the onset of a hcp → bcc transition at 40 GPa and the transition becomes more prominent upon further compression. At high temperatures, the metadynamics simulations reveal a structural fluctuation among the hcp, dhcp, and bcc structures at 15 GPa. With increasing pressure, the structural evolution at high temperatures becomes more unambiguous and eventually settles to a bcc structure once sufficient pressure is applied.

  16. Quasi-Dual-Packed-Kerneled Au49 (2,4-DMBT)27 Nanoclusters and the Influence of Kernel Packing on the Electrochemical Gap.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lingwen; Zhuang, Shengli; Wang, Pu; Xu, Yanan; Yan, Nan; Dong, Hongwei; Wang, Chengming; Zhao, Yan; Xia, Nan; Li, Jin; Deng, Haiteng; Pei, Yong; Tian, Shi-Kai; Wu, Zhikun

    2017-10-02

    Although face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), hexagonal close-packed (hcp), and other structured gold nanoclusters have been reported, it was unclear whether gold nanoclusters with mix-packed (fcc and non-fcc) kernels exist, and the correlation between kernel packing and the properties of gold nanoclusters is unknown. A Au 49 (2,4-DMBT) 27 nanocluster with a shell electron count of 22 has now been been synthesized and structurally resolved by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, which revealed that Au 49 (2,4-DMBT) 27 contains a unique Au 34 kernel consisting of one quasi-fcc-structured Au 21 and one non-fcc-structured Au 13 unit (where 2,4-DMBTH=2,4-dimethylbenzenethiol). Further experiments revealed that the kernel packing greatly influences the electrochemical gap (EG) and the fcc structure has a larger EG than the investigated non-fcc structure. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Accurate Monte Carlo simulations on FCC and HCP Lennard-Jones solids at very low temperatures and high reduced densities up to 1.30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adidharma, Hertanto; Tan, Sugata P.

    2016-07-01

    Canonical Monte Carlo simulations on face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal closed packed (HCP) Lennard-Jones (LJ) solids are conducted at very low temperatures (0.10 ≤ T∗ ≤ 1.20) and high densities (0.96 ≤ ρ∗ ≤ 1.30). A simple and robust method is introduced to determine whether or not the cutoff distance used in the simulation is large enough to provide accurate thermodynamic properties, which enables us to distinguish the properties of FCC from that of HCP LJ solids with confidence, despite their close similarities. Free-energy expressions derived from the simulation results are also proposed, not only to describe the properties of those individual structures but also the FCC-liquid, FCC-vapor, and FCC-HCP solid phase equilibria.

  18. Generalized-stacking-fault energy and twin-boundary energy of hexagonal close-packed Au: A first-principles calculation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Huiyuan; Huang, Tianlong; Xue, Xuena; Qiu, Feng; Jiang, Qichuan

    2015-05-22

    Although solid Au is usually most stable as a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, pure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Au has been successfully fabricated recently. However, the phase stability and mechanical property of this new material are unclear, which may restrict its further applications. Here we present the evidence that hcp → fcc phase transformation can proceed easily in Au by first-principles calculations. The extremely low generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy in the basal slip system implies a great tendency to form basal stacking faults, which opens the door to phase transformation from hcp to fcc. Moreover, the Au lattice extends slightly within the superficial layers due to the self-assembly of alkanethiolate species on hcp Au (0001) surface, which may also contribute to the hcp → fcc phase transformation. Compared with hcp Mg, the GSF energies for non-basal slip systems and the twin-boundary (TB) energies for and twins are larger in hcp Au, which indicates the more difficulty in generating non-basal stacking faults and twins. The findings provide new insights for understanding the nature of the hcp → fcc phase transformation and guide the experiments of fabricating and developing materials with new structures.

  19. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory effect of a polysaccharide HCP-2 from Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bao-Hui; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Chan, Ben Chung-Lap; Lin, Huang-Quan; Han, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Xuelin; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Wang, Yi-Fen; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-03-15

    Immunomodulation of natural polysaccharides has been the hot topic of research in recent years. In order to explore the immunomodulatory effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., the water extract was studied and a polysaccharide HCP-2 with molecular weight of 60,000 Da was isolated by chromatography using DEAE Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-500 [corrected] HR columns. The structure characterization of HCP-2 was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), acidic hydrolysis, PMP derivation, HPLC analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR). HCP-2 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide with a linear chain of 1,4-linked α-D-galacturonic acid residues in which part of the 6-carboxyl groups were methyl esterified and part of 2-hydroxyl groups were acetylated. The bioactivity assays showed that HCP-2 could increase the secretions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1β (MIP-1β), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which play critical roles in the innate immune system and shape the adaptive immunity. Our results implied that HCP-2 could be an immune enhancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lattice preferred orientation of hcp-iron induced by shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Y.; Ohuchi, T.; Kawazoe, T.; Maruyama, G.; Higo, Y.; Funakoshi, K. I.; Seto, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed for origin of seismic anisotropy in the Earth's inner core which consists of solid metal. Plastic deformation of constituent material (most probably hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) iron) is one of the candidate processes to form the inner core anisotropy. Thus knowledge of deformation-induced lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of hcp-iron is important for understanding of nature of the inner core. In this study, we have carried out shear deformation experiments on hcp-iron and determined its deformation induced LPO. Since it is impossible to recover hcp-iron to ambient condition, both deformation and measurement of LPO have to be done at high-pressure conditions. Shear deformation experiments of hcp-iron were carried out using a deformation-DIA apparatus at high-pressure and high-temperature condition where hcp-iron is stable (9-18 GPa, 723 K). Development of LPO in the deforming sample was observed in-situ based on two-dimensional X-ray diffraction using an imaging plate detector and monochromatized synchrotron X-ray. In shear deformation of hcp-iron, <0001> and <112‾0> axes gradually aligned to be sub-parallel to shear plane normal and shear direction, respectively, from initial random orientation. The <0001> and <112‾0> axes are back-rotated from shear direction by 30°. The above results suggest basal slip <112‾0>{0001} is the dominant slip system under the studied deformation conditions. It has been shown that Earth's inner core has an axisymmetric anisotropy with P-wave traveling 3% faster along polar paths than along equatorial directions. Although elastic anisotropy of hcp-iron at the inner core conditions is still controversial, recent theoretical studies consistently shows that P-wave velocity of hcp-iron is fastest along <0001> direction at least at low-temperatures. Our experimental results could be suggesting that most part of the inner core deforms with shear plane sub-parallel to equatorial plane.

  1. Diffusion anisotropy of poor metal solute atoms in hcp-Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Scotti, Lucia, E-mail: lxs234@bham.ac.uk; Mottura, Alessandro, E-mail: a.mottura@bham.ac.uk

    2015-05-28

    Atom migration mechanisms influence a wide range of phenomena: solidification kinetics, phase equilibria, oxidation kinetics, precipitation of phases, and high-temperature deformation. In particular, solute diffusion mechanisms in α-Ti alloys can help explain their excellent high-temperature behaviour. The purpose of this work is to study self- and solute diffusion in hexagonal close-packed (hcp)-Ti, and its anisotropy, from first-principles using the 8-frequency model. The calculated diffusion coefficients show that diffusion energy barriers depend more on bonding characteristics of the solute rather than the size misfit with the host, while the extreme diffusion anisotropy of some solute elements in hcp-Ti is a resultmore » of the bond angle distortion.« less

  2. Stacking faults and mechanisms strain-induced transformations of hcp metals (Ti, Mg) during mechanical activation in liquid hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubnin, A. N.; Dorofeev, G. A.; Nikonova, R. M.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Lad'yanov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of the structure and substructure of metals Ti and Mg with hexagonal close-packed (hcp) lattice is studied during their mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill in liquid hydrocarbons (toluene, n-heptane) and with additions of carbon materials (graphite, fullerite, nanotubes) by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. The temperature behavior and hydrogen-accumulating properties of mechanocomposites are studied. During mechanical activation of Ti and Mg, liquid hydrocarbons decay, metastable nanocrystalline titanium carbohydride Ti(C,H) x and magnesium hydride β-MgH2 are formed, respectively. The Ti(C,H) x and MgH2 formation mechanisms during mechanical activation are deformation ones and are associated with stacking faults accumulation, and the formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) packing of atoms. Metastable Ti(C,H)x decays at a temperature of 550°C, the partial reverse transformation fcc → hcp occurs. The crystalline defect accumulation (nanograin boundaries, stacking faults), hydrocarbon destruction, and mechanocomposite formation leads to the enhancement of subsequent magnesium hydrogenation in the Sieverts reactor.

  3. Analytic modified embedded atom potentials for HCP metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wangyu; Zhang, Bangwei; Huang, Baiyun; Gao, Fei; Bacon, David J.

    2001-02-01

    Analytic modified embedded atom method (AMEAM) type many-body potentials have been constructed for ten hcp metals: Be, Co, Hf, Mg, Re, Ru, Sc, Ti, Y and Zr. The potentials are parametrized using analytic functions and fitted to the cohesive energy, unrelaxed vacancy formation energy, five independent second-order elastic constants and two equilibrium conditions. Hence, each of the constructed potentials represents a stable hexagonal close-packed lattice with a particular non-ideal c/a ratio. In order to treat the metals with negative Cauchy pressure, a modified term has been added to the total energy. For all the metals considered, the hcp lattice is shown to be energetically most stable when compared with the fcc and bcc structure and the hcp lattice with ideal c/a. The activation energy for vacancy diffusion in these metals has been calculated. They agree well with experimental data available and those calculated by other authors for both monovacancy and divacancy mechanisms and the most possible diffusion paths are predicted. Stacking fault and surface energy have also been calculated and their values are lower than typical experimental data. Finally, the self-interstitial atom (SIA) formation energy and volume have been evaluated for eight possible sites. This calculation suggests that the basal split or crowdion is the most stable configuration for metals with a rather large deviation from the ideal c/a value and the non-basal dumbbell (C or S) is the most stable configuration for metals with c/a near ideal. The relationship between SIA formation energy and melting temperature roughly obeys a linear relation for most metals except Ru and Re.

  4. First-Principles Study on the Structural and Magnetic Properties of Iron Hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumuraya, Takao; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Shishidou, Tatsuya; Oguchi, Tamio

    2012-06-01

    The magnetic and structural properties of iron hydride FeH with the double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures are investigated by first-principles density-functional theory calculations with a spin-polarized form of generalized gradient approximation. All the calculations are performed using all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. Both dhcp and hcp FeH are ferromagnetic at ambient pressure. The ferromagnetic ordering of the dhcp structure collapses at a pressure of 48 GPa, while that of the hcp structure vanishes gradually from 48 GPa. The modification in the density of states (DOS) due to the applied pressure causes the collapse of the magnetization. The difference in magnetic moment reduction between dhcp and hcp FeH is attributed to their DOS around the Fermi level. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies between in-plane and out-of-plane spin orientations are found to be 124 μeV/Fe for the dhcp structure, and 100 μeV/Fe for the hcp structure. The easy axis is in-plane direction for both structures.

  5. Grain neighbour effects on twin transmission in hexagonal close-packed materials.

    PubMed

    Arul Kumar, M; Beyerlein, I J; McCabe, R J; Tomé, C N

    2016-12-19

    Materials with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure such as Mg, Ti and Zr are being used in the transportation, aerospace and nuclear industry, respectively. Material strength and formability are critical qualities for shaping these materials into parts and a pervasive deformation mechanism that significantly affects their formability is deformation twinning. The interaction between grain boundaries and twins has an important influence on the deformation behaviour and fracture of hcp metals. Here, statistical analysis of large data sets reveals that whether twins transmit across grain boundaries depends not only on crystallography but also strongly on the anisotropy in crystallographic slip. We show that increases in crystal plastic anisotropy enhance the probability of twin transmission by comparing the relative ease of twin transmission in hcp materials such as Mg, Zr and Ti.

  6. Grain neighbour effects on twin transmission in hexagonal close-packed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arul Kumar, M.; Beyerlein, I. J.; McCabe, R. J.; Tomé, C. N.

    2016-12-01

    Materials with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure such as Mg, Ti and Zr are being used in the transportation, aerospace and nuclear industry, respectively. Material strength and formability are critical qualities for shaping these materials into parts and a pervasive deformation mechanism that significantly affects their formability is deformation twinning. The interaction between grain boundaries and twins has an important influence on the deformation behaviour and fracture of hcp metals. Here, statistical analysis of large data sets reveals that whether twins transmit across grain boundaries depends not only on crystallography but also strongly on the anisotropy in crystallographic slip. We show that increases in crystal plastic anisotropy enhance the probability of twin transmission by comparing the relative ease of twin transmission in hcp materials such as Mg, Zr and Ti.

  7. Grain neighbour effects on twin transmission in hexagonal close-packed materials

    DOE PAGES

    Arul Kumar, Mariyappan; Beyerlein, Irene Jane; McCabe, Rodney James; ...

    2016-12-19

    Materials with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure such as Mg, Ti and Zr are being used in the transportation, aerospace and nuclear industry, respectively. Material strength and formability are critical qualities for shaping these materials into parts and a pervasive deformation mechanism that significantly affects their formability is deformation twinning. The interaction between grain boundaries and twins has an important influence on the deformation behaviour and fracture of hcp metals. Here, statistical analysis of large data sets reveals that whether twins transmit across grain boundaries depends not only on crystallography but also strongly on the anisotropy in crystallographic slip.more » As a result, we show that increases in crystal plastic anisotropy enhance the probability of twin transmission by comparing the relative ease of twin transmission in hcp materials such as Mg, Zr and Ti.« less

  8. bcc-to-hcp transformation pathways for iron versus hydrostatic pressure: Coupled shuffle and shear modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. B.; Johnson, D. D.

    2009-04-01

    Using density-functional theory, we calculate the potential-energy surface (PES), minimum-energy pathway (MEP), and transition state (TS) versus hydrostatic pressure σhyd for the reconstructive transformation in Fe from body-centered cubic (bcc) to hexagonal closed-packed (hcp). At fixed σhyd , the PES is described by coupled shear (γ) and shuffle (η) modes and is determined from structurally minimized hcp-bcc energy differences at a set of (η,γ) . We fit the PES using symmetry-adapted polynomials, permitting the MEP to be found analytically. The MEP is continuous and fully explains the transformation and its associated magnetization and volume discontinuity at TS. We show that σhyd (while not able to induce shear) dramatically alters the MEP to drive reconstruction by a shuffle-only mode at ≤30GPa , as observed. Finally, we relate our polynomial-based results to Landau and nudge-elastic-band approaches and show they yield incorrect MEP in general.

  9. Defects in ion-implanted hcp-titanium: A first-principles study of electronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, Abdulrafiu T.; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Scandolo, Sandro; Nsengiyumva, Schadrack; Härting, Margit; Britton, David T.

    2011-12-01

    The electronic structures of hexagonal closed-packed (h.c.p) titanium containing a vacancy and krypton impurity atoms at various insertion sites are calculated by first-principles methods in the framework of the density-functional theory (DFT). The density of states (DOS) for titanium containing a vacancy defect shows resonance-like features. Also, the bulk electron density decreases from ˜0.15/Å 3 to ˜0.05/Å 3 at the vacancy centre. Electronic structure calculations have been performed to investigate what underlies the krypton site preference in titanium. The DOS of the nearest-neighbour (NN) titanium atoms to the octahedral krypton appears to be less distorted (relative to pure titanium) when compared to the NN titanium atoms to the tetrahedral krypton. The electronic density deformation maps show that polarization of the titanium atoms is stronger when the krypton atom is located at the tetrahedral site. Since krypton is a closed-shell atom, thus precluding any bonding with the titanium atoms, we may conclude that the polarization of the electrons in the vicinity of the inserted krypton atoms and the distortion of the DOS of the NN titanium atoms to the krypton serve to indicate which defect site is preferred when a krypton atom is inserted into titanium. Based on these considerations, we conclude that the substitutional site is the most favourable one, and the octahedral is the preferred interstitial site, in agreement with recent DFT calculations of the energetics of krypton impurity sites.

  10. Dislocation Structure and Mobility in hcp He 4

    DOE PAGES

    Landinez Borda, Edgar Josue; Cai, Wei; de Koning, Maurice

    2016-07-20

    We assess the core structure and mobility of the screw and edge basal-plane dislocations in hcp 4He using path-integral Monte Carlo simulations. Our findings provide key insights into recent interpretations of giant plasticity and mass flow junction experiments. First, both dislocations are dissociated into nonsuperfluid Shockley partial dislocations separated by ribbons of stacking fault, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as one-dimensional channels that may display Lüttinger-liquid-like behavior. Second, the centroid positions of the partial cores are found to fluctuate substantially, even in the absence of applied shear stresses. This implies that the lattice resistance to motion of themore » partial dislocations is negligible, consistent with the recent experimental observations of giant plasticity. Our results indicate that both the structure of the partial cores and the zero-point fluctuations play a role in this extreme mobility.« less

  11. Search for anisotropy in the Debye-Waller factor of HCP solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    The properties of hexagonal close packed (hcp) solid 4He are dominated by large atomic zero point motions. An accurate description of these motions is therefore necessary in order to accurately calculate the properties of the system, such as the Debye-Waller (DW) factors. A recent neutron scattering experiment reported significant anisotropy in the in-plane and out-of-plane DW factors for hcp solid 4He at low temperatures, where thermal effects are negligible and only zero-point motions are expected to contribute. By contrast, no such anisotropy was observed either in earlier experiments or in path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of solid hcp 4He. However, the earlier experiments and the PIMC simulations were both carried out at higher temperatures where thermal effects could be substantial. We seek to understand the cause of this discrepancy through variational quantum Monte Carlo simulations utilizing an accurate pair potential and a modified trial wavefunction which allows for anisotropy. Near the melting density, we find no anisotropy in an ideal hcp 4He crystal. A theoretical equation of state is derived from the calculated energies of the ideal crystal over a range of molar volumes from 7.88 to 21.3 cm3, and is found to be in good qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  12. Bond-orientational analysis of hard-disk and hard-sphere structures.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V

    2006-05-28

    We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.

  13. Generalized-stacking-fault energy and twin-boundary energy of hexagonal close-packed Au: A first-principles calculation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Huiyuan; Huang, Tianlong; Xue, Xuena; Qiu, Feng; Jiang, Qichuan

    2015-01-01

    Although solid Au is usually most stable as a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, pure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Au has been successfully fabricated recently. However, the phase stability and mechanical property of this new material are unclear, which may restrict its further applications. Here we present the evidence that hcp → fcc phase transformation can proceed easily in Au by first-principles calculations. The extremely low generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy in the basal slip system implies a great tendency to form basal stacking faults, which opens the door to phase transformation from hcp to fcc. Moreover, the Au lattice extends slightly within the superficial layers due to the self-assembly of alkanethiolate species on hcp Au (0001) surface, which may also contribute to the hcp → fcc phase transformation. Compared with hcp Mg, the GSF energies for non-basal slip systems and the twin-boundary (TB) energies for and twins are larger in hcp Au, which indicates the more difficulty in generating non-basal stacking faults and twins. The findings provide new insights for understanding the nature of the hcp → fcc phase transformation and guide the experiments of fabricating and developing materials with new structures. PMID:25998415

  14. Fabrication of non-hexagonal close packed colloidal array on a substrate by transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Meneka; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    Self-organized colloidal arrays find application in fabrication of solar cells with advanced light management strategies. We report a simple spincoating based approach for fabricating two dimensional colloidal crystals with hexagonal and non-hexagonal close packed assembly on flat and nanopatterned substrates. The non-HCP arrays were fabricated by spin coating the particles onto soft lithographically fabricated substrates. The substrate patterns impose directionality to the particles by confining them within the grooves. We have developed a technique by which the HCP and non-HCP arrays can be transferred to any surface. For this purpose the colloidal arrays were fabricated on a UV degradable PMMA layer, resulting in transfer of the particles on UV exposure. This allows the colloidal structures to be transported across substrates irrespective of their surface energy, wettability or morphology. Since the particles are transferred without exposing it to any kind of chemical or thermal environment, it can be utilized for placing particles on top of thin film solar cells for improving their absorption efficiency.

  15. Dislocation dynamics in hexagonal close-packed crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Aubry, S.; Rhee, M.; Hommes, G.; ...

    2016-04-14

    Extensions of the dislocation dynamics methodology necessary to enable accurate simulations of crystal plasticity in hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metals are presented. They concern the introduction of dislocation motion in HCP crystals through linear and non-linear mobility laws, as well as the treatment of composite dislocation physics. Formation, stability and dissociation of and other dislocations with large Burgers vectors defined as composite dislocations are examined and a new topological operation is proposed to enable their dissociation. Furthermore, the results of our simulations suggest that composite dislocations are omnipresent and may play important roles both in specific dislocation mechanisms and in bulkmore » crystal plasticity in HCP materials. While fully microscopic, our bulk DD simulations provide wealth of data that can be used to develop and parameterize constitutive models of crystal plasticity at the mesoscale.« less

  16. Crystal structure of solid molecular hydrogen under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, T.; Ma, Y.; Zou, G.

    2002-11-01

    In an effort to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the structure of dense H2, we have performed path-integral Monte Carlo simulations for three combinations of pressures and temperatures corresponding to three phases of solid hydrogen. Our results suggest three kinds of distribution of molecules: orientationally disordered hexagonal close packed (hcp), orientationally ordered hcp with Pa3-type local orientation order and orientationally ordered orthorhombic structure of Cmca symmetry, for the three phases.

  17. The shock and spall response of three industrially important hexagonal close-packed metals: magnesium, titanium and zirconium.

    PubMed

    Hazell, P J; Appleby-Thomas, G J; Wielewski, E; Escobedo, J P

    2014-08-28

    Magnesium, titanium and zirconium and their alloys are extensively used in industrial and military applications where they would be subjected to extreme environments of high stress and strain-rate loading. Their hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystal lattice structures present interesting challenges for optimizing their mechanical response under such loading conditions. In this paper, we review how these materials respond to shock loading via plate-impact experiments. We also discuss the relationship between a heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructure, typical of HCP materials, and the directional dependency of the elastic limit and, in some cases, the strength prior to failure. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. New quaternary carbide Mg1.52Li0.24Al0.24C0.86 as a disorder derivative of the family of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures and the effect of structure modification on the electrochemical behaviour of the electrode.

    PubMed

    Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Kulawik, Damian; Ciesielski, Wojciech; Pavlyuk, Nazar; Dmytriv, Grygoriy

    2018-03-01

    Magnesium alloys are the basis for the creation of light and ultra-light alloys. They have attracted attention as potential materials for the accumulation and storage of hydrogen, as well as electrode materials in metal-hydride and magnesium-ion batteries. The search for new metal hydrides has involved magnesium alloys with rare-earth transition metals and doped by p- or s-elements. The synthesis and characterization of a new quaternary carbide, namely dimagnesium lithium aluminium carbide, Mg 1.52 Li 0.24 Al 0.24 C 0.86 , belonging to the family of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures, are reported. The title compound crystallizes with hexagonal symmetry (space group P-6m2), where two sites with -6m2 symmetry and one site with 3m. symmetry are occupied by an Mg/Li statistical mixture (in Wyckoff position 1a), an Mg/Al statistical mixture (in position 1d) and C atoms (2i). The cuboctahedral coordination is typical for Mg/Li and Mg/Al, and the C atom is enclosed in an octahedron. Electronic structure calculations were used for elucidation of the ability of lithium or aluminium to substitute magnesium, and evaluation of the nature of the bonding between atoms. The presence of carbon in the carbide phase improves the corrosion resistance of the Mg 1.52 Li 0.24 Al 0.24 C 0.86 alloy compared to the ternary Mg 1.52 Li 0.24 Al 0.24 alloy and Mg.

  19. Edge-on dislocation loop in anisotropic hcp zirconium thin foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenwang; Xia, Re; Qian, Guian; Xu, Shucai; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2015-10-01

    Edge-on dislocation loops with 〈 a 〉 -type and 〈 c 〉 -type of Burgers vectors can be formed on prismatic or basel habit planes of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) zirconium alloys during in-situ ion irradiation and neutron irradiation experiments. In this work, an anisotropic image stress method was employed to analyze the free surface effects of dislocation loops within hcp Zr thin foils. Calculation results demonstrate that image stress has a remarkable effect on the distortion fields of dislocation loops within infinite medium, and the image energy becomes remarkable when dislocation loops are situated close to the free surfaces. Moreover, image forces of the 1 / 2 〈 0001 〉 (0001) dislocation loop within (0001) thin foil is much stronger than that of the 1 / 3 〈 11 2 bar 0 〉 (11 2 bar 0) dislocation loop within (11 2 bar 0) thin foil of identical geometrical configurations. Finally, image stress effect on the physical behaviors of loops during in-situ ion irradiation experiments is discussed.

  20. Role of microstructure on twin nucleation and growth in HCP titanium: A statistical study

    SciTech Connect

    Arul Kumar, M.; Wroński, M.; McCabe, Rodney James

    In this study, a detailed statistical analysis is performed using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) to establish the effect of microstructure on twin nucleation and growth in deformed commercial purity hexagonal close packed (HCP) titanium. Rolled titanium samples are compressed along rolling, transverse and normal directions to establish statistical correlations for {10–12}, {11–21}, and {11–22} twins. A recently developed automated EBSD-twinning analysis software is employed for the statistical analysis. Finally, the analysis provides the following key findings: (I) grain size and strain dependence is different for twin nucleation and growth; (II) twinning statistics can be generalized for the HCP metalsmore » magnesium, zirconium and titanium; and (III) complex microstructure, where grain shape and size distribution is heterogeneous, requires multi-point statistical correlations.« less

  1. Role of microstructure on twin nucleation and growth in HCP titanium: A statistical study

    DOE PAGES

    Arul Kumar, M.; Wroński, M.; McCabe, Rodney James; ...

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a detailed statistical analysis is performed using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) to establish the effect of microstructure on twin nucleation and growth in deformed commercial purity hexagonal close packed (HCP) titanium. Rolled titanium samples are compressed along rolling, transverse and normal directions to establish statistical correlations for {10–12}, {11–21}, and {11–22} twins. A recently developed automated EBSD-twinning analysis software is employed for the statistical analysis. Finally, the analysis provides the following key findings: (I) grain size and strain dependence is different for twin nucleation and growth; (II) twinning statistics can be generalized for the HCP metalsmore » magnesium, zirconium and titanium; and (III) complex microstructure, where grain shape and size distribution is heterogeneous, requires multi-point statistical correlations.« less

  2. High pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Park, Sulgiye; Rittman, Dylan R.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Bei, Hongbin; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-01

    High-entropy alloys, near-equiatomic solid solutions of five or more elements, represent a new strategy for the design of materials with properties superior to those of conventional alloys. However, their phase space remains constrained, with transition metal high-entropy alloys exhibiting only face- or body-centered cubic structures. Here, we report the high-pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the prototypical high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi. This martensitic transformation begins at 14 GPa and is attributed to suppression of the local magnetic moments, destabilizing the initial fcc structure. Similar to fcc-to-hcp transformations in Al and the noble gases, the transformation is sluggish, occurring over a range of >40 GPa. However, the behaviour of CrMnFeCoNi is unique in that the hcp phase is retained following decompression to ambient pressure, yielding metastable fcc-hcp mixtures. This demonstrates a means of tuning the structures and properties of high-entropy alloys in a manner not achievable by conventional processing techniques.

  3. Ab initio study of structural and mechanical property of solid molecular hydrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yingting; Yang, Li; Yang, Tianle; Nie, Jinlan; Peng, Shuming; Long, Xinggui; Zu, Xiaotao; Du, Jincheng

    2015-06-01

    Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to investigate the structural and the elastic properties of solid molecular hydrogens (H2). The influence of molecular axes of H2 on structural relative stabilities of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and face-centered cubic (fcc) structured hydrogen molecular crystals were systematically investigated. Our results indicate that for hcp structures, disordered hydrogen molecule structure is more stable, while for fcc structures, Pa3 hydrogen molecular crystal is most stable. The cohesive energy of fcc H2 crystal was found to be lower than hcp. The mechanical properties of fcc and hcp hydrogen molecular crystals were obtained, with results consistent with previous theoretical calculations. In addition, the effects of zero point energy (ZPE) and van der Waals (vdW) correction on the cohesive energy and the stability of hydrogen molecular crystals were systematically studied and discussed.

  4. Genetically encoded photochemical covalent crosslinking within the Hcp-1 self-assembling bacterial secretion machinery.

    PubMed

    Antonczak, Alicja K; Milholland, Kedric; Tippmann, Eric M

    2018-05-01

    The target protein, Hcp1, was first described as part of the bacterial Type VI secretion system from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The protein first self-assembles into a hexamer and then the hexamers further stack into a nanotubular structure. Hcp1 monomers were targeted for mutagenesis with two widely used photoactivatable amino acids: para-benzoyl phenylalanine or para-azidophenylalanine. The ability of these amino acids to form covalent adducts within the Hcp1 self-assembled system was investigated. Multiple residues, putatively of equal distance between the monomer-monomer interface were targeted. The efficiency of each amino acid to covalently link self-assembled hexamers was determined. The results demonstrate the choice and role of genetically encoded tools applied to complicated biological processes such as self-assembly and also suggested some structural dynamics of the Hcp-1 protein not obvious from crystallographic structures.

  5. Constraints on Earth’s inner core composition inferred from measurements of the sound velocity of hcp-iron in extreme conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sakamaki, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Eiji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Kamada, Seiji; Takahashi, Suguru; Sakairi, Takanori; Takahata, Akihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Rei; Seto, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Taku; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) is a main component of Earth’s inner core. The difference in density between hcp-Fe and the inner core in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) shows a density deficit, which implies an existence of light elements in the core. Sound velocities then provide an important constraint on the amount and kind of light elements in the core. Although seismological observations provide density–sound velocity data of Earth’s core, there are few measurements in controlled laboratory conditions for comparison. We report the compressional sound velocity (VP) of hcp-Fe up to 163 GPa and 3000 K using inelastic x-ray scattering from a laser-heated sample in a diamond anvil cell. We propose a new high-temperature Birch’s law for hcp-Fe, which gives us the VP of pure hcp-Fe up to core conditions. We find that Earth’s inner core has a 4 to 5% smaller density and a 4 to 10% smaller VP than hcp-Fe. Our results demonstrate that components other than Fe in Earth’s core are required to explain Earth’s core density and velocity deficits compared to hcp-Fe. Assuming that the temperature effects on iron alloys are the same as those on hcp-Fe, we narrow down light elements in the inner core in terms of the velocity deficit. Hydrogen is a good candidate; thus, Earth’s core may be a hidden hydrogen reservoir. Silicon and sulfur are also possible candidates and could show good agreement with PREM if we consider the presence of some melt in the inner core, anelasticity, and/or a premelting effect. PMID:26933678

  6. High pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    DOE PAGES

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Park, Sulgiye; Rittman, Dylan R.; ...

    2017-05-25

    High pressure x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the face-centered cubic (fcc) high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi transforms martensitically to a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase at ~14 GPa. We attribute this to suppression of the local magnetic moments, destabilizing the fcc phase. Similar to fcc-to-hcp transformations in Al and the noble gases, this transformation is sluggish, occurring over a range of >40 GPa. But, the behavior of CrMnFeCoNi is unique in that the hcp phase is retained following decompression to ambient pressure, yielding metastable fcc-hcp mixtures.

  7. Lattice dynamics and metastability of fcc metals in the hcp structure and the crucial role of spin-orbit coupling in platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönecker, Stephan; Li, Xiaoqing; Richter, Manuel; Vitos, Levente

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the lattice dynamical properties of Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au in the nonequilibrium hcp structure by means of density-functional simulations, wherein spin-orbit coupling (SOC) was considered for Ir, Pt, and Au. The determined dynamical properties reveal that all eight elements possess a metastable hcp phase at zero temperature and pressure. The hcp Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, and Au previously observed in nanostructures support this finding. We make evident that the inclusion of SOC is mandatory for an accurate description of the phonon dispersion relations and dynamical stability of hcp Pt. The underlying sensitivity of the interatomic force constants is ascribed to a SOC-induced splitting of degenerate band states accompanied by a pronounced reduction of electronic density of states at the Fermi level. To give further insight into the importance of SOC in Pt, we (i) focus on phase stability and examine a lattice transformation related to optical phonons in the hcp phase and (ii) focus on the generalized stacking fault energy (GSFE) of the fcc phase pertinent to crystal plasticity. We show that the intrinsic stable and unstable fault energies of the GSFE scale as in other common fcc metals, provided that the spin-orbit interaction is taken into account.

  8. Effect of stacking faults on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of hcp Co: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Aas, C J; Szunyogh, L; Evans, R F L; Chantrell, R W

    2013-07-24

    In terms of the fully relativistic screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method we investigate the effect of stacking faults on the magnetic properties of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) cobalt. In particular, we consider the formation energy and the effect on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of four different stacking faults in hcp cobalt-an intrinsic growth fault, an intrinsic deformation fault, an extrinsic fault and a twin-like fault. We find that the intrinsic growth fault has the lowest formation energy, in good agreement with previous first-principles calculations. With the exception of the intrinsic deformation fault which has a positive impact on the MAE, we find that the presence of a stacking fault generally reduces the MAE of bulk Co. Finally, we consider a pair of intrinsic growth faults and find that their effect on the MAE is not additive, but synergic.

  9. Order - disorder transitions in granular sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, Andreea M.

    studied using the orientational order metric. By following the evolution of the nucleating crystallites, we identified critical nuclei, determined their size and symmetry, and measured the average surface free energy. The structure of the nuclei was found to be random hexagonal close-packed, their average shape was non-spherical and they were oriented preferentially along the shear axis. When the packing volume fraction approaches a value close to the random close packing, crystallites with face centered cubic (fcc) order are observed with increasing probability, and ordered domains grow rapidly. A polycrystalline phase with domains of fcc and hcp order is obtained after hundreds of thousands of shear cycles. Depositing spheres on a substrate under the influence of gravity gives rise to a wide range of volume fractions and packing structures by simply controlling the nature of the substrate, the deposition rate and the energy of the particles. We analyzed the structures formed and investigate the development of the disordered phases as a function of the deposition rate. Furthermore, by comparing these structures with packings obtained by cyclic shear we showed that the structure of a granular packing depends strongly on the protocol used.

  10. Modeling the effect of neighboring grains on twin growth in HCP polycrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, M. Arul; Beyerlein, I. J.; Lebensohn, R. A.; ...

    2017-08-04

    In this paper, we study the dependence of neighboring grain orientation on the local stress state around a deformation twin in a hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal and its effects on the resistance against twin thickening. We use a recently developed, full-field elasto-visco-plastic formulation based on fast Fourier transforms that accounts for the twinning shear transformation imposed by the twin lamella. The study is applied to Mg, Zr and Ti, since these HCP metals tend to deform by activation of different types of slip modes. The analysis shows that the local stress along the twin boundary are strongly controlled bymore » the relative orientation of the easiest deformation modes in the neighboring grain with respect to the twin lamella in the parent grain. A geometric expression that captures this parent-neighbor relationship is proposed and incorporated into a larger scale, mean-field visco-plastic self-consistent model to simulate the role of neighboring grain orientation on twin thickening. We demonstrate that the approach improves the prediction of twin area fraction distribution when compared with experimental observations.« less

  11. Modeling the effect of neighboring grains on twin growth in HCP polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. Arul; Beyerlein, I. J.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Tomé, C. N.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the dependence of neighboring grain orientation on the local stress state around a deformation twin in a hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal and its effects on the resistance against twin thickening. We use a recently developed, full-field elasto-visco-plastic formulation based on fast Fourier transforms that account for the twinning shear transformation imposed by the twin lamella. The study is applied to Mg, Zr and Ti, since these HCP metals tend to deform by activation of different types of slip modes. The analysis shows that the local stress along the twin boundary are strongly controlled by the relative orientation of the easiest deformation modes in the neighboring grain with respect to the twin lamella in the parent grain. A geometric expression that captures this parent-neighbor relationship is proposed and incorporated into a larger scale, mean-field visco-plastic self-consistent model to simulate the role of neighboring grain orientation on twin thickening. We demonstrate that the approach improves the prediction of twin area fraction distribution when compared with experimental observations.

  12. Thermodynamic and structural properties of hcp bulk and nano-precipitated Ag-Al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai; Johnson, Duane; Smirnov, Andrei

    2002-03-01

    We study the short- and long- range chemical ordering in hcp bulk Ag_2Al using the Monte Carlo method based on a Hamiltonian constructed via structural formation energies from ab initio electronic-structure calculations. We find that the ground-state structure and thermodynamic properties of bulk Ag_2Al is that determined from the X-ray experimental data. We also address the influence of the interface, coherency strain, and off-stoichiometric disorder on the structure of metastable γ' nano-precipitates in fcc Al matrix. We show that γ' precipitates are off-stoichiometric and provide a new Al-rich structure that reproduces the observed TEM image. We acknowledge our support in part by an ALCOA Foundation Grant, the U.S. Department of Energy through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at UIUC under grant DEFG02-91ER45439, and the UIUC Materials Computation Center under National Science Foundation grant DMR-9976550.

  13. Role of distortion in the hcp vs fcc competition in rare-gas solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, N. V.

    2011-05-01

    As a prototype of an initial or intermediate structure between hcp and fcc lattices we consider a distorted bcc crystal. We calculate the temperature and pressure dependences of the lattice parameters for the heavier rare gas solids Ar, Kr, Xe in a quasiharmonic approximation with Aziz potentials, and confirm earlier predictions that the hcp structure predominates over fcc in the bulk within wide ranges of P and T. The situation is different for confined clusters with up to 105 atoms, where, owing to the specific surface energetics and terminations, structures with five-fold symmetry made up of fcc fragments are dominant. As a next step we consider the free relaxation of differently distorted bcc clusters, and show that two types (monoclinic and orthorhombic) of initial distortion are a driving force for the final hcp vs fcc configurations. Possible energy relationships between the initial and final structures are obtained and analyzed.

  14. Polytypism in the ground state structure of the Lennard-Jonesium.

    PubMed

    Pártay, Lívia B; Ortner, Christoph; Bartók, Albert P; Pickard, Chris J; Csányi, Gábor

    2017-07-26

    We present a systematic study of the stability of nineteen different periodic structures using the finite range Lennard-Jones potential model discussing the effects of pressure, potential truncation, cutoff distance and Lennard-Jones exponents. The structures considered are the hexagonal close packed (hcp), face centred cubic (fcc) and seventeen other polytype stacking sequences, such as dhcp and 9R. We found that at certain pressure and cutoff distance values, neither fcc nor hcp is the ground state structure as previously documented, but different polytypic sequences. This behaviour shows a strong dependence on the way the tail of the potential is truncated.

  15. Structural phase transition at high temperatures in solid molecular hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, T.; Takada, Y.; Cui, Q.; Ma, Y.; Zou, G.

    2001-07-01

    We study the effect of temperature up to 1000 K on the structure of dense molecular para-hydrogen (p-H2) and ortho-deuterium (o-D2), using the path-integral Monte Carlo method. We find a structural phase transition from orientationally disordered hexagonal close packed (hcp) to an orthorhombic structure of Cmca symmetry before melting. The transition is basically induced by thermal fluctuations, but quantum fluctuations of protons (deuterons) are important in determining the transition temperature through effectively hardening the intermolecular interaction. We estimate the phase line between hcp and Cmca phases as well as the melting line of the Cmca solid.

  16. An Amino Acid Code for β-sheet Packing Structure

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyun; Tsai, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    To understand the relationship between protein sequence and structure, this work extends the knob-socket model in an investigation of β-sheet packing. Over a comprehensive set of β-sheet folds, the contacts between residues were used to identify packing cliques: sets of residues that all contact each other. These packing cliques were then classified based on size and contact order. From this analysis, the 2 types of 4 residue packing cliques necessary to describe β-sheet packing were characterized. Both occur between 2 adjacent hydrogen bonded β-strands. First, defining the secondary structure packing within β-sheets, the combined socket or XY:HG pocket consists of 4 residues i,i+2 on one strand and j,j+2 on the other. Second, characterizing the tertiary packing between β-sheets, the knob-socket XY:H+B consists of a 3 residue XY:H socket (i,i+2 on one strand and j on the other) packed against a knob B residue (residue k distant in sequence). Depending on the packing depth of the knob B residue, 2 types of knob-sockets are found: side-chain and main-chain sockets. The amino acid composition of the pockets and knob-sockets reveal the sequence specificity of β-sheet packing. For β-sheet formation, the XY:HG pocket clearly shows sequence specificity of amino acids. For tertiary packing, the XY:H+B side-chain and main-chain sockets exhibit distinct amino acid preferences at each position. These relationships define an amino acid code for β-sheet structure and provide an intuitive topological mapping of β-sheet packing. PMID:24668690

  17. Structural characterization of the packings of granular regular polygons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuncheng; Dong, Kejun; Yu, Aibing

    2015-12-01

    By using a recently developed method for discrete modeling of nonspherical particles, we simulate the random packings of granular regular polygons with three to 11 edges under gravity. The effects of shape and friction on the packing structures are investigated by various structural parameters, including packing fraction, the radial distribution function, coordination number, Voronoi tessellation, and bond-orientational order. We find that packing fraction is generally higher for geometrically nonfrustrated regular polygons, and can be increased by the increase of edge number and decrease of friction. The changes of packing fraction are linked with those of the microstructures, such as the variations of the translational and orientational orders and local configurations. In particular, the free areas of Voronoi tessellations (which are related to local packing fractions) can be described by log-normal distributions for all polygons. The quantitative analyses establish a clearer picture for the packings of regular polygons.

  18. The competition of densification and structure ordering during crystallization of HCP-Mg in the framework of layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie; Jiang, Yewei; Yu, Ronggang; Wu, Yongquan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we performed an NPT molecular dynamics simulation of crystallization process of HCP-Mg to probe the competition between densification and structural ordering. Two opposite layering patterns, i.e. outward and inward, were designed for analysis. From the perspective of solid-like cluster (SLC) itself, structural ordering always precedes densification; but from the perspective of SLC's precursor, structural ordering always lags behind densification; the reversion occurs at the closest two liquid layers around SLC. We call it dip-rebound phenomenon. This phenomenon is a completely new finding. It resolves, to some extent, recent debate about whether densification or structural ordering triggers crystallization.

  19. An Amino Acid Packing Code for α-helical Structure and Protein Design

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyun; Chavan, Archana G.; Phan, Jamie; Day, Ryan; Tsai, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates that all packing in α-helices can be simplified to repetitive patterns of a single motif: the knob-socket. Using the precision of Voronoi Polyhedra/Deluaney Tessellations to identify contacts, the knob-socket is a 4 residue tetrahedral motif: a knob residue on one α-helix packs into the 3 residue socket on another α-helix. The principle of the knob-socket model relates the packing between levels of protein structure: the intra-helical packing arrangements within secondary structure that permit inter-helix tertiary packing interactions. Within an α-helix, the 3 residue sockets arrange residues into a uniform packing lattice. Inter-helix packing results from a definable pattern of interdigitated knob-socket motifs between 2 α-helices. Furthermore, the knob-socket model classifies 3 types of sockets: 1) free: favoring only intra-helical packing, 2) filled: favoring inter-helical interactions and 3) non: disfavoring α-helical structure. The amino acid propensities in these 3 socket classes essentially represent an amino acid code for structure in α-helical packing. Using this code, a novel yet straightforward approach for the design of α-helical structure was used to validate the knob-socket model. Unique sequences for 3 peptides were created to produce a predicted amount of α-helical structure: mostly helical, some helical, and no-helix. These 3 peptides were synthesized and helical content assessed using CD spectroscopy. The measured α-helicity of each peptide was consistent with the expected predictions. These results and analysis demonstrate that the knob-socket motif functions as the basic unit of packing and presents an intuitive tool to decipher the rules governing packing in protein structure. PMID:22426125

  20. Landau free energy for a bcc-hcp reconstructive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanati, Mahdi; Saxena, A.; Lookman, T.

    We study the bcc-hcp phase transition in Ti and Zr with the use of first-principles calculations. We have determined the complete energy surface from the bcc to hcp structure. The results are used to find an appropriate Landau free energy density for describing this transformation. The proposed Landau free energy density has two relevant order parameters: shear and shuffle. Through first-principles calculations, we show that the bcc structure is unstable with respect to the shuffle of atoms (TA{sub 1} N-point phonon) rather than the shear. Therefore, we reduce the two order parameter Landau free energy to an effective one ordermore » parameter (shuffle) potential, which is a reasonable approximation. In general, the effective Landau free energy is a triple-well potential. From the phonon dispersion data and the change in entropy at the transition temperature we find the free energy coefficients for Ti and Zr.« less

  1. Stuffed Derivatives of Close-Packed Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Bodie E.

    2007-01-01

    Decades ago Buerger described and later Palmer reviewed stuffed silica crystal structures widely used by mineralogists. Many publications and books have discussed common crystal structures in terms of close-packing of one set of atoms or ions (P sites) with other atoms or ions in tetrahedral (T) or octahedral (O) sites. Douglas and Ho described…

  2. Packing Regularities in Biological Structures Relate to Their Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Robert L.; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The high packing density inside proteins leads to certain geometric regularities and also is one of the most important contributors to the high extent of cooperativity manifested by proteins in their cohesive domain motions. The orientations between neighboring non-bonded residues in proteins substantially follow the similar geometric regularities, regardless of whether the residues are on the surface or buried - a direct result of hydrophobicity forces. These orientations are relatively fixed and correspond closely to small deformations from those of the face-centered cubic lattice, which is the way in which identical spheres pack at the highest density. Packing density also is related to the extent of conservation of residues, and we show this relationship for residue packing densities by averaging over a large sample or residue packings. There are three regimes: 1) over a broad range of packing densities the relationship between sequence entropy and inverse packing density is nearly linear, 2) over a limited range of low packing densities the sequence entropy is nearly constant, and 3) at extremely low packing densities the sequence entropy is highly variable. These packing results provide important justification for the simple elastic network models that have been shown for a large number of proteins to represent protein dynamics so successfully, even when the models are extremely coarse-grained. Elastic network models for polymeric chains are simple and could be combined with these protein elastic networks to represent partially denatured parts of proteins. Finally, we show results of applications of the elastic network model to study the functional motions of the ribosome, based on its known structure. These results indicate expected correlations among its components for the step-wise processing steps in protein synthesis, and suggest ways to use these elastic network models to develop more detailed mechanisms - an important possibility, since most

  3. Deformation-induced crystallographic-preferred orientation of hcp-iron: An experimental study using a deformation-DIA apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Yu; Ohuchi, Tomohiro; Kawazoe, Takaaki; Seto, Yusuke; Maruyama, Genta; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Tange, Yoshinori; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2018-05-01

    Shear and uniaxial deformation experiments on hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) was conducted using a deformation-DIA apparatus at a pressure of 13-17 GPa and a temperature of 723 K to determine its deformation-induced crystallographic-preferred orientation (CPO). Development of the CPO in the deforming sample is determined in-situ based on two-dimensional X-ray diffraction using monochromatic synchrotron X-rays. In the shear deformation geometry, the <0001> and < 11 2 bar 0 > axes gradually align to be sub-parallel to the shear plane normal and shear direction, respectively, from the initial random texture. In the uniaxial compression and tensile geometry, the <0001> and < 11 2 bar 0 > axes, respectively, gradually align along the direction of the uniaxial deformation axis. These results suggest that basal slip (0001) < 11 2 bar 0 > is the dominant slip system in hcp-Fe under the studied deformation conditions. The P-wave anisotropy for a shear deformed sample was calculated using elastic constants at the inner core condition by recent ab-initio calculations. Strength of the calculated anisotropy was comparable to or higher than axisymmetric anisotropy in Earth's inner core.

  4. Structure of marginally jammed polydisperse packings of frictionless spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; O'Donovan, Cathal B.; Corwin, Eric I.; Cardinaux, Frédéric; Mason, Thomas G.; Möbius, Matthias E.; Scheffold, Frank

    2015-03-01

    We model the packing structure of a marginally jammed bulk ensemble of polydisperse spheres. To this end we expand on the granocentric model [Clusel et al., Nature (London) 460, 611 (2009), 10.1038/nature08158], explicitly taking into account rattlers. This leads to a relationship between the characteristic parameters of the packing, such as the mean number of neighbors and the fraction of rattlers, and the radial distribution function g (r ) . We find excellent agreement between the model predictions for g (r ) and packing simulations, as well as experiments on jammed emulsion droplets. The observed quantitative agreement opens the path towards a full structural characterization of jammed particle systems for imaging and scattering experiments.

  5. Comparison of the magnetic properties of metastable hexagonal close-packed Ni nanoparticles with those of the stable face-centered cubic Ni nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon Tae; Moon, Je Yong; Lee, Gang Ho; Park, Jeunghee; Chang, Yongmin

    2006-01-26

    We report the first magnetic study of pure and metastable hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Ni nanoparticles (sample 1). We also produced stable face-centered cubic (fcc) Ni nanoparticles, as mixtures with the hcp Ni nanoparticles (samples 2 and 3). We compared the magnetic properties of the hcp Ni nanoparticles with those of the fcc Ni nanoparticles by observing the evolution of magnetic properties from those of the hcp Ni nanoparticles to those of the fcc Ni nanoparticles as the number of fcc Ni nanoparticles increased from sample 1 to sample 3. The blocking temperature (T(B)) of the hcp Ni nanoparticles is approximately 12 K for particle diameters ranging between 8.5 and 18 nm, whereas those of the fcc Ni nanoparticles are 250 and 270 K for average particle diameters of 18 and 26 nm, respectively. The hcp Ni nanoparticles seem to be antiferromagnetic for T < T(B) and paramagnetic for T > T(B). This is very different from the fcc Ni nanoparticles, which are ferromagnetic for T < T(B) and superparamagnetic for T > T(B). This unusual magnetic state of the metastable hcp Ni nanoparticles is likely related to their increased bond distance (2.665 angstroms), compared to that (2.499 angstroms) of the stable fcc Ni nanoparticles.

  6. The structure of tropical forests and sphere packings

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Markus Wilhelm; Dobner, Hans-Jürgen; Wiegand, Thorsten; Huth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The search for simple principles underlying the complex architecture of ecological communities such as forests still challenges ecological theorists. We use tree diameter distributions—fundamental for deriving other forest attributes—to describe the structure of tropical forests. Here we argue that tree diameter distributions of natural tropical forests can be explained by stochastic packing of tree crowns representing a forest crown packing system: a method usually used in physics or chemistry. We demonstrate that tree diameter distributions emerge accurately from a surprisingly simple set of principles that include site-specific tree allometries, random placement of trees, competition for space, and mortality. The simple static model also successfully predicted the canopy structure, revealing that most trees in our two studied forests grow up to 30–50 m in height and that the highest packing density of about 60% is reached between the 25- and 40-m height layer. Our approach is an important step toward identifying a minimal set of processes responsible for generating the spatial structure of tropical forests. PMID:26598678

  7. Coexistence of a metastable double hcp phase in bcc-fcc structure transition of Te under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahama, Yuichi; Okawa, Naoki; Sugimoto, Toshiyuki; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Hirao, Naoshisa; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2018-02-01

    The structural phase transitions of tellurium (Te) are investigated at pressures of up to 330 GPa at 298 K using an X-ray powder diffraction technique. In the experiments, it was found that the high-pressure bcc phase (Te-V) transitioned to the fcc phase (Te-VI) at 99 GPa, although a double hcp phase (dhcp) coexisted with the fcc phase. As the pressure was increased and decreased, the dhcp phase vanished at 255 and 100 GPa, respectively. These results suggest that the dhcp phase is metastable at 298 K and the structure of the highest-pressure phase of Te is fcc. The present results provide important information regarding the high-pressure behavior of group-16 elements.

  8. Electronic structure and electron-phonon interaction in hexagonal yttrium by density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prabhakar P.

    2007-03-01

    To understand the pressure-induced changes in the electronic structure and the electron-phonon interaction in yttrium, we have studied hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) yttrium, stable at ambient pressure, and double hexagonal-close-packed (dhcp) yttrium, stable up to around 44GPa , using density-functional-based methods. Our results show that as one goes from hcp yttrium to dhcp yttrium, there are (i) a substantial charge transfer from s→d with extensive modifications of the d band and a sizable reduction in the density of states at the Fermi energy, (ii) a substantial stiffening of phonon modes with the electron-phonon coupling covering the entire frequency range, and (iii) an increase in the electron-phonon coupling constant λ from 0.55 to 1.24, leading to a change in the superconducting transition temperature Tc from 0.3to15.3K for μ*=0.2 .

  9. Long-range empirical potential model: extension to hexagonal close-packed metals.

    PubMed

    Dai, Y; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2009-09-23

    An n-body potential is developed and satisfactorily applied to hcp metals, Co, Hf, Mg, Re, Ti, and Zr, in the form of long-range empirical potential. The potential can well reproduce the lattice constants, c/a ratios, cohesive energies, and the bulk modulus for their stable structures (hcp) and metastable structures (bcc or fcc). Meanwhile, the potential can correctly predict the order of structural stability and distinguish the energy differences between their stable hcp structure and other structures. The energies and forces derived by the potential can smoothly go to zero at cutoff radius, thus completely avoiding the unphysical behaviors in the simulations. The developed potential is applied to study the vacancy, surface fault, stacking fault and self-interstitial atom in the hcp metals. The calculated formation energies of vacancy and divacancy and activation energies of self-diffusion by vacancies are in good agreement with the values in experiments and in other works. The calculated surface energies and stacking fault energies are also consistent with the experimental data and those obtained in other theoretical works. The calculated formation energies generally agree with the results in other works, although the stable configurations of self-interstitial atoms predicted in this work somewhat contrast with those predicted by other methods. The proposed potential is shown to be relevant for describing the interaction of bcc, fcc and hcp metal systems, bringing great convenience for researchers in constructing potentials for metal systems constituted by any combination of bcc, fcc and hcp metals.

  10. A theoretical study on pure bending of hexagonal close-packed metal sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, Hamed; Yang, Chunhui

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metals have quite different mechanical behaviours in comparison to conventional cubic metals such as steels and aluminum alloys [1, 2]. They exhibit a significant tension-compression asymmetry in initial yielding and subsequent plastic hardening. The reason for this unique behaviour can be attributed to their limited symmetric crystal structure, which leads to twining deformation [3-5]. This unique behaviour strongly influences sheet metal forming of such metals, especially for roll forming, in which the bending is dominant. Hence, it is crucial to represent constitutive relations of HCP metals for accurate estimation of bending moment-curvature behaviours. In this paper, an analytical model for asymmetric elastoplastic pure bending with an application of Cazacu-Barlat asymmetric yield function [6] is presented. This yield function considers the asymmetrical tension-compression behaviour of HCP metals by using second and third invariants of the stress deviator tensor and a specified constant, which can be expressed in terms of uniaxial yield stresses in tension and compression. As a case study, the analytical model is applied to predict the moment-curvature behaviours of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets under uniaxial loading condition. Furthermore, the analytical model is implemented as a user-defined material through the UMAT interface in Abaqus [7, 8] for conducting pure bending simulations. The results show that the analytical model can reasonably capture the asymmetric tension-compression behaviour of the magnesium alloy. The predicted moment-curvature behaviour has good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, numerical results show a better accuracy by the application of the Cazacu-Barlat yield function than those using the von-Mises yield function, which are more conservative than analytical results.

  11. Layering, melting, and recrystallization of a close-packed micellar crystal under steady and large-amplitude oscillatory shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    López-Barrón, Carlos R., E-mail: carlos.r.lopez-barron@exxonmobil.com; Wagner, Norman J.; Porcar, Lionel

    2015-05-15

    The rheology and three-dimensional microstructure of a concentrated viscoelastic solution of the triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide){sub 106}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 68}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 106} (Pluronic F127) in the protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate are measured by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under flow in three orthogonal planes. This solution's shear-thinning viscosity is due to the formation of two-dimensional hexagonal close-packed (HCP) sliding layer structure. Shear-melting of the crystalline structure is observed without disruption of the self-assembled micelles, resulting in a change in flow properties. Spatially resolved measurements in the 1–2 plane reveal that both shear-melting and sliding are not uniform across the Couettemore » gap. Melting and recrystallization of the HCP layers occur cyclically during a single large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) cycle, in agreement with the “stick-slip” flow mechanism proposed by Hamley et al. [Phys. Rev. E 58, 7620–7628 (1998)]. Analysis of 3D “structural” Lissajous curves show that the cyclic melting and sliding are direct functions of the strain rate amplitude and show perfect correlation with the cyclic stress response during LAOS. Both viscosity and structural order obey the Delaware–Rutgers rule. Combining rheology with in situ spatiotemporally resolved SANS is demonstrated to elucidate the structural origins of the nonlinear rheology of complex fluids.« less

  12. Catalytic biofilms on structured packing for the production of glycolic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan Zhong; Hauer, Bernhard; Rosche, Bettina

    2013-02-01

    While structured packing modules are known to be efficient for surface wetting and gas-liquid exchange in abiotic surface catalysis, this model study explores structured packing as a growth surface for catalytic biofilms. Microbial biofilms have been proposed as self-immobilized and self-regenerating catalysts for the production of chemicals. A concern is that the complex and dynamic nature of biofilms may cause fluctuations in their catalytic performance over time or may affect process reproducibility. An aerated continuous trickle-bed biofilm reactor system was designed with a 3 L structured packing, liquid recycling and pH control. Pseudomonas diminuta established a biofilm on the stainless steel structured packing with a specific surface area of 500 m2 m-3 and catalyzed the oxidation of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid for over two months of continuous operation. A steady-state productivity of up to 1.6 gl-1h-1 was achieved at a dilution rate of 0.33 h-1. Process reproducibility between three independent runs was excellent, despite process interruptions and activity variations in cultures grown from biofilm effluent cells. The results demonstrate the robustness of a catalytic biofilm on structured packing, despite its dynamic nature. Implementation is recommended for whole-cell processes that require efficient gas-liquid exchange, catalyst retention for continuous operation, or improved catalyst stability.

  13. Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-02-14

    The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.

  14. A new constitutive analysis of hexagonal close-packed metal in equal channel angular pressing by crystal plasticity finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hejie; Öchsner, Andreas; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.; Xiao, Yin; Furushima, Tsuyoshi; Wei, Dongbin; Jiang, Zhengyi; Manabe, Ken-ichi

    2018-01-01

    Most of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metals are lightweight metals. With the increasing application of light metal products, the production of light metal is increasingly attracting the attentions of researchers worldwide. To obtain a better understanding of the deformation mechanism of HCP metals (especially for Mg and its alloys), a new constitutive analysis was carried out based on previous research. In this study, combining the theories of strain gradient and continuum mechanics, the equal channel angular pressing process is analyzed and a HCP crystal plasticity constitutive model is developed especially for Mg and its alloys. The influence of elevated temperature on the deformation mechanism of the Mg alloy (slip and twin) is novelly introduced into a crystal plasticity constitutive model. The solution for the new developed constitutive model is established on the basis of the Lagrangian iterations and Newton Raphson simplification.

  15. Bernal's road to random packing and the structure of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, John L.

    2013-11-01

    Until the 1960s, liquids were generally regarded as either dense gases or disordered solids, and theoretical attempts at understanding their structures and properties were largely based on those concepts. Bernal, himself a crystallographer, was unhappy with either approach, preferring to regard simple liquids as 'homogeneous, coherent and essentially irregular assemblages of molecules containing no crystalline regions'. He set about realizing this conceptual model through a detailed examination of the structures and properties of random packings of spheres. In order to test the relevance of the model to real liquids, ways had to be found to realize and characterize random packings. This was at a time when computing was slow and in its infancy, so he and his collaborators set about building models in the laboratory, and examining aspects of their structures in order to characterize them in ways which would enable comparison with the properties of real liquids. Some of the imaginative - often time consuming and frustrating - routes followed are described, as well the comparisons made with the properties of simple liquids. With the increase of the power of computers in the 1960s, computational approaches became increasingly exploited in random packing studies. This enabled the use of packing concepts, and the tools developed to characterize them, in understanding systems as diverse as metallic glasses, crystal-liquid interfaces, protein structures, enzyme-substrate interactions and the distribution of galaxies, as well as their exploitation in, for example, oil extraction, understanding chromatographic separation columns, and packed beds in industrial processes.

  16. MD modeling of screw dislocation influence upon initiation and mechanism of BCC-HCP polymorphous transition in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremov, V. V.; Ionov, G. V.; Sapozhnikov, F. A.; Smirnov, N. A.; Karavaev, A. V.; Vorobyova, M. A.; Ryzhkov, M. V.

    2015-09-01

    The present work is devoted to classical molecular dynamics investigation into microscopic mechanisms of the bcc-hcp transition in iron. The interatomic potential of EAM type used in the calculations was tested for the capability to reproduce ab initio data on energy evolution along the bcc-hcp transformation path (Burgers deformation + shuffe) and then used in the large-scale MD simulations. The large-scale simulations included constant volume deformation along the Burgers path to study the origin and nature of the plasticity, hydrostatic volume compression of defect free samples above the bcc to hcp transition threshold to observe the formation of new phase embryos, and the volume compression of samples containing screw dislocations to study the effect of the dislocations on the probability of the new phase critical embryo formation. The volume compression demonstrated high level of metastability. The transition starts at pressure much higher than the equilibrium one. Dislocations strongly affect the probability of the critical embryo formation and significantly reduce the onset pressure of transition. The dislocations affect also the resulting structure of the samples upon the transition. The formation of layered structure is typical for the samples containing the dislocations. The results of the simulations were compared with the in-situ experimental data on the mechanism of the bcc-hcp transition in iron.

  17. Influence of hydrogen on the stability of iron phases under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorodumova, N. V.; Ahuja, R.; Johansson, B.

    2004-04-01

    The influence of hydrogen presence on the stability of iron phases (bcc, hcp, dhcp, fcc, simple cubic) in a wide pressure interval at 0 K has been studied by the first-principles projector augmented-wave (PAW) method. Hydrogen is shown to occupy different interstitial lattice positions depending on the type of structure and pressure. An introduction of hydrogen impurities (˜6 at. %) leads to a stabilization of the close-packed iron structures, shifting the calculated pressure of the bcc-hcp transition from ˜9 GPa for pure iron to 7 GPa for Fe (6 at. % H). This tendency is further enhanced in the iron hydride structures. The iron hydrides in the close-packed structures (hcp, dhcp, fcc) are essentially degenerate in energy and found to be most stable in the whole pressure range.

  18. Influence of fiber packing structure on permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Berdichevsky, Alexander L.

    1993-01-01

    The study on the permeability of an aligned fiber bundle is the key building block in modeling the permeability of advanced woven and braided preforms. Available results on the permeability of fiber bundles in the literature show that a substantial difference exists between numerical and analytical calculations on idealized fiber packing structures, such as square and hexagonal packing, and experimental measurements on practical fiber bundles. The present study focuses on the variation of the permeability of a fiber bundle under practical process conditions. Fiber bundles are considered as containing openings and fiber clusters within the bundle. Numerical simulations on the influence of various openings on the permeability were conducted. Idealized packing structures are used, but with introduced openings distributed in different patterns. Both longitudinal and transverse flow are considered. The results show that openings within the fiber bundle have substantial effect on the permeability. In the longitudinal flow case, the openings become the dominant flow path. In the transverse flow case, the fiber clusters reduce the gap sizes among fibers. Therefore the permeability is greatly influenced by these openings and clusters, respectively. In addition to the porosity or fiber volume fraction, which is commonly used in the permeability expression, another fiber bundle status parameter, the ultimate fiber volume fraction, is introduced to capture the disturbance within a fiber bundle.

  19. Measurement of Body-Centered-Cubic Aluminum at 475 GPa [Observation of Body-Centered-Cubic Aluminum at 475 GPa

    DOE PAGES

    Polsin, D. N.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Rygg, J. R.; ...

    2017-10-27

    Nanosecond in situ x-ray diffraction and simultaneous velocimetry measurements were used to determine the crystal structure and pressure, respectively, of ramp compressed aluminum at stress states between 111 and 475 GPa. The solid-solid Al phase transformations, fcc-hcp and hcp-bcc, are observed at 216 ± 9 GPa and 321 ± 12 GPa, respectively, with the bcc phase persisting to 475 GPa. Here, this is the first in situ observation of the high-pressure bcc phase of Al. High-pressure texture of the hcp and bcc phases suggests close-packed or nearly close-packed lattice planes remain parallel through both transformations.

  20. Measurement of Body-Centered-Cubic Aluminum at 475 GPa [Observation of Body-Centered-Cubic Aluminum at 475 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Polsin, D. N.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Rygg, J. R.

    Nanosecond in situ x-ray diffraction and simultaneous velocimetry measurements were used to determine the crystal structure and pressure, respectively, of ramp compressed aluminum at stress states between 111 and 475 GPa. The solid-solid Al phase transformations, fcc-hcp and hcp-bcc, are observed at 216 ± 9 GPa and 321 ± 12 GPa, respectively, with the bcc phase persisting to 475 GPa. Here, this is the first in situ observation of the high-pressure bcc phase of Al. High-pressure texture of the hcp and bcc phases suggests close-packed or nearly close-packed lattice planes remain parallel through both transformations.

  1. Application of close-packed structures in dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruili; Habib, Eric; Zhu, X X

    2017-03-01

    The inorganic filler particles in dental resin composites serve to improve their mechanical properties and reduce polymerization shrinkage during their use. Efforts have been made in academia and industry to increase the filler particle content, but, few studies examine the theoretical basis for the maximum particle loading. This work evaluates the packing of spherical particles in a close-packed state for highly loaded composites. Calculations show that for low dispersity particles, the maximum amount of particles is 74.05vol%, regardless of the particle size. This can be further improved by using a mix of large and small particles or by the use of non-spherical particles. For representative spherical particles with a diameter of 1000nm, two types of secondary particles with respective sizes of 414nm (d I ) and 225nm (d II ) are selected. The results show that after embedding secondary particles I & II into primary spherical particles, the packing factor is increased to 81.19% for the close-packed structures, which shows an improvement of 9.64%, compared to the 74.05% obtained only with primary spherical particles. This packing factor is also higher than either structure with the embedded secondary particles I or II. Examples of these mixtures with different spherical particle sizes are shown as a theoretical estimation, serving as a guideline for the design and formulation of new dental resin composites with better properties and improved performance. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Search for the elusive magnetic state of hexagonal iron: The antiferromagnetic Fe71Ru29 hcp alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, C.; Postorino, P.; Orecchini, A.; Sacchetti, F.

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic states of iron and their dependence on crystal structure represent an important case study for the physics of magnetism and its role in fundamental and applied science, including geophysical sciences. hcp iron is the most elusive structure as it exists only at high pressure but, at the same time, it is expected to be stable up to very high temperature. Exploring the magnetic state of pure Fe at high pressure is difficult and no conclusive results have been obtained. Simple binary alloys where the hexagonal phase of Fe is stabilized, offer a more controllable alternative to investigate iron magnetism. We carried out a neutron diffraction experiment on hcp Fe71Ru29 disordered alloy as a function of temperature. Fe in the hexagonal lattice of this specific alloy results to be antiferromagnetically aligned with a rather complex structure and a small magnetic moment. The temperature dependence suggests a Néel temperature TN = 124 ± 10 K, a value consistent with the low magnetic moment of 1.04 ± 0.10 μB obtained from the diffraction data that also suggest a non-commensurate magnetic structure with magnetic moments probably aligned along the c axis. The present data provide evidence for magnetic ordering in hcp Fe and support the theoretical description of magnetism of pure Fe at high pressure.

  3. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-05-12

    We revisit results from decades of pressure experiments on the bcc ↔ hcp transformations in iron, which are sensitive to non-hydrostatic conditions and sample size. We emphasize the role of martensitic stress in the observed pressure hysteresis and address the large spread in values for onset pressures of the nucleating phase. From electronic-structure calculations, we find a bcc ↔ hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa. Accounting for non-hydrostatic martensitic stress and a stress-dependent transition barrier, we suggest a pressure inequality for better comparison to experiment and observed hysteresis. We construct the equation of state for bcc and hcp phasesmore » under hydrostatic pressure, and compare to experiments and previous calculations.« less

  4. Premelting hcp to bcc Transition in Beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Sun, T.; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, P.; Zhang, D.-B.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2017-04-01

    Beryllium (Be) is an important material with wide applications ranging from aerospace components to x-ray equipment. Yet a precise understanding of its phase diagram remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticles. We find that the hcp → bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0

    structural stability and phase transitions in strongly anharmonic materials.

  5. cellPACK: A Virtual Mesoscope to Model and Visualize Structural Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Graham T.; Autin, Ludovic; Al-Alusi, Mostafa; Goodsell, David S.; Sanner, Michel F.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    cellPACK assembles computational models of the biological mesoscale, an intermediate scale (10−7–10−8m) between molecular and cellular biology. cellPACK’s modular architecture unites existing and novel packing algorithms to generate, visualize and analyze comprehensive 3D models of complex biological environments that integrate data from multiple experimental systems biology and structural biology sources. cellPACK is currently available as open source code, with tools for validation of models and with recipes and models for five biological systems: blood plasma, cytoplasm, synaptic vesicles, HIV and a mycoplasma cell. We have applied cellPACK to model distributions of HIV envelope protein to test several hypotheses for consistency with experimental observations. Biologists, educators, and outreach specialists can interact with cellPACK models, develop new recipes and perform packing experiments through scripting and graphical user interfaces at http://cellPACK.org. PMID:25437435

  6. Improving the Accuracy of a Heliocentric Potential (HCP) Prediction Model for the Aviation Radiation Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Yoon, Kyoung-Won; Jo, Gyeongbok; Noh, Sung-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The space radiation dose over air routes including polar routes should be carefully considered, especially when space weather shows sudden disturbances such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and accompanying solar energetic particle events. We recently established a heliocentric potential (HCP) prediction model for real-time operation of the CARI-6 and CARI-6M programs. Specifically, the HCP value is used as a critical input value in the CARI-6/6M programs, which estimate the aviation route dose based on the effective dose rate. The CARI-6/6M approach is the most widely used technique, and the programs can be obtained from the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). However, HCP values are given at a one month delay on the FAA official webpage, which makes it difficult to obtain real-time information on the aviation route dose. In order to overcome this critical limitation regarding the time delay for space weather customers, we developed a HCP prediction model based on sunspot number variations (Hwang et al. 2015). In this paper, we focus on improvements to our HCP prediction model and update it with neutron monitoring data. We found that the most accurate method to derive the HCP value involves (1) real-time daily sunspot assessments, (2) predictions of the daily HCP by our prediction algorithm, and (3) calculations of the resultant daily effective dose rate. Additionally, we also derived the HCP prediction algorithm in this paper by using ground neutron counts. With the compensation stemming from the use of ground neutron count data, the newly developed HCP prediction model was improved.

  7. Calculated temperature dependence of elastic constants and phonon dispersion of hcp and bcc beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Steven; Arapan, Sergiu; Harmon, Bruce; Eriksson, Olle

    2011-03-01

    Conventional first principle methods for calculating lattice dynamics are unable to calculate high temperature thermophysical properties of materials containing modes that are entropically stabilized. In this presentation we use a relatively new approach called self-consistent ab initio lattice dynamics (SCAILD) to study the hcp to bcc transition (1530 K) in beryllium. The SCAILD method goes beyond the harmonic approximation to include phonon-phonon interactions and produces a temperature-dependent phonon dispersion. In the high temperature bcc structure, phonon-phonon interactions dynamically stabilize the N-point phonon. Fits to the calculated phonon dispersion were used to determine the temperature dependence of the elastic constants in the hcp and bcc phases. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy-Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  8. HCP: A Flexible CNN Framework for Multi-label Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunchao; Xia, Wei; Lin, Min; Huang, Junshi; Ni, Bingbing; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-10-26

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has demonstrated promising performance in single-label image classification tasks. However, how CNN best copes with multi-label images still remains an open problem, mainly due to the complex underlying object layouts and insufficient multi-label training images. In this work, we propose a flexible deep CNN infrastructure, called Hypotheses-CNN-Pooling (HCP), where an arbitrary number of object segment hypotheses are taken as the inputs, then a shared CNN is connected with each hypothesis, and finally the CNN output results from different hypotheses are aggregated with max pooling to produce the ultimate multi-label predictions. Some unique characteristics of this flexible deep CNN infrastructure include: 1) no ground-truth bounding box information is required for training; 2) the whole HCP infrastructure is robust to possibly noisy and/or redundant hypotheses; 3) the shared CNN is flexible and can be well pre-trained with a large-scale single-label image dataset, e.g., ImageNet; and 4) it may naturally output multi-label prediction results. Experimental results on Pascal VOC 2007 and VOC 2012 multi-label image datasets well demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HCP infrastructure over other state-of-the-arts. In particular, the mAP reaches 90.5% by HCP only and 93.2% after the fusion with our complementary result in [44] based on hand-crafted features on the VOC 2012 dataset.

  9. On the question of fractal packing structure in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jun; Asta, Mark; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2017-07-25

    This work addresses the long-standing debate over fractal models of packing structure in metallic glasses (MGs). Through detailed fractal and percolation analyses of MG structures, derived from simulations spanning a range of compositions and quenching rates, we conclude that there is no fractal atomic-level structure associated with the packing of all atoms or solute-centered clusters. The results are in contradiction with conclusions derived from previous studies based on analyses of shifts in radial distribution function and structure factor peaks associated with volume changes induced by pressure and compositional variations. Here in this paper, the interpretation of such shifts is shownmore » to be challenged by the heterogeneous nature of MG structure and deformation at the atomic scale. Moreover, our analysis in the present work illustrates clearly the percolation theory applied to MGs, for example, the percolation threshold and characteristics of percolation clusters formed by subsets of atoms, which can have important consequences for structure–property relationships in these amorphous materials.« less

  10. A thermo-mechanical correlation with driving forces for hcp martensite and twin formations in the Fe-Mn-C system exhibiting multicomposition sets.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Jinichiro

    2013-02-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the Fe-Mn-C system were investigated by using an analytical model constructed by a CALPHAD approach. The stacking fault energy (SFE) of the fcc structure with respect to the hcp phase was always constant at T 0 , independent of the composition and temperature when other related parameters were assumed to be constant. Experimental limits for the thermal hcp formation and the mechanical (deformation-induced) hcp formation were separated by the SFE at T 0 . The driving force for the fcc to hcp transition, defined as a dimensionless value -d G m /( RT ), was determined in the presence of Fe-rich and Mn-rich composition sets in each phase. Carbon tended to partition to the Mn-rich phase rather than to the Fe-rich phase for the compositions studied. The results obtained revealed a thermo-mechanical correlation with empirical yield strength, maximum true stress and maximum true strain. The proportionality between thermodynamics and mechanical properties is discussed.

  11. A thermo-mechanical correlation with driving forces for hcp martensite and twin formations in the Fe–Mn–C system exhibiting multicomposition sets

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Jinichiro

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the Fe–Mn–C system were investigated by using an analytical model constructed by a CALPHAD approach. The stacking fault energy (SFE) of the fcc structure with respect to the hcp phase was always constant at T0, independent of the composition and temperature when other related parameters were assumed to be constant. Experimental limits for the thermal hcp formation and the mechanical (deformation-induced) hcp formation were separated by the SFE at T0. The driving force for the fcc to hcp transition, defined as a dimensionless value –dGm/(RT), was determined in the presence of Fe-rich and Mn-rich composition sets in each phase. Carbon tended to partition to the Mn-rich phase rather than to the Fe-rich phase for the compositions studied. The results obtained revealed a thermo-mechanical correlation with empirical yield strength, maximum true stress and maximum true strain. The proportionality between thermodynamics and mechanical properties is discussed. PMID:27877555

  12. A thermo-mechanical correlation with driving forces for hcp martensite and twin formations in the Fe–Mn–C system exhibiting multicomposition sets

    DOE PAGES

    Nakano, Jinichiro

    2013-03-15

    Thermodynamic properties of the Fe-Mn-C system were investigated by using an analytical model constructed by a CALPHAD approach. Stacking fault energy (SFE) of the fcc structure with respect to the hcp phase was always constant at T 0, independent of composition and temperature when the other related parameters were assumed to be constant. Experimental limits for the thermal hcp formation and the mechanical (deformation-induced) hcp formation were separated by the SFE at T 0. The driving force for the fcc to hcp transition, defined as a dimensionless value –dG m/(RT), was determined in the presence of Fe-rich and Mn-rich compositionmore » sets in each phase. Carbon tended to partition to the Mn-rich phase rather than to the Fe-rich phase for the studied compositions. The obtained results revealed a thermo-mechanical correlation with empirical yield strength, maximum true stress and maximum true strain. The proportionality between thermodynamics and mechanical properties is discussed.« less

  13. Critical temperature of the Ising ferromagnet on the fcc, hcp, and dhcp lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Unjong

    2015-02-01

    By an extensive Monte-Carlo calculation together with the finite-size-scaling and the multiple histogram method, the critical coupling constant (Kc = J /kBTc) of the Ising ferromagnet on the fcc, hcp, and double hcp (dhcp) lattices were obtained with unprecedented precision: Kcfcc= 0.1020707(2) , Kchcp= 0.1020702(1) , and Kcdhcp= 0.1020706(2) . The critical temperature Tc of the hcp lattice is found to be higher than those of the fcc and the dhcp lattice. The dhcp lattice seems to have higher Tc than the fcc lattice, but the difference is within error bars.

  14. Relations and interactions between twinning and grain boundaries in hexagonal close-packed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Christopher Duncan

    Improving the formability and crashworthiness of wrought magnesium alloys are the two biggest challenges in current magnesium technology. Magnesium is the best material candidate for enabling required improvements in fuel economy of combustion engines and increases in ranges of electric vehicles. In hexagonal closed-packed (HCP) structures, effects of grain size/morphology and crystallographic texture are particularly important. Prior research has established a general understanding of the dependences of strength and strain anisotropy on grain morphology and texture. Unfortunately, deformation, recrystallization, and grain growth strategies that control the microstructures and textures of cubic metals and alloys have not generally worked for HCPs. For example, in Magnesium, the deformation texture induced by primary forming operations (rolling, extrusion, etc.) is not randomized by recrystallization and may strengthen during grain growth. A strong texture reduces formability during secondary forming (stamping, bending, hemming etc.) Thus, the inability to randomize texture has impeded the implementation of magnesium alloys in engineering applications. When rare earth solutes are added to magnesium alloys, distinct new textures are derived. However, `rare earth texture' derivation remains insufficiently explained. Currently, it is hypothesized that unknown mechanisms of alloy processing are at work, arising from the effects of grain boundary intrinsic defect structures on microstructural evolution. This dissertation is a comprehensive attempt to identify formal methodologies of analyzing the behavior of grain boundaries in magnesium. We focus particularly on twin boundaries and asymmetric tilt grain boundaries using molecular dynamics. We begin by exploring twin nucleation in magnesium single crystals, elucidating effects of heterogeneities on twin nucleation and their relationships with concurrent slip. These efforts highlighted the necessity of imperfections to

  15. High-pressure high-temperature stability of hcp-Ir xOs 1-x (x = 0.50 and 0.55) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yusenko, Kirill V.; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim

    2016-12-23

    Hcp-Ir 0.55Os 0.45 and hcp-Ir 0.50Os 0.50 alloys were synthesised by thermal decomposition of single-source precursors in hydrogen atmosphere. Both alloys correspond to a miscibility gap in the Ir–Os binary phase diagram and therefore are metastable at ambient conditions. An in situ powder X-ray diffraction has been used for a monitoring a formation of hcp-Ir0.55Os0.45 alloy from (NH 4) 2[Ir 0.55Os 0.45Cl 6] precursor. A crystalline intermediate compound and nanodimentional metallic particles with a large concentration of defects has been found as key intermediates in the thermal decomposition process in hydrogen flow. High-temperature stability of titled hcp-structured alloys has beenmore » investigated upon compression up to 11 GPa using a multi-anvil press and up to 80 GPa using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells to obtain a phase separation into fcc + hcp mixture. Compressibility curves at room temperature as well as thermal expansion at ambient pressure and under compression up to 80 GPa were collected to obtain thermal expansion coefficients and bulk moduli. hcp-Ir 0.55Os 0.45 alloy shows bulk moduli B0 = 395 GPa. Thermal expansion coefficients were estimated as α = 1.6·10 -5 K -1 at ambient pressure and α = 0.3·10 -5 K -1 at 80 GPa. Obtained high-pressure high-temperature data allowed us to construct the first model for pressure-dependent Ir–Os phase diagram.« less

  16. Structural and mechanical features of the order-disorder transition in experimental hard-sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanifpour, M.; Francois, N.; Robins, V.; Kingston, A.; Vaez Allaei, S. M.; Saadatfar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Here we present an experimental and numerical investigation on the grain-scale geometrical and mechanical properties of partially crystallized structures made of macroscopic frictional grains. Crystallization is inevitable in arrangements of monosized hard spheres with packing densities exceeding Bernal's limiting density ϕBernal≈0.64 . We study packings of monosized hard spheres whose density spans over a wide range (0.59 <ϕ <0.72 ) . These experiments harness x-ray computed tomography, three-dimensional image analysis, and numerical simulations to access precisely the geometry and the 3D structure of internal forces within the sphere packings. We show that clear geometrical transitions coincide with modifications of the mechanical backbone of the packing both at the grain and global scale. Notably, two transitions are identified at ϕBernal≈0.64 and ϕc≈0.68 . These results provide insights on how geometrical and mechanical features at the grain scale conspire to yield partially crystallized structures that are mechanically stable.

  17. HcpR of Porphyromonas gingivalis Is Required for Growth under Nitrosative Stress and Survival within Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yanamandra, Sai S.; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Although the Gram-negative, anaerobic periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis must withstand nitrosative stress, which is particularly high in the oral cavity, the mechanisms allowing for protection against such stress are not known in this organism. In this study, microarray analysis of P. gingivalis transcriptional response to nitrite and nitric oxide showed drastic upregulation of the PG0893 gene coding for hybrid cluster protein (Hcp), which is a putative hydroxylamine reductase. Although regulation of hcp has been shown to be OxyR dependent in Escherichia coli, here we show that in P. gingivalis its expression is dependent on the Fnr-like regulator designated HcpR. Growth of the isogenic mutant V2807, containing an ermF-ermAM insertion within the hcpR (PG1053) gene, was significantly reduced in the presence of nitrite (P < 0.002) and nitric oxide-generating nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) (P < 0.001), compared to that of the wild-type W83 strain. Furthermore, the upregulation of PG0893 (hcp) was abrogated in V2807 exposed to nitrosative stress. In addition, recombinant HcpR bound DNA containing the hcp promoter sequence, and the binding was hemin dependent. Finally, V2807 was not able to survive with host cells, demonstrating that HcpR plays an important role in P. gingivalis virulence. This work gives insight into the molecular mechanisms of protection against nitrosative stress in P. gingivalis and shows that the regulatory mechanisms differ from those in E. coli. PMID:22778102

  18. Evaluation of stress in high pressure radial diffraction: application to hcp Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, S.; Tome, C.; Wenk, H.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the coupling between elastic and plastic behaviour in hcp Co plastically deformed is important as it can serve as a starting model for improving our understanding of hcp-Fe, the main constituent of the Earth's inner core. For many years, the radial diffraction technique has been used to study mechanical properties under pressure. In those experiments, a polycrystalline sample is plastically deformed between two diamond anvils and lattice spacings are measured using diffraction, with the incoming x-ray beam perpendicular to the compression direction. From the variations of the d-spacings with the diffraction angle, we deduce information on the hydrostatic and deviatoric stress in the sample, while the variations of diffraction intensities provide information on the lattice preferred orientations within the polycrystal. Theories have been developed to relate the observed lattice strains to elastic moduli and stress within the sample (1). However, those models do not account for the effect of plastic deformation and, as a consequence, stress determinations can be inconsistent between lattice planes. In particular, experiments on cobalt have shown that plasticity effects on lattice strains were particularly large in hcp metals (2). This implies that the elastic moduli previously measured for hcp-iron using this technique are not directly related to single-crystal elastic moduli(3). Addressing this problem requires us to consider plastic relaxation, in addition to elastic effects. This can be done using polycrystal elasto-plastic models, which account for slip activity and the threshold stresses associated with their activation. Here, we present new results on modeling radial diffraction experiments using an elasto-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) model and show how the model can be used to interpret radial diffraction data on hcp-Co. More important, we also show how this can be used to derive information about the active slip systems and their critical

  19. Facile synthesis of gold nanomaterials with unusual crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Huang, Xiao; Chen, Ye; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2017-11-01

    Gold (Au) nanomaterials have attracted wide research attention, owing to their high chemical stability, promising catalytic properties, excellent biocompatibility, unique electronic structure and outstanding localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption properties; all of which are closely related to their size and shape. Recently, crystal-phase-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials has emerged as a promising strategy to tune their physicochemical properties. This protocol describes the detailed experimental procedures for the crystal-phase-controlled syntheses of Au nanomaterials with unusual crystal structures under mild conditions. Briefly, pure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs) with a thickness of ∼2.4 nm are synthesized using a graphene-oxide-assisted method in which HAuCl 4 is reduced by oleylamine in a mixture of hexane and ethanol. By using pure hexane as the solvent, well-dispersed ultrathin hcp/face-centered cubic (fcc) Au nanowires with a diameter of ∼1.6 nm on graphene oxide can be obtained. Meanwhile, hcp/fcc Au square-like plates with a side length of 200-400 nm are prepared via the secondary growth of Au on the hcp AuSSs. Remarkably, hexagonal (4H) Au nanoribbons with a thickness of 2.0-6.0 nm can be synthesized with a one-pot colloidal method in which HAuCl 4 is reduced by oleylamine in a mixed solvent of hexane and 1,2-dichloropropane. It takes 17-37 h for the synthesis of these Au nanomaterials with unusual crystal structures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the resultant Au nanomaterials, which could have many promising applications, such as biosensing, near-IR photothermal therapy, catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

  20. Dispersivity of Bidisperse Packings of Spheres and Evidence for Distinct Random Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheven, U. M.

    2018-05-01

    The intrinsic longitudinal and transverse dispersivity of bidisperse random packings of spheres with size ratio 5 ∶1 was determined by pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, in the dilute regime where small spheres occupy between 0% and 5% of the packings' volume. Small spheres plugging pores systematically raise the mechanical transverse and longitudinal dispersivity above that of reference packings of monodisperse spheres. NMR-derived porosities, widths of velocity distributions, and dispersivities reveal distinct states of structural disorder above and below a relative sphere concentration n /N =1 , where n and N are the number densities of small and large spheres.

  1. The Pack Method for Compressive Tests of Thin Specimens of Materials Used in Thin-Wall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, C S; Tuckerman, L B

    1939-01-01

    The strength of modern lightweight thin-wall structures is generally limited by the strength of the compression members. An adequate design of these members requires a knowledge of the compressive stress-strain graph of the thin-wall material. The "pack" method was developed at the National Bureau of Standards with the support of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to make possible a determination of compressive stress-strain graphs for such material. In the pack test an odd number of specimens are assembled into a relatively stable pack, like a "pack of cards." Additional lateral stability is obtained from lateral supports between the external sheet faces of the pack and outside reactions. The tests seems adequate for many problems in structural research.

  2. Understanding the General Packing Rearrangements Required for Successful Template Based Modeling of Protein Structure from a CASP Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan; Joo, Hyun; Chavan, Archana; Lennox, Kristin P.; Chen, Ann; Dahl, David B.; Vannucci, Marina; Tsai, Jerry W.

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to the common template based protein structure prediction methods based on main-chain position, a novel side-chain centric approach has been developed. Together with a Bayesian loop modeling procedure and a combination scoring function, the Stone Soup algorithm was applied to the CASP9 set of template based modeling targets. Although the method did not generate as large of perturbations to the template structures as necessary, the analysis of the results gives unique insights into the differences in packing between the target structures and their templates. Considerable variation in packing is found between target and template structures even when the structures are close, and this variation is found due to 2 and 3 body packing interactions. Outside the inherent restrictions in packing representation of the PDB, the first steps in correctly defining those regions of variable packing have been mapped primarily to local interactions, as the packing at the secondary and tertiary structure are largely conserved. Of the scoring functions used, a loop scoring function based on water structure exhibited some promise for discrimination. These results present a clear structural path for further development of a side-chain centered approach to template based modeling. PMID:23266765

  3. Understanding the general packing rearrangements required for successful template based modeling of protein structure from a CASP experiment.

    PubMed

    Day, Ryan; Joo, Hyun; Chavan, Archana C; Lennox, Kristin P; Chen, Y Ann; Dahl, David B; Vannucci, Marina; Tsai, Jerry W

    2013-02-01

    As an alternative to the common template based protein structure prediction methods based on main-chain position, a novel side-chain centric approach has been developed. Together with a Bayesian loop modeling procedure and a combination scoring function, the Stone Soup algorithm was applied to the CASP9 set of template based modeling targets. Although the method did not generate as large of perturbations to the template structures as necessary, the analysis of the results gives unique insights into the differences in packing between the target structures and their templates. Considerable variation in packing is found between target and template structures even when the structures are close, and this variation is found due to 2 and 3 body packing interactions. Outside the inherent restrictions in packing representation of the PDB, the first steps in correctly defining those regions of variable packing have been mapped primarily to local interactions, as the packing at the secondary and tertiary structure are largely conserved. Of the scoring functions used, a loop scoring function based on water structure exhibited some promise for discrimination. These results present a clear structural path for further development of a side-chain centered approach to template based modeling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of the Primitive Unit Cell in Understanding Subtle Features of the Cubic Closest-Packed Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John A.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important crystal structures adopted by metals is characterized by the "abcabc"...stacking of close-packed layers. This structure is commonly referred to in textbooks as the cubic close-packed (ccp) or face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, since the entire lattice can be generated by replication of a face-centered cubic unit cell…

  5. Packing in protein cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  6. Binary dislocation junction formation and strength in hexagonal close-packed crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Chi -Chin; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; ...

    2015-12-17

    This work examines binary dislocation interactions, junction formation and junction strengths in hexagonal close-packed ( hcp ) crystals. Through a line-tension model and dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, the interaction and dissociation of different sets of binary junctions are investigated involving one dislocation on the (011¯0) prismatic plane and a second dislocation on one of the following planes: (0001) basal, (11¯00) prismatic, (11¯01) primary pyramidal, or (2¯112) secondary pyramidal. Varying pairs of Burgers vectors are chosen from among the common types the basal type < a > 1/3 < 112¯0 >, prismatic type < c > <0001>, and pyramidal type 1/3 < 112¯3¯ >. For binary interaction due to dislocation intersection, both the analytical results and DD-simulations indicate a relationship between symmetry of interaction maps and the relative magnitude of the Burgers vectors that constitute the junction. Using analytical formulae, a simple regressive model is also developed to represent the junction yield surface. The equation is treated as a degenerated super elliptical equation to quantify the aspect ratio and tilting angle. Lastly, the results provide analytical insights on binary dislocation interactions that may occur in general hcp metals.« less

  7. Proliferation of twinning in hexagonal close-packed metals: Application to magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Ponga, M.; Bhattacharya, K.; Ortiz, M.

    2018-03-01

    Plastic deformation of metallic alloys usually takes place through slip, but occasionally involves twinning. In particular, twinning is important in hexagonal close packed (HCP) materials where the easy slip systems are insufficient to accommodate arbitrary deformations. While deformation by slip mechanisms is reasonably well understood, comparatively less is known about deformation by twinning. Indeed, the identification of relevant twinning modes remains an art. In this paper, we develop a framework combining a fundamental kinematic definition of twins with large-scale atomistic calculations to predict twinning modes of crystalline materials. We apply this framework to magnesium where there are two accepted twin modes, tension and compression, but a number of anomalous observations. Remarkably, our framework shows that there is a very large number of twinning modes that are important in magnesium. Thus, in contrast to the traditional view that plastic deformation is kinematically partitioned between a few modes, our results suggest that deformation in HCP materials is the result of an energetic and kinetic competition between numerous possibilities. Consequently, our findings suggest that the commonly used models of deformation need to be extended in order to take into account a broader and richer variety of twin modes, which, in turn, opens up new avenues for improving the mechanical properties.

  8. Evaluation of the filler packing structures in dental resin composites: From theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruili; Habib, Eric; Zhu, X X

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the packing properties of uniform silica particles and their mixture with secondary particles yielding maximally loaded dental composites. We intend to verify the difference between the idealized models (the close-packed structures and the random-packed structures) and the actual experimental results, in order to provide guidance for the preparation of dental composites. The influence of secondary particle size and the resin composition on the physical-mechanical properties and the rheological properties of the experimental dental composites was also investigated. Silica particles (S-920, S-360, and S-195) with average diameters of 920, 360, and 195nm were synthesized via the Stöber process. Their morphology and size distribution were determined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and laser particle sizer. A series of silica fillers, S-920, S-920+195, S-920+360, and S-920+360+195, were then formulated with two Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resins (weight ratios of 70:30 and 50:50). For these experimental dental composites, their maximum filler loadings were assessed and compared to the theory. The mechanical properties, degree of conversion, depth of cure, and polymerization shrinkage of these composites were then evaluated. Their rheological behaviors were measured with a rheometer. Unimodal S-920 had the maximally filler loading of 70.80wt% with the 5B5T resin, close to the theoretical estimation of the random loose packing (71.92wt%). The maximum loading of the S-920+360+195 filled composite was 72.92wt% for the same resin, compared to the theoretical estimation of 89.29wt% obtained for the close-packed structures. These findings indicate that random loose packing matches more closely to the real packing state for the filler formulations used. When maximally loaded, the composite with S-920+360+195 produced the best mechanical properties and the lowest polymerization shrinkage. The degree of conversion and depth of cure were

  9. Relative Packing Groups in Template-Based Structure Prediction: Cooperative Effects of True Positive Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan; Qu, Xiaotao; Swanson, Rosemarie; Bohannan, Zach; Bliss, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Most current template-based structure prediction methods concentrate on finding the correct backbone conformation and then packing sidechains within that backbone. Our packing-based method derives distance constraints from conserved relative packing groups (RPGs). In our refinement approach, the RPGs provide a level of resolution that restrains global topology while allowing conformational sampling. In this study, we test our template-based structure prediction method using 51 prediction units from CASP7 experiments. RPG-based constraints are able to substantially improve approximately two-thirds of starting templates. Upon deeper investigation, we find that true positive spatial constraints, especially those non-local in sequence, derived from the RPGs were important to building nearer native models. Surprisingly, the fraction of incorrect or false positive constraints does not strongly influence the quality of the final candidate. This result indicates that our RPG-based true positive constraints sample the self-consistent, cooperative interactions of the native structure. The lack of such reinforcing cooperativity explains the weaker effect of false positive constraints. Generally, these findings are encouraging indications that RPGs will improve template-based structure prediction. PMID:21210729

  10. Structural and optical properties of nanostructured nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J., E-mail: jaiveer24singh@gmail.com; Pandey, J.; Gupta, R.

    2016-05-06

    Metal nanoparticles are attractive because of their special structure and better optical properties. Nickel nanoparticles (Ni-Np) have been synthesized successfully by thermal decomposition method in the presence of trioctyl phosphine (TOP) and oleylamine (OAm). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Zetapotential measurement and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The size of Ni nanoparticles can be readily tuned from 13.86 nm. As-synthesized Ni nanoparticles have hexagonal closed pack (hcp) cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD) prepared at 280°C. The possible formation mechanism has also been phenomenological proposed for as synthesized Ni-Np. The value of Zeta potential wasmore » found 12.25 mV.« less

  11. Ambipolar carrier transport properties and molecular packing structure of octahexyl-substituted copper phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Koichi; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Itani, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-04-01

    The charge carrier mobility of a solution-processable low-molecular-weight organic semiconductor material, i.e., 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine copper complex (C6PcCu), was investigated by the time-of-flight technique. The anomalous ambipolar carrier mobility was discussed from the viewpoint of the molecular packing structure, which was clarified by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. In the comparison between the molecular packing structures of C6PcCu and its metal-free-type homologue, it was found that the difference in carrier mobility originates from the rotation of the molecule, which is caused by the steric hindrance due to the introduction of a center metal and the interpenetration of the nonperipheral alkyl chains.

  12. Constraining Phosphorus Chemistry in Carbon- and Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Envelopes: Observations of PN, HCP, and CP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milam, S. N.; Halfen, D. T.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Apponi, A. J.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2008-09-01

    Millimeter-wave observations of PN, CP, and HCP have been carried out toward circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). HCP and PN have been identified in the carbon-rich source CRL 2688 via observations at 1 mm using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) and 2-3 mm with the Kitt Peak 12 m. An identical set of measurements were carried out toward IRC +10216, as well as observations of CP at 1 mm. PN was also observed toward VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), an oxygen-rich supergiant star. The PN and HCP line profiles in CRL 2688 and IRC +10216 are roughly flat topped, indicating unresolved, optically thin emission; CP, in contrast, has a distinct "U" shape in IRC +10216. Modeling of the line profiles suggests abundances, relative to H2, of f(PN) ~ (3-5) × 10-9 and f(HCP) ~ 2 × 10-7 in CRL 2688, about an order of magnitude higher than in IRC +10216. In VY CMa, f(PN) is ~4 × 10-8. The data in CRL 2688 and IRC +10216 are consistent with LTE formation of HCP and PN in the inner envelope, as predicted by theoretical calculations, with CP a photodissociation product at larger radii. The observed abundance of PN in VY CMa is a factor of 100 higher than LTE predictions. In IRC +10216, the chemistry of HCP/CP mimics that of HCN/CN and suggests an N2 abundance of f ~ 1 × 10-7. The chemistry of phosphorus appears active in both carbon- and oxygen-rich envelopes of evolved stars.

  13. Structure of finite sphere packings via exact enumeration: Implications for colloidal crystal nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Robert S.; Harwayne-Gidansky, Jared; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2012-05-01

    We analyze the geometric structure and mechanical stability of a complete set of isostatic and hyperstatic sphere packings obtained via exact enumeration. The number of nonisomorphic isostatic packings grows exponentially with the number of spheres N, and their diversity of structure and symmetry increases with increasing N and decreases with increasing hyperstaticity H≡Nc-NISO, where Nc is the number of pair contacts and NISO=3N-6. Maximally contacting packings are in general neither the densest nor the most symmetric. Analyses of local structure show that the fraction f of nuclei with order compatible with the bulk (rhcp) crystal decreases sharply with increasing N due to a high propensity for stacking faults, five- and near-fivefold symmetric structures, and other motifs that preclude rhcp order. While f increases with increasing H, a significant fraction of hyperstatic nuclei for N as small as 11 retain non-rhcp structure. Classical theories of nucleation that consider only spherical nuclei, or only nuclei with the same ordering as the bulk crystal, cannot capture such effects. Our results provide an explanation for the failure of classical nucleation theory for hard-sphere systems of N≲10 particles; we argue that in this size regime, it is essential to consider nuclei of unconstrained geometry. Our results are also applicable to understanding kinetic arrest and jamming in systems that interact via hard-core-like repulsive and short-ranged attractive interactions.

  14. Pressure-induced magneto-structural transition in iron via a modified solid-state nudged elastic band method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-03-01

    Materials under pressure may exhibit critical electronic and structural transitions that affect equation of states, as known for superconductors and the magneto-structural transformations of iron with both geophysical and planetary implications. While experiments often use constant-pressure (diamond-anvil cell, DAC) measurements, many theoretical results address a constant-volume transitions, which avoid issues with magnetic collapse but cannot be directly compared to experiment. We establish a modified solid-state nudge elastic band (MSS-NEB) method to handle magnetic systems that may exhibit moment (and volume) collapse during transformation. We apply it to the pressure-induced transformation in iron between the low-pressure body-centered cubic (bcc) and the high-pressure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phases, find the bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure and a transitional pathway, and compare to shock and DAC experiments. We use methods developed with support by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-03ER46026 and DE-AC02-07CH11358). Ames Laboratory is operated for the DOE by Iowa State University under contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  15. A new biodegradable sisal fiber-starch packing composite with nest structure.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Li, Fangyi; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Liming; Li, Yanle; Zhang, Chuanwei; Xu, Jie; Chen, Shuai

    2018-06-01

    A new completely biodegradable sisal fiber-starch packing composite was proposed. The effects of fiber content and alkaline treatment on the cushioning property of the composites were studied from energy absorption efficiency, cellular microstructure and compatibility between fiber and starch. With increasing fiber content, the nest structure of composites becomes dense first and then loosens, resulting in initial enhancement and subsequent weakening of the cushioning property of the composites. The composite with 4:13 mass ratio of fiber and thermoplastic starch (TPS) exhibit the optimal cushioning property. Alkaline treatment increases the compatibility between sisal fiber and TPS, promotes the formation of dense nest structure, thereby enhances the cushioning property of the composites. After biodegradability tests for 28 days, the weight loss of the composites was 62.36%. It's found that the composites are a promising replacement for expandable polystyrene (EPS) as packing material, especially under large compression load (0.7-6 MPa). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lattice distortion in hcp rare gas solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnev, A.; Tretyak, S. M.; Freiman, Yu. A.

    2010-04-01

    The lattice distortion parameter δ ≡c/a-√8/3 has been calculated as a function of molar volume for the hcp phases of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Results from both semi-empirical potentials and density functional theory are presented. Our study shows that δ is negative for helium in the entire pressure range. For Ar, Kr, and Xe δ changes sign from negative to positive as the pressure increases, growing rapidly in magnitude at higher pressures.

  17. The structural origin of the hard-sphere glass transition in granular packing

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Cao, Yixin; ...

    2015-09-28

    Glass transition is accompanied by a rapid growth of the structural relaxation time and a concomitant decrease of configurational entropy. It remains unclear whether the transition has a thermodynamic origin, and whether the dynamic arrest is associated with the growth of a certain static order. Using granular packing as a model hard-sphere glass, we show the glass transition as a thermodynamic phase transition with a ‘hidden’ polytetrahedral order. This polytetrahedral order is spatially correlated with the slow dynamics. It is geometrically frustrated and has a peculiar fractal dimension. Additionally, as the packing fraction increases, its growth follows an entropy-driven nucleationmore » process, similar to that of the random first-order transition theory. In conclusion, our study essentially identifies a long-sought-after structural glass order in hard-sphere glasses.« less

  18. Particle packing from an earth science viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. D. F.; Dijkstra, T. A.; Smalley, I. J.

    1994-04-01

    Particle packings are relevant to many aspects of the Earth sciences, and there is a long history of the study of packings from an Earth science viewpoint. Packings have also been studied in connection with other subjects and disciplines. Allen (1982) produced a major review which provides a solid base for Earth science related studies. This review complements Allen's work and in particular focuses on advances in the study of random packings over the last ten years. Transitions from packing to packing may be as important as the packings themselves, and possibly easier to model. This paper places emphasis on certain neglected works, in particular Morrow and Graves (1969) and the packing transition envelope, Kahn (1956) and the measurement of packing parameters, Griffiths (1962) on packings in one-dimension, and Getis and Boots (1978) on packings in two dimensions. Certain packing problems are relevant to current areas of study including structure collapse in loess (hydroconsolidation), flowslides in very sensitive soils, wind erosion, jewel quality in opals and the structure and functions of sand dunes. The region where interparticle forces become active (particles < 200 μm) is considered and the implications for packing are examined.

  19. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-03-07

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle.

  20. Static high pressure studies on Nd and Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Akella, J.; Xu, J.; Smith, G.S.

    1985-06-24

    We have investigated the crystal structural transformations in neodymium and scandium up to 4.0 GPa pressure and at room temperature, in a diamond-anvil high pressure apparatus. Nd has a double hexagonal-close packed (dhcp) structure at ambient pressure and temperature. Then it transforms to a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure at 3.8 GPa, which further transforms to a triple hexagonal-close packed structure (thcp) at about 18.0 GPa. In scandium we observed only one transformation from the hexagonal-close packed (hcp) structure at room temperature to a tetragonal structure. This transformation occurs between 19.0 and 23.2 GPa pressure.

  1. Are artificial opals non-close-packed fcc structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Santamaría, F.; Braun, P. V.

    2007-06-01

    The authors report a simple experimental method to accurately measure the volume fraction of artificial opals. The results are modeled using several methods, and they find that some of the most common yield very inaccurate results. Both finite size and substrate effects play an important role in calculations of the volume fraction. The experimental results show that the interstitial pore volume is 4%-15% larger than expected for close-packed structures. Consequently, calculations performed in previous work relating the amount of material synthesized in the opal interstices with the optical properties may need revision, especially in the case of high refractive index materials.

  2. Substituent effect on the thermodynamic solubility of structural analogs: relative contribution of crystal packing and hydration.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Shunsuke; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of the solubility of benzoylphenylurea (BPU) derivatives was conducted to investigate the relative importance of crystal packing and hydration for improving solubility with minor structural modification. The contribution of crystal packing to solubility was evaluated from the change in Gibbs energy on the transition from the crystalline to liquid state. Hydration Gibbs energy was estimated using a linear free-energy relationship between octanol-water partition coefficients and gas-water partition coefficients. The established solubility model satisfactorily explained the relative thermodynamic solubility of the model compounds and revealed that crystal packing and hydration equally controlled solubility of the structural analogs. All hydrophobic substituents were undesirable for solubility in terms of hydration, as expected. On the other hand, some of these hydrophobic substituents destabilized crystal packing and improved the solubility of the BPU derivatives when their impact on crystal packing exceeded their negative influence on hydration. The replacement of a single substituent could cause more than a 10-fold enhancement in thermodynamic solubility; this degree of improvement was comparable to that generally achieved by amorphous formulations. Detailed analysis of thermodynamic solubility will allow us to better understand the true substituent effect and design drug-like candidates efficiently. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Hcp family proteins secreted via the type VI secretion system coordinately regulate Escherichia coli K1 interaction with human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Tao, Jing; Yu, Hao; Ni, Jinjing; Zeng, Lingbing; Teng, Qihui; Kim, Kwang Sik; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Guo, Xiaokui; Yao, Yufeng

    2012-03-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are involved in the pathogenicity of several gram-negative bacteria. Based on sequence analysis, we found that a cluster of Escherichia coli virulence factors (EVF) encoding a putative T6SS exists in the genome of the meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain RS218. The T6SS-associated deletion mutants exhibited significant defects in binding to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) compared with the parent strain. Hcp family proteins (the hallmark of T6SS), including Hcp1 and Hcp2, were localized in the bacterial outer membrane, but the involvements of Hcp1 and Hcp2 have been shown to differ in E. coli-HBMEC interaction. The deletion mutant of hcp2 showed defects in the bacterial binding to and invasion of HBMEC, while Hcp1 was secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, apoptosis, and the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in HBMEC. These findings demonstrate that the T6SS is functional in E. coli K1, and two Hcp family proteins participate in different steps of E. coli interaction with HBMEC in a coordinate manner, e.g., binding to and invasion of HBMEC, the cytokine and chemokine release followed by cytoskeleton rearrangement, and apoptosis in HBMEC. This is the first demonstration of the role of T6SS in meningitis-causing E. coli K1, and T6SS-associated Hcp family proteins are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of E. coli meningitis.

  4. SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fei; Wu, Yuan; Lou, Hongbo

    Polymorphism, which describes the occurrence of different lattice structures in a crystalline material, is a critical phenomenon in materials science and condensed matter physics. Recently, configuration disorder was compositionally engineered into single lattices, leading to the discovery of high-entropy alloys and high-entropy oxides. For these novel entropy-stabilized forms of crystalline matter with extremely high structural stability, is polymorphism still possible? Here by employing in situ high-pressure synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, we reveal a polymorphic transition from face-centred-cubic (fcc) structure to hexagonal-close-packing (hcp) structure in the prototype CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy. The transition is irreversible, and our in situ high-temperature synchrotron radiationmore » X-ray diffraction experiments at different pressures of the retained hcp high-entropy alloy reveal that the fcc phase is a stable polymorph at high temperatures, while the hcp structure is more thermodynamically favourable at lower temperatures. Lastly, as pressure is increased, the critical temperature for the hcp-to-fcc transformation also rises.« less

  5. Polymorphism in a high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fei; Wu, Yuan; Lou, Hongbo; ...

    2017-06-01

    Polymorphism, which describes the occurrence of different lattice structures in a crystalline material, is a critical phenomenon in materials science and condensed matter physics. Recently, configuration disorder was compositionally engineered into single lattices, leading to the discovery of high-entropy alloys and high-entropy oxides. For these novel entropy-stabilized forms of crystalline matter with extremely high structural stability, is polymorphism still possible? Here by employing in situ high-pressure synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, we reveal a polymorphic transition from face-centred-cubic (fcc) structure to hexagonal-close-packing (hcp) structure in the prototype CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy. The transition is irreversible, and our in situ high-temperature synchrotron radiationmore » X-ray diffraction experiments at different pressures of the retained hcp high-entropy alloy reveal that the fcc phase is a stable polymorph at high temperatures, while the hcp structure is more thermodynamically favourable at lower temperatures. Lastly, as pressure is increased, the critical temperature for the hcp-to-fcc transformation also rises.« less

  6. Deterioration of organic packing materials commonly used in air biofiltration: effect of VOC-packing interactions.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl; Quijano, Guillermo

    2014-05-01

    The abiotic deterioration of three conventional organic packing materials used in biofiltration (compost, wood bark and Macadamia nutshells) caused by their interaction with toluene (used as a model volatile organic compound) was here studied. The deterioration of the materials was evaluated in terms of structural damage, release of co-substrates and increase of the packing biodegradability. After 21 days of exposure to toluene, all packing materials released co-substrates able to support microbial growth, which were not released by the control materials not exposed to toluene. Likewise, the exposure to toluene increased the packing material biodegradability by 26% in wood bark, 20% in compost and 17% in Macadamia nutshells. Finally, scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the deterioration in the structure of the packing materials evaluated due to the exposure to toluene, Macadamia nutshells being the material with the highest resistance to volatile organic compound attack. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural investigations in helium charged titanium films using grazing incidence XRD and EXAFS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chubin; Zhou, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuting; Li, Shina; Ju, Xin; Peng, Shuming

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure and local atomic arrangements surrounding Ti atoms were determined for He-charged hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Ti films and measured at glancing angles by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, respectively. The charged specimens were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering with a He/Ar mixture. He atoms with a relatively medium concentration (He/Ti atomic ratio as high as 17 at.%) were incorporated evenly in the deposited films. XRD results showed the changes in the peak intensities in Ti films with different He contents. EXAFS Fourier Transform analysis indicated that the average Ti-Ti distance decreased significantly, and proved the existence of phase transition.

  8. Structural state diagram of concentrated suspensions of jammed soft particles in oscillatory shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Cloitre, Michel; Bonnecaze, Roger T.

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study [Khabaz et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093301 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093301], we showed that jammed soft particle glasses (SPGs) crystallize and order in steady shear flow. Here we investigate the rheology and microstructures of these suspensions in oscillatory shear flow using particle-dynamics simulations. The microstructures in both types of flows are similar, but their evolutions are very different. In both cases the monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions form crystalline and layered structures, respectively, at high shear rates. The crystals obtained in the oscillatory shear flow show fewer defects compared to those in the steady shear. SPGs remain glassy for maximum oscillatory strains less than about the yield strain of the material. For maximum strains greater than the yield strain, microstructural and rheological transitions occur for SPGs. Polydisperse SPGs rearrange into a layered structure parallel to the flow-vorticity plane for sufficiently high maximum shear rates and maximum strains about 10 times greater than the yield strain. Monodisperse suspensions form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the maximum shear rate is low and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure when the maximum shear rate is high. In steady shear, the transition from a glassy state to a layered one for polydisperse suspensions included a significant induction strain before the transformation. In oscillatory shear, the transformation begins to occur immediately and with different microstructural changes. A state diagram for suspensions in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow is found to be in close but not exact agreement with the state diagram for steady shear flow. For more modest amplitudes of around one to five times the yield strain, there is a transition from a glassy structure to FCC and HCP crystals, at low and high frequencies, respectively, for monodisperse suspensions. At moderate frequencies, the transition is from glassy to HCP via

  9. Hcp Family Proteins Secreted via the Type VI Secretion System Coordinately Regulate Escherichia coli K1 Interaction with Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Tao, Jing; Yu, Hao; Ni, Jinjing; Zeng, Lingbing; Teng, Qihui; Kim, Kwang Sik; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are involved in the pathogenicity of several Gram-negative bacteria. Based on sequence analysis, we found that a cluster of Escherichia coli virulence factors (EVF) encoding a putative T6SS exists in the genome of the meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain RS218. The T6SS-associated deletion mutants exhibited significant defects in binding to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) compared with the parent strain. Hcp family proteins (the hallmark of T6SS), including Hcp1 and Hcp2, were localized in the bacterial outer membrane, but the involvements of Hcp1 and Hcp2 have been shown to differ in E. coli-HBMEC interaction. The deletion mutant of hcp2 showed defects in the bacterial binding to and invasion of HBMEC, while Hcp1 was secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, apoptosis, and the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in HBMEC. These findings demonstrate that the T6SS is functional in E. coli K1, and two Hcp family proteins participate in different steps of E. coli interaction with HBMEC in a coordinate manner, e.g., binding to and invasion of HBMEC, the cytokine and chemokine release followed by cytoskeleton rearrangement, and apoptosis in HBMEC. This is the first demonstration of the role of T6SS in meningitis-causing E. coli K1, and T6SS-associated Hcp family proteins are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of E. coli meningitis. PMID:22184413

  10. Electrical resistivity of substitutionally disordered hcp Fe-Si and Fe-Ni alloys: Chemically-induced resistivity saturation in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomi, Hitoshi; Hirose, Kei; Akai, Hisazumi; Fei, Yingwei

    2016-10-01

    The thermal conductivity of the Earth's core can be estimated from its electrical resistivity via the Wiedemann-Franz law. However, previously reported resistivity values are rather scattered, mainly due to the lack of knowledge with regard to resistivity saturation (violations of the Bloch-Grüneisen law and the Matthiessen's rule). Here we conducted high-pressure experiments and first-principles calculations in order to clarify the relationship between the resistivity saturation and the impurity resistivity of substitutional silicon in hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) iron. We measured the electrical resistivity of Fe-Si alloys (iron with 1, 2, 4, 6.5, and 9 wt.% silicon) using four-terminal method in a diamond-anvil cell up to 90 GPa at 300 K. We also computed the electronic band structure of substitutionally disordered hcp Fe-Si and Fe-Ni alloy systems by means of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method with coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA). The electrical resistivity was then calculated from the Kubo-Greenwood formula. These experimental and theoretical results show excellent agreement with each other, and the first principles results show the saturation behavior at high silicon concentration. We further calculated the resistivity of Fe-Ni-Si ternary alloys and found the violation of the Matthiessen's rule as a consequence of the resistivity saturation. Such resistivity saturation has important implications for core dynamics. The saturation effect places the upper limit of the resistivity, resulting in that the total resistivity value has almost no temperature dependence. As a consequence, the core thermal conductivity has a lower bound and exhibits a linear temperature dependence. We predict the electrical resistivity at the top of the Earth's core to be 1.12 ×10-6 Ωm, which corresponds to the thermal conductivity of 87.1 W/m/K. Such high thermal conductivity suggests high isentropic heat flow, leading to young inner core age (<0.85 Gyr old) and high initial

  11. Synthesis, electronic structure, molecular packing/morphology evolution, and carrier mobilities of pure oligo-/poly(alkylthiophenes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Colella, Nicholas S; Liu, Feng; Trahan, Stephan; Baral, Jayanta K; Winter, H Henning; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Briseno, Alejandro L

    2013-01-16

    Monodispersed conjugated oligothiophenes are receiving attention in fundamental and applied science due to their interesting optical, optoelectronic, and charge transport properties. These "low molecular weight" polymers serve as model structures for the corresponding polymer analogues, which are inherently polydispersed. Here we report the synthesis, electronic structure, molecular packing/morphology, and charge transport properties of monodispersed oligothiophenes with up to six didodecylquaterthiophene (DDQT) building block repeat units (i.e., 24 thiophene units). At the point where the effective conjugation length is reached, the electronic structure showed convergence behavior to the corresponding polymer, poly(3,3"-didodecyl-quaterthiophene) (PQT-12). X-ray crystal structure analysis of the dimer (DDQT-2) showed that terminal thiophenes exhibit syn-conformations, similar to the terminal syn-conformations observed in the trimer (DDQT-3). The dimer also exhibits a rare bending of the terminal alkyl side chains in order to prevent steric hindrance with neighboring hydrogens attached to core thiophenes. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering measurements revealed a morphology evolution from small molecule-like packing to polymer-like packing in thin films, with a morphology transition occurring near the effective conjugation length. Charge transport measurements showed a mobility increase with decreasing chain length. We correlated the molecular packing and morphology to charge transport and determined that carrier mobilities are most sensitive to crystallinity and crystal grain misorientation. This indicates that molecular weight is not a decisive factor for improved carrier mobility in the low molecular weight region, but rather the degree in crystallinity and in-plane crystal orientation. These results represent a fundamental advancement in understanding the relationship between conjugation length and carrier mobilities in oligothiophene semiconductors.

  12. Kinetics of pack aluminization of nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seigle, L. L.; Gupta, B. K.; Shankar, R.; Sarkhel, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of pack aluminization of unalloyed nickel in packs of varying aluminum activity with various halide activators were studied. Surface compositions of the coatings as functions of time, temperature, and pack composition were obtained in order to establish the boundary conditions for diffusion in the system. The structure of the packs was also examined in order to clarify the mechanism of aluminum transport. The results indicate that the kinetics of pack aluminization are controlled jointly by gas diffusion in the pack and solid diffusion in the coating. Levine and Caves' model for gas diffusion was combined with calculations of rates of diffusion in the solid to formulate a more complete theory for the kinetics of pack aluminization.

  13. Metallic phases of cobalt-based catalysts in ethanol steam reforming: The effect of cerium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Sean S.-Y.; Kim, Do Heui; Ha, Su Y.

    2009-02-28

    The catalytic activity of cobalt in the production of hydrogen via ethanol steam reforming has been investigated in its relation to the crystalline structure of metallic cobalt. At a reaction temperature of 350 8C, the specific hydrogen production rates show that hexagonal close-packed (hcp) cobalt possesses higher activity than face-centered cubic (fcc) cobalt. However, at typical reaction temperatures (400– 500 8C) for ethanol steam reforming, hcp cobalt is transformed to less active fcc cobalt, as confirmed by in situ X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The addition of CeO2 promoter (10 wt.%) stabilizes the hcp cobalt structure at reforming temperatures up to 600more » 8C. Moreover, during the pre-reduction process, CeO2 promoter prevents sintering during the transformation of Co3O4 to hcp cobalt. Both reforming experiments and in situ diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) showed that the surface reactions were modified by CeO2 promoter on 10% Ce–Co (hcp) to give a lower CO selectivity and a higher H2 yield as compared with the unpromoted hcp Co.« less

  14. Validation of the German version of two scales (RIS, RCS-HCP) for measuring regret associated with providing healthcare.

    PubMed

    Richner, Silvia C; Cullati, Stéphane; Cheval, Boris; Schmidt, Ralph E; Chopard, Pierre; Meier, Christoph A; Courvoisier, Delphine S

    2017-03-24

    The regret intensity scale (RIS) and the regret coping scale for healthcare professionals (RCS-HCP) working in hospitals assess the experience of care-related regrets and how healthcare professional deal with these negative events. The aim of this study was to validate a German version of the RIS and the RCS-HCP. The RIS and RCS-HCP in German were first translated into German (forward- and backward translations) and then pretested with 16 German-speaking healthcare professionals. Finally, two surveys (test and 1-month retest) administered the scales to a large sample of healthcare professionals from two different hospitals. Of the 2142 eligible healthcare professionals, 494 (23.1%) individuals (108 physicians) completed the cross-sectional web based survey and 244 completed the retest questionnaire. Participants (n = 165, 33.4% of the total sample) who reported not having experienced a regret in the last 5 years, had significantly more days of sick leave during the last 6 months. These participants were excluded from the subsequent analyses. The structure of the scales was similar to the French version with a single dimension for the regret intensity scale (Cronbach's alpha: 0.88) and three types of coping strategies for the regret coping scale (alphas: 0.69 for problem-focused strategies, 0.67 for adaptive strategies and 0.86 for the maladaptive strategies). Construct validity was good and reproduced the findings of the French study, namely that higher regret intensity was associated with situations that entailed more consequences for the patients. Furthermore, higher regret intensity and more frequent use of maladaptive strategies were associated with more sleep difficulties and less work satisfaction. The German RIS and RCS-HCP scales were found valid for measuring regret intensity and regret coping in a population of healthcare professionals working in a hospital. Reporting no regret, which corresponds to the coping strategy of suppression, seems to be a

  15. Importance of correlation effects in hcp iron revealed by a pressure-induced electronic topological transition.

    PubMed

    Glazyrin, K; Pourovskii, L V; Dubrovinsky, L; Narygina, O; McCammon, C; Hewener, B; Schünemann, V; Wolny, J; Muffler, K; Chumakov, A I; Crichton, W; Hanfland, M; Prakapenka, V B; Tasnádi, F; Ekholm, M; Aichhorn, M; Vildosola, V; Ruban, A V; Katsnelson, M I; Abrikosov, I A

    2013-03-15

    We discover that hcp phases of Fe and Fe(0.9)Ni(0.1) undergo an electronic topological transition at pressures of about 40 GPa. This topological change of the Fermi surface manifests itself through anomalous behavior of the Debye sound velocity, c/a lattice parameter ratio, and Mössbauer center shift observed in our experiments. First-principles simulations within the dynamic mean field approach demonstrate that the transition is induced by many-electron effects. It is absent in one-electron calculations and represents a clear signature of correlation effects in hcp Fe.

  16. Structure analysis of aluminium silicon manganese nitride precipitates formed in grain-oriented electrical steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, Nicolas, E-mail: n.bernier@yahoo.fr; Xhoffer, Chris; Van De Putte, Tom, E-mail: tom.vandeputte@arcelormittal.com

    We report a detailed structural and chemical characterisation of aluminium silicon manganese nitrides that act as grain growth inhibitors in industrially processed grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels. The compounds are characterised using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), while their crystal structures are analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM in electron diffraction (ED), dark-field, high-resolution and automated crystallographic orientation mapping (ACOM) modes. The chemical bonding character is determined using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Despite the wide variation in composition, all the precipitates exhibit a hexagonal close-packed (h.c.p.) crystal structure and lattice parameters ofmore » aluminium nitride. The EDX measurement of ∼ 900 stoichiometrically different precipitates indicates intermediate structures between pure aluminium nitride and pure silicon manganese nitride, with a constant Si/Mn atomic ratio of ∼ 4. It is demonstrated that aluminium and silicon are interchangeably precipitated with the same local arrangement, while both Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} are incorporated in the h.c.p. silicon nitride interstitial sites. The oxidation of the silicon manganese nitrides most likely originates from the incorporation of oxygen during the decarburisation annealing process, thus creating extended planar defects such as stacking faults and inversion domain boundaries. The chemical composition of the inhibitors may be written as (AlN){sub x}(SiMn{sub 0.25}N{sub y}O{sub z}){sub 1−x} with x ranging from 0 to 1. - Highlights: • We study the structure of (Al,Si,Mn)N inhibitors in grain oriented electrical steels. • Inhibitors have the hexagonal close-packed symmetry with lattice parameters of AlN. • Inhibitors are intermediate structures between pure AlN and (Si,Mn)N with Si/Mn ∼ 4. • Al and Si share the same local arrangement; Mn is incorporated in

  17. An Amino Acid Code for Irregular and Mixed Protein Packing

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyun; Chavan, Archana; Fraga, Keith; Tsai, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of protein tertiary structure, the development of the knob-socket model is completed in an analysis of the packing in irregular coil and turn secondary structure packing as well as between mixed secondary structure. The knob-socket model simplifies packing based on repeated patterns of 2 motifs: a 3 residue socket for packing within 2° structure and a 4 residue knob-socket for 3° packing. For coil and turn secondary structure, knob-sockets allow identification of a correlation between amino acid composition and tertiary arrangements in space. Coil contributes almost as much as α-helices to tertiary packing. Irregular secondary structure involves 3 residue cliques of consecutive contacting residues or XYZ sockets. In irregular sockets, Gly, Pro, Asp and Ser are favored, while Cys, His, Met and Trp are not. For irregular knobs, the preference order is Arg, Asp, Pro, Asn, Thr, Leu, and Gly, while Cys, His, Met and Trp are not. In mixed packing, the knob amino acid preferences are a function of the socket that they are packing into, whereas the amino acid composition of the sockets does not depend on the secondary structure of the knob. A unique motif of a coil knob with an XYZ β-sheet socket may potentially function to inhibit β-sheet extension. In addition, analysis of the preferred crossing angles for strands within a β-sheet and mixed α-helices/β-sheets identifies canonical packing patterns useful in protein design. Lastly, the knob-socket model abstracts the complexity of protein tertiary structure into an intuitive packing surface topology map. PMID:26370334

  18. Stacking faults density driven collapse of magnetic energy in hcp-cobalt nano-magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nong, H. T. T.; Mrad, K.; Schoenstein, F.; Piquemal, J.-Y.; Jouini, N.; Leridon, B.; Mercone, S.

    2017-06-01

    Cobalt nanowires with different shape parameters were synthesized via the polyol process. By calculating the magnetic energy product (BH max) both for dried nano-powder and for nanowires in their synthesis solution, we observed unexpected independent BH max values from the nanowires shape. A good alignment of the nanowires leads to a higher BH max value. Our results show that the key parameter driving the magnetic energy product of the cobalt nanowires is the stacking fault density. An exponential collapse of the magnetic energy is observed at very low percentage of structural faults. Cobalt nanowires with almost perfect hcp crystalline structures should present high magnetic energy, which is promising for application in rare earth-free permanent magnets. Oral talk at 8th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (IWAMSN2016), 8-12 November 2016, Ha Long City, Vietnam.

  19. An ab initio-based Er–He interatomic potential in hcp Er

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; ye, Yeting; Fan, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV ) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations.more » The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp-Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.« less

  20. Cluster and constraint analysis in tetrahedron packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiwei; Lu, Peng; Liu, Lufeng; Li, Shuixiang

    2015-04-01

    The disordered packings of tetrahedra often show no obvious macroscopic orientational or positional order for a wide range of packing densities, and it has been found that the local order in particle clusters is the main order form of tetrahedron packings. Therefore, a cluster analysis is carried out to investigate the local structures and properties of tetrahedron packings in this work. We obtain a cluster distribution of differently sized clusters, and peaks are observed at two special clusters, i.e., dimer and wagon wheel. We then calculate the amounts of dimers and wagon wheels, which are observed to have linear or approximate linear correlations with packing density. Following our previous work, the amount of particles participating in dimers is used as an order metric to evaluate the order degree of the hierarchical packing structure of tetrahedra, and an order map is consequently depicted. Furthermore, a constraint analysis is performed to determine the isostatic or hyperstatic region in the order map. We employ a Monte Carlo algorithm to test jamming and then suggest a new maximally random jammed packing of hard tetrahedra from the order map with a packing density of 0.6337.

  1. Mechanical Characterization of Partially Crystallized Sphere Packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanifpour, M.; Francois, N.; Vaez Allaei, S. M.; Senden, T.; Saadatfar, M.

    2014-10-01

    We study grain-scale mechanical and geometrical features of partially crystallized packings of frictional spheres, produced experimentally by a vibrational protocol. By combining x-ray computed tomography, 3D image analysis, and discrete element method simulations, we have access to the 3D structure of internal forces. We investigate how the network of mechanical contacts and intergranular forces change when the packing structure evolves from amorphous to near perfect crystalline arrangements. We compare the behavior of the geometrical neighbors (quasicontracts) of a grain to the evolution of the mechanical contacts. The mechanical coordination number Zm is a key parameter characterizing the crystallization onset. The high fluctuation level of Zm and of the force distribution in highly crystallized packings reveals that a geometrically ordered structure still possesses a highly random mechanical backbone similar to that of amorphous packings.

  2. An Easily Constructed Model of a Coordination Polyhedron that Represents the Hexagonal Closest-Packed Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamana, Shukichi

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates the 29 steps involved in the development of a model of a coordination polyhedron that represents the hexagonal closest packed structure. Points out it is useful in teaching stereochemistry. (TW)

  3. Random close packing in protein cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Jennifer C.; Smith, W. Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2016-03-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions ϕ ≈0.75 , a value that is similar to close packing of equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of extended atom models, rather than the more physically accurate explicit hydrogen model. The validity of the explicit hydrogen model was proved in our previous studies by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions observed in proteins. In contrast, the extended atom model is not able to recapitulate the side chain dihedral angle distributions, and gives rise to large atomic clashes at side chain dihedral angle combinations that are highly probable in protein crystal structures. Here, we employ the explicit hydrogen model to calculate the packing fraction of the cores of over 200 high-resolution protein structures. We find that these protein cores have ϕ ≈0.56 , which is similar to results obtained from simulations of random packings of individual amino acids. This result provides a deeper understanding of the physical basis of protein structure that will enable predictions of the effects of amino acid mutations to protein cores and interfaces of known structure.

  4. Random close packing in protein cores.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Jennifer C; Smith, W Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S

    2016-03-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions ϕ ≈ 0.75, a value that is similar to close packing of equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of extended atom models, rather than the more physically accurate explicit hydrogen model. The validity of the explicit hydrogen model was proved in our previous studies by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions observed in proteins. In contrast, the extended atom model is not able to recapitulate the side chain dihedral angle distributions, and gives rise to large atomic clashes at side chain dihedral angle combinations that are highly probable in protein crystal structures. Here, we employ the explicit hydrogen model to calculate the packing fraction of the cores of over 200 high-resolution protein structures. We find that these protein cores have ϕ ≈ 0.56, which is similar to results obtained from simulations of random packings of individual amino acids. This result provides a deeper understanding of the physical basis of protein structure that will enable predictions of the effects of amino acid mutations to protein cores and interfaces of known structure.

  5. A rapid immunochromatography test based on Hcp1 is a potential point-of-care test for serological diagnosis of melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Phokrai, Phornpun; Karoonboonyanan, Wisansanee; Thanapattarapairoj, Nida; Promkong, Chidchanok; Dulsuk, Adul; Koosakulnirand, Sirikamon; Canovali, Sasha; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Jutrakul, Yaowaruk; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Chantratita, Narisara

    2018-05-30

    Melioidosis is a fatal infectious disease caused by the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei It is highly endemic in Asia and northern Australia but neglected in many other tropical countries. Melioidosis patients have a wide range of clinical manifestations and definitive diagnosis requires bacterial culture which can be time-consuming. A reliable rapid serological tool is greatly needed for disease surveillance and diagnosis. We previously demonstrated by ELISA that a hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp1) is a promising target for serodiagnosis of melioidosis. In this study, we have developed a rapid immunochromatography test (ICT) using Hcp1 as the target antigen (Hcp1-ICT). We evaluated this test for specific antibody detection using serum samples obtained from 4 groups of human subjects including : ( i ) 487 culture-confirmed melioidosis patients from four hospitals in northeast Thailand; ( ii ) 202 healthy donors from northeast Thailand; ( iii ) 90 U.S. healthy donors and ( iv ) 207 patients infected with other organisms. Compared to culture results as a gold standard, the sensitivity of ICT for all hospitals was 88.3 %. The specificities for Thai donors and U.S. donors were 86.1 % and 100 % , respectively and for other infections was 91.8 %. The results of the Hcp1-ICT demonstrated 92.4 % agreement with the Hcp1-ELISA with kappa value of 0.829 and is much improved when compared with the current serological method, indirect hemagglutination assay ( IHA ) ( 69.5 % sensitivity and 67.6 % specificity for Thais ). The Hcp1-ICT represents a potential point-of-care ( POC ) test and may be used to replace the IHA for screening of melioidosis in hospitals as well as resource-limited areas. Copyright © 2018 Phokrai et al.

  6. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr andmore » reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability

  7. Crystallographic parameters of compounds and solid solutions in binary systems Cu-Pt and Ga-Pt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekaev, Alexandr; Probova, Svetlana; Klopotov, Anatolii; Vlasov, Viktor; Markov, Tatiana; Klopotov, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    The study establishes that the packing index in compounds of the system Cu-Pt is close to the value 0.74 against a slight deviation from the Zen law of atomic volumes. The compounds in the system Ga-Pt have the highest values of the packing index in the range of the equiatomic composition, which greatly exceed ψ for close-packed structures based on FCC and HCP lattices for compounds made of the same kind of atoms. A correlation between singular points on the phase diagram of the system Ga-Pt and high values of the packing index in compounds is established.

  8. First-principles study of high-pressure structural phase transitions of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiuxiang; Fan, Changzeng; Zhang, Ruijun

    2009-06-01

    The structural phase transitions for the hcp, bcc, dhcp, and fcc of magnesium at hydrostatic pressures larger than about 200 GPa at zero temperature are studied by first-principles total energy calculations. The plane-wave basis pseudopotential method has been adopted, in which the generalized gradient approximation implanted in the CASTEP code is employed. By comparing the enthalpy differences of the hcp structure with other three structures under different pressures, it can be seen that when the pressure becomes higher than about 65, 130, and 190 GPa, the bcc, dhcp, and fcc structures become more stable relative to the hcp structure, respectively. Due to the lowest enthalpy value of the bcc structure above 65 GPa, it can be deduced that magnesium may transform to the bcc structure from the ground state hcp structure around 65 GPa, but no further phase transitions occur without additionally applying high temperature. In addition, the equation of state of magnesium is calculated, indicating that bcc structure is the softest phase.

  9. Random close packing of disks and spheres in confined geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Kenneth W.; Weeks, Eric R.

    2009-11-01

    Studies of random close packing of spheres have advanced our knowledge about the structure of systems such as liquids, glasses, emulsions, granular media, and amorphous solids. In confined geometries, the structural properties of random-packed systems will change. To understand these changes, we study random close packing in finite-sized confined systems, in both two and three dimensions. Each packing consists of a 50-50 binary mixture with particle size ratio of 1.4. The presence of confining walls significantly lowers the overall maximum area fraction (or volume fraction in three dimensions). A simple model is presented, which quantifies the reduction in packing due to wall-induced structure. This wall-induced structure decays rapidly away from the wall, with characteristic length scales comparable to the small particle diameter.

  10. An Easily Constructed Model of a Coordination Polyhedron that Represents the Cubic Closest-Packed Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamana, Shukichi

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates the 18 steps to the development of a model of a coordination polyhedron that represents the cubic closest-packed structure. Uses a sealed, empty envelope in developing the model in teaching about stereochemistry. (TW)

  11. Compositional modulated atomic layer stacking and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of CoPt alloy sputtered films with close-packed plane orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Shin, E-mail: ssaito@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Nozawa, Naoki; Hinata, Shintaro

    An atomic layer stacking structure in hexagonal close packed (hcp) Co{sub 100−x}Pt{sub x} alloy films with c-plane sheet texture was directly observed by a high-angle annular dark-field imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of sequential and/or compositional atomic layer stacking structure and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K{sub u} = K{sub u1} + K{sub u2}) revealed that (1) integrated intensity of the superlattice diffraction takes the maximum at x = 20 at. % and shows broadening feature against x for the film fabricated under the substrate temperature (T{sub sub}) of 400 °C. (2) Compositional separation structure in atomic layers is formed for the films fabricated under T{sub sub} = 400 °C.more » A sequential alternative stacking of atomic layers with different compositions is hardly formed in the film with x = 50 at. %, whereas easily formed in the film with x = 20 at. %. This peculiar atomic layer stacking structure consists of in-plane-disordered Pt-rich and Pt-poor layers, which is completely different from the so-called atomic site ordered structure. (3) A face centered cubic atomic layer stacking as faults appeared in the host hcp atomic layer stacking exists in accompanies with irregularities for the periodicity of the compositional modulation atomic layers. (4) K{sub u1} takes the maximum of 1.4 × 10{sup 7 }erg/cm{sup 3} at around x = 20 at. %, whereas K{sub u2} takes the maximum of 0.7 × 10{sup 7 }erg/cm{sup 3} at around x = 40 at. %, which results in the maximum of 1.8 × 10{sup 7 }erg/cm{sup 3} of K{sub u} at x = 30 at. % and a shoulder in compositional dependence of K{sub u} in the range of x = 30–60 at. %. Not only compositional separation of atomic layers but also sequential alternative stacking of different compositional layers is quite important to improve essential uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy.« less

  12. Column-to-column packing variation of disposable pre-packed columns for protein chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Susanne; Hinterberger, Stephan; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-12-08

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, pre-packed columns are the standard for process development, but they must be qualified before use in experimental studies to confirm the required performance of the packed bed. Column qualification is commonly done by pulse response experiments and depends highly on the experimental testing conditions. Additionally, the peak analysis method, the variation in the 3D packing structure of the bed, and the measurement precision of the workstation influence the outcome of qualification runs. While a full body of literature on these factors is available for HPLC columns, no comparable studies exist for preparative columns for protein chromatography. We quantified the influence of these parameters for commercially available pre-packed and self-packed columns of disposable and non-disposable design. Pulse response experiments were performed on 105 preparative chromatography columns with volumes of 0.2-20ml. The analyte acetone was studied at six different superficial velocities (30, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 500cm/h). The column-to-column packing variation between disposable pre-packed columns of different diameter-length combinations varied by 10-15%, which was acceptable for the intended use. The column-to-column variation cannot be explained by the packing density, but is interpreted as a difference in particle arrangement in the column. Since it was possible to determine differences in the column-to-column performance, we concluded that the columns were well-packed. The measurement precision of the chromatography workstation was independent of the column volume and was in a range of±0.01ml for the first peak moment and±0.007 ml 2 for the second moment. The measurement precision must be considered for small columns in the range of 2ml or less. The efficiency of disposable pre-packed columns was equal or better than that of self-packed columns. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Random close packing in protein cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohern, Corey

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions ϕ ~ 0 . 75 , a value that is similar to close packing equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of `extended atom' models, rather than the more physically accurate `explicit hydrogen' model. The validity of using the explicit hydrogen model is proved by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions observed in proteins. We employ the explicit hydrogen model to calculate the packing fraction of the cores of over 200 high resolution protein structures. We find that these protein cores have ϕ ~ 0 . 55 , which is comparable to random close-packing of non-spherical particles. This result provides a deeper understanding of the physical basis of protein structure that will enable predictions of the effects of amino acid mutations and design of new functional proteins. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Institute for Biological, Physical, and Engineering Sciences, National Library of Medicine training grant T15LM00705628 (J.C.G.), and National Science Foundation DMR-1307712 (L.R.).

  14. Automatic procedure for stable tetragonal or hexagonal structures: application to tetragonal Y and Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, P. M.; Jona, F.

    2005-05-01

    A simple effective procedure (MNP) for finding equilibrium tetragonal and hexagonal states under pressure is described and applied. The MNP procedure finds a path to minima of the Gibbs free energy G at T=0 K (G=E+pV, E=energy per atom, p=pressure, V=volume per atom) for tetragonal and hexagonal structures by using the approximate expansion of G in linear and quadratic strains at an arbitrary initial structure to find a change in the strains which moves toward a minimum of G. Iteration automatically proceeds to a minimum within preset convergence criteria on the calculation of the minimum. Comparison is made with experimental results for the ground states of seven metallic elements in hexagonal close-packed (hcp), face- and body-centered cubic structures, and with a previous procedure for finding minima based on tracing G along the epitaxial Bain path (EBP) to a minimum; the MNP is more easily generalized than the EBP procedure to lower symmetry and more atoms in the unit cell. Comparison is also made with a molecular-dynamics program for crystal equilibrium structures under pressure and with CRYSTAL, a program for crystal equilibrium structures at zero pressure. Application of MNP to the elements Y and Cd, which have hcp ground states at zero pressure, finds minima of E at face-centered cubic (fcc) structure for both Y and Cd. Evaluation of all the elastic constants shows that fcc Y is stable, hence a metastable phase, but fcc Cd is unstable.

  15. In situ TEM observation of FCC Ti formation at elevated temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Qian; Kacher, Josh; Gammer, Christoph; ...

    2017-07-04

    Pure Ti traditionally exhibits the hexagonal closed packed (HCP) crystallographic structure under ambient conditions and the body centered cubic (BCC) structure at elevated temperatures. In addition to these typical structures for Ti alloys, the presence of a face centered cubic (FCC) phase associated with thin films, interfaces, or high levels of plastic deformation has occasionally been reported. Here in this paper we show that small FCC precipitates form in freestanding thin foils during in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) heating and we discuss the potential origins of the FCC phase in light of the in situ observations. This FCC phasemore » was found to be stable upon cooling and under ambient conditions, which allowed us to explore its mechanical properties and stability via nanomechanical in situ TEM testing. It was found that FCC platelets within the HCP matrix phase were stable under mechanical deformation and exhibited similar mechanical deformation behavior as the parent HCP phase.« less

  16. In situ TEM observation of FCC Ti formation at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Qian; Kacher, Josh; Gammer, Christoph

    Pure Ti traditionally exhibits the hexagonal closed packed (HCP) crystallographic structure under ambient conditions and the body centered cubic (BCC) structure at elevated temperatures. In addition to these typical structures for Ti alloys, the presence of a face centered cubic (FCC) phase associated with thin films, interfaces, or high levels of plastic deformation has occasionally been reported. Here in this paper we show that small FCC precipitates form in freestanding thin foils during in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) heating and we discuss the potential origins of the FCC phase in light of the in situ observations. This FCC phasemore » was found to be stable upon cooling and under ambient conditions, which allowed us to explore its mechanical properties and stability via nanomechanical in situ TEM testing. It was found that FCC platelets within the HCP matrix phase were stable under mechanical deformation and exhibited similar mechanical deformation behavior as the parent HCP phase.« less

  17. The impact of chemical structure and molecular packing on the electronic polarisation of fullerene arrays.

    PubMed

    Few, Sheridan; Chia, Cleaven; Teo, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, James; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-07-19

    Electronic polarisation contributes to the electronic landscape as seen by separating charges in organic materials. The nature of electronic polarisation depends on the polarisability, density, and arrangement of polarisable molecules. In this paper, we introduce a microscopic, coarse-grained model in which we treat each molecule as a polarisable site, and use an array of such polarisable dipoles to calculate the electric field and associated energy of any arrangement of charges in the medium. The model incorporates chemical structure via the molecular polarisability and molecular packing patterns via the structure of the array. We use this model to calculate energies of charge pairs undergoing separation in finite fullerene lattices of different chemical and crystal structures. The effective dielectric constants that we estimate from this approach are in good quantitative agreement with those measured experimentally in C 60 and phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) films, but we find significant differences in dielectric constant depending on packing and on direction of separation, which we rationalise in terms of density of polarisable fullerene cages in regions of high field. In general, we find lattices containing molecules of more isotropic polarisability tensors exhibit higher dielectric constants. By exploring several model systems we conclude that differences in molecular polarisability (and therefore, chemical structure) appear to be less important than differences in molecular packing and separation direction in determining the energetic landscape for charge separation. We note that the results are relevant for finite lattices, but not necessarily for infinite systems. We propose that the model could be used to design molecular systems for effective electronic screening.

  18. The Hcp proteins fused with diverse extended-toxin domains represent a novel pattern of antibacterial effectors in type VI secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiale; Pan, Zihao; Huang, Jinhu; Sun, Min; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many bacterial species to target eukaryotic host cells or rival bacteria. Using a dynamic injection mechanism, diverse effectors can be delivered by T6SS directly into recipient cells. Here, we report a new family of T6SS effectors encoded by extended Hcps carrying diverse toxin domains. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that these Hcps with C-terminal extension toxins, designated as Hcp-ET, exist widely in the Enterobacteriaceae. To verify our findings, Hcp-ET1 was tested for its antibacterial effect, and showed effective inhibition of target cell growth via the predicted HNH-DNase activity by T6SS-dependent delivery. Further studies showed that Hcp-ET2 mediated interbacterial antagonism via a Tle1 phospholipase (encoded by DUF2235 domain) activity. Notably, comprehensive analyses of protein homology and genomic neighborhoods revealed that Hcp-ET3–4 is fused with 2 toxin domains (Pyocin S3 and Colicin-DNase) C-terminally, and its encoding gene is followed 3 duplications of the cognate immunity genes. However, some bacteria encode a separated hcp-et3 and an orphan et4 (et4O1) genes caused by a termination-codon mutation in the fusion region between Pyocin S3 and Colicin-DNase encoding fragments. Our results demonstrated that both of these toxins had antibacterial effects. Further, all duplications of the cognate immunity protein contributed to neutralize the DNase toxicity of Pyocin S3 and Colicin, which has not been reported previously. In conclusion, we propose that Hcp-ET proteins are polymorphic T6SS effectors, and thus present a novel encoding pattern of T6SS effectors. PMID:28060574

  19. About the choice of Gibbs' potential for modelling of FCC ↔ HCP transformation in FeMnSi-based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evard, Margarita E.; Volkov, Aleksandr E.; Belyaev, Fedor S.; Ignatova, Anna D.

    2018-05-01

    The choice of Gibbs' potential for microstructural modeling of FCC ↔ HCP martensitic transformation in FeMn-based shape memory alloys is discussed. Threefold symmetry of the HCP phase is taken into account on specifying internal variables characterizing volume fractions of martensite variants. Constraints imposed on model constants by thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are formulated.

  20. Tuning jammed frictionless disk packings from isostatic to hyperstatic.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Carl F; O'Hern, Corey S; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2011-07-01

    We perform extensive computational studies of two-dimensional static bidisperse disk packings using two distinct packing-generation protocols. The first involves thermally quenching equilibrated liquid configurations to zero temperature over a range of thermal quench rates r and initial packing fractions followed by compression and decompression in small steps to reach packing fractions φ(J) at jamming onset. For the second, we seed the system with initial configurations that promote micro- and macrophase-separated packings followed by compression and decompression to φ(J). Using these protocols, we generate more than 10(4) static packings over a wide range of packing fraction, contact number, and compositional and positional order. We find that disordered, isostatic packings exist over a finite range of packing fractions in the large-system limit. In agreement with previous calculations, the most dilute mechanically stable packings with φ min ≈ 0.84 are obtained for r > r*, where r* is the rate above which φ(J) is insensitive to rate. We further compare the structural and mechanical properties of isostatic versus hyperstatic packings. The structural characterizations include the contact number, several order parameters, and mixing ratios of the large and small particles. We find that the isostatic packings are positionally and compositionally disordered (with only small changes in a number of order parameters), whereas bond-orientational and compositional order increase strongly with contact number for hyperstatic packings. In addition, we calculate the static shear modulus and normal mode frequencies (in the harmonic approximation) of the static packings to understand the extent to which the mechanical properties of disordered, isostatic packings differ from partially ordered packings. We find that the mechanical properties of the packings change continuously as the contact number increases from isostatic to hyperstatic.

  1. SciTech Connect

    Travesset, Alex

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists withmore » the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.« less

  2. Pattern formations and optimal packing.

    PubMed

    Mityushev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Patterns of different symmetries may arise after solution to reaction-diffusion equations. Hexagonal arrays, layers and their perturbations are observed in different models after numerical solution to the corresponding initial-boundary value problems. We demonstrate an intimate connection between pattern formations and optimal random packing on the plane. The main study is based on the following two points. First, the diffusive flux in reaction-diffusion systems is approximated by piecewise linear functions in the framework of structural approximations. This leads to a discrete network approximation of the considered continuous problem. Second, the discrete energy minimization yields optimal random packing of the domains (disks) in the representative cell. Therefore, the general problem of pattern formations based on the reaction-diffusion equations is reduced to the geometric problem of random packing. It is demonstrated that all random packings can be divided onto classes associated with classes of isomorphic graphs obtained from the Delaunay triangulation. The unique optimal solution is constructed in each class of the random packings. If the number of disks per representative cell is finite, the number of classes of isomorphic graphs, hence, the number of optimal packings is also finite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Correction of erroneously packed protein's side chains in the NMR structure based on ab initio chemical shift calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tong; Zhang, John Z H; He, Xiao

    2014-09-14

    In this work, protein side chain (1)H chemical shifts are used as probes to detect and correct side-chain packing errors in protein's NMR structures through structural refinement. By applying the automated fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (AF-QM/MM) method for ab initio calculation of chemical shifts, incorrect side chain packing was detected in the NMR structures of the Pin1 WW domain. The NMR structure is then refined by using molecular dynamics simulation and the polarized protein-specific charge (PPC) model. The computationally refined structure of the Pin1 WW domain is in excellent agreement with the corresponding X-ray structure. In particular, the use of the PPC model yields a more accurate structure than that using the standard (nonpolarizable) force field. For comparison, some of the widely used empirical models for chemical shift calculations are unable to correctly describe the relationship between the particular proton chemical shift and protein structures. The AF-QM/MM method can be used as a powerful tool for protein NMR structure validation and structural flaw detection.

  4. Adhesive loose packings of small dry particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Baule, Adrian; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-08-28

    We explore adhesive loose packings of small dry spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics and statistical ensemble theory. A dimensionless adhesion parameter (Ad) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for Ad > 1. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes the correlation between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) an equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appear as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram and (ii) the existence of an asymptotic adhesive loose packing point at a coordination number Z = 2 and a packing fraction ϕ = 1/2(3). Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing (RLP), which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP.

  5. Transformation of BCC and B2 High Temperature Phases to HCP and Orthorhombic Structures in the Ti-Al-Nb System. Part I: Microstructural Predictions Based on a Subgroup Relation Between Phases

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, L. A.; Roytburd, A.; Boettinger, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Possible paths for the constant composition coherent transformation of BCC or B2 high temperature phases to low temperature HCP or Orthorhombic phases in the Ti-Al-Nb system are analyzed using a sequence of ciystallographic structural relationships developed from subgroup symmetry relations. Symmetry elements lost in each step of the sequence determine the possibilities for variants of the low symmetry phase and domains that can be present in the microstructure. The orientation of interdomain interfaces is determined by requiring the existence of a strain-free interface between the domains. Polydomain structures are also determined that minimize elastic energy. Microstructural predictions are made for comparison to experimental results given by Benderslcy and Boettinger [J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 98, 585 (1993)]. PMID:28053487

  6. Effects of lead structure in Bering Sea pack ice on the flight costs of wintering spectacled eiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bump, Joseph K.; Lovvorn, James R.

    2004-10-01

    In polar regions, sea ice is critical habitat for many marine birds and mammals. The quality of pack ice habitat depends on the duration and spacing of leads (openings in the ice), which determine access to water and air for diving endotherms, and how often and how far they must move as leads open and close. Recent warming trends have caused major changes in the extent and nature of sea ice at large scales used in climate models. However, no studies have analyzed lead structure in terms of habitat for ice-dependent endotherms, or effects of climate on ice habitat at scales relevant to their daily movements. Based on observations from an icebreaker and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, we developed methods to describe the dynamics and thermodynamics of lead structure relative to use by spectacled eiders ( Somateria fischeri) wintering in pack ice of the Bering Sea. By correlating lead structure with weather variables, we then used these methods to estimate changes in lead dynamics from 1945 to 2002, and effects of such changes on flight costs of the eiders. For 1991-1992, when images were available about every 3 days throughout winter, SAR images were divided among five weather regimes defined by wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature. Based on 12.5-m pixels, lead shape, compass orientation, and fetch across leads did not differ among the weather regimes. However, the five regimes differed in total area of open water, leads per unit area, and distance between leads. Lead duration was modeled based on air temperature, wind, and fetch. Estimates of mean daily flight time for eiders, based on lead duration and distance between neighboring leads, differed among regimes by 0 to 15 min. Resulting flight costs varied from 0 to 158 kJ day -1, or from 0% to 11% of estimated field metabolic rate. Over 57 winters (1945-2002), variation among years in mean daily flight time was most influenced by the north-south wind component, which determined pack divergence

  7. Ultratight crystal packing of a 10 kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Trillo-Muyo, Sergio; Jasilionis, Andrius; Domagalski, Marcin J.

    2013-03-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase from G. thermoleovorans is reported; it is one of the most tightly packed protein structures reported to date. While small organic molecules generally crystallize forming tightly packed lattices with little solvent content, proteins form air-sensitive high-solvent-content crystals. Here, the crystallization and full structure analysis of a novel recombinant 10 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase are reported. The orthorhombic crystal contained only 24.5% solvent and is therefore among the most tightly packed protein lattices ever reported.

  8. Langevin Dynamics Simulations of Genome Packing in Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Forrey, Christopher; Muthukumar, M.

    2006-01-01

    We use Langevin dynamics simulations to study the process by which a coarse-grained DNA chain is packaged within an icosahedral container. We focus our inquiry on three areas of interest in viral packing: the evolving structure of the packaged DNA condensate; the packing velocity; and the internal buildup of energy and resultant forces. Each of these areas has been studied experimentally, and we find that we can qualitatively reproduce experimental results. However, our findings also suggest that the phage genome packing process is fundamentally different than that suggested by the inverse spool model. We suggest that packing in general does not proceed in the deterministic fashion of the inverse-spool model, but rather is stochastic in character. As the chain configuration becomes compressed within the capsid, the structure, energy, and packing velocity all become dependent upon polymer dynamics. That many observed features of the packing process are rooted in condensed-phase polymer dynamics suggests that statistical mechanics, rather than mechanics, should serve as the proper theoretical basis for genome packing. Finally we suggest that, as a result of an internal protein unique to bacteriophage T7, the T7 genome may be significantly more ordered than is true for bacteriophage in general. PMID:16617089

  9. Langevin dynamics simulations of genome packing in bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Forrey, Christopher; Muthukumar, M

    2006-07-01

    We use Langevin dynamics simulations to study the process by which a coarse-grained DNA chain is packaged within an icosahedral container. We focus our inquiry on three areas of interest in viral packing: the evolving structure of the packaged DNA condensate; the packing velocity; and the internal buildup of energy and resultant forces. Each of these areas has been studied experimentally, and we find that we can qualitatively reproduce experimental results. However, our findings also suggest that the phage genome packing process is fundamentally different than that suggested by the inverse spool model. We suggest that packing in general does not proceed in the deterministic fashion of the inverse-spool model, but rather is stochastic in character. As the chain configuration becomes compressed within the capsid, the structure, energy, and packing velocity all become dependent upon polymer dynamics. That many observed features of the packing process are rooted in condensed-phase polymer dynamics suggests that statistical mechanics, rather than mechanics, should serve as the proper theoretical basis for genome packing. Finally we suggest that, as a result of an internal protein unique to bacteriophage T7, the T7 genome may be significantly more ordered than is true for bacteriophage in general.

  10. hcp-Co nanowires grown on metallic foams as catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Soulantica, Katerina; Harmel, Justine; Peres, Laurent; Estrader, Marta; Berliet, Adrien; Maury, Sylvie; Fécant, Antoine; Chaudret, Bruno; Serp, Philippe

    2018-06-12

    The possibility to control the structural characteristics of the active phase of supported catalysts offers the opportunity to improve catalyst performance, especially in structure sensitive catalytic reactions. In parallel, heat management is of critical importance for the catalytic performance in highly endo- or exothermic reactions. The Fisher-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is a structure sensitive exothermic reaction, which enables catalytic transformation of syngas to high quality liquid fuels. We have elaborated monolithic cobalt based heterogeneous catalysts through a wet chemistry approach that allows control over nanocrystal shape and crystallographic phase, while at the same time enables heat management. Copper and nickel foams have been employed as supports for the epitaxial growth of hcp-Co nanowires, directly from a solution containing a coordination compound of cobalt and stabilizing ligands. The Co/Cufoam catalyst has been tested for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in fixed bed reactor, showing stability, and significantly superior activity and selectivity towards C5+ compared to a Co/SiO2-Al2O3 reference catalyst under the same conditions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Crystal structure and equation of state of Fe-Si alloys at super-Earth core conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Wicks, June K.; Smith, Raymond F.; Fratanduono, Dayne E.; ...

    2018-04-25

    In this paper, the high-pressure behavior of Fe alloys governs the interior structure and dynamics of super-Earths, rocky extrasolar planets that could be as much as ten times more massive than Earth. In experiments reaching up to 1300 GPa, we combine laser-driven dynamic ramp compression with in situ X-ray diffraction to study the effect of composition on the crystal structure and density of Fe-Si alloys, a potential constituent of super-Earth cores. We find that Fe-7wt.%Si adopts the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure over the measured pressure range, whereas Fe-15wt.%Si is observed in a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. This study representsmore » the first experimental determination of the density and crystal structure of Fe-Si alloys at pressures corresponding to the center of a ~3 Earth-mass terrestrial planet. Our results allow for direct determination of the effects of light elements on core radius, density, and pressures for such planets.« less

  12. Crystal structure and equation of state of Fe-Si alloys at super-Earth core conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, June K.; Smith, Raymond F.; Fratanduono, Dayne E.

    In this paper, the high-pressure behavior of Fe alloys governs the interior structure and dynamics of super-Earths, rocky extrasolar planets that could be as much as ten times more massive than Earth. In experiments reaching up to 1300 GPa, we combine laser-driven dynamic ramp compression with in situ X-ray diffraction to study the effect of composition on the crystal structure and density of Fe-Si alloys, a potential constituent of super-Earth cores. We find that Fe-7wt.%Si adopts the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure over the measured pressure range, whereas Fe-15wt.%Si is observed in a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. This study representsmore » the first experimental determination of the density and crystal structure of Fe-Si alloys at pressures corresponding to the center of a ~3 Earth-mass terrestrial planet. Our results allow for direct determination of the effects of light elements on core radius, density, and pressures for such planets.« less

  13. Ultrahigh pressure deformation of polycrystaline hcp-cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, S.; Antonangeli, D.; Fiquet, G.; Yagi, T.

    2003-12-01

    During the past few years, a novel set of methods has been developed allowing direct measurements on elasticity and rheology under static ultrahigh pressures using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the diamond anvil cell. In particular, the analysis on the development of texture and uniaxial stress in a polycrystalline sample under ultrahigh pressure and non-hydrostatic conditions yielded to very interesting results on the microscopic deformation mechanisms and strength of MgO, silicate perovskite or ɛ -Fe [eg. Merkel et al. 2002, Merkel et al. 2003]. However, our understanding of the properties of the ɛ phase of iron remains poor. There are considerable uncertainties and disagreement on the results of various experiments or first-principles calculations. In particular, the results of the radial diffraction measurement on ɛ -Fe [Mao et al. 1998] have been highly controversial. In order to address this issue, we performed investigations on polycrystalline hcp-cobalt. Its properties such as the bulk modulus and thermal expansion are very close to those of ɛ -Fe and it is readily available under ambient conditions. Thus, it is a well known material and results from the high pressure radial diffraction experiments can be compared with those from well-established techniques. In the present analysis, we performed a new set a measurements between 0 and 20 GPa under ambient temperature conditions at the ESRF synchrotron source using amorphous boron gasket, monochromatic x-ray beam, and imaging plate techniques. From such an experiment, we are able to extract information on non-hydrostatic stress, elasticity, and preferred orientations of the sample in-situ under high pressure and compare them with results obtained previously on ɛ -Fe. Documenting the evolution of stress, elasticity and texture in hcp metals is of great interest for our understanding of the bulk properties and seismic anisotropy of the Earth's inner core. S. Merkel et al., J. Geophys. Res. 107 (2002

  14. First-principles study of the structural properties of Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.J.; Cohen, M.L.

    1986-12-15

    With the use of an ab initio pseudopotential method, the structural properties of Ge are investigated at normal and high pressures. The pressure-induced structural phase transitions from cubic diamond to ..beta..-Sn, to simple hexagonal (sh), and to double hexagonal close packed (dhcp) are examined. With the possible exception of the dhcp structure, the calculated transition pressures, transition volumes, and axial ratios are in good agreement with experimental results. We find that sh Ge has characteristics similar to those of sh Si; the bonds between hexagonal layers are stronger than intralayer bonds and the transverse phonon modes become soft near themore » transitions from the sh to ..beta..-Sn and the sh to hcp structures. At normal pressures, we compare the crystal energies for the cubic diamond, hexagonal 2H, and hexagonal 4H structures. Because of the similar sp/sup 3/ bonds in these structures, the structural energy differences are less than about 14 meV, and the 2H and 4H phases are metastable with respect to the cubic diamond structure. The equation of state is also presented and compared with experiment.« less

  15. Nb-H system at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangtao; Besedin, Stanislav; Irodova, Alla; Liu, Hanyu; Gao, Guoying; Eremets, Mikhail; Wang, Xin; Ma, Yanming

    2017-03-01

    We studied the Nb-H system over extended pressure and temperature ranges to establish the highest level of hydrogen abundance we could achieve from the resulting alloy. We probed the Nb-H system with laser heating and x-ray diffraction complemented by numerical density functional theory-based simulations. New quenched double hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Nb H2.5 appears under 46 GPa, and above 56 GPa cubic Nb H3 is formed as theoretically predicted. Nb atoms are arranged in close-packed lattices which are martensitically transformed in the sequence: face-centered cubic (fcc) → hcp → double hcp (dhcp) → distorted body-centered cubic (bcc) as pressure increases. The appearance of fcc Nb H2.5 -3 and dhcp Nb H2.5 cannot be understood in terms of enthalpic stability, but can be rationalized when finite temperatures are taken into account. The structural and compressional behavior of Nb Hx >2 is similar to that of NbH. Nevertheless, a direct H-H interaction emerges with hydrogen concentration increases, which manifests itself via a reduction in the lattice expansion induced by hydrogen dissolution.

  16. Effect of packing method on the randomness of disc packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. P.; Yu, A. B.; Oakeshott, R. B. S.

    1996-06-01

    The randomness of disc packings, generated by random sequential adsorption (RSA), random packing under gravity (RPG) and Mason packing (MP) which gives a packing density close to that of the RSA packing, has been analysed, based on the Delaunay tessellation, and is evaluated at two levels, i.e. the randomness at individual subunit level which relates to the construction of a triangle from a given edge length distribution and the randomness at network level which relates to the connection between triangles from a given triangle frequency distribution. The Delaunay tessellation itself is also analysed and its almost perfect randomness at the two levels is demonstrated, which verifies the proposed approach and provides a random reference system for the present analysis. It is found that (i) the construction of a triangle subunit is not random for the RSA, MP and RPG packings, with the degree of randomness decreasing from the RSA to MP and then to RPG packing; (ii) the connection of triangular subunits in the network is almost perfectly random for the RSA packing, acceptable for the MP packing and not good for the RPG packing. Packing method is an important factor governing the randomness of disc packings.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Adidharma, Hertanto, E-mail: adidharm@uwyo.edu; Tan, Sugata P.

    Canonical Monte Carlo simulations on face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal closed packed (HCP) Lennard-Jones (LJ) solids are conducted at very low temperatures (0.10 ≤ T{sup ∗} ≤ 1.20) and high densities (0.96 ≤ ρ{sup ∗} ≤ 1.30). A simple and robust method is introduced to determine whether or not the cutoff distance used in the simulation is large enough to provide accurate thermodynamic properties, which enables us to distinguish the properties of FCC from that of HCP LJ solids with confidence, despite their close similarities. Free-energy expressions derived from the simulation results are also proposed, not only to describe themore » properties of those individual structures but also the FCC-liquid, FCC-vapor, and FCC-HCP solid phase equilibria.« less

  18. HCP to FCT + precipitate transformations in lamellar gamma-titanium aluminide alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadge, Mallikarjun Baburao

    Fully lamellar gamma-TiAl [alpha2(HCP) + gamma(FCT)] based alloys are potential structural materials for aerospace engine applications. Lamellar structure stabilization and additional strengthening mechanisms are major issues in the ongoing development of titanium aluminides due to the microstructural instability resulting from decomposition of the strengthening alpha 2 phase. This work addresses characterization of multi-component TiAl systems to identify the mechanism of lamellar structure refinement and assess the effects of light element additions (C and Si) on creep deformation behavior. Transmission electron microscopy studies directly confirmed for the first time that, fine lamellar structure is formed by the nucleation and growth of a large number of basal stacking faults on the 1/6<112¯0> dislocations cross slipping repeatedly into and out of basal planes. This lamellar structure can be tailored by modifying jog heights through chemistry and thermal processing. alpha 2 → gamma transformation during heating (investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction) is a two step process involving the formation of a novel disordered FCC gamma' TiAl [with a(gamma') = c(gamma)] as an intermediate phase followed by ordering. Addition of carbon and silicon induced Ti2AlC H-type carbide precipitation inside the alpha2 lath and Ti 5(Al,Si)3 zeta-type silicide precipitation at the alpha 2/gamma interface. The H-carbides preserve alpha2/gamma type interfaces, while zeta-silicide precipitates restrict ledge growth and interfacial sliding enabling strong resistance to creep deformation.

  19. Helix-packing motifs in membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Walters, R F S; DeGrado, W F

    2006-09-12

    The fold of a helical membrane protein is largely determined by interactions between membrane-imbedded helices. To elucidate recurring helix-helix interaction motifs, we dissected the crystallographic structures of membrane proteins into a library of interacting helical pairs. The pairs were clustered according to their three-dimensional similarity (rmsd structural features can be understood in terms of simple principles of helix-helix packing. Thus, the universe of common transmembrane helix-pairing motifs is relatively simple. The largest cluster, which comprises 29% of the library members, consists of an antiparallel motif with left-handed packing angles, and it is frequently stabilized by packing of small side chains occurring every seven residues in the sequence. Right-handed parallel and antiparallel structures show a similar tendency to segregate small residues to the helix-helix interface but spaced at four-residue intervals. Position-specific sequence propensities were derived for the most populated motifs. These structural and sequential motifs should be quite useful for the design and structural prediction of membrane proteins.

  20. The Strength of Binary Junctions in Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    equilib- rium, on either slip plane, the dislocation on that plane intersects both triple points at the same angle with the junc- tion line, regardless...electronic properties of threading dislocations in wide band-gap gallium nitride (a wurtzite crystal structure consisting of two interpenetrating hcp...yield surface was composed of individual points , it pro- vided insight on the resistance of the lock to breaking as a result of the applied stresses. Via

  1. Packing and self-assembly of truncated triangular bipyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Chen, Elizabeth R.; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by breakthroughs in the synthesis of faceted nano- and colloidal particles, as well as theoretical and computational studies of their packings, we investigate a family of truncated triangular bipyramids. We report dense periodic packings with small unit cells that were obtained via numerical and analytical optimization. The maximal packing fraction ϕmax changes continuously with the truncation parameter t. Eight distinct packings are identified based on discontinuities in the first and second derivatives of ϕmax(t). These packings differ in the number of particles in the fundamental domain (unit cell) and the type of contacts between the particles. In particular, we report two packings with four particles in the unit cell for which both ϕmax(t) and ϕmax'(t) are continuous and the discontinuity occurs in the second derivative only. In the self-assembly simulations that we perform for larger boxes with 2048 particles, only one out of eight packings is found to assemble. In addition, the degenerate quasicrystal reported previously for triangular bipyramids without truncation [Haji-Akbari , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.215702 107, 215702 (2011)] assembles for truncations as high as 0.45. The self-assembly propensities for the structures formed in the thermodynamic limit are explained using the isoperimetric quotient of the particles and the coordination number in the disordered fluid and in the assembled structure.

  2. Stacking fault energies of face-centered cubic concentrated solid solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Shijun; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Zhang, Yanwen

    2017-06-22

    We report the stacking fault energy (SFE) for a series of face-centered cubic (fcc) equiatomic concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs) derived as subsystems from the NiCoFeCrMn and NiCoFeCrPd high entropy alloys based on ab initio calculations. At low temperatures, these CSAs display very low even negative SFEs, indicating that hexagonal close-pack ( hcp) is more energy favorable than fcc structure. The temperature dependence of SFE for some CSAs is studied. With increasing temperature, a hcp-to- fcc transition is revealed for those CSAs with negative SFEs, which can be attributed to the role of intrinsic vibrational entropy. The analysis of themore » vibrational modes suggests that the vibrational entropy arises from the high frequency states in the hcp structure that originate from local vibrational mode. Furthermore, our results underscore the importance of vibrational entropy in determining the temperature dependence of SFE for CSAs.« less

  3. Stacking fault energies of face-centered cubic concentrated solid solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shijun; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Zhang, Yanwen

    We report the stacking fault energy (SFE) for a series of face-centered cubic (fcc) equiatomic concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs) derived as subsystems from the NiCoFeCrMn and NiCoFeCrPd high entropy alloys based on ab initio calculations. At low temperatures, these CSAs display very low even negative SFEs, indicating that hexagonal close-pack ( hcp) is more energy favorable than fcc structure. The temperature dependence of SFE for some CSAs is studied. With increasing temperature, a hcp-to- fcc transition is revealed for those CSAs with negative SFEs, which can be attributed to the role of intrinsic vibrational entropy. The analysis of themore » vibrational modes suggests that the vibrational entropy arises from the high frequency states in the hcp structure that originate from local vibrational mode. Furthermore, our results underscore the importance of vibrational entropy in determining the temperature dependence of SFE for CSAs.« less

  4. A density functional study of atomic hydrogen and oxygen chemisorption on the relaxed (0001) surface of double hexagonal close packed americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dholabhai, P. P.; Atta-Fynn, R.; Ray, A. K.

    2008-02-01

    Ab initio total energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory have been performed for atomic hydrogen and oxygen chemisorption on the (0001) surface of double hexagonal packed americium using a full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method. Chemisorption energies were optimized with respect to the distance of the adatom from the relaxed surface for three adsorption sites, namely top, bridge, and hollow hcp sites, the adlayer structure corresponding to coverage of a 0.25 monolayer in all cases. Chemisorption energies were computed at the scalar-relativistic level (no spin-orbit coupling NSOC) and at the fully relativistic level (with spin-orbit coupling SOC). The two-fold bridge adsorption site was found to be the most stable site for O at both the NSOC and SOC theoretical levels with chemisorption energies of 8.204 eV and 8.368 eV respectively, while the three-fold hollow hcp adsorption site was found to be the most stable site for H with chemisorption energies of 3.136 eV at the NSOC level and 3.217 eV at the SOC level. The respective distances of the H and O adatoms from the surface were found to be 1.196 Åand 1.164 Å. Overall our calculations indicate that chemisorption energies in cases with SOC are slightly more stable than the cases with NSOC in the 0.049 0.238 eV range. The work functions and net magnetic moments respectively increased and decreased in all cases compared with the corresponding quantities of bare dhcp Am (0001) surface. The partial charges inside the muffin-tins, difference charge density distributions, and the local density of states have been used to analyze the Am-adatom bond interactions in detail. The implications of chemisorption on Am 5f electron localization-delocalization are also discussed.

  5. A unified relation for the solid-liquid interface free energy of pure FCC, BCC, and HCP metals.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S R; Mendelev, M I

    2016-04-14

    We study correlations between the solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy and bulk material properties (melting temperature, latent heat, and liquid structure) through the determination of SLI free energies for bcc and hcp metals from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Values obtained for the bcc metals in this study were compared to values predicted by the Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations on the basis of previously published MD simulation data. We found that of these three empirical relations, the Ewing relation better describes the MD simulation data. Moreover, whereas the original Ewing relation contains two constants for a particular crystal structure, we found that the first coefficient in the Ewing relation does not depend on crystal structure, taking a common value for all three phases, at least for the class of the systems described by embedded-atom method potentials (which are considered to provide a reasonable approximation for metals).

  6. A unified relation for the solid-liquid interface free energy of pure FCC, BCC, and HCP metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. R.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    We study correlations between the solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy and bulk material properties (melting temperature, latent heat, and liquid structure) through the determination of SLI free energies for bcc and hcp metals from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Values obtained for the bcc metals in this study were compared to values predicted by the Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations on the basis of previously published MD simulation data. We found that of these three empirical relations, the Ewing relation better describes the MD simulation data. Moreover, whereas the original Ewing relation contains two constants for a particular crystal structure, we found that the first coefficient in the Ewing relation does not depend on crystal structure, taking a common value for all three phases, at least for the class of the systems described by embedded-atom method potentials (which are considered to provide a reasonable approximation for metals).

  7. Virtual modeling of polycrystalline structures of materials using particle packing algorithms and Laguerre cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Morales, Irvin Pablo Pérez; Navarra, Eugenio Oñate Ibañez de; Valera, Roberto Roselló

    2018-04-01

    The influence of the microstructural heterogeneities is an important topic in the study of materials. In the context of computational mechanics, it is therefore necessary to generate virtual materials that are statistically equivalent to the microstructure under study, and to connect that geometrical description to the different numerical methods. Herein, the authors present a procedure to model continuous solid polycrystalline materials, such as rocks and metals, preserving their representative statistical grain size distribution. The first phase of the procedure consists of segmenting an image of the material into adjacent polyhedral grains representing the individual crystals. This segmentation allows estimating the grain size distribution, which is used as the input for an advancing front sphere packing algorithm. Finally, Laguerre diagrams are calculated from the obtained sphere packings. The centers of the spheres give the centers of the Laguerre cells, and their radii determine the cells' weights. The cell sizes in the obtained Laguerre diagrams have a distribution similar to that of the grains obtained from the image segmentation. That is why those diagrams are a convenient model of the original crystalline structure. The above-outlined procedure has been used to model real polycrystalline metallic materials. The main difference with previously existing methods lies in the use of a better particle packing algorithm.

  8. Mapping the distribution of packing topologies within protein interiors shows predominant preference for specific packing motifs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mapping protein primary sequences to their three dimensional folds referred to as the 'second genetic code' remains an unsolved scientific problem. A crucial part of the problem concerns the geometrical specificity in side chain association leading to densely packed protein cores, a hallmark of correctly folded native structures. Thus, any model of packing within proteins should constitute an indispensable component of protein folding and design. Results In this study an attempt has been made to find, characterize and classify recurring patterns in the packing of side chain atoms within a protein which sustains its native fold. The interaction of side chain atoms within the protein core has been represented as a contact network based on the surface complementarity and overlap between associating side chain surfaces. Some network topologies definitely appear to be preferred and they have been termed 'packing motifs', analogous to super secondary structures in proteins. Study of the distribution of these motifs reveals the ubiquitous presence of typical smaller graphs, which appear to get linked or coalesce to give larger graphs, reminiscent of the nucleation-condensation model in protein folding. One such frequently occurring motif, also envisaged as the unit of clustering, the three residue clique was invariably found in regions of dense packing. Finally, topological measures based on surface contact networks appeared to be effective in discriminating sequences native to a specific fold amongst a set of decoys. Conclusions Out of innumerable topological possibilities, only a finite number of specific packing motifs are actually realized in proteins. This small number of motifs could serve as a basis set in the construction of larger networks. Of these, the triplet clique exhibits distinct preference both in terms of composition and geometry. PMID:21605466

  9. Young adult smokers' perceptions of plain packs, numbered packs and pack inserts in Turkey: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Mucan, Burcu; Moodie, Crawford

    2017-11-09

    The Turkish Government's 'National Tobacco Control Program 2015-2018' included plans to introduce plain packaging and also a ban on brand names on cigarette packs, allowing only assigned numbers on packs. We explored perceptions of these proposed measures, and also pack inserts with cessation messages, another novel way of using the packaging to communicate with consumers. Eight focus groups were conducted with 47 young adult smokers in Manisa and Kutahya (Turkey) in December 2016. Participants were shown three straight-edged plain cigarette packs, as required in Australia, and then three bevelled-edged plain packs, as permitted in the UK. They were then shown plain packs with numbers rather than brand names, and finally three pack inserts with messages encouraging quitting or offering tips on how to do so. Participants were asked about their perceptions of each. Plain packs were considered unappealing and off-putting, although the bevelled-edged packs were viewed more favourably than the straight-edged packs. Numbered packs were thought by some to diminish the appeal created by the brand name and potentially decrease interest among never smokers and newer smokers. Pack inserts were thought to have less of an impact than the on-pack warnings, but could potentially help discourage initiation and encourage cessation. That bevelled-edged plain packs were perceived more positively than straight-edged plain packs is relevant to countries planning to introduce plain packaging. The study provides a first insight into smokers' perceptions of a ban on brand names, which was perceived to reduce appeal among young people. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Park, Sulgiye; Rittman, Dylan R.

    High-entropy alloys, near-equiatomic solid solutions of five or more elements, represent a new strategy for the design of materials with properties superior to those of conventional alloys. However, their phase space remains constrained, with transition metal high-entropy alloys exhibiting only face- or body-centered cubic structures. Here, we report the high-pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the prototypical high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi. This martensitic transformation begins at 14 GPa and is attributed to suppression of the local magnetic moments, destabilizing the initial fcc structure. Similar to fcc-to-hcp transformations in Al and the noble gases, the transformation is sluggish, occurring overmore » a range of >40 GPa. However, the behaviour of CrMnFeCoNi is unique in that the hcp phase is retained following decompression to ambient pressure, yielding metastable fcc-hcp mixtures. This demonstrates a means of tuning the structures and properties of high-entropy alloys in a manner not achievable by conventional processing techniques.« less

  11. Relating protein conformational changes to packing efficiency and disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Nitin; Gerstein, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Changes in protein conformation play key roles in facilitating various biochemical processes, ranging from signaling and phosphorylation to transport and catalysis. While various factors that drive these motions such as environmental changes and binding of small molecules are well understood, specific causative effects on the structural features of the protein due to these conformational changes have not been studied on a large scale. Here, we study protein conformational changes in relation to two key structural metrics: packing efficiency and disorder. Packing has been shown to be crucial for protein stability and function by many protein design and engineering studies. We study changes in packing efficiency during conformational changes, thus extending the analysis from a static context to a dynamic perspective and report some interesting observations. First, we study various proteins that adopt alternate conformations and find that tendencies to show motion and change in packing efficiency are correlated: residues that change their packing efficiency show larger motions. Second, our results suggest that residues that show higher changes in packing during motion are located on the changing interfaces which are formed during these conformational changes. These changing interfaces are slightly different from shear or static interfaces that have been analyzed in previous studies. Third, analysis of packing efficiency changes in the context of secondary structure shows that, as expected, residues buried in helices show the least change in packing efficiency, whereas those embedded in bends are most likely to change packing. Finally, by relating protein disorder to motions, we show that marginally disordered residues which are ordered enough to be crystallized but have sequence patterns indicative of disorder show higher dislocation and a higher change in packing than ordered ones and are located mostly on the changing interfaces. Overall, our results demonstrate

  12. Microstructural characterization of random packings of cubic particles

    PubMed Central

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties of random packings of solid objects is of critical importance to a wide variety of fundamental scientific and practical problems. The great majority of the previous works focused, however, on packings of spherical and sphere-like particles. We report the first detailed simulation and characterization of packings of non-overlapping cubic particles. Such packings arise in a variety of problems, ranging from biological materials, to colloids and fabrication of porous scaffolds using salt powders. In addition, packing of cubic salt crystals arise in various problems involving preservation of pavements, paintings, and historical monuments, mineral-fluid interactions, CO2 sequestration in rock, and intrusion of groundwater aquifers by saline water. Not much is known, however, about the structure and statistical descriptors of such packings. We have developed a version of the random sequential addition algorithm to generate such packings, and have computed a variety of microstructural descriptors, including the radial distribution function, two-point probability function, orientational correlation function, specific surface, and mean chord length, and have studied the effect of finite system size and porosity on such characteristics. The results indicate the existence of both spatial and orientational long-range order in the packing, which is more distinctive for higher packing densities. The maximum packing fraction is about 0.57. PMID:27725736

  13. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  14. On plastic flow in notched hexagonal close packed single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajou, Balaji; Kondori, Babak; Benzerga, A. Amine; Joshi, Shailendra P.

    2016-09-01

    The micromechanics of anisotropic plastic flow by combined slip and twinning is investigated computationally in single crystal notched specimens. Constitutive relations for hexagonal close packed materials are used which take into account elastic anisotropy, thirty potential deformation systems, various hardening mechanisms and rate-sensitivity. The specimens are loaded perpendicular to the c-axis but the presence of a notch generates three-dimensional triaxial stress states. The study is motivated by recent experiments on a polycrystalline magnesium alloy. To enable comparisons with these where appropriate, three sets of activation thresholds for the various deformation systems are used. For the conditions that most closely mimic the alloy material, attention is focused on the relative roles of pyramidal 〈 c + a 〉 and prismatic 〈 a 〉 slip, as well as on the emergence of {1012bar}[101bar1] extension twinning at sufficiently high triaxiality. In all cases, the spatial variations of stress triaxiality and plastic strain, inclusive of various system activities, are quantified along with their evolution upon straining. The implications of these findings in fundamental understanding of ductile failure of HCP alloys in general and Mg alloys in particular are discussed.

  15. Bidispersed Sphere Packing on Spherical Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mascioli, Andrew; Burke, Christopher

    Packing problems on spherical surfaces have a long history, originating in the classic Thompson problem of finding the ground state configuration of charges on a sphere. Such packings contain a minimal number of defects needed to accommodate the curvature; this is predictable using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem from knowledge of the topology of the surface and the local symmetry of the ordering. Famously, the packing of spherical particles on a sphere contains a 'scar' transition, where additional defects over those required by topology appear above a certain critical number of particles and self-organize into chains or scars. In this work, we study the packing of bidispersed packings on a sphere, and hence determine the interaction of bidispersity and curvature. The resultant configurations are nearly crystalline for low values of bidispersity and retain scar-like structures; these rapidly become disordered for intermediate values and approach a so-called Appollonian limit at the point where smaller particles can be entirely accommodated within the voids left by the larger particles. We connect our results with studies of bidispersed packings in the bulk and on flat surfaces from the literature on glassy systems and jamming. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  16. Controlled growth of hexagonal gold nanostructures during thermally induced self-assembling on Ge(001) surface

    PubMed Central

    Jany, B. R.; Gauquelin, N.; Willhammar, T.; Nikiel, M.; van den Bos, K. H. W.; Janas, A.; Szajna, K.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Aert, S.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Krok, F.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-sized gold has become an important material in various fields of science and technology, where control over the size and crystallography is desired to tailor the functionality. Gold crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase, and its hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure is a very unusual and rare phase. Stable Au hcp phase has been reported to form in nanoparticles at the tips of some Ge nanowires. It has also recently been synthesized in the form of thin graphene-supported sheets which are unstable under electron beam irradiation. Here, we show that stable hcp Au 3D nanostructures with well-defined crystallographic orientation and size can be systematically created in a process of thermally induced self-assembly of thin Au layer on Ge(001) monocrystal. The Au hcp crystallite is present in each Au nanostructure and has been characterized by different electron microscopy techniques. We report that a careful heat treatment above the eutectic melting temperature and a controlled cooling is required to form the hcp phase of Au on a Ge single crystal. This new method gives scientific prospects to obtain stable Au hcp phase for future applications in a rather simple manner as well as redefine the phase diagram of Gold with Germanium. PMID:28195226

  17. Controlled growth of hexagonal gold nanostructures during thermally induced self-assembling on Ge(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jany, B. R.; Gauquelin, N.; Willhammar, T.; Nikiel, M.; van den Bos, K. H. W.; Janas, A.; Szajna, K.; Verbeeck, J.; van Aert, S.; van Tendeloo, G.; Krok, F.

    2017-02-01

    Nano-sized gold has become an important material in various fields of science and technology, where control over the size and crystallography is desired to tailor the functionality. Gold crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase, and its hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure is a very unusual and rare phase. Stable Au hcp phase has been reported to form in nanoparticles at the tips of some Ge nanowires. It has also recently been synthesized in the form of thin graphene-supported sheets which are unstable under electron beam irradiation. Here, we show that stable hcp Au 3D nanostructures with well-defined crystallographic orientation and size can be systematically created in a process of thermally induced self-assembly of thin Au layer on Ge(001) monocrystal. The Au hcp crystallite is present in each Au nanostructure and has been characterized by different electron microscopy techniques. We report that a careful heat treatment above the eutectic melting temperature and a controlled cooling is required to form the hcp phase of Au on a Ge single crystal. This new method gives scientific prospects to obtain stable Au hcp phase for future applications in a rather simple manner as well as redefine the phase diagram of Gold with Germanium.

  18. SciTech Connect

    Arul Kumar, Mariyappan; Beyerlein, Irene Jane; McCabe, Rodney James

    Materials with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure such as Mg, Ti and Zr are being used in the transportation, aerospace and nuclear industry, respectively. Material strength and formability are critical qualities for shaping these materials into parts and a pervasive deformation mechanism that significantly affects their formability is deformation twinning. The interaction between grain boundaries and twins has an important influence on the deformation behaviour and fracture of hcp metals. Here, statistical analysis of large data sets reveals that whether twins transmit across grain boundaries depends not only on crystallography but also strongly on the anisotropy in crystallographic slip.more » As a result, we show that increases in crystal plastic anisotropy enhance the probability of twin transmission by comparing the relative ease of twin transmission in hcp materials such as Mg, Zr and Ti.« less

  19. 61Ni synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy of nickel-based nanoparticles with hexagonal structure

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mitsui, Takaya; Hosoi, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Seto, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We measured the synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectra of Ni-based nanoparticles with a hexagonal structure that were synthesised by chemical reduction. To obtain Mössbauer spectra of the nanoparticles without 61Ni enrichment, we developed a measurement system for 61Ni SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy without X-ray windows between the 61Ni84V16 standard energy alloy and detector. The counting rate of the 61Ni nuclear resonant scattering in the system was enhanced by the detection of internal conversion electrons and the close proximity between the energy standard and the detector. The spectrum measured at 4 K revealed the internal magnetic field of the nanoparticles was 3.4 ± 0.9 T, corresponding to a Ni atomic magnetic moment of 0.3 Bohr magneton. This differs from the value of Ni3C and the theoretically predicted value of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp)-Ni and suggested the nanoparticle possessed intermediate carbon content between hcp-Ni and Ni3C of approximately 10 atomic % of Ni. The improved 61Ni Mössbauer absorption measurement system is also applicable to various Ni materials without 61Ni enrichment, such as Ni hydride nanoparticles. PMID:26883185

  20. A unified relation for the solid-liquid interface free energy of pure FCC, BCC, and HCP metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S. R.; Mendelev, M. I., E-mail: mendelev@ameslab.gov

    2016-04-14

    We study correlations between the solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy and bulk material properties (melting temperature, latent heat, and liquid structure) through the determination of SLI free energies for bcc and hcp metals from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Values obtained for the bcc metals in this study were compared to values predicted by the Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations on the basis of previously published MD simulation data. We found that of these three empirical relations, the Ewing relation better describes the MD simulation data. Moreover, whereas the original Ewing relation contains two constants for a particular crystal structure, wemore » found that the first coefficient in the Ewing relation does not depend on crystal structure, taking a common value for all three phases, at least for the class of the systems described by embedded-atom method potentials (which are considered to provide a reasonable approximation for metals).« less

  1. Microstructural characterization of random packings of cubic particles

    DOE PAGES

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-10-11

    Understanding the properties of random packings of solid objects is of critical importance to a wide variety of fundamental scientific and practical problems. The great majority of the previous works focused, however, on packings of spherical and sphere-like particles. We report the first detailed simulation and characterization of packings of non-overlapping cubic particles. Such packings arise in a variety of problems, ranging from biological materials, to colloids and fabrication of porous scaffolds using salt powders. In addition, packing of cubic salt crystals arise in various problems involving preservation of pavements, paintings, and historical monuments, mineral-fluid interactions, CO 2 sequestration inmore » rock, and intrusion of groundwater aquifers by saline water. Not much is known, however, about the structure and statistical descriptors of such packings. We have developed a version of the random sequential addition algorithm to generate such packings, and have computed a variety of microstructural descriptors, including the radial distribution function, two-point probability function, orientational correlation function, specific surface, and mean chord length, and have studied the effect of finite system size and porosity on such characteristics. Here, the results indicate the existence of both spatial and orientational long-range order in the packing, which is more distinctive for higher packing densities.« less

  2. Effects of temperature and void on the dynamics and microstructure of structural transition in single crystal iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jian-Li; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Feng-Guo; He, An-Min

    2018-06-01

    With classic molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effects of temperature and void on the bcc to hcp/fcc structural transition in single crystal iron driven by 1D ([0 0 1]) and 3D (uniform) compressions. The results show that the pressure threshold does not reduce monotonously with temperature. The pressure threshold firstly increases and then decreases in the range of 60–360 K under 1D compression, while the variation trend is just opposite under 3D compression. As expected, the initial defect may lower the pressure threshold via heterogenous nucleation. This effect is found to be more distinct at lower temperature, and the heterogenous nucleation mainly results in hcp structure. Under the condition of strain constraint, the products of structural transition will respectively form flaky hcp twin structure ((1 0 0) or (0 1 0)) and lamellar structure ({1 1 0}) of mixed phases under 1D and 3D compressions. During the structural transition, we find the shear stress (1D compression) of hcp phase is always lower than that of bcc phase. The cold energy calculations indicate that the hcp phase is the most stable under high pressure. However, we observe the evident metastable state of bcc phase, whose energy will be much higher than both hcp and fcc phases, and then provides the possibility for the occurrence of fcc nucleation.

  3. Structural transition with thickness in films of poly-(styrene-b-2vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer/homopolymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vindhya; Kramer, Edward; Hur, Su-Mi; Fredrickson, Glenn; Sprung, Michael

    2009-03-01

    In multilayer thin films of spherical morphology block copolymers, the surface layers prefer hexagonal symmetry while the inner layers prefer BCC. Thin films with spherical morphology of PS-b-P2VP blends with short homopolymer polystyrene (hPS) chains have an HCP structure up to a thickness n* at which there is a transition to a face centered orthorhombic structure. Using grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy we show that that n* increases from 5 to 9 with increase in hPS from 0 to 12 vol%. For thicknesses just below n* the HCP and FCO structures coexist, but on long annealing HCP prevails. We hypothesize that the PS segregates to the interstices in the HCP structure reducing the stretching of the PS blocks and the free energy penalty of HCP versus BCC inner layers. Self consistent field theoretic simulations are being carried out to see if this idea is correct.

  4. Packing of nonoverlapping cubic particles: Computational algorithms and microstructural characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-12-01

    Packing of cubic particles arises in a variety of problems, ranging from biological materials to colloids and the fabrication of new types of porous materials with controlled morphology. The properties of such packings may also be relevant to problems involving suspensions of cubic zeolites, precipitation of salt crystals during CO2 sequestration in rock, and intrusion of fresh water in aquifers by saline water. Not much is known, however, about the structure and statistical descriptors of such packings. We present a detailed simulation and microstructural characterization of packings of nonoverlapping monodisperse cubic particles, following up on our preliminary results [H. Malmir et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 35024 (2016), 10.1038/srep35024]. A modification of the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm has been developed to generate such packings, and a variety of microstructural descriptors, including the radial distribution function, the face-normal correlation function, two-point probability and cluster functions, the lineal-path function, the pore-size distribution function, and surface-surface and surface-void correlation functions, have been computed, along with the specific surface and mean chord length of the packings. The results indicate the existence of both spatial and orientational long-range order as the the packing density increases. The maximum packing fraction achievable with the RSA method is about 0.57, which represents the limit for a structure similar to liquid crystals.

  5. Confined disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Torquato, S.

    2015-12-01

    packings possess essentially the same level of hyperuniformity as their bulk counterparts. Our findings are generally relevant to confined packings that arise in biology (e.g., structural color in birds and insects) and may have implications for the creation of high-density powders and improved battery designs.

  6. Packing microstructure and local density variations of experimental and computational pebble beds

    SciTech Connect

    Auwerda, G. J.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Lathouwers, D.

    2012-07-01

    In pebble bed type nuclear reactors the fuel is contained in graphite pebbles, which form a randomly stacked bed with a non-uniform packing density. These variations can influence local coolant flow and power density and are a possible cause of hotspots. To analyse local density variations computational methods are needed that can generate randomly stacked pebble beds with a realistic packing structure on a pebble-to-pebble level. We first compare various properties of the local packing structure of a computed bed with those of an image made using computer aided X-ray tomography, looking at properties in the bulk of the bedmore » and near the wall separately. Especially for the bulk of the bed, properties of the computed bed show good comparison with the scanned bed and with literature, giving confidence our method generates beds with realistic packing microstructure. Results also show the packing structure is different near the wall than in the bulk of the bed, with pebbles near the wall forming ordered layers similar to hexagonal close packing. Next, variations in the local packing density are investigated by comparing probability density functions of the packing fraction of small clusters of pebbles throughout the bed. Especially near the wall large variations in local packing fractions exists, with a higher probability for both clusters of pebbles with low (<0.6) and high (>0.65) packing fraction, which could significantly affect flow rates and, together with higher power densities, could result in hotspots. (authors)« less

  7. Crystal structures of 6-chloro­indan-1-one and 6-bromo­indan-1-one exhibit different inter­molecular packing inter­actions

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Alessio; Blair, Benjamin; Tanski, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The two title compounds are analogs of 1-indanone that are substituted at the 6-position with chlorine and bromine. Although very similar in mol­ecular structure, the crystal structures are not isomorphous and reveal that 6-chloro­indan-1-one, C9H7ClO (I), and 6-bromo­indan-1-one, C9H7BrO (II), exhibit unique inter­molecular packing motifs. The mol­ecules of the chloro analog (I) pack with a herringbone packing motif of C—H⋯O inter­actions, whereas the bromo derivative (II) packs with offset face-to-face π-stacking, C—H⋯O, C—H⋯Br and Br⋯O inter­actions. Compound (II) was refined as a two-component non-merohedral twin, BASF 0.0762 (5). PMID:27840702

  8. Multilayer DNA origami packed on hexagonal and hybrid lattices.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V; Gothelf, Kurt V; Shih, William M

    2012-01-25

    "Scaffolded DNA origami" has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. X-ray diffraction of solid tin to 1.2 TPa

    SciTech Connect

    Lazicki, A.; Rygg, J. R.; Coppari, F.

    2015-08-12

    In this study, we report direct in situ measurements of the crystal structure of tin between 0.12 and 1.2 TPa, the highest stress at which a crystal structure has ever been observed. Using angle-dispersive powder x-ray diffraction, we find that dynamically compressed Sn transforms to the body-centered-cubic (bcc) structure previously identified by ambient-temperature quasistatic-compression studies and by zero-kelvin density-functional theory predictions between 0.06 and 0.16 TPa. However, we observe no evidence for the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase found by those studies to be stable above 0.16 TPa. Instead, our results are consistent with bcc up to 1.2 TPa. We conjecturemore » that at high temperature bcc is stabilized relative to hcp due to differences in vibrational free energy.« less

  10. Communication: From close-packed to topologically close-packed: Formation of Laves phases in moderately polydisperse hard-sphere mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2018-05-01

    Particle size polydispersity can help to inhibit crystallization of the hard-sphere fluid into close-packed structures at high packing fractions and thus is often employed to create model glass-forming systems. Nonetheless, it is known that hard-sphere mixtures with modest polydispersity still have ordered ground states. Here, we demonstrate by computer simulation that hard-sphere mixtures with increased polydispersity fractionate on the basis of particle size and a bimodal subpopulation favors the formation of topologically close-packed C14 and C15 Laves phases in coexistence with a disordered phase. The generality of this result is supported by simulations of hard-sphere mixtures with particle-size distributions of four different forms.

  11. Metastable phase transformation and hcp-ω transformation pathways in Ti and Zr under high hydrostatic pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lei; Ding, Xiangdong, E-mail: dingxd@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: ekhard@esc.cam.ac.uk; Sun, Jun

    2016-07-18

    The energy landscape of Zr at high hydrostatic pressure suggests that its transformation behavior is strongly pressure dependent. This is in contrast to the known transition mechanism in Ti, which is essentially independent of hydrostatic pressure. Generalized solid-state nudged elastic band calculations at constant pressure shows that α-Zr transforms like Ti only at the lowest pressure inside the stability field of ω-phase. Different pathways apply at higher pressures where the energy landscape contains several high barriers so that metastable states are expected, including the appearance of a transient bcc phase at ca. 23 GPa. The global driving force for the hcp-ωmore » transition increases strongly with increasing pressure and reaches 23.7 meV/atom at 23 GPa. Much of this energy relates to the excess volume of the hcp phase compared with its ω phase.« less

  12. SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Park, Sulgiye; Rittman, Dylan R.

    High pressure x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the face-centered cubic (fcc) high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi transforms martensitically to a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase at ~14 GPa. We attribute this to suppression of the local magnetic moments, destabilizing the fcc phase. Similar to fcc-to-hcp transformations in Al and the noble gases, this transformation is sluggish, occurring over a range of >40 GPa. But, the behavior of CrMnFeCoNi is unique in that the hcp phase is retained following decompression to ambient pressure, yielding metastable fcc-hcp mixtures.

  13. First principles studies of the dependence of magnetism on the crystal phase in 4d and 5d late transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüger, E.; Osuch, K.

    2005-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of inducing ferromagnetic order in 4d and 5d late transition metals through crystal symmetry change. First principles, self-consistent density functional theory calculations, with spin-orbit coupling included, performed at 0 K show that ferromagnetism occurs in the bulk of Rh and Pd at the optimum lattice constant if Rh is in the bcc and Pd in the hcp/dhcp phase. The ferromagnetic order originates in the d-band occupancy of Rh or Pd which locates the Fermi energy at the top of the highest peak of the respective (paramagnetic) density of states induced by the bcc or hcp/dhcp structure. This peak in the density of states is caused by flat bands which lie at the surface of the respective Brillouin zone. For a bcc crystal these flat bands have the eg character and are positioned at the surface of the bcc Brillouin zone along the N-P line. The origin of the flatness of the bands was found to be the translation symmetry of the cubic lattice which causes the bands with the eg character to be narrow along the k-lines whose k-vector directions are furthest off the directions to which the orbitals of the eg symmetry point. Due to the d-band occupancy of Rh these flat bands lie in the paramagnetic state at the Fermi energy, whereas in the ferromagnetic state they exhibit the largest energetic split. This indicates that a smaller degree of orbital overlap narrows electronic bands enhancing the tendency of the system for ferromagnetic band split. For the hcp/dhcp structure the states contributing to the high density of para-magnetic states at the Fermi level of Pd lie in the vicinity of the M-L line of the hcp Brillouin zone boundary, which possesses a high number of symmetry (M and L) points. Moreover, the M-L line is aligned with the stacking sequence direction ([0001]) which is furthest off the densest-packed atomic chain direction of an hcp-crystal and, consequently, the weakest-bond direction in the crystal. This makes the narrow bands along

  14. Physical reconstruction of packed beds and their morphological analysis: core-shell packings as an example.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Stefan; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2011-04-08

    We report a fast, nondestructive, and quantitative approach to characterize the morphology of packed beds of fine particles by their three-dimensional reconstruction from confocal laser scanning microscopy images, exemplarily shown for a 100μm i.d. fused-silica capillary packed with 2.6μm-sized core-shell particles. The presented method is generally applicable to silica-based capillary columns, monolithic or particulate, and comprises column pretreatment, image acquisition, image processing, and statistical analysis of the image data. It defines a unique platform for fundamental comparisons of particulate and monolithic supports using the statistical measures derived from their reconstructions. Received morphological data are column cross-sectional porosity profiles and chord length distributions from the interparticle macropore space, which are a descriptor of local density and can be characterized by a simplified k-gamma distribution. This distribution function provides a parameter of location and a parameter of dispersion which can be correlated to individual chromatographic band broadening processes (i.e., to transchannel and short-range interchannel contributions to eddy dispersion, respectively). Together with the transcolumn porosity profile the presented approach allows to analyze and quantify the packing microstructure from pore to column scale and therefore holds great promise in a comparative study of packing conditions and particle properties, particularly for characterizing and minimizing the packing process-specific heterogeneities in the final bed structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure of Li5AlS4 and comparison with other lithium-containing metal sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hanjin; Kim, Sung-Chul; Kim, Jaegyeom; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Seung-Joo

    2018-01-01

    Lithium aluminum sulfide (Li5AlS4) was synthesized by solid state reaction, and its crystal structure was characterized by ab initio structure determination on the basis of powder neutron diffraction (ND) data. Li5AlS4 was found to have monoclinic unit cell (space group, P21/m) with the lattice parameters: a = 6.8583(4) Å, b = 7.8369(4) Å, c = 6.2488(4) Å, and β = 90.333(4)°. This structure is built from a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) arrangement of sulfur atoms with a stacking sequence of …ABAB…. The hcp sulfide lattice consists of two different double-sulfide layers alternately stacked along the c-axis. Between the first pair of sulfur layers all the tetrahedral interstices (T+ and T- sites) are filled with lithium and aluminum atoms. All octahedral interstices between the second pair of sulfur layers are occupied by the remaining lithium atoms. The structure of Li5AlS4 is compared with those of various lithium-containing metal sulfides like Li2FeS2, NaLiMS2 (M = Zn, Cd), Li4GeS4, LiM‧S2 (M‧ = Al, Ga, In) and γ-Li3PS4. Each sulfide represents a specific distribution of lithium atoms in the lattice depending on how the octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites are filled. The low ionic conductivity of Li5AlS4 (9.7 × 10-9 S cm-1 at 323 K) relative to other sulfides may be due to the highly-ordered distribution of the lithium atoms in the layered structure and the lack of adjacent void spaces that can be used for lithium ion hopping.

  16. 3D molecular models of whole HIV-1 virions generated with cellPACK

    PubMed Central

    Goodsell, David S.; Autin, Ludovic; Forli, Stefano; Sanner, Michel F.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    As knowledge of individual biological processes grows, it becomes increasingly useful to frame new findings within their larger biological contexts in order to generate new systems-scale hypotheses. This report highlights two major iterations of a whole virus model of HIV-1, generated with the cellPACK software. cellPACK integrates structural and systems biology data with packing algorithms to assemble comprehensive 3D models of cell-scale structures in molecular detail. This report describes the biological data, modeling parameters and cellPACK methods used to specify and construct editable models for HIV-1. Anticipating that cellPACK interfaces under development will enable researchers from diverse backgrounds to critique and improve the biological models, we discuss how cellPACK can be used as a framework to unify different types of data across all scales of biology. PMID:25253262

  17. High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa.

    PubMed

    Samudrala, Gopi K; Thomas, Sarah A; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2011-08-10

    High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence hcp → Sm type → dhcp → distorted fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.

  18. High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2011-08-01

    High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence {hcp} \\to {Sm}~ {type} \\to {dhcp} \\to {distorted} fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.

  19. The elastic properties and stability of fcc-Fe and fcc-FeNi alloys at inner-core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorell, Benjamí; Brodholt, John; Wood, Ian G.; Vočadlo, Lidunka

    2015-07-01

    The agreement between shear wave velocities for the Earth's inner core observed from seismology with those derived from mineral physics is considerably worse than for any other region of the Earth. Furthermore, there is still debate as to the phase of iron present in the inner core, particularly when alloying with nickel and light elements is taken into account. To investigate the extent to which the mismatch between seismology and mineral physics is a function of either crystal structure and/or the amount of nickel present, we have used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the elastic constants and seismic velocities (Vp and Vs) of face centred cubic (fcc) iron at Earth's inner core pressures (360 GPa) and at temperatures up to ˜7000 K. We find that Vp for fcc iron (fcc-Fe) is very similar to that for hexagonal close packed (hcp) iron at all temperatures. In contrast, Vs for fcc-Fe is significantly higher than in hcp-Fe, with the difference increasing with increasing temperature; the difference between Vs for the core (from seismology) and Vs for fcc-Fe exceeds 40 per cent. These results are consistent with previous work at lower temperatures. We have also investigated the effect of 6.5 and 13 atm% Ni in fcc-Fe. We find that Ni only slightly reduces Vp and Vs (e.g. by 2 per cent in Vs for 13 atm% Ni at 5500 K), and cannot account for the difference between the velocities observed in the core and those of pure fcc-Fe. We also tried to examine pre-melting behaviour in fcc-Fe, as reported in hcp-Fe by extending the study to very high temperatures (at which superheating may occur). However, we find that fcc-Fe spontaneously transforms to other hcp-like structures before melting; two hcp-like structures were found, both of hexagonal symmetry, which may most easily be regarded as being derived from an hcp crystal with stacking faults. That the structure did not transform to a true hcp phase is likely as a consequence of the limited size of the

  20. Radiative-Transfer Modeling of Spectra of Densely Packed Particulate Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, G.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Glotch, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing measurements over a wide range of wavelengths from both ground- and space-based platforms have provided a wealth of data regarding the surfaces and atmospheres of various solar system bodies. With proper interpretations, important properties, such as composition and particle size, can be inferred. However, proper interpretation of such datasets can often be difficult, especially for densely packed particulate media with particle sizes on the order of wavelength of light being used for remote sensing. Radiative transfer theory has often been applied to the study of densely packed particulate media like planetary regoliths and snow, but with difficulty, and here we continue to investigate radiative transfer modeling of spectra of densely packed media. We use the superposition T-matrix method to compute scattering properties of clusters of particles and capture the near-field effects important for dense packing. Then, the scattering parameters from the T-matrix computations are modified with the static structure factor correction, accounting for the dense packing of the clusters themselves. Using these corrected scattering parameters, reflectance (or emissivity via Kirchhoff's Law) is computed with the method of invariance imbedding solution to the radiative transfer equation. For this work we modeled the emissivity spectrum of the 3.3 µm particle size fraction of enstatite, representing some common mineralogical and particle size components of regoliths, in the mid-infrared wavelengths (5 - 50 µm). The modeled spectrum from the T-matrix method with static structure factor correction using moderate packing densities (filling factors of 0.1 - 0.2) produced better fits to the laboratory measurement of corresponding spectrum than the spectrum modeled by the equivalent method without static structure factor correction. Future work will test the method of the superposition T-matrix and static structure factor correction combination for larger particles

  1. Structural and magnetic transition in stainless steel Fe-21Cr-6Ni-9Mn up to 250 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Hou, Qi-Yue; Zhang, Yi; Jing, Qiu-Min; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Bi, Yan; Xu, Ji-An; Li, Xiao-Dong; Li, Yan-Chun; Liu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Stainless steel Fe-21Cr-6Ni-9Mn (SS 21-6-9), with ˜21% Cr, ˜6% Ni, and ˜9% Mn in weight percentage, has wide applications in extensive fields. In the present study, SS 21-6-9 is compressed up to 250 GPa, and its crystal structures and compressive behaviors are investigated simultaneously using the synchrotron angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction technique. The SS 21-6-9 undergoes a structural phase transition from fcc to hcp structure at ˜12.8 GPa with neglectable volume collapse within the determination error under the quasi-hydrostatic environment. The hcp structure remains stable up to the highest pressure of 250 GPa in the present experiments. The antiferromagnetic-to-nonmagnetic state transition of hcp SS 21-6-9 with the changes of inconspicuous density and structure, is discovered at ˜50 GPa, and revealed by the significant change in c/a ratio. The hcp SS-21-6-9 is compressive anisotropic: it is more compressive in the c-axis direction than in the a-axis direction. Both the equations of states (EOSs) of fcc and hcp SS 21-6-9, which are in accordance with those of fcc and hcp pure irons respectively, are also presented. Furthermore, the c/a ratio of hcp SS 21-6-9 at infinite compression, R∞, is consistent with the values of pure iron and Fe-10Ni alloy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1230201, 11274281, and 11304294), the Industrial Technology Development Program, China (Grant No. 9045140509), and the Funds from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. KJCX2-SW-N03 and KJCX2-SW-N20).

  2. Observation of a New High-Pressure Solid Phase in Dynamically Compressed Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsin, D. N.

    2017-10-01

    Aluminum is ideal for testing theoretical first-principles calculations because of the relative simplicity of its atomic structure. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that Al transforms from an ambient-pressure, face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystal to the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and body-centered-cubic (bcc) structures as it is compressed. Laser-driven experiments performed at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) ramp compressed Al samples to pressures up to 540 GPa without melting. Nanosecond in-situ x-ray diffraction was used to directly measure the crystal structure at pressures where the solid-solid phase transformations of Al are predicted to occur. Laser velocimetry provided the pressure in the Al. Our results show clear evidence of the fcc-hcp and hpc-bcc transformations at 216 +/- 9 GPa and 321 +/- 12 GPa, respectively. This is the first experimental in-situ observation of the bcc phase in compressed Al and a confirmation of the fcc-hcp transition previously observed under static compression at 217 GPa. The observations indicate these solid-solid phase transitions occur on the order of tens of nanoseconds time scales. In the fcc-hcp transition we find the original texture of the sample is preserved; however, the hcp-bcc transition diminishes that texture producing a structure that is more polycrystalline. The importance of this dynamic is discussed. The NIF results are the first demonstration of x-ray diffraction measurements at two different pressures in a single laser shot. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  3. Structural Transitions in Elemental Tin at Ultra High Pressures up to 230 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavriliuk, A. G.; Troyan, I. A.; Ivanova, A. G.; Aksenov, S. N.; Starchikov, S. S.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Morgenroth, W.; Glazyrin, K. V.; Mezouar, M.

    2017-12-01

    The crystal structure of elemental Sn was investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction at ultra high pressures up to ˜230 GPa creating in diamond anvil cells. Above 70 GPa, a pure bcc structure of Sn was observed, which is stable up to 160GPa, until an occurrence of the hcp phase was revealed. At the onset of the bcc- hcp transition at pressure of about 160GPa, the drop of the unit cell volume is about 1%. A mixture of the bcc- hcp states was observed at least up to 230GPa, and it seems that this state could exist even up to higher pressures. The fractions of the bcc and hcp phases were evaluated in the pressure range of the phase coexistence 160-230 GPa. The difference between static and dynamic compression and its effect on the V- P phase diagram of Sn are discussed.

  4. Transformation of BCC and B2 High Temperature Phases to HCP and Orthorhombic Structures in the Ti-Al-Nb System. Part II: Experimental TEM Study of Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, L. A.; Boettinger, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Possible transformation paths that involve no long range diffusion and their corresponding microstructural details were predicted by Bendersky, Roytburd, and Boettinger [J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 98, 561 (1993)] for Ti-Al-Nb alloys cooled from the high temperature BCC/B2 phase field into close-packed orthorhombic or hexagonal phase fields. These predictions were based on structural and symmetry relations between the known phases. In the present paper experimental TEM results show that two of the predicted transformation paths are indeed followed for different alloy compositions. For Ti-25Al-12.5Nb (at%), the path includes the formation of intermediate hexagonal phases, A3 and DO19, and subsequent formation of a metastable domain structure of the low-temperature O phase. For alloys close to Ti-25Al-25Nb (at%), the path involves an intermediate B19 structure and subsequent formation of a translational domain structure of the O phase. The path selection depends on whether B2 order forms in the high temperature cubic phase prior to transformation to the close-packed structure. The paper also analyzes the formation of a two-phase modulated microstructure during long term annealing at 700 °C. The structure forms by congruent ordering of the DO19 phase to the O phase, and then reprecipitation of the DO19 phase, possibly by a spinodal mechanism. The thermodynamics underlying the path selection and the two-phase formation are also discussed. PMID:28053488

  5. An Amino Acid Code to Define a Protein’s Tertiary Packing Surface

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Keith J.; Joo, Hyun; Tsai, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    One difficult aspect of the protein-folding problem is characterizing the non-specific interactions that define packing in protein tertiary structure. To better understand tertiary structure, this work extends the knob-socket model by classifying the interactions of a single knob residue packed into a set of contiguous sockets, or a pocket made up of 4 or more residues. The knob-socket construct allows for a symbolic two-dimensional mapping of pockets. The two-dimensional mapping of pockets provides a simple method to investigate the variety of pocket shapes in order to understand the geometry of protein tertiary surfaces. The diversity of pocket geometries can be organized into groups of pockets that share a common core, which suggests that some interactions in pockets are ancillary to packing. Further analysis of pocket geometries displays a preferred configuration that is right-handed in α-helices and left-handed in β-sheets. The amino acid composition of pockets illustrates the importance of non-polar amino acids in packing as well as position specificity. As expected, all pocket shapes prefer to pack with hydrophobic knobs; however, knobs are not selective for the pockets they pack. Investigating side-chain rotamer preferences for certain pocket shapes uncovers no strong correlations. These findings allow a simple vocabulary based on knobs and sockets to describe protein tertiary packing that supports improved analysis, design and prediction of protein structure. PMID:26575337

  6. Spin-resolved band structure of a densely packed Pb monolayer on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, C.; Muff, S.; Fanciulli, M.; Pfnür, H.; Tringides, M. C.; Dil, J. H.; Tegenkamp, C.

    2017-07-01

    Monolayer structures of Pb on Si(111) attracted recently considerable interest as superconductivity was found in these truly two-dimensional (2D) structures. In this study, we analyzed the electronic surface band structure of the so-called striped incommensurate Pb phase with 4/3 ML coverage by means of spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our results fully agree with density functional theory calculations done by Ren et al. [Phys. Rev. B 94, 075436 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.075436]. We observe a local Zeeman-type splitting of a fully occupied and spin-polarized surface band at the K¯√{3} points. The growth of this densely packed Pb structure results in the formation of imbalanced rotational domains, which triggered the detection of C3 v symmetry forbidden spin components for surface states around the Fermi energy. Moreover, the Fermi surface of the metallic surface state of this phase is Rashba spin split and revealed a pronounced warping. However, the 2D nesting vectors are incommensurate with the atomic structure, thus keeping this system rather immune against charge density wave formation and possibly enabling a superconducting behavior.

  7. Controlled irrigation of a structured packing as a method for increasing the efficiency of liquid mixture separation in the distillation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, A. N.; Zhukov, V. E.; Pecherkin, N. I.; Nazarov, A. D.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Gao, X.; Sui, H.

    2017-09-01

    The use of modern structured packing in the distillation columns allows much more even distribution of the liquid film over the packing surface, but it does not completely solve the problem of uniform distribution of flow parameters over the entire height of the packing. Negative stratification of vapor along the packing height caused by different densities of vapor mixture components and higher temperature in the lower part of the column leads to formation of large-scale maldistributions of temperature and mixture composition over the column cross-section even under the conditions of uniform irrigation of packing with liquid. In these experiments, the idea of compensatory action of liquid distributor on the large-scale maldistribution of mixture composition over the column cross-section was implemented. The experiments were carried out in the distillation column with the diameter of 0.9 m on 10 layers of the Mellapak 350Y packing with the total height of 2.1 m. The mixture of R-21 and R-114 was used as the working mixture. To irrigate the packing, the liquid distributorr with 126 independently controlled solenoid valves overlapping the holes with the diameter of 5 mm, specially designed by the authors, was used. Response of the column to the action of liquid distributor was observed in real time according to the indications of 3 groups of thermometers mounted in 3 different cross-sections of the column. The experiments showed that the minimal correction of the drip point pattern in the controlled liquid distributor can significantly affect the pattern of flow parameter distribution over the cross-section and height of the mass transfer surface and increase separation efficiency of the column within 20%.

  8. Packing interface energetics in different crystal forms of the λ Cro dimer.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrom, Logan S; Miyashita, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Variation among crystal structures of the λ Cro dimer highlights conformational flexibility. The structures range from a wild type closed to a mutant fully open conformation, but it is unclear if each represents a stable solution state or if one may be the result of crystal packing. Here we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate the energetics of crystal packing interfaces and the influence of site-directed mutagenesis on them in order to examine the effect of crystal packing on wild type and mutant Cro dimer conformation. Replica exchange MD of mutant Cro in solution shows that the observed conformational differences between the wild type and mutant protein are not the direct consequence of mutation. Instead, simulation of Cro in different crystal environments reveals that mutation affects the stability of crystal forms. Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area binding energy calculations reveal the detailed energetics of packing interfaces. Packing interfaces can have diverse properties in strength, energetic components, and some are stronger than the biological dimer interface. Further analysis shows that mutation can strengthen packing interfaces by as much as ∼5 kcal/mol in either crystal environment. Thus, in the case of Cro, mutation provides an additional energetic contribution during crystal formation that may stabilize a fully open higher energy state. Moreover, the effect of mutation in the lattice can extend to packing interfaces not involving mutation sites. Our results provide insight into possible models for the effect of crystallization on Cro conformational dynamics and emphasize careful consideration of protein crystal structures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Packing Interface Energetics in Different Crystal Forms of the λ Cro Dimer

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstrom, Logan S.; Miyashita, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Variation among crystal structures of the λ Cro dimer highlights conformational flexibility. The structures range from a wild type closed to a mutant fully open conformation, but it is unclear if each represents a stable solution state or if one may be the result of crystal packing. Here we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate the energetics of crystal packing interfaces and the influence of site-directed mutagenesis on them, in order to examine the effect of crystal packing on wild type and mutant Cro dimer conformation. Replica exchange MD of mutant Cro in solution shows that the observed conformational differences between the wild type and mutant protein are not the direct consequence of mutation. Instead, simulation of Cro in different crystal environments reveals that mutation affects the stability of crystal forms. Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area binding energy calculations reveal the detailed energetics of packing interfaces. Packing interfaces can have diverse properties in strength, energetic components, and some are stronger than the biological dimer interface. Further analysis shows that mutation can strengthen packing interfaces by as much as ~5 kcal/mol in either crystal environment. Thus, in the case of Cro, mutation provides an additional energetic contribution during crystal formation that may stabilize a fully open higher energy state. Moreover, the effect of mutation in the lattice can extend to packing interfaces not involving mutation sites. Our results provide insight into possible models for the effect of crystallization on Cro conformational dynamics and emphasize careful consideration of protein crystal structures. PMID:24218107

  10. The elastic properties of hcp-Fe alloys under the conditions of the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunguo; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Brodholt, John P.

    2018-07-01

    Geophysical and cosmochemical constraints suggest the inner-core is mainly composed of iron with a few percent of light elements. However, despite extensive studies over many years, no single alloying light-element has been found that is able to simultaneously match the observed inner-core density and both seismic velocities. This has motivated a number of suggestions of other mechanism to lower velocities, such as anelasticity or premelting. However, an unexplored possibility is that a combination of two or more light-elements might produce the desired reduction in velocities and densities of the inner core. In order to test this, we use ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to map the elastic property space of hcp-Fe alloyed with S, Si and C at 360 GPa up to the melting temperature. Based on a mixing solid solution model together with direct simulations on the ternaries, we found a number of compositions which are able to match the observed properties of the inner core. This is the first time that the density, VP, Vs and the Poisson's ratio of the inner core have been matched directly with an hcp-Fe alloy.

  11. Numerical simulation of a shear-thinning fluid through packed spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai Long; Moon, Jong Sin; Hwang, Wook Ryol

    2012-12-01

    Flow behaviors of a non-Newtonian fluid in spherical microstructures have been studied by a direct numerical simulation. A shear-thinning (power-law) fluid through both regular and randomly packed spheres has been numerically investigated in a representative unit cell with the tri-periodic boundary condition, employing a rigorous three-dimensional finite-element scheme combined with fictitious-domain mortar-element methods. The present scheme has been validated for the classical spherical packing problems with literatures. The flow mobility of regular packing structures, including simple cubic (SC), body-centered cubic (BCC), face-centered cubic (FCC), as well as randomly packed spheres, has been investigated quantitatively by considering the amount of shear-thinning, the pressure gradient and the porosity as parameters. Furthermore, the mechanism leading to the main flow path in a highly shear-thinning fluid through randomly packed spheres has been discussed.

  12. A Density Functional Study of Atomic Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemisorptions on the (0001) Surface of Double Hexagonal Close Packed Americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dholabhai, Pratik; Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Ray, Asok

    2008-03-01

    Ab initio total energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory have been performed for atomic hydrogen and oxygen chemisorptions on the (0001) surface of double hexagonal packed americium using a full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FLAPW+lo) method. The three-fold hollow hcp site was found to be the most stable site for H adsorption, while the two-fold bridge adsorption site was found to be the most stable site for O adsorption. Chemisorption energies and adsorption geometries for different adsorption sites will be discussed. The change in work functions, magnetic moments, partial charges inside muffin-tins, difference charge density distributions and density of states for the bare Am slab and the Am slab after adsorption of the adatom will be discussed. The implications of chemisorption on Am 5f electron localization-delocalization will also be discussed.

  13. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  14. Close-packed structure dynamics with finite-range interaction: computational mechanics with individual layer interaction.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Horta, Edwin; Estevez-Rams, Ernesto; Lora-Serrano, Raimundo; Neder, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    This is the second contribution in a series of papers dealing with dynamical models in equilibrium theories of polytypism. A Hamiltonian introduced by Ahmad & Khan [Phys. Status Solidi B (2000), 218, 425-430] avoids the unphysical assignment of interaction terms to fictitious entities given by spins in the Hägg coding of the stacking arrangement. In this paper an analysis of polytype generation and disorder in close-packed structures is made for such a Hamiltonian. Results are compared with a previous analysis using the Ising model. Computational mechanics is the framework under which the analysis is performed. The competing effects of disorder and structure, as given by entropy density and excess entropy, respectively, are discussed. It is argued that the Ahmad & Khan model is simpler and predicts a larger set of polytypes than previous treatments.

  15. Crystal structures of two bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene derivatives: similarities and differences in the crystal packing.

    PubMed

    McAdam, C John; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C; Simpson, Jim

    2015-12-01

    The isomeric derivatives 1,2-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene, (I), and 1,3-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene (II), both C8H8I2, were prepared by metathesis from their di-bromo analogues. The ortho-derivative, (I), lies about a crystallographic twofold axis that bis-ects the C-C bond between the two iodo-methyl substituents. The packing in (I) relies solely on C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds supported by weak parallel slipped π-π stacking inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 4.0569 (11) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3789 (8) Å and slippage = 2.245 Å]. While C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds are also found in the packing of (II), type II, I⋯I halogen bonds [I⋯I = 3.8662 (2) Å] and C-H⋯π contacts feature prominently in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure.

  16. Pushing the glass transition towards random close packing using self-propelled hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ran; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2013-10-01

    Although the concept of random close packing with an almost universal packing fraction of approximately 0.64 for hard spheres was introduced more than half a century ago, there are still ongoing debates. The main difficulty in searching the densest packing is that states with packing fractions beyond the glass transition at approximately 0.58 are inherently non-equilibrium systems, where the dynamics slows down with a structural relaxation time diverging with density; hence, the random close packing is inaccessible. Here we perform simulations of self-propelled hard spheres, and we find that with increasing activity the relaxation dynamics can be sped up by orders of magnitude. The glass transition shifts to higher packing fractions upon increasing the activity, allowing the study of sphere packings with fluid-like dynamics at packing fractions close to RCP. Our study opens new possibilities of investigating dense packings and the glass transition in systems of hard particles.

  17. Special Section on InterPACK 2017—Part 1

    DOE PAGES

    Mysore, Kaushik; Narumanchi, Sreekant; Dede, Ercan; ...

    2018-03-02

    InterPACK is a premier international forum for exchange of state-of-the-art knowledge in research, development, manufacturing, and applications of micro-electronics packaging. It is the flagship conference of the ASME Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division (EPPD) founded in 1992 as an ASME-JSME joint biannual conference. Rapid changes in the semiconductor landscape together with findings from InterPACK Pathfinding workshop (IPW) in 2016 led to a significant reset of InterPACK conference priorities and focus to comprehensively address needs of the InterPACK community. As a result, starting in 2017, InterPACK has become an annual conference and the scope of the conference has increased significantly togethermore » with a systems-focus to include some of the most cutting-edge topics in electronics packaging, device integration, and reliability. These topics are organized across five different tracks: (1) heterogeneous integration: microsystems with diverse functionality, (2) servers of the future, (3) structural and physical health monitoring, (4) energy conversion and storage, and (5) transportation: autonomous and electric vehicles.« less

  18. Special Section on InterPACK 2017—Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mysore, Kaushik; Narumanchi, Sreekant; Dede, Ercan

    InterPACK is a premier international forum for exchange of state-of-the-art knowledge in research, development, manufacturing, and applications of micro-electronics packaging. It is the flagship conference of the ASME Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division (EPPD) founded in 1992 as an ASME-JSME joint biannual conference. Rapid changes in the semiconductor landscape together with findings from InterPACK Pathfinding workshop (IPW) in 2016 led to a significant reset of InterPACK conference priorities and focus to comprehensively address needs of the InterPACK community. As a result, starting in 2017, InterPACK has become an annual conference and the scope of the conference has increased significantly togethermore » with a systems-focus to include some of the most cutting-edge topics in electronics packaging, device integration, and reliability. These topics are organized across five different tracks: (1) heterogeneous integration: microsystems with diverse functionality, (2) servers of the future, (3) structural and physical health monitoring, (4) energy conversion and storage, and (5) transportation: autonomous and electric vehicles.« less

  19. Structural transitions in electron beam deposited Co-carbonyl suspended nanowires at high electrical current densities.

    PubMed

    Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suspended nanowires (SNWs) have been deposited from Co-carbonyl precursor (Co2(CO)8) by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The SNWs dimensions are about 30-50 nm in diameter and 600-850 nm in length. The as-deposited material has a nanogranular structure of mixed face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) Co phases, and a composition of 80 atom % Co, 15 atom % O and 5 atom % C, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, respectively. Current (I)-voltage (V) measurements with current densities up to 10(7) A/cm(2) determine different structural transitions in the SNWs, depending on the I-V history. A single measurement with a sudden current burst leads to a polycrystalline FCC Co structure extended over the whole wire. Repeated measurements at increasing currents produce wires with a split structure: one half is polycrystalline FCC Co and the other half is graphitized C. The breakdown current density is found at 2.1 × 10(7) A/cm(2). The role played by resistive heating and electromigration in these transitions is discussed.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICITY MODEL USING NON ASSOCIATED FLOW RULE FOR HCP MATERIALS INCLUDING ZIRCONIUM FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael V. Glazoff; Jeong-Whan Yoon

    2013-08-01

    In this report (prepared in collaboration with Prof. Jeong Whan Yoon, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia) a research effort was made to develop a non associated flow rule for zirconium. Since Zr is a hexagonally close packed (hcp) material, it is impossible to describe its plastic response under arbitrary loading conditions with any associated flow rule (e.g. von Mises). As a result of strong tension compression asymmetry of the yield stress and anisotropy, zirconium displays plastic behavior that requires a more sophisticated approach. Consequently, a new general asymmetric yield function has been developed which accommodates mathematically the four directional anisotropies alongmore » 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and biaxial, under tension and compression. Stress anisotropy has been completely decoupled from the r value by using non associated flow plasticity, where yield function and plastic potential have been treated separately to take care of stress and r value directionalities, respectively. This theoretical development has been verified using Zr alloys at room temperature as an example as these materials have very strong SD (Strength Differential) effect. The proposed yield function reasonably well models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock rolled plate during in plane and through thickness compression. It has been found that this function can predict both tension and compression asymmetry mathematically without any numerical tolerance and shows the significant improvement compared to any reported functions. Finally, in the end of the report, a program of further research is outlined aimed at constructing tensorial relationships for the temperature and fluence dependent creep surfaces for Zr, Zircaloy 2, and Zircaloy 4.« less

  1. Close packing of rods on spherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    We study the optimal packing of short, hard spherocylinders confined to lie tangential to a spherical surface, using simulated annealing and molecular dynamics simulations. For clusters of up to twelve particles, we map out the changes in the geometry of the closest-packed configuration as a function of the aspect ratio L/D, where L is the cylinder length and D the diameter of the rods. We find a rich variety of cluster structures. For larger clusters, we find that the best-packed configurations up to around 100 particles are highly dependent on the exact number of particles and aspect ratio. For even larger clusters, we find largely disordered clusters for very short rods (L/D = 0.25), while slightly longer rods (L/D = 0.5 or 1) prefer a global baseball-like geometry of smectic-like domains, similar to the behavior of large-scale nematic shells. Intriguingly, we observe that when compared to their optimal flat-plane packing, short rods adapt to the spherical geometry more efficiently than both spheres and longer rods. Our results provide predictions for experimentally realizable systems of colloidal rods trapped at the interface of emulsion droplets.

  2. Cigarette pack design and adolescent smoking susceptibility: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford; Richardson, Sol; Hastings, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare adolescents’ responses to three different styles of cigarette packaging: novelty (branded packs designed with a distinctive shape, opening style or bright colour), regular (branded pack with no special design features) and plain (brown pack with a standard shape and opening and all branding removed, aside from brand name). Design Cross-sectional in-home survey. Setting UK. Participants Random location quota sample of 1025 never smokers aged 11–16 years. Main outcome measures Susceptibility to smoking and composite measures of pack appraisal and pack receptivity derived from 11 survey items. Results Mean responses to the three pack types were negative for all survey items. However, ‘novelty’ packs were rated significantly less negatively than the ‘regular’ pack on most items, and the novelty and regular packs were rated less negatively than the ‘plain’ pack. For the novelty packs, logistic regressions, controlling for factors known to influence youth smoking, showed that susceptibility was associated with positive appraisal and also receptivity. For example, those receptive to the innovative Silk Cut Superslims pack were more than four times as likely to be susceptible to smoking than those not receptive to this pack (AOR=4.42, 95% CI 2.50 to 7.81, p<0.001). For the regular pack, an association was found between positive appraisal and susceptibility but not with receptivity and susceptibility. There was no association with pack appraisal or receptivity for the plain pack. Conclusions Pack structure (shape and opening style) and colour are independently associated, not just with appreciation of and receptivity to the pack, but also with susceptibility to smoke. In other words, those who think most highly of novelty cigarette packaging are also the ones who indicate that they are most likely to go on to smoke. Plain packaging, in contrast, was found to directly reduce the appeal of smoking to adolescents. PMID:24056481

  3. Comparing the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sarsan, Ayşe; Akkaya, Nuray; Ozgen, Merih; Yildiz, Necmettin; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Ardic, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack therapies on patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed as a prospective, randomized-controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with clinical and radiologic evidence of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups and were treated with mature mud packs (n 15) or hot packs (n=12). Patients were evaluated for pain [based on the visual analog scale (VAS)], function (WOMAC, 6 min walking distance), quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 and 6~months after treatment. The mud pack group shows a significant improvement in VAS, pain, stifness, and physical function domains of WOMAC. The difference between groups of pain and physical activity domains is significant at post-treatment in favor of mud pack. For a 6 min walking distance, mud pack shows significant improvement, and the difference is significant between groups in favor of mud pack at post-treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Mud pack shows significant improvement in the pain subscale of SF-36 at the third month continuing until the sixth month after the treatment. Significant improvements are found for the social function, vitality/energy, physical role disability, and general health subscales of SF-36 in favor of the mud pack compared with the hot pack group at post-treatment. A significant increase is detected for IGF-1 in the mud pack group 3 months after treatment compared with the baseline, and the difference is significant between groups 3 months after the treatment. Mud pack is a favorable option compared with hotpack for pain relief and for the improvement of functional conditions in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of FeHx (x=0.25; 0.50; 0.75)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylushkin, A. S.; Skorodumova, N. V.; Ahuja, R.; Johansson, B.

    2006-05-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the FeHx (x=0.25; 0.50; 0.75) compounds have been studied using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We compare the hcp, dhcp and fcc structures and find that for the considered concentrations of hydrogen the hcp structure is most stable in a wide pressure range. The magnetic behavior of iron is crucially influenced by hydrogen. In particular, the local moment on a Fe atom depends on the number of hydrogen atoms in the atom surroundings. Iron atoms, which are crystallographically equivalent in their original structures (hcp, fcc) but have different number of hydrogen neighbors, are shown to have different local magnetic moments. This finding suggests that the experimental observations of two magnetic moments in iron hydride can be explained by nonstoichiometry of the hydride and might not be a direct evidence for the presence of the dhcp phase.

  5. Hollow Fibers Structured Packings in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation: Apparatus Scale-Up and Long-Term Stability

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Dali; Le, Loan; Martinez, Ronald; ...

    2013-06-21

    Following the conceptual demonstration of high separation efficiency and column capacity obtained in olefin/paraffin distillation using hollow fiber structured packings (HFSPs) in a bench scale (J. Membr. Sci.2006, 2007, and 2010), we scaled-up this process with a 10-fold increase in the internal flow rate and a 3-fold increase in the module length. We confirmed that the HFSPs technology gives high separation efficiency and column capacity in iso-/n-butane distillation for 18 months. We systematically investigated the effects of packing density, concentration of light component, reflux ratio, and module age on the separation efficiency and operating stability. The comprehensive characterizations using scanningmore » electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were carried out to probe the changes in the morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) hollow fibers over the aging process. Our results suggest that after a long-term exposure to light hydrocarbon environments at ≤70 °C the morphological and mechanical properties of the PP polymer do not degrade significantly in a propane/propylene and iso-/n-butane environment.« less

  6. Hard convex lens-shaped particles: Densest-known packings and phase behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cinacchi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.cinacchi@uam.es; Torquato, Salvatore, E-mail: torquato@princeton.edu

    2015-12-14

    By using theoretical methods and Monte Carlo simulations, this work investigates dense ordered packings and equilibrium phase behavior (from the low-density isotropic fluid regime to the high-density crystalline solid regime) of monodisperse systems of hard convex lens-shaped particles as defined by the volume common to two intersecting congruent spheres. We show that, while the overall similarity of their shape to that of hard oblate ellipsoids is reflected in a qualitatively similar phase diagram, differences are more pronounced in the high-density crystal phase up to the densest-known packings determined here. In contrast to those non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis crystals that are themore » densest-known packings of hard (oblate) ellipsoids, hard convex lens-shaped particles pack more densely in two types of degenerate crystalline structures: (i) non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis body-centered-orthorhombic-like crystals and (ii) (Bravais) lattice monoclinic crystals. By stacking at will, regularly or irregularly, laminae of these two crystals, infinitely degenerate, generally non-periodic in the stacking direction, dense packings can be constructed that are consistent with recent organizing principles. While deferring the assessment of which of these dense ordered structures is thermodynamically stable in the high-density crystalline solid regime, the degeneracy of their densest-known packings strongly suggests that colloidal convex lens-shaped particles could be better glass formers than colloidal spheres because of the additional rotational degrees of freedom.« less

  7. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on a Square Lattice

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Douglas, Shawn M.; Liu, Minghui; Sharma, Jaswinder; Cheng, Anchi; Leung, Albert; Liu, Yan; Shih, William M.; Yan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly using DNA as a structural building block has proven to be an efficient route to the construction of nanoscale objects and arrays of increasing complexity. Using the remarkable “scaffolded DNA origami” strategy, Rothemund demonstrated that a long single-stranded DNA from a viral genome (M13) can be folded into a variety of custom two-dimensional (2D) shapes using hundreds of short synthetic DNA molecules as staple strands. More recently, we generalized a strategy to build custom-shaped, three-dimensional (3D) objects formed as pleated layers of helices constrained to a honeycomb lattice, with precisely controlled dimensions ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Here we describe a more compact design for 3D origami, with layers of helices packed on a square lattice, that can be folded successfully into structures of designed dimensions in a one-step annealing process, despite the increased density of DNA helices. A square lattice provides a more natural framework for designing rectangular structures, the option for a more densely packed architecture, and the ability to create surfaces that are more flat than is possible with the honeycomb lattice. Thus enabling the design and construction of custom 3D shapes from helices packed on a square lattice provides a general foundational advance for increasing the versatility and scope of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:19807088

  8. Strong influence of off-site symmetry positions of hydrogen atoms in ScH3 hcp phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakornchote, T.; Bovornratanaraks, T.; Vannarat, S.; Pinsook, U.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the wave-like arrangements of H atoms around metal plane (Hm) in the ScH3 hcp phase by using the ab-initio method. We found that only P63 / mmc, P 3 bar c 1, P63cm and P63 phases are energetically favorable. The wave-like arrangement allows the off-site symmetry positions of the H atoms, and leads to substantial changes in the pair distribution between Sc and H atoms which are associating with the changes in the electronic structure in such a way that the total energy is lowering. The symmetry breaking from P63mmc is also responsible for the band gap opening. In the P63 structure, the calculated band gap is 0.823 eV and 1.223 eV using GGA and sX-LDA functionals, respectively. This band gap can be compared with 1.7 eV derived from the optical measurement and 1.55 eV from the HSE06 calculation. Thus, the broken symmetry structures can be viewed as Peierls distortion of the P63 / mmc structure. Furthermore, we found that only the P63 structure is dynamically stable, unlike YH3 where the P63cm structure is also stable. The stability of P63 comes from sufficiently strong interactions between two neighboring H atoms at their off-site symmetry positions, i.e. near the metal plane and near the tetragonal site. The P63 phonon density of states is in good agreement with the data from the neutron experiment.

  9. Maximally dense packings of two-dimensional convex and concave noncircular particles.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Steven; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    Dense packings of hard particles have important applications in many fields, including condensed matter physics, discrete geometry, and cell biology. In this paper, we employ a stochastic search implementation of the Torquato-Jiao adaptive-shrinking-cell (ASC) optimization scheme [Nature (London) 460, 876 (2009)] to find maximally dense particle packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space R(d). While the original implementation was designed to study spheres and convex polyhedra in d≥3, our implementation focuses on d=2 and extends the algorithm to include both concave polygons and certain complex convex or concave nonpolygonal particle shapes. We verify the robustness of this packing protocol by successfully reproducing the known putative optimal packings of congruent copies of regular pentagons and octagons, then employ it to suggest dense packing arrangements of congruent copies of certain families of concave crosses, convex and concave curved triangles (incorporating shapes resembling the Mercedes-Benz logo), and "moonlike" shapes. Analytical constructions are determined subsequently to obtain the densest known packings of these particle shapes. For the examples considered, we find that the densest packings of both convex and concave particles with central symmetry are achieved by their corresponding optimal Bravais lattice packings; for particles lacking central symmetry, the densest packings obtained are nonlattice periodic packings, which are consistent with recently-proposed general organizing principles for hard particles. Moreover, we find that the densest known packings of certain curved triangles are periodic with a four-particle basis, and we find that the densest known periodic packings of certain moonlike shapes possess no inherent symmetries. Our work adds to the growing evidence that particle shape can be used as a tuning parameter to achieve a diversity of packing structures.

  10. Maximally dense packings of two-dimensional convex and concave noncircular particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Steven; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    Dense packings of hard particles have important applications in many fields, including condensed matter physics, discrete geometry, and cell biology. In this paper, we employ a stochastic search implementation of the Torquato-Jiao adaptive-shrinking-cell (ASC) optimization scheme [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature08239 460, 876 (2009)] to find maximally dense particle packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space Rd. While the original implementation was designed to study spheres and convex polyhedra in d≥3, our implementation focuses on d=2 and extends the algorithm to include both concave polygons and certain complex convex or concave nonpolygonal particle shapes. We verify the robustness of this packing protocol by successfully reproducing the known putative optimal packings of congruent copies of regular pentagons and octagons, then employ it to suggest dense packing arrangements of congruent copies of certain families of concave crosses, convex and concave curved triangles (incorporating shapes resembling the Mercedes-Benz logo), and “moonlike” shapes. Analytical constructions are determined subsequently to obtain the densest known packings of these particle shapes. For the examples considered, we find that the densest packings of both convex and concave particles with central symmetry are achieved by their corresponding optimal Bravais lattice packings; for particles lacking central symmetry, the densest packings obtained are nonlattice periodic packings, which are consistent with recently-proposed general organizing principles for hard particles. Moreover, we find that the densest known packings of certain curved triangles are periodic with a four-particle basis, and we find that the densest known periodic packings of certain moonlike shapes possess no inherent symmetries. Our work adds to the growing evidence that particle shape can be used as a tuning parameter to achieve a diversity of packing structures.

  11. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing

    PubMed Central

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X. PMID:26085707

  12. Evolutions of lamellar structure during melting and solidification of Fe9577 nanoparticle from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongquan; Shen, Tong; Lu, Xionggang

    2013-03-01

    A structural evolution during solidification and melting processes of nanoparticle Fe9577 was investigated from MD simulations. A perfect lamellar structure, consisting alternately of fcc and hcp layers, was obtained from solidification process. A structural heredity of early embryo is proposed to explain the structural preference of solidification. Defects were found inside the solid core and play the same role as surface premelting on melting. hcp was found more stable than fcc in high temperature. The difference between melting and solidification points can be deduced coming fully from the overcoming of thermodynamic energy barrier, instead of kinetic delay of structural relaxation.

  13. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and... that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which they are packed, and that...

  14. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and... that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which they are packed, and that...

  15. American Spirit Pack Descriptors and Perceptions of Harm: A Crowdsourced Comparison of Modified Packs.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Feirman, Shari P; Villanti, Andrea C; Cantrell, Jennifer; Cohn, Amy; Tacelosky, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued warnings to three tobacco manufacturers who label their cigarettes as "additive-free" and/or "natural" on the grounds that they make unauthorized reduced risk claims. The goal of this study was to examine US adults' perceptions of three American Spirit (AS) pack descriptors ("Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," and "100% US Grown Tobacco") to assess if they communicate reduced risk. In September 2012, three cross-sectional surveys were posted on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Adult participants evaluated the relative harm of a Marlboro Red pack versus three different AS packs with the descriptors "Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," or "100% US Grown Tobacco" (Survey 1; n = 461); a Marlboro Red pack versus these AS packs modified to exclude descriptors (Survey 2; n = 857); and unmodified versus modified AS pack images (Survey 3; n = 1001). The majority of Survey 1 participants rated the unmodified AS packs as less harmful than the Marlboro Red pack; 35.4%-58.8% of Survey 2 participants also rated the modified (no claims) packs as less harmful than Marlboro Red. In these surveys, prior use of AS cigarettes was associated with reduced perceptions of risk (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.59-2.40). "Made with Organic Tobacco" and "100% Additive-Free" were associated with reduced perceptions of risk when comparing the modified versus the unmodified AS packs (Survey 3). Data suggest that these AS pack descriptors communicate reduced harm messages to consumers. Findings have implications for regulatory actions related to product labeling and packaging. These findings provide additional evidence that the "Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," and "100% US Grown" descriptors, as well as other aspects of the AS pack design, communicate reduced harm to non-, current, and former smokers. Additionally, they provide support for the importance of FDA's 2015 warning to Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company on

  16. DEM simulation of dendritic grain random packing: application to metal alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedilla, Antonio; Založnik, Miha; Combeau, Hervé

    2017-06-01

    The random packing of equiaxed dendritic grains in metal-alloy solidification is numerically simulated and validated via an experimental model. This phenomenon is characterized by a driving force which is induced by the solid-liquid density difference. Thereby, the solid dendritic grains, nucleated in the melt, sediment and pack with a relatively low inertia-to-dissipation ratio, which is the so-called Stokes number. The characteristics of the particle packed porous structure such as solid packing fraction affect the final solidified product. A multi-sphere clumping Discrete Element Method (DEM) approach is employed to predict the solid packing fraction as function of the grain geometry under the solidification conditions. Five different monodisperse noncohesive frictionless particle collections are numerically packed by means of a vertical acceleration: a) three dendritic morphologies; b) spheres and c) one ellipsoidal geometry. In order to validate our numerical results with solidification conditions, the sedimentation and packing of two monodisperse collections (spherical and dendritic) is experimentally carried out in a viscous quiescent medium. The hydrodynamic similarity is respected between the actual phenomenon and the experimental model, that is a low Stokes number, o(10-3). In this way, the experimental average solid packing fraction is employed to validate the numerical model. Eventually, the average packing fraction is found to highly depend on the equiaxed dendritic grain sphericity, with looser packings for lower sphericity.

  17. Static compression of Fe 0.83Ni 0.09Si 0.08 alloy to 374 GPa and Fe 0.93Si 0.07 alloy to 252 GPa: Implications for the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Hidetoshi; Ohtani, Eiji; Sakai, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hidenori; Kamada, Seiji; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2011-10-01

    The pressure-volume equations of state of iron-nickel-silicon alloy Fe 0.83Ni 0.09Si 0.08 (Fe-9.8 wt.% Ni-4.0 wt.% Si) and iron-silicon alloy Fe 0.93Si 0.07 (Fe-3.4 wt.% Si) have been investigated up to 374 GPa and 252 GPa, respectively. The present compression data covered pressures of the Earth's core. We confirmed that both Fe 0.83Ni 0.09Si 0.08 and Fe 0.93Si 0.07 alloys remain in the hexagonal close packed structure at all pressures studied. We obtained the density of these alloys at the pressure of the inner core boundary (ICB), 330 GPa at 300 K by fitting the compression data to the third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Using these density values combined with the previous data for hcp-Fe, hcp-Fe 0.8Ni 0.2, and hcp-Fe 0.84Si 0.16 alloys and comparing with the density of the PREM inner core, we estimated the Ni and Si contents of the inner core. The Si content of the inner core estimated here is slightly greater than that estimated previously based on the sound velocity measurement of the hcp-Fe-Ni-Si alloy at high pressure.

  18. Pre-melting hcp to bcc Transition in Beryllium: A Study by First-Principles Phonon Quasiparticle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. B., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Beryllium (Be) is an important material with wide applications ranging from aerospace components to X-ray equipments. Yet a precise understanding of its phase diagram remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticles. We find that the hcp to bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0

  19. Guest Editorial: Special Section on InterPACK 2017 - Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, Sreekant V; Mysore, Kaushik; Dede, Ercan

    InterPACK is a premier international forum for exchange of state-of-the-art knowledge in research, development, manufacturing, and applications of micro-electronics packaging. It is the flagship conference of the ASME Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division (EPPD) founded in 1992 as an ASME-JSME joint biannual conference. Rapid changes in the semiconductor landscape together with findings from InterPACK Pathfinding workshop (IPW) in 2016 led to a significant reset of InterPACK conference priorities and focus to comprehensively address needs of the InterPACK community. As a result, starting in 2017, InterPACK has become an annual conference and the scope of the conference has increased significantly togethermore » with a systems-focus to include some of the most cutting-edge topics in electronics packaging, device integration, and reliability. These topics are organized across five different tracks: (1) heterogeneous integration: microsystems with diverse functionality, (2) servers of the future, (3) structural and physical health monitoring, (4) energy conversion and storage, and (5) transportation: autonomous and electric vehicles.« less

  20. A fungal biofilm reactor based on metal structured packing improves the quality of a Gla::GFP fusion protein produced by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zune, Q; Delepierre, A; Gofflot, S; Bauwens, J; Twizere, J C; Punt, P J; Francis, F; Toye, D; Bawin, T; Delvigne, F

    2015-08-01

    Fungal biofilm is known to promote the excretion of secondary metabolites in accordance with solid-state-related physiological mechanisms. This work is based on the comparative analysis of classical submerged fermentation with a fungal biofilm reactor for the production of a Gla::green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein by Aspergillus oryzae. The biofilm reactor comprises a metal structured packing allowing the attachment of the fungal biomass. Since the production of the target protein is under the control of the promoter glaB, specifically induced in solid-state fermentation, the biofilm mode of culture is expected to enhance the global productivity. Although production of the target protein was enhanced by using the biofilm mode of culture, we also found that fusion protein production is also significant when the submerged mode of culture is used. This result is related to high shear stress leading to biomass autolysis and leakage of intracellular fusion protein into the extracellular medium. Moreover, 2-D gel electrophoresis highlights the preservation of fusion protein integrity produced in biofilm conditions. Two fungal biofilm reactor designs were then investigated further, i.e. with full immersion of the packing or with medium recirculation on the packing, and the scale-up potentialities were evaluated. In this context, it has been shown that full immersion of the metal packing in the liquid medium during cultivation allows for a uniform colonization of the packing by the fungal biomass and leads to a better quality of the fusion protein.

  1. Refining the chemical composition of the inner core with multicomponent alloys: from first-principles to thermodynamics and seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracas, R.; Asimow, P. D.; Wolf, A. S.; Harvey, J. P.; Martin, A.; Torrent, M.

    2015-12-01

    We compute the solubility limits of Si in the hexagonal-close packed (hcp) phase of iron using standard thermodynamical treatment of solid solutions with data obtained from first-principles calculations. For this, we consider the system with end-members hcp Fe and the B2 phase of FeSi. Si and Fe enter both structures in substitution of one another. The system is characterized by an immiscibility gap, which according to our results widens with pressure. At core conditions about 5 wt.% Si can be dissolved into the hcp phase of Fe. Comparatively there is much more Fe that can enter the FeSi B2 phase. In a second step we start with the hcp Fe-Si alloys and add the most probable light elements found in the core: H, C, O, and S. The light elements can enter the hcp structure either as interstitial impurities, in case of H, C, O, or in substitution of Fe, in case of S. We consider several insertion patterns with the light elements both adjacent and far apart. For each of these new phases we compute the elastic constants tensors and the seismic properties. Based on our theoretical results and the comparisons with PREM we discuss in detail the possible composition of the Earth's inner core, we rule out certain light elements, like H, and we show that the distribution pattern is not important. This is also the first time the elastic constants tensor is computed from lattice dynamics using the response function in the Planar Augmented Wavefunction approach of the Density Functional Theory [1]. [1] A. Martin, M. Torrent, R. Caracas, submitted (2015); A. Martin, PhD thesis (2015).

  2. PCR detection of psychrophilic Clostridium spp. causing 'blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats.

    PubMed

    Broda, D M; Boerema, J A; Bell, R G

    2003-01-01

    To develop a practical molecular procedure that directly, without isolation, and specifically detects the presence of clostridia which cause 'blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed meat. Primer sets and PCR amplification procedures were developed that detect the presence of 16S rDNA gene and/or 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer fragments of 'blown pack' causing clostridia in meat. The specificity of the developed procedures was evaluated with DNA obtained from close phylogenetic neighbours of 'blown pack' causing clostridia, food clostridia and common meat spoilage microorganisms. The sensitivity of detection was assessed in non-enriched and low-temperature-enriched beef mince inoculated with serially diluted pure cultures of Clostridium estertheticum DSMZ 8809T and Cl. gasigenes DB1AT. The efficacy of detection procedures was evaluated for naturally contaminated vacuum-packed meat samples. Three primer sets, 16SE, 16SDB and EISR, produced amplicons of the expected size with DNA templates from target clostridia, but failed to yield PCR products with DNAs from any other microorganisms tested. With 16SE and 16SDB primers, minimum levels of detection were 104 CFU g(-1) for non-enriched, and 102 CFU g(-1) for enriched meat samples. Based on the established specificity of these primers, as well as DNA sequencing of amplicons, Cl. gasigenes was confirmed as the causative agent of 'blown pack' spoilage in two packs, and Cl. estertheticum as the causative agent in the third. The developed method can be used for rapid detection of 'blown pack' causing clostridia in commercial blown packs, or following low temperature enrichment, for detection of these microorganisms in meat containing as few as 100 clostridial cells per gram. The paper reports practical procedures that can be used for rapid confirmation of the causative agents of clostridial 'blown pack' spoilage in commercial spoiled packs, or for detection of psychrophilic clostridia in epidemiological trace back of

  3. Using atomic layer deposited tungsten to increase thermal conductivity of a packed bed

    DOE PAGES

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Sain, John D.; ...

    2015-04-13

    This paper investigated the effective thermal conductivity (k eff) of packed-beds that contained porous particles with nanoscale tungsten (W) films of different thicknesses formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). A continuous film on the particles is vital towards increasing k eff of the packed beds. For example, the keff of an alumina packed bed was increased by three times after an ~8-nm continuous W film with 20 cycles of W ALD, whereas k eff was decreased on a polymer packed bed with discontinuous, evenly dispersed W-islands due to nanoparticle scattering of phonons. For catalysts, understanding the thermal properties of thesemore » packed beds is essential for developing thermally conductive supports as alternatives to structured supports.« less

  4. Consideration of grain packing in granular iron treatability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, R.; Devlin, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    Commercial granular iron (GI) is light steel that is used in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs). Investigations into the reactivity of GI have focused on its chemical nature and relatively little direct work has been done to account for the effects of grain shape and packing. Both of these factors are expected to influence available grain surface area, which is known to correlate to reactivity. Commercial granular iron grains are platy and therefore pack in preferential orientations that could affect solution access to the surface. Three packing variations were investigated using Connelly Iron and trichloroethylene (TCE). Experimental kinetic data showed reaction rates 2-4 times higher when grains were packed with long axes preferentially parallel to flow (VP) compared to packings with long axes preferentially perpendicular to flow (HP) or randomly arranged (RP). The variations were found to be explainable by variations in reactive sorption capacities, i.e., sorption to sites where chemical transformations took place. The possibility that the different reactive sorption capacities were related to physical pore-scale differences was assessed by conducting an image analysis of the pore structure of sectioned columns. The analyses suggested that pore-scale factors - in particular the grain surface availability, reflected in the sorption capacity terms of the kinetic model used - could only account for a fraction of the observed reactivity differences between packing types. It is concluded that packing does affect observable reaction rates but that micro-scale features on the grain surfaces, rather than the pore scale characteristics, account for most of the apparent reactivity differences. This result suggests that treatability tests should consider the packing of columns carefully if they are to mimic field performance of PRBs to the greatest extent possible.

  5. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing

    PubMed Central

    Ebeida, Mohamed S.; Rushdi, Ahmad A.; Awad, Muhammad A.; Mahmoud, Ahmed H.; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A.; Owens, John D.; Bajaj, Chandrajit L.; Mitchell, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations. PMID:27563162

  6. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing.

    PubMed

    Ebeida, Mohamed S; Rushdi, Ahmad A; Awad, Muhammad A; Mahmoud, Ahmed H; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A; Owens, John D; Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Mitchell, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations.

  7. Augmented neural networks and problem structure-based heuristics for the bin-packing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasap, Nihat; Agarwal, Anurag

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we report on a research project where we applied augmented-neural-networks (AugNNs) approach for solving the classical bin-packing problem (BPP). AugNN is a metaheuristic that combines a priority rule heuristic with the iterative search approach of neural networks to generate good solutions fast. This is the first time this approach has been applied to the BPP. We also propose a decomposition approach for solving harder BPP, in which subproblems are solved using a combination of AugNN approach and heuristics that exploit the problem structure. We discuss the characteristics of problems on which such problem structure-based heuristics could be applied. We empirically show the effectiveness of the AugNN and the decomposition approach on many benchmark problems in the literature. For the 1210 benchmark problems tested, 917 problems were solved to optimality and the average gap between the obtained solution and the upper bound for all the problems was reduced to under 0.66% and computation time averaged below 33 s per problem. We also discuss the computational complexity of our approach.

  8. Spatial correlations in polydisperse, frictionless, two-dimensional packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donovan, C. B.; Möbius, M. E.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate next-nearest-neighbor correlations of the contact number in simulations of polydisperse, frictionless packings in two dimensions. We find that disks with few contacting neighbors are predominantly in contact with disks that have many neighbors and vice versa at all packing fractions. This counterintuitive result can be explained by drawing a direct analogy to the Aboav-Weaire law in cellular structures. We find an empirical one parameter relation similar to the Aboav-Weaire law that satisfies an exact sum rule constraint. Surprisingly, there are no correlations in the radii between neighboring particles, despite correlations between contact number and radius.

  9. Strong cooperative effect of oppositely charged surfactant mixtures on their adsorption and packing at the air-water interface and interfacial water structure.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khoi T; Nguyen, Tuan D; Nguyen, Anh V

    2014-06-24

    Remarkable adsorption enhancement and packing of dilute mixtures of water-soluble oppositely-charged surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH), at the air-water interface were observed by using sum frequency generation spectroscopy and tensiometry. The interfacial water structure was also observed to be significantly influenced by the SDS-DAH mixtures, differently from the synergy of the single surfactants. Most strikingly, the obtained spectroscopic evidence suggests that the interfacial hydrophobic alkyl chains of the binary mixtures assemble differently from those of single surfactants. This study highlights the significance of the cooperative interaction between the headgroups of oppositely charged binary surfactant systems and subsequently provides some insightful observations about the molecular structure of the air-aqueous interfacial water molecules and, more importantly, about the packing nature of the surfactant hydrophobic chains of dilute SDS-DAH mixtures of concentration below 1% of the CMC.

  10. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We also find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yetmore » all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Furthermore, our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.« less

  11. Spherical shock-wave propagation in three-dimensional granular packings.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kun; Bai, Chun-Hua

    2011-02-01

    We investigate numerically the spherical shock-wave propagation in an open dense granular packing perturbed by the sudden expansion of a spherical intruder in the interior of the pack, focusing on the correlation between geometrical fabrics and propagating properties. The measurements of the temporal and spatial variations in a variety of propagating properties define a consistent serrated wave substructure with characteristic length on the orders of particle diameters. Further inspection of particle packing reveals a well-defined particle layering that persists several particle diameters away from the intruder, although its dominant effects are only within one to two diameters. This interface-induced layering not only exactly coincides with the serrated wave profile, but also highlights the competition between two energy transmission mechanisms involving distinct transport speeds. The alternating dominances between these two mechanisms contribute to the nonlinear wave propagation on the particle scale. Moreover, the proliferation of intricate three-dimensional contact force networks suggests the anisotropic stress transmission, which is found to also arise from the localized packing structure in the vicinity of the intruder.

  12. Career Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Robert E.; Raymond, Carolyn D.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials for ninth and tenth graders (and more able sixth and seventh graders) have incorporated ideas around three career development goals--subject relevance, career awareness, and self-awareness. The action pack contains six units--three units each in the subject areas of language arts…

  13. Fully Dynamic Bin Packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivković, Zoran; Lloyd, Errol L.

    Classic bin packing seeks to pack a given set of items of possibly varying sizes into a minimum number of identical sized bins. A number of approximation algorithms have been proposed for this NP-hard problem for both the on-line and off-line cases. In this chapter we discuss fully dynamic bin packing, where items may arrive (Insert) and depart (Delete) dynamically. In accordance with standard practice for fully dynamic algorithms, it is assumed that the packing may be arbitrarily rearranged to accommodate arriving and departing items. The goal is to maintain an approximately optimal solution of provably high quality in a total amount of time comparable to that used by an off-line algorithm delivering a solution of the same quality.

  14. Using atomic layer deposited tungsten to increase thermal conductivity of a packed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Falconer, John L.; Weimer, Alan W., E-mail: alan.weimer@colorado.edu

    2015-04-13

    This study investigated the effective thermal conductivity (k{sub eff}) of packed-beds that contained porous particles with nanoscale tungsten (W) films of different thicknesses formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). A continuous film on the particles is vital towards increasing k{sub eff} of the packed beds. For example, the k{sub eff} of an alumina packed bed was increased by three times after an ∼8-nm continuous W film with 20 cycles of W ALD, whereas k{sub eff} was decreased on a polymer packed bed with discontinuous, evenly dispersed W-islands due to nanoparticle scattering of phonons. For catalysts, understanding the thermal properties ofmore » these packed beds is essential for developing thermally conductive supports as alternatives to structured supports.« less

  15. Preparation of nose for nasal endoscopy: cotton pledget packing versus topical spray. A prospective randomized blinded study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prasun; Kaushik, Maitri; Dehadaray, Arun; Qadri, Haris; Raichurkar, Annapurna; Seth, Tanvi

    2013-01-01

    During nasal endoscopy it is essential to have proper visualization of structures with minimal discomfort to patient and surgeon. For this it is essential that the nose is well prepared before the procedure. The main objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the efficacy of cotton pledget packing versus topical sprays in preparation of nose for nasal endoscopy. The method includes prospective randomized blinded study on 100 patients. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In first group the nose was packed with 4% lignocaine with xylometazoline nasal drops and in the other group it was prepared with 10% lignocaine topical spray and xylometazoline nose drops. Following the procedure, patient and the surgeon were asked a pre-formed questionnaire to know their experience during endoscopy. It was observed the packing group required more preparatory time as compared to the spray group. The group which was packed had less discomfort, less pain while endoscopy. The visualization of structures was significantly better in the packed group. Eight patients in the packed group did have some mucosal bleed during the process of packing which was not seen in the spray group. Both methods of preparation have merits and demerits but in terms of discomfort, pain during procedure and visualization of structure, packing of nasal cavity with 4% lignocaine and xylometazoline drops is better than spraying of nose with 10% lignocaine and xylometazoline drops.

  16. First-principles theory of iron up to earth-core pressures: Structural, vibrational, and elastic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Soederlind, P.; Moriarty, J.A.; Wills, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    {ital Ab} {ital initio} electronic-structure calculations, based on density-functional theory and a full-potential linear-muffin-tin-orbital method, have been used to predict crystal-structure phase stabilities, elastic constants, and Brillouin-zone-boundary phonons for iron under compression. Total energies for five crystal structures, bcc, fcc, bct, hcp, and dhcp, have been calculated over a wide volume range. In agreement with experiment and previous theoretical calculations, a magnetic bcc ground state is obtained at ambient pressure and a nonmagnetic hcp ground state is found at high pressure, with a predicted bcc {r_arrow} hcp phase transition at about 10 GPa. Also in agreement with very recent diamond-anvil-cellmore » experiments, a metastable dhcp phase is found at high pressure, which remains magnetic and consequently accessible at high temperature up to about 50 GPa. In addition, the bcc structure becomes mechanically unstable at pressures above 2 Mbar (200 GPa) and a metastable, but still magnetic, bct phase ({ital c}/{ital a} {approx_equal} 0.875) develops. For high-pressure nonmagnetic iron, fcc and hcp elastic constants and fcc phonon frequencies have been calculated to above 4 Mbar. These quantities rise smoothly with pressure, but an increasing tendency towards elastic anisotropy as a function of compression is observed, and this has important implications for the solid inner-core of the earth. The fcc elastic-constant and phonon data have also been used in combination with generalized pseudopotential theory to develop many-body interatomic potentials, from which high-temperature thermodynamic properties and melting can be obtained. In this paper, these potentials have been used to calculate full fcc and hcp phonon spectra and corresponding Debye temperatures as a function of compression. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}« less

  17. Nanoscale characterization of local structures and defects in photonic crystals using synchrotron-based transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nho, Hyun Woo; Kalegowda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    For the structural characterization of the polystyrene (PS)-based photonic crystals (PCs), fast and direct imaging capabilities of full field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) were demonstrated at soft X-ray energy. PS-based PCs were prepared on an O2-plasma treated Si3N4 window and their local structures and defects were investigated using this label-free TXM technique with an image acquisition speed of ~10 sec/frame and marginal radiation damage. Micro-domains of face-centered cubic (FCC (111)) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP (0001)) structures were dominantly found in PS-based PCs, while point and line defects, FCC (100), and 12-fold symmetry structures were also identified as minor components. Additionally, in situ observation capability for hydrated samples and 3D tomographic reconstruction of TXM images were also demonstrated. This soft X-ray full field TXM technique with faster image acquisition speed, in situ observation, and 3D tomography capability can be complementally used with the other X-ray microscopic techniques (i.e., scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, STXM) as well as conventional characterization methods (e.g., electron microscopic and optical/fluorescence microscopic techniques) for clearer structure identification of self-assembled PCs and better understanding of the relationship between their structures and resultant optical properties. PMID:27087141

  18. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  19. Electrocauterization and no packing may be comparable with nasal packing for postoperative hemorrhage after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2016-05-01

    Nasal packing is commonly performed after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). However, nasal packing is associated with higher cost (owing to the cost of packing materials), patient discomfort, delayed wound healing, and concern about toxic shock syndrome. Some surgeons have been performing FESS without packing, but there are few studies that show its safety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of electrocauterization and no packing. A total of 490 patients who underwent bilateral FESS for chronic rhinosinusitis were included in this retrospective study, 242 in the nasal packing group and 248 in the electrocauterization and no-packing group. Electrocauterization was performed by using a suction coagulator. Rates of immediate (first 24 hours after surgery) and delayed postoperative bleeding were compared. Patient characteristics, including concomitant disease and medication history, and Lund-Mackay computed tomography score were also assessed Results: There were no significant differences in age; sex; Lund-Mackay score; use of anticoagulant drugs; or prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, or asthma between the two groups. In the electrocauterization and no-packing group, there were fewer patients with allergic rhinitis and more smokers. Primary bleeding did not occur in the nasal packing group, but 11 patients (4.4%) had delayed bleeding. Primary bleeding occurred in four patients (1.7%) in the electrocauterization and no-packing group, and five patients (2.1%) had delayed bleeding. There were no significant differences in primary (p = 0.058) and secondary bleeding (p = 0.142) between the two groups. All bleeding was minor and easily controlled. Multivariate logistic regression analysis ruled out significant correlation between no packing and postoperative bleeding. This study provided evidence that, in terms of postoperative hemorrhage, the safety of the electrocauterization and no-packing technique after FESS was comparable with that of

  20. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged.... 3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which...

  1. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged.... 3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which...

  2. 7 CFR 966.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.11 Pack. Pack means any of the packs of tomatoes as defined and set forth in the United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes issued by the United States Department of Agriculture (§§ 51...

  3. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  4. Molecular Packing of Amphiphilic Nanosheets Resolved by X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Harutyunyan, Boris; Dannenhoffer, Adam; Kewalramani, Sumit

    2016-12-29

    Molecular packing in light harvesting 2D assemblies of photocatalytic materials is a critical factor for solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency. However, structure–function correlations have yet to be fully established. This is partly due to the difficulties in extracting the molecular arrangements from the complex 3D powder averaged diffraction patterns of 2D lattices, obtained via in situ wide-angle X-ray scattering. Here, we develop a scattering theory formalism and couple it with a simple geometrical model for the molecular shape of chromophore 9-methoxy-N-(sodium hexanoate)perylene-3,4-dicarboximide (MeO-PMI) used in our study. This generally applicable method fully reproduces the measured diffraction pattern including the asymmetric line shapesmore » for the Bragg reflections and yields the molecular packing arrangement within a 2D crystal structure with a remarkable degree of detail. We find an approximate edge-centered herringbone structure for the PMI fused aromatic rings and ordering of the carboxypentyl chains above and below the nanosheets. Such a packing arrangement differs from the more symmetric face-to-face orientation of the unsubstituted PMI rings. This structural difference is correlated to our measurement of the reduced catalytic performance of MeO-PMI nanosheets as compared to the mesoscopically similar unsubstituted PMI assemblies.« less

  5. Nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in nnewi, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Ef; Onubogu, Cu; Edokwe, Es; Okeke, Kn

    2014-07-01

    Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school-age children. The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1018 primary 1-6 pupils selected by stratified systematic random sampling from six primary schools, two each of private, - mission, - and government (public) - owned schools in Nnewi metropolis with the aid of the semi-structured questionnaire. Lunch packs of the pupils were examined. Majority of the pupils (77.8% [792/1018]) had lunch packs although about half of pupils in public schools had no lunch pack. Only 12.4% (98/792) and 19.2% (152/792) of pupils with lunch packs had balanced meals and fruits/vegetables in their lunch packs, respectively. The odds of not coming to school with packed lunch was about 13 and 12 times higher for mothers with no formal education or only primary education, respectively, compared with those with tertiary education. Type of school had a strong influence on possession and contents of lunch pack (χ(2) = 2.88, P < 0.001, phi coefficient = 0.72). Pupils in private (97.5% [198/203]) and mission (94.4% [388/411]) schools were more likely to have a lunch pack compared with public schools (51.0% [206/404]). However, pupils in private schools were most likely to have a balanced meal (32.5% [66/203] vs. 5.8% [24/411] in mission and 2.0% [8/404] in public schools) and fruits/vegetables (48.3% [98/203] vs. 10.2% [42/411] in mission and 3.0% [12/404] in public schools) in their lunch packs. Mothers' educational status and parents' occupation were significantly associated with lunch pack contents. Majority of the lunch packs of primary school pupils contain poor quality food especially in public schools. Mother's educational status and parent's occupation are important

  6. TLC Pack Unpacked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, Margret; Colpaert, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    TLC Pack stands for Teaching Languages to Caregivers and is a course designed to support migrants working or hoping to work in the caregiving sector. The TLC Pack resources range from A2 to B2 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), and will be made available online in the six project languages: Dutch, English,…

  7. Packing of sidechains in low-resolution models for proteins.

    PubMed

    Keskin, O; Bahar, I

    1998-01-01

    Atomic level rotamer libraries for sidechains in proteins have been proposed by several groups. Conformations of side groups in coarse-grained models, on the other hand, have not yet been analyzed, although low resolution approaches are the only efficient way to explore global structural features. A residue-specific backbone-dependent library for sidechain isomers, compatible with a coarse-grained model, is proposed. The isomeric states are utilized in packing sidechains of known backbone structures. Sidechain positions are predicted with a root-mean-square deviation (r.m.s.d.) of 2.40 A with respect to crystal structure for 50 test proteins. The rmsd for core residues is 1.60 A and decreases to 1.35 A when conformational correlations and directional effects in inter-residue couplings are considered. An automated method for assigning sidechain positions in coarse-grained model proteins is proposed and made available on the internet; the method accounts satisfactorily for sidechain packing, particularly in the core.

  8. Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with tetrahedrally close-packed structure

    SciTech Connect

    Reinelt, Douglas A.; Kraynik, Andrew M.

    2000-05-01

    The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to quasistatic, simple shearing flow is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by using the Surface Evolver to calculate foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3}, where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometry and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations thatmore » violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new structure associated with each stable solution branch results from an avalanche of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization. (c) 2000 Society of Rheology.« less

  9. Characterization of maximally random jammed sphere packings. III. Transport and electromagnetic properties via correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, Michael A.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    In the first two papers of this series, we characterized the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales by computing a variety of different correlation functions, spectral functions, hole probabilities, and local density fluctuations. From the remarkable structural features of the MRJ packings, especially its disordered hyperuniformity, exceptional physical properties can be expected. Here we employ these structural descriptors to estimate effective transport and electromagnetic properties via rigorous bounds, exact expansions, and accurate analytical approximation formulas. These property formulas include interfacial bounds as well as universal scaling laws for the mean survival time and the fluid permeability. We also estimate the principal relaxation time associated with Brownian motion among perfectly absorbing traps. For the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the long-wavelength limit, we show that a dispersion of dielectric MRJ spheres within a matrix of another dielectric material forms, to a very good approximation, a dissipationless disordered and isotropic two-phase medium for any phase dielectric contrast ratio. We compare the effective properties of the MRJ sphere packings to those of overlapping spheres, equilibrium hard-sphere packings, and lattices of hard spheres. Moreover, we generalize results to micro- and macroscopically anisotropic packings of spheroids with tensorial effective properties. The analytic bounds predict the qualitative trend in the physical properties associated with these structures, which provides guidance to more time-consuming simulations and experiments. They especially provide impetus for experiments to design materials with unique bulk properties resulting from hyperuniformity, including structural-color and color-sensing applications.

  10. Calculations of and evidence for chain packing stress in inverse lyotropic bicontinuous cubic phases.

    PubMed

    Shearman, Gemma C; Khoo, Bee J; Motherwell, Mary-Lynn; Brakke, Kenneth A; Ces, Oscar; Conn, Charlotte E; Seddon, John M; Templer, Richard H

    2007-06-19

    Inverse bicontinuous cubic lyotropic phases are a complex solution to the dilemma faced by all self-assembled water-amphiphile systems: how to satisfy the incompatible requirements for uniform interfacial curvature and uniform molecular packing. The solution reached in this case is for the water-amphiphile interfaces to deform hyperbolically onto triply periodic minimal surfaces. We have previously suggested that although the molecular packing in these structures is rather uniform the relative phase behavior of the gyroid, double diamond, and primitive inverse bicontinuous cubic phases can be understood in terms of subtle differences in packing frustration. In this work, we have calculated the packing frustration for these cubics under the constraint that their interfaces have constant mean curvature. We find that the relative packing stress does indeed differ between phases. The gyroid cubic has the least packing stress, and at low water volume fraction, the primitive cubic has the greatest packing stress. However, at very high water volume fraction, the double diamond cubic becomes the structure with the greatest packing stress. We have tested the model in two ways. For a system with a double diamond cubic phase in excess water, the addition of a hydrophobe may release packing frustration and preferentially stabilize the primitive cubic, since this has previously been shown to have lower curvature elastic energy. We have confirmed this prediction by adding the long chain alkane tricosane to 1-monoolein in excess water. The model also predicts that if one were able to hydrate the double diamond cubic to high water volume fractions, one should destabilize the phase with respect to the primitive cubic. We have found that such highly swollen metastable bicontinuous cubic phases can be formed within onion vesicles. Data from monoelaidin in excess water display a well-defined transition, with the primitive cubic appearing above a water volume fraction of 0.75. Both of

  11. Two-Dimensional Model of Scrolled Packings of Molecular Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, A. V.; Mazo, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    A simplified model of the in-plane molecular chain, allowing the description of folded and scrolled packings of molecular nanoribbons of different structures, is proposed. Using this model, possible steady states of single-layer nanoribbons scrolls of graphene, graphane, fluorographene, and fluorographane (graphene hydrogenated on the one side and fluorinated on the other side) are obtained. Their stability is demonstrated and their energy is calculated as a function of the nanoribbon length. It is shown that the scrolled packing is the most energetically favorable nanoribbon conformation at long lengths. The existences of scrolled packings for fluorographene nanoribbons and the existence of two different scroll types corresponding to left- and right-hand Archimedean spirals for fluorographane nanoribbons in the chain model are shown for the first time. The simplicity of the proposed model makes it possible to consider the dynamics of scrolls of rather long molecular nanoribbons at long enough time intervals.

  12. Computational study of packing a collagen-like molecule: quasi-hexagonal vs "Smith" collagen microfibril model.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Scheraga, H A; Rackovsky, S

    1996-01-01

    The lateral packing of a collagen-like molecule, CH3CO-(Gly-L-Pro-L-Pro)4-NHCH3, has been examined by energy minimization with the ECEPP/3 force field. Two current packing models, the Smith collagen microfibril twisted equilateral pentagonal model and the quasi-hexagonal packing model, have been extensively investigated. In treating the Smith microfibril model, energy minimization was carried out on various conformations including those with the symmetry of equivalent packing, i.e., in which the triple helices were arranged equivalently with respect to each other. Both models are based on the experimental observation of the characteristic axial periodicity, D = 67 nm, of light and dark bands, indicating that, if any superstructure exists, it should consist of five triple helices. The quasi-hexagonal packing structure is found to be energetically more favorable than the Smith microfibril model by as much as 31.2 kcal/mol of five triple helices. This is because the quasi-hexagonal packing geometry provides more nonbonded interaction possibilities between triple helices than does the Smith microfibril geometry. Our results are consistent with recent x-ray studies with synthetic collagen-like molecules and rat tail tendon, in which the data were interpreted as being consistent with either a quasi-hexagonal or a square-triangular structure.

  13. 5 Reasons to Pack Your Lunch

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español 5 Reasons to Pack Your Lunch KidsHealth / For Teens / 5 Reasons to Pack Your Lunch Print 5 Reasons to Pack Your Lunch Most schools are ...

  14. Transmission Electron Microscope In Situ Straining Technique to Directly Observe Defects and Interfaces During Deformation in Magnesium

    DOE PAGES

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Cerreta, E. K.; McCabe, R. J.; ...

    2015-05-14

    In-situ straining was used to study deformation behavior of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals.Twinning and dislocation motion, both essential to plasticity in hcp materials, were observed.Typically, these processes are characterized post-mortem by examining remnant microstructural features after straining has occurred. By imposing deformation during imaging, direct observation of active deformation mechanisms is possible. This work focuses on straining of structural metals in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a recently developed technique that utilizes familiar procedures and equipment to increase ease of experiments. In-situ straining in a TEM presents several advantages over conventional post-mortem characterization, most notably time-resolution of deformation andmore » streamlined identification of active deformation mechanisms. Drawbacks to the technique and applicability to other studies are also addressed. In-situ straining is used to study twin boundary motion in hcp magnesium. A {101¯2} twin was observed during tensile and compressive loading. Twin-dislocation interactions are directly observed. Notably, dislocations are observed to remain mobile, even after multiple interactions with twin boundaries, a result which suggests that Basinki’s dislocation transformation mechanism by twinning is not present in hcp metals. The coupling of in-situ straining with traditional post-mortem characterization yields more detailed information about material behavior during deformation than either technique alone.« less

  15. Effect of spin-orbit interactions on the structural stability, thermodynamic properties, and transport properties of lead under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper investigates the role of spin-orbit interaction in the prediction of structural stability, lattice dynamics, elasticity, thermodynamic and transport properties (electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity) of lead under pressure with the FP-LMTO (full-potential linear-muffin-tin orbital) method for the first-principles band structure calculations. Our calculations were carried out for three polymorphous lead modifications (fcc, hcp, and bcc) in generalized gradient approximation with the exchange-correlation functional PBEsol. They suggest that compared to the scalar-relativistic calculation, the account for the SO effects insignificantly influences the compressibility of Pb. At the same time, in the calculation of phonon spectra and transport properties, the role of SO interaction is important, at least, for P ≲150 GPa. At higher pressures, the contribution from SO interaction reduces but not vanishes. As for the relative structural stability, our studies show that SO effects influence weakly the pressure of the fcc →hcp transition and much higher the pressure of the hcp →bcc transition.

  16. Lattice dynamics of the lanthanides: Samarium at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olijnyk, H.; Jephcoat, A. P.

    2005-02-01

    Sm was studied by Raman spectroscopy at pressures up to 20 GPa. The Raman-active phonon modes, both of the Sm-type phase and the dhcp phase, show a frequency decrease as pressure increases. There is evidence that the entire structural sequence hcp → Sm-type → dhcp → fcc under pressure for the individual regular lanthanides is associated with softening of certain acoustic and optical-phonon modes as well as elastic anomalies. Comparison is made to corresponding transitions between close-packed lattices in other metals and possible relations to the lanthanide's electronic structure are addressed.

  17. High-resolution of particle contacts via fluorophore exclusion in deep-imaging of jammed colloidal packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyeyune-Nyombi, Eru; Morone, Flaviano; Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Gilchrist, M. Lane; Makse, Hernán A.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structural properties of random packings of jammed colloids requires an unprecedented high-resolution determination of the contact network providing mechanical stability to the packing. Here, we address the determination of the contact network by a novel strategy based on fluorophore signal exclusion of quantum dot nanoparticles from the contact points. We use fluorescence labeling schemes on particles inspired by biology and biointerface science in conjunction with fluorophore exclusion at the contact region. The method provides high-resolution contact network data that allows us to measure structural properties of the colloidal packing near marginal stability. We determine scaling laws of force distributions, soft modes, correlation functions, coordination number and free volume that define the universality class of jammed colloidal packings and can be compared with theoretical predictions. The contact detection method opens up further experimental testing at the interface of jamming and glass physics.

  18. Pack Density Limitations of Hybrid Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwicker, Matthew L.; Sinclair, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and testing of the Orion crew capsule parachute system has provided a unique opportunity to study dense parachute packing techniques and limits, in order to establish a new baseline for future programs. The density of parachute packs has a significant influence on vibration loads, retention system stresses, and parachute mortar performance. Material compositions and pack densities of existing designs for space capsule recovery were compared, using the pack density of the Apollo main parachutes as the current baseline. The composition of parachutes has changed since Apollo, incorporating new materials such as Kevlar , Vectran , Teflon and Spectra . These materials have different specific densities than Nylon, so the densities of hybrid parachute packs cannot be directly compared to Nylon parachutes for determination of feasibility or volume allocation. Six parachute packs were evaluated in terms of weighted average solid density in order to achieve a non-dimensional comparison of packing density. Means of mitigating damage due to packing pressure and mortar firing were examined in light of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) and Apollo experience. Parachute design improvements including incorporation of modern materials and manufacturing processes serves to make CPAS the new knowledge base on which future spacecraft parachute systems will be built.

  19. Packing extra mass in compact stellar structures: an interplay between Kalb-Ramond field and extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2018-05-01

    We have derived the Buchdahl's limit for a relativistic star in presence of the Kalb-Ramond field in four as well as in higher dimensions. It turns out that the Buchdahl's limit gets severely affected by the inclusion of the Kalb-Ramond field. In particular, the Kalb-Ramond field in four spacetime dimensions enables one to pack extra mass in any compact stellar structure of a given radius. On the other hand, a completely opposite picture emerges if the Kalb-Ramond field exists in higher dimensions, where the mass content of a compact star is smaller compared to that in general relativity. Implications are discussed.

  20. Plasma dynamics in a packed bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujahid, Zaka-ul-Islam; Hala, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Packed bed dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are very promising for several applications including remediation of environmental pollutants and greenhouse gas conversion. In this work, we have investigated the space and time-resolved emission from a packed bed DBD operated in helium, to understand the plasma dynamics. We have chosen a simple planar DBD arrangement with a patterned dielectric, which mimics the spherical boundaries between the dielectric pellets and allows the optical access to the plasma. The results show that plasma is sustained in a packed bed DBD by three mechanisms: filamentary discharge in the void (between the center of dielectric structures and the opposite electrode), microdischarges at the contact points and surface ionization waves over the dielectric surface. It is observed that for most of the duration plasma is generated at the contact points between the dielectric structures.

  1. Understanding homogeneous nucleation in solidification of aluminum by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, Avik; Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Baskes, Michael I.

    2018-02-01

    Homogeneous nucleation from aluminum (Al) melt was investigated by million-atom molecular dynamics simulations utilizing the second nearest neighbor modified embedded atom method potentials. The natural spontaneous homogenous nucleation from the Al melt was produced without any influence of pressure, free surface effects and impurities. Initially isothermal crystal nucleation from undercooled melt was studied at different constant temperatures, and later superheated Al melt was quenched with different cooling rates. The crystal structure of nuclei, critical nucleus size, critical temperature for homogenous nucleation, induction time, and nucleation rate were determined. The quenching simulations clearly revealed three temperature regimes: sub-critical nucleation, super-critical nucleation, and solid-state grain growth regimes. The main crystalline phase was identified as face-centered cubic, but a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and an amorphous solid phase were also detected. The hcp phase was created due to the formation of stacking faults during solidification of Al melt. By slowing down the cooling rate, the volume fraction of hcp and amorphous phases decreased. After the box was completely solid, grain growth was simulated and the grain growth exponent was determined for different annealing temperatures.

  2. Microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging with enlarged numerical aperture by semi-immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengge; Yang, Songlin; Ma, Huifeng; Shen, Ping; Wei, Nan; Wang, Meng; Xia, Yang; Deng, Yun; Ye, Yong-Hong

    2018-01-01

    Microsphere-assisted imaging is an extraordinary simple technology that can obtain optical super-resolution under white-light illumination. Here, we introduce a method to improve the resolution of a microsphere lens by increasing its numerical aperture. In our proposed structure, BaTiO3 glass (BTG) microsphere lenses are semi-immersed in a S1805 layer with a refractive index of 1.65, and then, the semi-immersed microspheres are fully embedded in an elastomer with an index of 1.4. We experimentally demonstrate that this structure, in combination with a conventional optical microscope, can clearly resolve a two-dimensional 200-nm-diameter hexagonally close-packed (hcp) silica microsphere array. On the contrary, the widely used structure where BTG microsphere lenses are fully immersed in a liquid or elastomer cannot even resolve a 250-nm-diameter hcp silica microsphere array. The improvement in resolution through the proposed structure is due to an increase in the effective numerical aperture by semi-immersing BTG microsphere lenses in a high-refractive-index S1805 layer. Our results will inform on the design of microsphere-based high-resolution imaging systems.

  3. On the kinetics of pack aluminization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, B. K.; Sarkhel, A. K.; Seigle, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    A theory of pack aluminization has been formulated by combining gaseous and solid-state diffusion rates. This theory relates the surface composition of the coating and therefore, in principle, the phase morphology and the growth rate of the coating, to pack operating parameters such as pack aluminum density, type of activator, temperature and others. Experimental data on the aluminization of unalloyed nickel in pure aluminum packs obtained to date are in good agreement with the predictions of the theory.

  4. Imaging phospholipid conformational disorder and packing in giant multilamellar liposome by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Iwasaki, Keita; Yoshimoto, Chikako; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Liposomes are closed phospholipid bilayer systems that have profound applications in fundamental cell biology, pharmaceutics and medicine. Depending on the composition (pure or mixture of phospholipids, presence of cholesterol) and preparation protocol, intra- and inter-chain molecular interactions vary leading to changes in the quality (order and packing) of liposomes. So far it is not possible to image conformational disorders and packing densities within a liposome in a straightforward manner. In this study, we utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy to visualize structural disorders and packing efficiency within a giant multilamellar liposome model by focusing mainly on three regions in the vibrational spectrum (Csbnd C stretching, Csbnd H deformation and Csbnd H stretching). We estimated properties such as trans/gauche isomers and lateral packing probability. Interestingly, our Raman imaging studies revealed gel phase rich domains and heterogeneous lateral packing within the giant multilamellar liposome.

  5. Close packing effects on clean and dirty snow albedo and associated climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, C.; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Previous modeling of snow albedo, a key climate feedback parameter, follows the independent scattering approximation (ISA) such that snow grains are considered as a number of separate units with distances longer than wavelengths. Here we develop a new snow albedo model for widely observed close-packed snow grains internally mixed with black carbon (BC) and demonstrate that albedo simulations match closer to observations. Close packing results in a stronger light absorption for clean and BC-contaminated snow. Compared with ISA, close packing reduces pure snow albedos by up to 0.05, whereas it enhances BC-induced snow albedo reduction and associated surface radiative forcing by up to 15% (20%) for fresh (old) snow, with larger enhancements for stronger structure packing. Finally, our results suggest that BC-snow albedo forcing and snow albedo feedback (climate sensitivity) are underestimated in previous modeling studies, making snow close packing consideration a necessity in climate modeling and analysis.

  6. Close packing effects on clean and dirty snow albedo and associated climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Cenlin; Takano, Yoshi; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2017-04-01

    Previous modeling of snow albedo, a key climate feedback parameter, follows the independent scattering approximation (ISA) such that snow grains are considered as a number of separate units with distances longer than wavelengths. Here we develop a new snow albedo model for widely observed close-packed snow grains internally mixed with black carbon (BC) and demonstrate that albedo simulations match closer to observations. Close packing results in a stronger light absorption for clean and BC-contaminated snow. Compared with ISA, close packing reduces pure snow albedos by up to 0.05, whereas it enhances BC-induced snow albedo reduction and associated surface radiative forcing by up to 15% (20%) for fresh (old) snow, with larger enhancements for stronger structure packing. Finally, our results suggest that BC-snow albedo forcing and snow albedo feedback (climate sensitivity) are underestimated in previous modeling studies, making snow close packing consideration a necessity in climate modeling and analysis.

  7. Response of jammed packings to thermal fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qikai; Bertrand, Thibault; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2017-12-01

    We focus on the response of mechanically stable (MS) packings of frictionless, bidisperse disks to thermal fluctuations, with the aim of quantifying how nonlinearities affect system properties at finite temperature. In contrast, numerous prior studies characterized the structural and mechanical properties of MS packings of frictionless spherical particles at zero temperature. Packings of disks with purely repulsive contact interactions possess two main types of nonlinearities, one from the form of the interaction potential (e.g., either linear or Hertzian spring interactions) and one from the breaking (or forming) of interparticle contacts. To identify the temperature regime at which the contact-breaking nonlinearities begin to contribute, we first calculated the minimum temperatures Tc b required to break a single contact in the MS packing for both single- and multiple-eigenmode perturbations of the T =0 MS packing. We find that the temperature required to break a single contact for equal velocity-amplitude perturbations involving all eigenmodes approaches the minimum value obtained for a perturbation in the direction connecting disk pairs with the smallest overlap. We then studied deviations in the constant volume specific heat C¯V and deviations of the average disk positions Δ r from their T =0 values in the temperature regime TC ¯Vpacking. We find that the deviation in the specific heat per particle Δ C¯V0/C¯V0 relative to the zero-temperature value C¯V0 can grow rapidly above Tc b; however, the deviation Δ C¯V0/C¯V0 decreases as N-1 with increasing system size. To characterize the relative strength of contact-breaking versus form nonlinearities, we measured the ratio of the average position deviations Δ rs s/Δ rd s for single- and double-sided linear and nonlinear spring interactions. We find that Δ rs s/Δ rd s>100 for linear spring interactions is

  8. Comparative study of crystallization process in metallic melts using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debela, Tekalign T.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Zhang, D. X.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2017-05-01

    The crystallization process of liquid metals is studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of short-range order during quenching in Pb and Zn liquids is compared with body-centered cubic (bcc) Nb and V, and hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) Mg. We found that the fraction and type of the short-range order depends on the system under consideration, in which the icosahedral symmetry seems to dominate in the body-centered cubic metals. Although the local atomic structures in stable liquids are similar, liquid hcp-like Zn, bcc-like Nb and V can be deeply supercooled far below its melting point before crystallization while the supercooled temperature range in liquid Pb is limited. Further investigations into the nucleation process reveal the process of polymorph selection. In the body-centered cubic systems, the polymorph selection occurs in the supercooled state before the nucleation is initiated, while in the closed-packed systems it starts at the time of onset of crystallization. Atoms with bcc-like lattices in all studied supercooled liquids are always detected before the polymorph selection. It is also found that the bond orientational ordering is strongly correlated with the crystallization process in supercooled Zn and Pb liquids.

  9. The effect of relativity on stability of Copernicium phases, their electronic structure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čenčariková, Hana; Legut, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    The phase stability of the various crystalline structures of the super-heavy element Copernicium was determined based on the first-principles calculations with different levels of the relativistic effects. We utilized the Darwin term, mass-velocity, and spin-orbit interaction with the single electron framework of the density functional theory while treating the exchange and correlation effects using local density approximations. It is found that the spin-orbit coupling is the key component to stabilize the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure over the hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure, which is in accord with Sol. Stat. Comm. 152 (2012) 530, but in contrast to Atta-Fynn and Ray (2015) [11], Gaston et al. (2007) [10], Papaconstantopoulos (2015) [9]. It seems that the main role here is the correct description of the semi-core relativistic 6p1/2 orbitals. The all other investigated structures, i.e. face-centered cubic (fcc) , simple cubic (sc) as well as rhombohedral (rh) structures are higher in energy. The criteria of mechanical stability were investigated based on the calculated elastic constants, identifying the phase instability of fcc and rh structures, but surprisingly confirm the stability of the energetically higher sc structure. In addition, the pressure-induced structural transition between two stable sc and bcc phases has been detected. The ground-state bcc structure exhibits the highest elastic anisotropy from single elements of the Periodic table. At last, we support the experimental findings that Copernicium is a metal.

  10. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  11. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  12. A spherical harmonic approach for the determination of HCP texture from ultrasound: A solution to the inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Bo; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Dunne, Fionn P. E.

    2015-10-01

    A new spherical convolution approach has been presented which couples HCP single crystal wave speed (the kernel function) with polycrystal c-axis pole distribution function to give the resultant polycrystal wave speed response. The three functions have been expressed as spherical harmonic expansions thus enabling application of the de-convolution technique to enable any one of the three to be determined from knowledge of the other two. Hence, the forward problem of determination of polycrystal wave speed from knowledge of single crystal wave speed response and the polycrystal pole distribution has been solved for a broad range of experimentally representative HCP polycrystal textures. The technique provides near-perfect representation of the sensitivity of wave speed to polycrystal texture as well as quantitative prediction of polycrystal wave speed. More importantly, a solution to the inverse problem is presented in which texture, as a c-axis distribution function, is determined from knowledge of the kernel function and the polycrystal wave speed response. It has also been explained why it has been widely reported in the literature that only texture coefficients up to 4th degree may be obtained from ultrasonic measurements. Finally, the de-convolution approach presented provides the potential for the measurement of polycrystal texture from ultrasonic wave speed measurements.

  13. Seismic anisotropy in the Earth's innermost inner core: Testing structural models against mineral physics predictions

    DOE PAGES

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Cao, Aimin; Godwal, Budhiram; ...

    2016-01-06

    Using an updated data set of ballistic PKIKP travel time data at antipodal distances, we test different models of anisotropy in the Earth's innermost inner core (IMIC) and obtain significantly better fits for a fast axis aligned with Earth's rotation axis, rather than a quasi-equatorial direction, as proposed recently. Reviewing recent results on the single crystal structure and elasticity of iron at core conditions, we find that an hcp structure with the fast c axis parallel to Earth's rotation is more likely but a body-centered cubic structure with the [111] axis aligned in that direction results in very similar predictionsmore » for seismic anisotropy. These models are therefore not distinguishable based on current seismological data. In addition, to match the seismological observations, the inferred strength of anisotropy in the IMIC (6–7%) implies almost perfect alignment of iron crystals, an intriguing, albeit unlikely situation, especially in the presence of heterogeneity, which calls for further studies. Fast axis of anisotropy in the central part of the inner core aligned with Earth's axis of rotation Lastly, the structure of iron in the inner core is most likely hcp, not bcc Not currently possible to distinguish between hcp and bcc structures from seismic observations« less

  14. Directionally Interacting Spheres and Rods Form Ordered Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyan; Mahynski, Nathan A.; Gang, Oleg

    The structures formed by mixtures of dissimilarly shaped nanoscale objects can significantly enhance our ability to produce nanoscale architectures. However, understanding their formation is a complex problem due to the interplay of geometric effects (entropy) and energetic interactions at the nanoscale. Spheres and rods are perhaps the most basic geometrical shapes and serve as convenient models of such dissimilar objects. The ordered phases formed by each of these individual shapes have already been explored, but, when mixed, spheres and rods have demonstrated only limited structural organization to date. We show using experiments and theory that the introduction of directional attractionsmore » between rod ends and isotropically interacting spherical nanoparticles (NPs) through DNA base pairing leads to the formation of ordered three-dimensional lattices. The spheres and rods arrange themselves in a complex alternating manner, where the spheres can form either a face-centered cubic (FCC) or hexagonal close-packed (HCP) lattice, or a disordered phase, as observed by in situ X-ray scattering. Increasing NP diameter at fixed rod length yields an initial transition from a disordered phase to the HCP crystal, energetically stabilized by rod-rod attraction across alternating crystal layers, as revealed by theory. In the limit of large NPs, the FCC structure is instead stabilized over the HCP by rod entropy. Thus, we propose that directionally specific attractions in mixtures of anisotropic and isotropic objects offer insight into unexplored self-assembly behavior of noncomplementary shaped particles.« less

  15. Directionally Interacting Spheres and Rods Form Ordered Phases

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Wenyan; Mahynski, Nathan A.; Gang, Oleg; ...

    2017-05-10

    The structures formed by mixtures of dissimilarly shaped nanoscale objects can significantly enhance our ability to produce nanoscale architectures. However, understanding their formation is a complex problem due to the interplay of geometric effects (entropy) and energetic interactions at the nanoscale. Spheres and rods are perhaps the most basic geometrical shapes and serve as convenient models of such dissimilar objects. The ordered phases formed by each of these individual shapes have already been explored, but, when mixed, spheres and rods have demonstrated only limited structural organization to date. We show using experiments and theory that the introduction of directional attractionsmore » between rod ends and isotropically interacting spherical nanoparticles (NPs) through DNA base pairing leads to the formation of ordered three-dimensional lattices. The spheres and rods arrange themselves in a complex alternating manner, where the spheres can form either a face-centered cubic (FCC) or hexagonal close-packed (HCP) lattice, or a disordered phase, as observed by in situ X-ray scattering. Increasing NP diameter at fixed rod length yields an initial transition from a disordered phase to the HCP crystal, energetically stabilized by rod-rod attraction across alternating crystal layers, as revealed by theory. In the limit of large NPs, the FCC structure is instead stabilized over the HCP by rod entropy. Thus, we propose that directionally specific attractions in mixtures of anisotropic and isotropic objects offer insight into unexplored self-assembly behavior of noncomplementary shaped particles.« less

  16. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing requirements. 51.310 Section 51.310... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND.... (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and...

  17. A structural equation model of patient-healthcare provider relationships and HIV-infected patient outcomes in Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Chengshi; Yang, Joyce P; Chuang, Peing; Zhang, Lin; Bao, Meijuan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2018-03-01

    Obtaining maximum antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is critical for maintaining a high CD4 count and strong immune function in PLWHA. Key factors for achieving optimum adherence include good medication self-efficacy, decreased medication-taking difficulties, and positive patient-healthcare provider (HCP) relationships. Limited studies have analyzed the correlation of these factors and ART adherence in Chinese population. In this paper, structural equation modeling was performed to assess the proposed model of relations between patient-HCP relationships and adherence. Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) software was used to collect data on ART adherence and patient variables among 227 PLWHA in Shanghai and Taipei. Participants completed a one-time 60-minute ACASI survey that consisted of standardized measures to assess demographics, recent CD4 counts, self-efficacy, patient-HCP relationship, adherence, and medication-taking difficulties. The data shown the relationship between patient-HCP relationships and adherence was significantly consistent with mediation by medication self-efficacy. However, patient-HCP interaction did not directly influence medication-taking difficulties, and medication-taking difficulties did not significantly affect CD4 counts. Furthermore, patient-HCP interactions did not directly impact CD4 counts; rather, the relation was consistent with mediation (by either better medication self-efficacy or better adherence) or by improved adherence alone. Future interventions should be designed to enhance self-management and provide better patient-HCP communication. This improved communication will enhance medication self-efficacy and decrease medication-taking difficulties. This in turn will improve medication adherence and immune function among PLWHA.

  18. Probing the defect nanostructure of helium and proton tracks in LiF:Mg,Ti using optical absorption: Implications to track structure theory calculations of heavy charged particle relative efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, I.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Oster, L.; Weissman, L.; Kreisel, A.; Girshevitz, O.; Marino, S.; Druzhyna, S.; Biderman, S.; Mardor, I.

    2015-04-01

    A major objective of track structure theory (TST) is the calculation of heavy charged particle (HCP) induced effects. Previous calculations have been based exclusively on the radiation action/dose response of the released secondary electrons during the HCP slowing down. The validity of this presumption is investigated herein using optical absorption (OA) measurements on LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) samples following irradiation with 1.4 MeV protons and 4 MeV He ions at levels of fluence from 1010 cm-2 to 2 × 1014 cm-2. The major bands in the OA spectrum are the 5.08 eV (F band), 4.77 eV, 5.45 eV and the 4.0 eV band (associated with the trapping structure leading to composite peak 5 in the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve). The maximum intensity of composite peak 5 occurs at a temperature of ∼200 °C in the glow curve and is the glow peak used for most dosimetric applications. The TST calculations use experimentally measured OA dose response following low ionization density (LID) 60Co photon irradiation over the dose-range 10-105 Gy for the simulation of the radiation action of the HCP induced secondary electron spectrum. Following proton and He irradiation the saturation levels of concentration for the F band and the 4.77 eV band are approximately one order of magnitude greater than following LID irradiation indicating enhanced HCP creation of the relevant defects. Relative HCP OA efficiencies, ηHCP, are calculated by TST and are compared with experimentally measured values, ηm, at levels of fluence from 1010 cm-2 to 1011 cm-2 where the response is linear due to negligible track overlap. For the F band, values of ηm/ηHCP = 2.0 and 2.6 for the He ions and protons respectively arise from the neglect of enhanced Fluorine vacancy/F center creation by the HCPs in the TST calculations. It is demonstrated that kinetic analysis simulating LID F band dose response with enhanced Fluorine vacancy creation, and incorporated into the TST calculation, can lead to values of

  19. Magnetic analytic bond-order potential for modeling the different phases of Mn at zero Kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drain, John F.; Drautz, Ralf; Pettifor, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    It is known that while group VII 4d Tc and 5d Re have hexagonally close-packed (hcp) ground states, 3d Mn adopts a complex χ-phase ground state, exhibiting complex noncollinear magnetic ordering. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have shown that without magnetism, the χ phase is still the ground state of Mn implying that magnetism and the resultant atomic-size difference between large- and small-moment atoms are not the critical factors, as is commonly believed, in driving the anomalous stability of the χ phase over hcp. Using a canonical tight-binding (TB) model, it is found that for a more than half-filled d band, while harder potentials stabilize close-packed hcp, a softer potential stabilizes the more open χ phase. By analogy with the structural trend from open to close-packed phases down the group IV elements, the anomalous stability of the χ phase in Mn is shown to be due to 3d valent Mn lacking d states in the core which leads to an effectively softer atomic repulsion between the atoms than in 4d Tc and 5d Re. Subsequently, an analytic bond-order potential (BOP) is developed to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of elemental Mn at 0 K. It is derived within BOP theory directly from a new short-ranged orthogonal d-valent TB model of Mn, the parameters of which are fitted to reproduce the DFT binding energy curves of the four experimentally observed phases of Mn, namely, α, β, γ, δ, and ɛ-Mn. Not only does the BOP reproduce qualitatively the DFT binding energy curves of the five different structure types, it also predicts the complex collinear antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering in α-Mn, the ferrimagnetic ordering in β-Mn, and the AFM ordering in γ-, δ-, and ɛ-Mn that are found by DFT. A BOP expansion including 14 moments is sufficiently converged to reproduce most of the properties of the TB model with the exception of the elastic shear constants, which require further moments. The current TB model, however, predicts

  20. Quasistatic packings of droplets in flat microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-02-01

    As observed in recent experiments, monodisperse droplets self-assemble spontaneously in different ordered packings. In this work, we present a numerical study of the droplet packings in the flat rectangular microfluidic channels. Employing the boundary element method, we numerically solve the Stokes equation in two-dimension and investigate the appearance of droplet packing and transition between one and two-row packings of monodisperse emulsion droplets. By calculating packing force applied on the droplet interface, we investigate the effect of flow rate, droplet size, and surface tension on the packing configurations of droplets and transition between different topological packings.

  1. Grain Refinement and Texture Mitigation in Low Boron Containing TiAl-Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Ulrike; Witusiewicz, Victor T.

    2017-12-01

    Controlling the grain size and texture of lamellar TiAl-alloys is essential for well-balanced creep and fatigue properties. Excellent refinement and texture mitigation are achieved in aluminum lean alloys by low boron additions of 0.2 at.%. This amount is sufficient to promote in situ formation of ultrafine borides during the last stages of body centered cubic (BCC) solidification. The borides subsequently serve as nucleation sites for hexagonal close packed (HCP) during the BCC-HCP phase transformation. Bridgman solidification experiments with alloy Ti-43Al-8Nb-0.2C-0.2B were performed under a different growth velocity, i.e., cooling rate, to evaluate the HCP grain size distribution and texture. For slow-to-moderate cooling rates, about 65% of HCP grains are randomly oriented, despite the pronounced texture of the parent BCC phase resulting from directional solidification. For high cooling rates, obtained by quenching, texture mitigation is less pronounced. Only 28% of the HCP grains are randomly oriented, the majority being crystallographic variants of the Burgers orientation relationship.

  2. The effect of ligand substituent on crystal packing: Structural and theoretical studies of two Ga(III) supramolecular compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimannejad, Janet; Nazarnia, Esfandiar

    2016-07-01

    A new Ga(III) supramolecular compound (4,4‧-bipyH2)[Ga(hpydc)2]2·7H2O (2) (where H2hpydc = 4-hydroxy-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 4,4‧-bipy = 4,4‧-bipyridine) was synthesized using the proton transfer reaction. Compound 2 was structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction, and it was shown that its asymmetric unit consists of two independent anionic Ga(III) complexes, one fully protonated 4,4‧-bipyridine and seven uncoordinated water molecules. In order to understand the effect of pyridine OH substituent on supramolecular interactions and crystal packing, compound 2 was compared with (bipyH2)[Ga(pydc)2]·(H2pydc)·4H2O (1) (where H2pydc = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid), that does not have an OH group on the pyridine ligand. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) calculations and also Atoms in Molecules (AIM) analysis were used to analyze the non-covalent interactions in both complexes. The calculation of non-covalent interactions' energy provides a useful means to investigate their effects in the crystal packing.

  3. Equation of state and high-pressure/high-temperature phase diagram of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinton, G. W.; MacLeod, S. G.; Cynn, H.; Errandonea, D.; Evans, W. J.; Proctor, J. E.; Meng, Y.; McMahon, M. I.

    2014-10-01

    The phase diagram of magnesium has been investigated to 211 GPa at 300 K, and to 105 GPa at 4500 K, by using a combination of x-ray diffraction and resistive and laser heating. The ambient pressure hcp structure is found to start transforming to the bcc structure at ˜45 GPa, with a large region of phase-coexistence that becomes smaller at higher temperatures. The bcc phase is stable to the highest pressures reached. The hcp-bcc phase boundary has been studied on both compression and decompression, and its slope is found to be negative and steeper than calculations have previously predicted. The laser-heating studies extend the melting curve of magnesium to 105 GPa and suggest that, at the highest pressures, the melting temperature increases more rapidly with pressure than previously reported. Finally, we observe some evidence of a new phase in the region of 10 GPa and 1200 K, where previous studies have reported a double-hexagonal-close-packed (dhcp) phase. However, the additional diffraction peaks we observe cannot be accounted for by the dhcp phase alone.

  4. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of HCP1004 (a fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole strontium) and VIMOVO® (a marketed fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium) in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, YoonJung; Han, HyeKyung; Shin, Dongseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background HCP1004 is a newly developed fixed-dose combination of naproxen (500 mg) and esomeprazole strontium (20 mg) that is used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and can reduce the risk of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of HCP1004 compared to VIMOVO® (a marketed fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium). Subjects and methods An open-label, randomized, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, single-dose clinical study was conducted in 70 healthy volunteers. In each period, a reference (VIMOVO®) or test (HCP1004) drug was administered orally, and serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected up to 72 hours after dosing. To evaluate the PK profiles, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration–time curve from 0 to the last measurable time (AUC0−t) were estimated using a noncompartmental method. Safety profiles were evaluated throughout the study. Results Sixty-six of the 70 subjects completed the study. The Cmax (mean ± standard deviation) and AUC0−t (mean ± standard deviation) for naproxen in HCP1004 were 61.67±15.16 µg/mL and 1,206.52±166.46 h·µg/mL, respectively; in VIMOVO®; these values were 61.85±14.54 µg/mL and 1,211.44±170.01 h·µg/mL, respectively. The Cmax and AUC0−t for esomeprazole in HCP1004 were 658.21±510.91 ng/mL and 1,109.11±1,111.59 h·ng/mL, respectively; for VIMOVO®, these values were 595.09±364.23 ng/mL and 1,015.12±952.98 h·ng/mL, respectively. The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) (HCP1004 to VIMOVO®) of the Cmax and AUC0−t of naproxen were 0.99 (0.94–1.06) and 1.00 (0.98–1.01), respectively. For esomeprazole, the geometric mean ratios (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUC0−t were 0.99 (0.82–1.18) and 1.04 (0.91–1.18), respectively. The overall results of the safety assessment showed no clinically significant issues for either

  5. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of HCP1004 (a fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole strontium) and VIMOVO® (a marketed fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Choi, YoonJung; Han, HyeKyung; Shin, Dongseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    HCP1004 is a newly developed fixed-dose combination of naproxen (500 mg) and esomeprazole strontium (20 mg) that is used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and can reduce the risk of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of HCP1004 compared to VIMOVO(®) (a marketed fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium). An open-label, randomized, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, single-dose clinical study was conducted in 70 healthy volunteers. In each period, a reference (VIMOVO(®)) or test (HCP1004) drug was administered orally, and serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected up to 72 hours after dosing. To evaluate the PK profiles, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to the last measurable time (AUC0-t) were estimated using a noncompartmental method. Safety profiles were evaluated throughout the study. Sixty-six of the 70 subjects completed the study. The Cmax (mean ± standard deviation) and AUC0-t (mean ± standard deviation) for naproxen in HCP1004 were 61.67 ± 15.16 µg/mL and 1,206.52 ± 166.46 h · µg/mL, respectively; in VIMOVO(®); these values were 61.85 ± 14.54 µg/mL and 1,211.44 ± 170.01 h · µg/mL, respectively. The Cmax and AUC0-t for esomeprazole in HCP1004 were 658.21 ± 510.91 ng/mL and 1,109.11 ± 1,111.59 h · ng/mL, respectively; for VIMOVO(®), these values were 595.09 ± 364.23 ng/mL and 1,015.12 ± 952.98 h · ng/mL, respectively. The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) (HCP1004 to VIMOVO(®)) of the Cmax and AUC0-t of naproxen were 0.99 (0.94-1.06) and 1.00 (0.98-1.01), respectively. For esomeprazole, the geometric mean ratios (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUC0-t were 0.99 (0.82-1.18) and 1.04 (0.91-1.18), respectively. The overall results of the safety assessment showed no clinically significant issues for either treatment. The PK of HCP

  6. Paediatric oncology information pack for general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    James, J A; Harris, D J; Mott, M G; Oakhill, A

    1988-01-01

    An information pack covering important aspects of paediatric oncology has been developed for general practitioners. Sixty general practitioners who received the information pack found that it helped them in managing children with neoplastic disease and their families. The pack has also improved communications between the oncology unit and general practitioners. Similar packs could be produced by paediatricians working in other specialties. PMID:3122972

  7. Polyhedra and packings from hyperbolic honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Hyde, Stephen T

    2018-06-20

    We derive more than 80 embeddings of 2D hyperbolic honeycombs in Euclidean 3 space, forming 3-periodic infinite polyhedra with cubic symmetry. All embeddings are "minimally frustrated," formed by removing just enough isometries of the (regular, but unphysical) 2D hyperbolic honeycombs [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] to allow embeddings in Euclidean 3 space. Nearly all of these triangulated "simplicial polyhedra" have symmetrically identical vertices, and most are chiral. The most symmetric examples include 10 infinite "deltahedra," with equilateral triangular faces, 6 of which were previously unknown and some of which can be described as packings of Platonic deltahedra. We describe also related cubic crystalline packings of equal hyperbolic discs in 3 space that are frustrated analogues of optimally dense hyperbolic disc packings. The 10-coordinated packings are the least "loosened" Euclidean embeddings, although frustration swells all of the hyperbolic disc packings to give less dense arrays than the flat penny-packing even though their unfrustrated analogues in [Formula: see text] are denser.

  8. Separation of natural product using columns packed with Fused-Core particles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peilin; Litwinski, George R; Pursch, Matthias; McCabe, Terry; Kuppannan, Krishna

    2009-06-01

    Three HPLC columns packed with 3 microm, sub-2 microm, and 2.7 microm Fused-Core (superficially porous) particles were compared in separation performance using two natural product mixtures containing 15 structurally related components. The Ascentis Express C18 column packed with Fused-Core particles showed an 18% increase in column efficiency (theoretical plates), a 76% increase in plate number per meter, a 65% enhancement in separation speed and a 19% increase in back pressure compared to the Atlantis T3 C18 column packed with 3 microm particles. Column lot-to-lot variability for critical pairs in the natural product mixture was observed with both columns, with the Atlantis T3 column exhibiting a higher degree of variability. The Ascentis Express column was also compared with the Acquity BEH column packed with sub-2 microm particles. Although the peak efficiencies obtained by the Ascentis Express column were only about 74% of those obtained by the Acquity BEH column, the 50% lower back pressure and comparable separation speed allowed high-efficiency and high-speed separation to be performed using conventional HPLC instrumentation.

  9. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... peach boxes, lug boxes and small consumer packages. In layer-packed California peach boxes or lug boxes... package. The number of plums or prunes in California peach boxes or lug boxes shall not vary more than 4... container. (ii) Face and fill packs in cartons and lug boxes. In face and fill packs in cartons and lug...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... peach boxes, lug boxes and small consumer packages. In layer-packed California peach boxes or lug boxes... package. The number of plums or prunes in California peach boxes or lug boxes shall not vary more than 4... container. (ii) Face and fill packs in cartons and lug boxes. In face and fill packs in cartons and lug...

  11. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Bryan A.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular “inner packs” for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. Methods We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Results Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. PMID:25957666

  12. The future of host cell protein (HCP) identification during process development and manufacturing linked to a risk‐based management for their control

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard; Smales, C. Mark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of biological systems to synthesize complex therapeutic products has been a remarkable success. However, during product development, great attention must be devoted to defining acceptable levels of impurities that derive from that biological system, heading this list are host cell proteins (HCPs). Recent advances in proteomic analytics have shown how diverse this class of impurities is; as such knowledge and capability grows inevitable questions have arisen about how thorough current approaches to measuring HCPs are. The fundamental issue is how to adequately measure (and in turn monitor and control) such a large number of protein species (potentially thousands of components) to ensure safe and efficacious products. A rather elegant solution is to use an immunoassay (enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) based on polyclonal antibodies raised to the host cell (biological system) used to synthesize a particular therapeutic product. However, the measurement is entirely dependent on the antibody serum used, which dictates the sensitivity of the assay and the degree of coverage of the HCP spectrum. It provides one summed analog value for HCP amount; a positive if all HCP components can be considered equal, a negative in the more likely event one associates greater risk with certain components of the HCP proteome. In a thorough risk‐based approach, one would wish to be able to account for this. These issues have led to the investigation of orthogonal analytical methods; most prominently mass spectrometry. These techniques can potentially both identify and quantify HCPs. The ability to measure and monitor thousands of proteins proportionally increases the amount of data acquired. Significant benefits exist if the information can be used to determine critical HCPs and thereby create an improved basis for risk management. We describe a nascent approach to risk assessment of HCPs based upon such data, drawing attention to timeliness in relation to

  13. The future of host cell protein (HCP) identification during process development and manufacturing linked to a risk-based management for their control.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Daniel G; Francis, Richard; Smales, C Mark

    2015-09-01

    The use of biological systems to synthesize complex therapeutic products has been a remarkable success. However, during product development, great attention must be devoted to defining acceptable levels of impurities that derive from that biological system, heading this list are host cell proteins (HCPs). Recent advances in proteomic analytics have shown how diverse this class of impurities is; as such knowledge and capability grows inevitable questions have arisen about how thorough current approaches to measuring HCPs are. The fundamental issue is how to adequately measure (and in turn monitor and control) such a large number of protein species (potentially thousands of components) to ensure safe and efficacious products. A rather elegant solution is to use an immunoassay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) based on polyclonal antibodies raised to the host cell (biological system) used to synthesize a particular therapeutic product. However, the measurement is entirely dependent on the antibody serum used, which dictates the sensitivity of the assay and the degree of coverage of the HCP spectrum. It provides one summed analog value for HCP amount; a positive if all HCP components can be considered equal, a negative in the more likely event one associates greater risk with certain components of the HCP proteome. In a thorough risk-based approach, one would wish to be able to account for this. These issues have led to the investigation of orthogonal analytical methods; most prominently mass spectrometry. These techniques can potentially both identify and quantify HCPs. The ability to measure and monitor thousands of proteins proportionally increases the amount of data acquired. Significant benefits exist if the information can be used to determine critical HCPs and thereby create an improved basis for risk management. We describe a nascent approach to risk assessment of HCPs based upon such data, drawing attention to timeliness in relation to biosimilar

  14. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; ...

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore » shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  15. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore » shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  16. Packing loops into annular cavities.

    PubMed

    Sobral, T A; Gomes, M A F

    2017-02-01

    The continuous packing of a flexible rod in two-dimensional cavities yields a countable set of interacting domains that resembles nonequilibrium cellular systems and belongs to a new class of lightweight material. However, the link between the length of the rod and the number of domains requires investigation, especially in the case of non-simply connected cavities, where the number of avoided regions emulates an effective topological temperature. In the present article we report the results of an experiment of injection of a single flexible rod into annular cavities in order to find the total length needed to insert a given number of loops (domains of one vertex). Using an exponential model to describe the experimental data we quite minutely analyze the initial conditions, the intermediary behavior, and the tight packing limit. This method allows the observation of a new fluctuation phenomenon associated with instabilities in the dynamic evolution of the packing process. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the global pattern enters the discussion under a novel point of view. A comparison with the classical problems of the random close packing of disks and jammed disk packings is made.

  17. Packing loops into annular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral, T. A.; Gomes, M. A. F.

    2017-02-01

    The continuous packing of a flexible rod in two-dimensional cavities yields a countable set of interacting domains that resembles nonequilibrium cellular systems and belongs to a new class of lightweight material. However, the link between the length of the rod and the number of domains requires investigation, especially in the case of non-simply connected cavities, where the number of avoided regions emulates an effective topological temperature. In the present article we report the results of an experiment of injection of a single flexible rod into annular cavities in order to find the total length needed to insert a given number of loops (domains of one vertex). Using an exponential model to describe the experimental data we quite minutely analyze the initial conditions, the intermediary behavior, and the tight packing limit. This method allows the observation of a new fluctuation phenomenon associated with instabilities in the dynamic evolution of the packing process. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the global pattern enters the discussion under a novel point of view. A comparison with the classical problems of the random close packing of disks and jammed disk packings is made.

  18. Interaction between Proppant Packing, Reservoir Depletion, and Fluid Flow in Pore Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; McClure, J. E.; Han, Y.; Chen, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the oil and gas industry, the performance of proppant pack in hydraulically created fractures has a significant influence on fracture conductivity. A better understanding of proppant transport and deposition pattern in a hydraulic fracture is vital for effective and economical production within oil and gas reservoirs. In this research, a numerical modeling approach, combining Particle Flow Code (PFC) and GPU-enhanced lattice Boltzmann simulator (GELBS), is adopted to advance the understanding of the interaction between proppant particle packing, depletion of reservoir formation, and transport of reservoir flow through the pore space. In this numerical work flow, PFC is used to simulate effective stress increase and proppant particle movement and rearrangement under increasing mechanical loading. The pore structure of the proppant pack evolves subsequently and the geometrical data are output for lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation of proppant pack permeability. Three different proppant packs with fixed particle concentration and 12/18, 16/30, and 20/40 mesh sizes are generated. These proppant packs are compressed with specified loading stress and their subsequent geometries are used for fluid flow simulations. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observations, e.g., the conductivity of proppant packs decreases with increasing effective stress. Three proppant packs with the same average diameter were generated using different coefficients of variation (COVs) for the proppant diameter (namely cov5%, cov20%, and cov30%). By using the coupled PFC-LBM work flow, the proppant pack permeability as functions of effective stress and porosity is investigated. The results show that the proppant pack with a higher proppant diameter COV has lower permeability and porosity under the same effective stress, because smaller particles fill in the pore space between bigger particles. The relationship between porosity and permeability is also consistent with

  19. Eating less from bigger packs: Preventing the pack size effect with diet primes.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Iris; Papies, Esther K

    2016-05-01

    An increase in the package size of food has been shown to lead to an increase in energy intake from this food, the so-called pack size effect. Previous research has shown that providing diet-concerned individuals with a reminder, or prime, of their dieting goal can help them control their consumption. Here, we investigated if providing such a prime is also effective for reducing the magnitude of the pack size effect. We conducted two experiments in which the cover of a dieting magazine (Experiment 1) and diet-related commercials (Experiment 2) served as diet goal primes. Both experiments had a 2 (pack size: small vs. large) × 2 (prime: diet vs. control) × 2 (dietary restraint: high vs. low) between participants design. We measured expected consumption of four snack foods in Experiment 1 (N = 477), and actual consumption of M&M's in Experiment 2 (N = 224). Results showed that the diet prime reduced the pack size effect for both restrained and unrestrained eaters in Experiment 1 and for restrained eaters only in Experiment 2. Although effect sizes were small, these findings suggest that a diet prime motivates restrained eaters to limit their consumption, and as a result the pack size has less influence on the amount consumed. We discuss limitations of this research as well as potential avenues for further research and theoretical and practical implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films

    DOE PAGES

    Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Yan, Hongping; Gu, Xiaodan; ...

    2017-01-17

    Recent improvements in solution-coated organic semiconductors (OSCs) evidence their high potential for cost-efficient organic electronics and sensors. Molecular packing structure determines the charge transport property of molecular solids. However, it remains challenging to control the molecular packing structure for a given OSC. Here, the application of alternating electric fields is reported to fine-tune the crystal packing of OSC solution-shearing coated at ambient conditions. First, a theoretical model based on dielectrophoresis is developed to guide the selection of the optimal conditions (frequency and amplitude) of the electric field applied through the solution-shearing blade during coating of OSC thin films. Next, electricmore » field-induced polymorphism is demonstrated for OSCs with both herringbone and 2D brick-wall packing motifs in 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene, respectively. Favorable molecular packing can be accessible in some cases, resulting in higher charge carrier mobilities. In conclusion, this work provides a new approach to tune the properties of solution-coated OSCs in functional devices for high-performance printed electronics.« less

  1. Role Of Impurities On Deformation Of HCP Crystal: A Multi-Scale Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Mehul Anoopkumar

    Commercially pure (CP) and extra low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti-alloys present excellent corrosion resistance, lightweight, and formability making them attractive materials for expanded use in transportation and medical applications. However, the strength and toughness of CP titanium are affected by relatively small variations in their impurity/solute content (IC), e.g., O, Al, and V. This increase in strength is due to the fact that the solute either increases the critical stress required for the prismatic slip systems ({10- 10}) or activates another slip system ((0001), {10-11}). In particular, solute additions such as O can effectively strengthen the alloy but with an attendant loss in ductility by changing the behavior from wavy (cross slip) to planar nature. In order to understand the underlying behavior of strengthening by solutes, it is important to understand the atomic scale mechanism. This dissertation aims to address this knowledge gap through a synergistic combination of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics. Further, due to the long-range strain fields of the dislocations and the periodicity of the DFT simulation cells, it is difficult to apply ab initio simulations to study the dislocation core structure. To alleviate this issue we developed a multiscale quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach (QM/MM) to study the dislocation core. We use the developed QM/MM method to study the pipe diffusion along a prismatic edge dislocation core. Complementary to the atomistic simulations, the Semi-discrete Variational Peierls-Nabarro model (SVPN) was also used to analyze the dislocation core structure and mobility. The chemical interaction between the solute/impurity and the dislocation core is captured by the so-called generalized stacking fault energy (GSFE) surface which was determined from DFT-VASP calculations. By taking the chemical interaction into consideration the SVPN model can predict the dislocation core structure and mobility

  2. Intrinsic Aniostropic Anelasticity of Hcp Iron Due to Light Element Solute Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfern, S. A. T.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's inner core is elastically anisotropic, with seismology showing faster wave propagation along the polar axis compared to the equatorial plane. Some inner core studies report anisotropic seismic attenuation. Attenuation of body-waves has, previously, been postulated to be due to scattering by anisotropic microstructure, but recent normal mode studies also show strong anisotropic attenuation (Mäkinen et al. 2014). This suggests that the anisotropic attenuation is a result of the intrinsic (and anisotropic) anelastic properties of the solid iron alloy forming Earth's inner core. Here, I consider the origins of inner core anisotropic attenuation. Possibilities include grain boundary relaxation, dislocation bowing/glide, or point defect (alloying element) relaxations. The inner core is an almost perfect environment for near-equilibrium crystallisation, with very low temperature gradients across the inner core, low gravity, and slow crystallisation rates. It is assumed that grain sizes may be of the order of hundreds of metres. This implies vanishingly small volumes of grain boundary, and insignificant grain boundary relaxation. The very high homologous temperature and the absence of obvious deviatoric stress, also leads one to conclude that dislocation densities are low. On the other hand, estimates for light element concentrations are of the order of a few % with O, S, Si, C and H at various times being suggested as candidate elements. Light element solutes in hcp metals contribute to intrinsic anelastic attenuation if they occur in sufficient concentrations to pair and form elastic dipoles. Switching of dipoles under the stress of a passing seismic wave will result in anelastic mechanical loss. Such attenuation has been measured in hcp metals in the lab, and is anisotropic due to the intrinsic elastic anisotropy of the host lattice. Such solute pair relaxations result in a "Zener effect", which is suggested here to be responsible for observed anisotropic

  3. Structural evolution in the crystallization of rapid cooling silver melt

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Z.A., E-mail: ze.tian@gmail.com; Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052; Dong, K.J.

    2015-03-15

    The structural evolution in a rapid cooling process of silver melt has been investigated at different scales by adopting several analysis methods. The results testify Ostwald’s rule of stages and Frank conjecture upon icosahedron with many specific details. In particular, the cluster-scale analysis by a recent developed method called LSCA (the Largest Standard Cluster Analysis) clarified the complex structural evolution occurred in crystallization: different kinds of local clusters (such as ico-like (ico is the abbreviation of icosahedron), ico-bcc like (bcc, body-centred cubic), bcc, bcc-like structures) in turn have their maximal numbers as temperature decreases. And in a rather wide temperaturemore » range the icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) demonstrates a saturated stage (where the amount of ico-like structures keeps stable) that breeds metastable bcc clusters. As the precursor of crystallization, after reaching the maximal number bcc clusters finally decrease, resulting in the final solid being a mixture mainly composed of fcc/hcp (face-centred cubic and hexagonal-closed packed) clusters and to a less degree, bcc clusters. This detailed geometric picture for crystallization of liquid metal is believed to be useful to improve the fundamental understanding of liquid–solid phase transition. - Highlights: • A comprehensive structural analysis is conducted focusing on crystallization. • The involved atoms in our analysis are more than 90% for all samples concerned. • A series of distinct intermediate states are found in crystallization of silver melt. • A novelty icosahedron-saturated state breeds the metastable bcc state.« less

  4. Random close packing of polydisperse jammed emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brujic, Jasna

    2010-03-01

    Packing problems are everywhere, ranging from oil extraction through porous rocks to grain storage in silos and the compaction of pharmaceutical powders into tablets. At a given density, particulate systems pack into a mechanically stable and amorphous jammed state. Theoretical frameworks have proposed a connection between this jammed state and the glass transition, a thermodynamics of jamming, as well as geometric modeling of random packings. Nevertheless, a simple underlying mechanism for the random assembly of athermal particles, analogous to crystalline ordering, remains unknown. Here we use 3D measurements of polydisperse packings of emulsion droplets to build a simple statistical model in which the complexity of the global packing is distilled into a local stochastic process. From the perspective of a single particle the packing problem is reduced to the random formation of nearest neighbors, followed by a choice of contacts among them. The two key parameters in the model, the available space around a particle and the ratio of contacts to neighbors, are directly obtained from experiments. Remarkably, we demonstrate that this ``granocentric'' view captures the properties of the polydisperse emulsion packing, ranging from the microscopic distributions of nearest neighbors and contacts to local density fluctuations and all the way to the global packing density. Further applications to monodisperse and bidisperse systems quantitatively agree with previously measured trends in global density. This model therefore reveals a general principle of organization for random packing and lays the foundations for a theory of jammed matter.

  5. Respiratory complications from nasal packing: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Brian; Tam, Samantha

    2010-10-01

    Patients with posterior nasal packing are thought to be at high risk for the development of respiratory complications. Controversy exists regarding the evidence in that regard; consequently, the level of vital sign monitoring required for these patients is unclear. The objective of this article is to systematically review the literature describing respiratory complications from nasal packing. Literature published before July 2009 on Medline and Embase was eligible for inclusion. Original research and review articles whose major topic was nasal packing for epistaxis were included. Nonhuman studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies were evaluated for quality using a modified Downs and Black scale. Data regarding respiratory complications of nasal packing were extracted and summarized. Of the 262 studies retrieved, 14 met inclusion criteria (7 case series, 3 cohort studies, and 4 reviews). Six studies discussed pulmonary mechanics, three discussed sleep apnea, two reviews described complications of nasal packing, and three articles focused on the treatment of posterior epistaxis. There was a lack of high-quality literature describing adverse respiratory events following posterior packing. The literature regarding development of respiratory complications from posterior packing is mostly based on expert opinion or case series. There is some suggestion that sleep apnea may develop after placement posterior nasal packing, but the severity appears to be mild. Evidence is lacking to support the contention that all patients with posterior packing are at risk for developing adverse respiratory events or require admission to a monitored setting.

  6. Size effects of nano-spaced basal stacking faults on the strength and deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline pure hcp metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen; Jiang, Ping; Yuan, Fuping; Wu, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The size effects of nano-spaced basal stacking faults (SFs) on the tensile strength and deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline pure cobalt and magnesium have been investigated by a series of large-scale 2D columnar and 3D molecular dynamics simulations. Unlike the strengthening effect of basal SFs on Mg alloys, the nano-spaced basal SFs are observed to have no strengthening effect on the nanocrystalline pure cobalt and magnesium from MD simulations. These observations could be attributed to the following two reasons: (i) Lots of new basal SFs are formed before (for cobalt) or simultaneously with (for magnesium) the other deformation mechanisms (i.e. the formation of twins and the < c + a > edge dislocations) during the tensile deformation; (ii) In hcp alloys, the segregation of alloy elements and impurities at typical interfaces, such as SFs, can stablilise them for enhancing the interactions with dislocation and thus elevating the strength. Without such segregation in pure hcp metals, the < c + a > edge dislocations can cut through the basal SFs although the interactions between the < c + a > dislocations and the pre-existing SFs/newly formed SFs are observed. The nano-spaced basal SFs are also found to have no restriction effect on the formation of deformation twins.

  7. Physical constraints in the condensation of eukaryotic chromosomes. Local concentration of DNA versus linear packing ratio in higher order chromatin structures.

    PubMed

    Daban, J R

    2000-04-11

    The local concentration of DNA in metaphase chromosomes of different organisms has been determined in several laboratories. The average of these measurements is 0.17 g/mL. In the first level of chromosome condensation, DNA is wrapped around histones forming nucleosomes. This organization limits the DNA concentration in nucleosomes to 0. 3-0.4 g/mL. Furthermore, in the structural models suggested in different laboratories for the 30-40 nm chromatin fiber, the estimated DNA concentration is significantly reduced; it ranges from 0.04 to 0.27 g/mL. The DNA concentration is further reduced when the fiber is folded into the successive higher order structures suggested in different models for metaphase chromosomes; the estimated minimum decrease of DNA concentration represents an additional 40%. These observations suggest that most of the models proposed for the 30-40 nm chromatin fiber are not dense enough for the construction of metaphase chromosomes. In contrast, it is well-known that the linear packing ratio increases dramatically in each level of DNA folding in chromosomes. Thus, the consideration of the linear packing ratio is not enough for the study of chromatin condensation; the constraint resulting from the actual DNA concentration in metaphase chromosomes must be considered for the construction of models for condensed chromatin.

  8. H(C)P and H(P)C triple-resonance experiments at natural abundance employing long-range couplings.

    PubMed

    Malon, Michal; Koshino, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-01

    Modified two-dimensional (2D) triple-resonance H(C)P and H(P)C experiments based on INEPT/HMQC and double-INEPT schemes are applied to the study of organophosphorus compounds at natural abundances. The implementation of effective (1)H--(13)C gradient selection, additional purging pulsed field gradients, spinlock pulses, and improved phase cycling is demonstrated to allow weak correlation signals based on long-range couplings to be readily observed. Through the combination of two heteronuclear long-range coupling constants, (n)J(CH) and (n)J(PC) in H(C)P experiments or (n)J(PH) and (n)J(PC) in H(P)C experiments, protons can be correlated to a second heteronucleus through 4-7 chemical bonds. These experiments thus overcome the inherit limitations of classical (1)H-X HMBC experiments, which require a nonzero value of the heteronuclear coupling constant (n)J(XH). Ultra-broadband inversion composite pulses are successfully employed in the H(P)C INEPT/HMQC and H(P)C double-INEPT pulse sequences to increase the utility of the experiments and the quality of obtained spectra. This work extends and completes a set of 2D phase-sensitive triple-resonance experiments applicable at natural abundances, and also offers insight into the methodology of triple-resonance experiments and the application of pulsed field gradients. A one-dimensional triple-resonance experiment employing carbon detection is suggested for accurate determination of small (n)J(PC).

  9. Lab on a Chip Packing of Submicron Particles for High Performance EOF Pumping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-26

    and wet etching techniques, using a soda lime glass substrate coated with chromium and photoresist (Nanofilm, Westlake Village, CA). A weir structure...observed previously for these soda lime glass microchips [8]. Images of the three segments of different sized particles con- tainedwithin the packed... Silica beads High pressure Lab on a chip a b s t r a c t The packing of submicrometer sized silica beads inside a microchannel was enabled by a novel

  10. Icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals of intermetallic compounds are multiple twins of cubic or orthorhombic crystals composed of very large atomic complexes with icosahedral point-group symmetry in cubic close packing or body-centered packing: Structure of decagonal Al6Pd

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1989-01-01

    A doubly icosahedral complex involves roughly spherical clusters of atoms with icosahedral point-group symmetry, which are themselves, in parallel orientation, icosahedrally packed. These complexes may form cubic crystallites; three structures of this sort have been identified. Analysis of electron diffraction photographs of the decagonal quasicrystal Al6Pd has led to its description as involving pentagonal twinning of an orthorhombic crystal with a = 51.6 Å, b = 37.6 Å, and c = 33.24 Å, with about 4202 atoms in the unit, comprising two 1980-atom doubly icosahedral complexes, each involving icosahedral packing of 45 44-atom icosahedral complexes (at 0 0 0 and 1/2 1/2 1/2) and 242 interstitial atoms. The complexes and clusters are oriented with one of their fivefold axes in the c-axis direction. Images PMID:16594092

  11. Icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals of intermetallic compounds are multiple twins of cubic or orthorhombic crystals composed of very large atomic complexes with icosahedral point-group symmetry in cubic close packing or body-centered packing: Structure of decagonal Al(6)Pd.

    PubMed

    Pauling, L

    1989-12-01

    A doubly icosahedral complex involves roughly spherical clusters of atoms with icosahedral point-group symmetry, which are themselves, in parallel orientation, icosahedrally packed. These complexes may form cubic crystallites; three structures of this sort have been identified. Analysis of electron diffraction photographs of the decagonal quasicrystal Al(6)Pd has led to its description as involving pentagonal twinning of an orthorhombic crystal with a = 51.6 A, b = 37.6 A, and c = 33.24 A, with about 4202 atoms in the unit, comprising two 1980-atom doubly icosahedral complexes, each involving icosahedral packing of 45 44-atom icosahedral complexes (at 0 0 0 and 1/2 1/2 1/2) and 242 interstitial atoms. The complexes and clusters are oriented with one of their fivefold axes in the c-axis direction.

  12. Entanglement Theories: Packing vs. Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wool, Richard

    2007-03-01

    There are two emergent theories of polymer entanglements, the Packing Model (Fetters, Lohse, Graessley, Milner, Whitten, ˜'98) and the Percolation Model (Wool ˜'93). The Packing model suggests that the entanglement molecular weight Me is determined by Me = K p^3, where the packing length parameter p = V/R^2 in which V is the volume of the chain (V=M/ρNa), R is the end-to end vector of the chain, and K 357 ρNa, is an empirical constant. The Percolation model states that an entanglement network develops when the number of chains per unit area σ, intersecting any load bearing plane, is equal to 3 times the number of chain segments (1/a cross-section), such that when 3aσ =1 at the percolation threshold, Me 31 MjC∞, in which Mj is the step molecular weight and C∞ is the characteristic ratio. There are no fitting parameters in the Percolation model. The Packing model predicts that Me decreases rapidly with chain stiffness, as Me˜1/C∞^3, while the Percolation model predicts that Me increases with C∞, as Me˜C∞. The Percolation model was found to be the correct model based on computer simulations (M. Bulacu et al) and a re-analysis of the Packing model experimental data. The Packing model can be derived from the Percolation model, but not visa versa, and reveals a surprising accidental relation between C∞ and Mj in the front factor K. This result significantly impacts the interpretation of the dynamics of rheology and fracture of entangled polymers.

  13. Calculating the Maximum Density of the Surface Packing of Ions in Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislenko, S. A.; Moroz, Yu. O.; Karu, K.; Ivaništšev, V. B.; Fedorov, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum density of monolayer packing on a graphene surface is calculated by means of molecular dynamics (MD) for ions of characteristic size and symmetry: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM]+, tetrabutylammonium [TBA]+, tetrafluoroborate [BF4]-, dicyanamide [DCA]-, and bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide [TFSI]-. The characteristic orientations of ions in a closely packed monolayer are found. It is shown that the formation of a closely packed monolayer is possible for [DCA]- and [BF4]- anions only at surface charges that exceed the limit of the electrochemical stability of the corresponding ionic liquids. For the [TBA]+ cation, a monolayer structure can be observed at the charge of nearly 30 μC/cm2 attainable in electrochemical experiment.

  14. Random sphere packing model of heterogeneous propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochevets, Sergei Victorovich

    It is well recognized that combustion of heterogeneous propellants is strongly dependent on the propellant morphology. Recent developments in computing systems make it possible to start three-dimensional modeling of heterogeneous propellant combustion. A key component of such large scale computations is a realistic model of industrial propellants which retains the true morphology---a goal never achieved before. The research presented develops the Random Sphere Packing Model of heterogeneous propellants and generates numerical samples of actual industrial propellants. This is done by developing a sphere packing algorithm which randomly packs a large number of spheres with a polydisperse size distribution within a rectangular domain. First, the packing code is developed, optimized for performance, and parallelized using the OpenMP shared memory architecture. Second, the morphology and packing fraction of two simple cases of unimodal and bimodal packs are investigated computationally and analytically. It is shown that both the Loose Random Packing and Dense Random Packing limits are not well defined and the growth rate of the spheres is identified as the key parameter controlling the efficiency of the packing. For a properly chosen growth rate, computational results are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data. Third, two strategies are developed to define numerical samples of polydisperse heterogeneous propellants: the Deterministic Strategy and the Random Selection Strategy. Using these strategies, numerical samples of industrial propellants are generated. The packing fraction is investigated and it is shown that the experimental values of the packing fraction can be achieved computationally. It is strongly believed that this Random Sphere Packing Model of propellants is a major step forward in the realistic computational modeling of heterogeneous propellant of combustion. In addition, a method of analysis of the morphology of heterogeneous

  15. On the kinetics of the pack - Aluminization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Seigle, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the aluminization of unalloyed Ni in fluoride-activated packs of varying Al activity. In packs of low Al activity, in which the ratio of Al to Ni was less than 50 at. pct, the specimen surface quickly came to equilibrium with the pack and remained close to equilibrium for the duration of normal coating runs. In these packs the kinetics of aluminization was controlled by diffusion in the solid. In packs of higher Al activity the surface of the specimen did not come to equilibrium with the pack and the kinetics of the process was governed by a combination of solid and gas diffusion rates. Under most conditions however, the surface composition was time-invariant and a steady-state appeared to exist at the pack-coating interface. By combining Levine and Caves' model for gaseous diffusion in pure-Al packs with calculations of solid diffusion rates some success has been achieved in explaining the results.

  16. The crystal chemistry of inorganic metal borohydrides and their relation to metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Černý, Radovan; Schouwink, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of inorganic homoleptic metal borohydrides are analysed with respect to their structural prototypes found amongst metal oxides in the inorganic databases such as Pearson's Crystal Data [Villars & Cenzual (2015). Pearson's Crystal Data. Crystal Structure Database for Inorganic Compounds, Release 2014/2015, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA]. The coordination polyhedra around the cations and the borohydride anion are determined, and constitute the basis of the structural systematics underlying metal borohydride chemistry in various frameworks and variants of ionic packing, including complex anions and the packing of neutral molecules in the crystal. Underlying nets are determined by topology analysis using the program TOPOS [Blatov (2006). IUCr CompComm. Newsl. 7, 4-38]. It is found that the Pauling rules for ionic crystals apply to all non-molecular borohydride crystal structures, and that the latter can often be derived by simple deformation of the close-packed anionic lattices c.c.p. and h.c.p., by partially removing anions and filling tetrahedral or octahedral sites. The deviation from an ideal close packing is facilitated in metal borohydrides with respect to the oxide due to geometrical and electronic considerations of the BH4(-) anion (tetrahedral shape, polarizability). This review on crystal chemistry of borohydrides and their similarity to oxides is a contribution which should serve materials engineers as a roadmap to design new materials, synthetic chemists in their search for promising compounds to be prepared, and materials scientists in understanding the properties of novel materials.

  17. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... according to size, internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pack. 982.11 Section 982.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2840 - Export packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export packing requirements. 51.2840 Section 51.2840 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...) Export Packing Requirements § 51.2840 Export packing requirements. Onions specified as meeting Export...

  19. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOEpatents

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  20. HIV-1 Protease Function and Structure Studies with the Simplicial Neighborhood Analysis of Protein Packing (SNAPP) Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxing; Kaplan, Andrew H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The Simplicial Neighborhood Analysis of Protein Packing (SNAPP) method was used to predict the effect of mutagenesis on the enzymatic activity of the HIV-1 protease (HIVP). SNAPP relies on a four-body statistical scoring function derived from the analysis of spatially nearest neighbor residue compositional preferences in a diverse and representative subset of protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. The method was applied to the analysis of HIVP mutants with residue substitutions in the hydrophobic core as well as at the interface between the two protease monomers. Both wild type and tethered structures were employed in the calculations. We obtained a strong correlation, with R2 as high as 0.96, between ΔSNAPP score (i.e., the difference in SNAPP scores between wild type and mutant proteins) and the protease catalytic activity for tethered structures. A weaker but significant correlation was also obtained for non-tethered structures as well. Our analysis identified residues both in the hydrophobic core and at the dimeric interface (DI) that are very important for the protease function. This study demonstrates a potential utility of the SNAPP method for rational design of mutagenesis studies and protein engineering. PMID:18498108

  1. Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with TCP structure[Tetrahedrally Close-Packed

    SciTech Connect

    REINELT,DOUGLAS A.; KRAYNIK,ANDREW M.

    2000-02-16

    The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to large, quasistatic, simple shearing deformations is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by calculating foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The minimal surfaces are computed with the Surface Evolver program developed by Brakke. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3} where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometrymore » and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations that violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new foam topology associated with each stable solution branch results from a cascade of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization.« less

  2. Identification of family-specific residue packing motifs and their use for structure-based protein function prediction: I. Method development.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Deepak; Huan, Jun; Prins, Jan; Snoeyink, Jack; Wang, Wei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    Protein function prediction is one of the central problems in computational biology. We present a novel automated protein structure-based function prediction method using libraries of local residue packing patterns that are common to most proteins in a known functional family. Critical to this approach is the representation of a protein structure as a graph where residue vertices (residue name used as a vertex label) are connected by geometrical proximity edges. The approach employs two steps. First, it uses a fast subgraph mining algorithm to find all occurrences of family-specific labeled subgraphs for all well characterized protein structural and functional families. Second, it queries a new structure for occurrences of a set of motifs characteristic of a known family, using a graph index to speed up Ullman's subgraph isomorphism algorithm. The confidence of function inference from structure depends on the number of family-specific motifs found in the query structure compared with their distribution in a large non-redundant database of proteins. This method can assign a new structure to a specific functional family in cases where sequence alignments, sequence patterns, structural superposition and active site templates fail to provide accurate annotation.

  3. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep themore » fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.« less

  4. Inert-Gas Condensed Co-W Nanoclusters: Formation, Structure and Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar-Fard, Farhad Reza

    Rare-earth permanent magnets are used extensively in numerous technical applications, e.g. wind turbines, audio speakers, and hybrid/electric vehicles. The demand and production of rare-earth permanent magnets in the world has in the past decades increased significantly. However, the decrease in export of rare-earth elements from China in recent time has led to a renewed interest in developing rare-earth free permanent magnets. Elements such as Fe and Co have potential, due to their high magnetization, to be used as hosts in rare-earth free permanent magnets but a major challenge is to increase their magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, K1, which largely drives the coercivity. Theoretical calculations indicate that dissolving the 5d transition metal W in Fe or Co increases the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The challenge, though, is in creating a solid solution in hcp Co or bcc Fe, which under equilibrium conditions have negligible solubility. In this dissertation, the formation, structure, and magnetic properties of sub-10 nm Co-W clusters with W content ranging from 4 to 24 atomic percent were studied. Co-W alloy clusters with extended solubility of W in hcp Co were produced by inert gas condensation. The different processing conditions such as the cooling scheme and sputtering power were found to control the structural state of the as-deposited Co-W clusters. For clusters formed in the water-cooled formation chamber, the mean size and the fraction crystalline clusters increased with increasing power, while the fraction of crystalline clusters formed in the liquid nitrogen-cooled formation chamber was not as affected by the sputtering power. For the low W content clusters, the structural characterization revealed clusters predominantly single crystalline hcp Co(W) structure, a significant extension of W solubility when compared to the equilibrium solubility, but fcc Co(W) and Co3W structures were observed in very small and large clusters, respectively. At high

  5. Conversion of NO with a catalytic packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, CAO; Weixuan, ZHAO; Renxi, ZHANG; Huiqi, HOU; Shanping, CHEN; Ruina, ZHANG

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses the conversion of nitric oxide (NO) with a low-temperature plasma induced by a catalytic packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Alumina oxide (Al2O3), glass (SiO2) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2), three different spherical packed materials of the same size, were each present in the DBD reactor. The NO conversion under varying input voltage and specific energy density, and the effects of catalysts (titanium dioxide (TiO2) and manganese oxide (MnO x ) coated on Al2O3) on NO conversion were investigated. The experimental results showed that NO conversion was greatly enhanced in the presence of packed materials in the reactor, and the catalytic packed bed of MnO x /Al2O3 showed better performance than that of TiO2/Al2O3. The surface and crystal structures of the materials and catalysts were characterized through scanning electron microscopy analysis. The final products were clearly observed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and provided a better understanding of NO conversion.

  6. Length of perineal pain relief after ice pack application: A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bosco Paiva, Caroline; Junqueira Vasconcellos de Oliveira, Sonia Maria; Amorim Francisco, Adriana; da Silva, Renata Luana; de Paula Batista Mendes, Edilaine; Steen, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Ice pack is effective for alleviating postpartum perineal pain in primiparous women while multiparous women's levels of perineal pain appear to be poorly explored. Ice pack is a low-cost non-invasive localised treatment that can be used with no impact on breastfeeding. However, how long perineal analgesia persists after applying an ice pack is still unknown. To evaluate if perineal analgesia is maintained up to 2h after applying an ice pack to the perineum for 20min. A quasi-experimental study, using a pre and post-test design, was undertaken with a sample size of 50 multiparous women in Brazil. Data was collected by structured interview. The intervention involved a single application of an ice pack applied for 20min to the perineal area of women who reported perineal pain ≥3 by use of a numeric rating scale (0-10), with intact perineum, 1st or 2nd degree lacerations or episiotomy, between 6 and 24h after spontaneous vaginal birth. Perineal pain was evaluated at three points of time: before, immediately after and 2h after applying an ice pack. Immediately after applying an ice pack to the perineal area, there was a significant reduction in the severity of perineal pain reported (5.4 vs. 1.0, p<0.0005), which continued for 1h 35min up to 2h after the local application. Ice pack application for 20min is effective for alleviating postpartum perineal pain and continues to be effective between 1h 35min for up to 2h. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 48 CFR 552.211-87 - Export packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export packing. 552.211-87... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.211-87 Export packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(7), insert the following clause: Export Packing (JAN 2010) (a...

  8. Temperature dependence of stacking faults in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Joshua N; Lin, Andrew; Ratsch, Christian; Huffaker, D L

    2013-11-29

    Impressive opto-electronic devices and transistors have recently been fabricated from GaAs nanopillars grown by catalyst-free selective-area epitaxy, but this growth technique has always resulted in high densities of stacking faults. A stacking fault occurs when atoms on the growing (111) surface occupy the sites of a hexagonal-close-pack (hcp) lattice instead of the normal face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice sites. When stacking faults occur consecutively, the crystal structure is locally wurtzite instead of zinc-blende, and the resulting band offsets are known to negatively impact device performance. Here we present experimental and theoretical evidence that indicate stacking fault formation is related to the size of the critical nucleus, which is temperature dependent. The difference in energy between the hcp and fcc orientation of small nuclei is computed using density-function theory. The minimum energy difference of 0.22 eV is calculated for a nucleus with 21 atoms, so the population of nuclei in the hcp orientation is expected to decrease as the nucleus grows larger. The experiment shows that stacking fault occurrence is dramatically reduced from 22% to 3% by raising the growth temperature from 730 to 790 ° C. These data are interpreted using classical nucleation theory which dictates a larger critical nucleus at higher growth temperature.

  9. Force-chain evolution in a two-dimensional granular packing compacted by vertical tappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iikawa, Naoki; Bandi, M. M.; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally study the statistics of force-chain evolution in a vertically-tapped two-dimensional granular packing by using photoelastic disks. In this experiment, the tapped granular packing is gradually compacted. During the compaction, the isotropy of grain configurations is quantified by measuring the deviator anisotropy derived from fabric tensor, and then the evolution of force-chain structure is quantified by measuring the interparticle forces and force-chain orientational order parameter. As packing fraction increases, the interparticle force increases and finally saturates to an asymptotic value. Moreover, the grain configurations and force-chain structures become isotropically random as the tapping-induced compaction proceeds. In contrast, the total length of force chains remains unchanged. From the correlations of those parameters, we find two relations: (i) a positive correlation between the isotropy of grain configurations and the disordering of force-chain orientations, and (ii) a negative correlation between the increasing of interparticle forces and the disordering of force-chain orientations. These relations are universally held regardless of the mode of particle motions with or without convection.

  10. Diffusion in jammed particle packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Silbert, Leonardo E.; Grest, Gary S.; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusive transport in jammed particle packs is of interest for a number of applications, as well as being a potential indicator of structural properties near the jamming point. To this end, we report stochastic simulations of equilibrium diffusion through monodisperse sphere packs near the jamming point in the limit of a perfectly insulating surrounding medium. The time dependence of various diffusion properties is resolved over several orders of magnitude. Two time regimes of expected Fickian diffusion are observed, separated by an intermediate regime of anomalous diffusion. This intermediate regime grows as the particle volume fraction approaches the critical jamming transition. The diffusion behavior is fully controlled by the extent of the contacts between neighboring particles, which in turn depend on proximity to the jamming point. In particular, the mean first passage time associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles is shown to control both the time to recover Fickian diffusion and the long time diffusivity. Scaling laws are established that relate these quantities to the difference between the actual and critical jamming volume fractions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE- AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Dynamic Properties of DNA-Programmable Nanoparticle Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiuyan; Zhang, Xuena; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Zhihao; Wang, Rong

    2016-08-23

    The dynamics of DNA hybridization is very important in DNA-programmable nanoparticle crystallization. Here, coarse-grained molecular dynamics is utilized to explore the structural and dynamic properties of DNA hybridizations for a self-complementary DNA-directed nanoparticle self-assembly system. The hexagonal close-packed (HCP) and close-packed face-centered cubic (FCC) ordered structures are identified for the systems of different grafted DNA chains per nanoparticle, which are in good agreement with the experimental results. Most importantly, the dynamic crystallization processes of DNA hybridizations are elucidated by virtue of the mean square displacement, the percentage of hybridizations, and the lifetime of DNA bonds. The lifetime can be modeled by the DNA dehybridization, which has an exponential form. The lifetime of DNA bonds closely depends on the temperature. A suitable temperature for the DNA-nanoparticle crystallization is obtained in the work. Moreover, a too large volume fraction hinders the self-assembly process due to steric effects. This work provides some essential information for future design of nanomaterials.

  12. Packing Products: Polystyrene vs. Cornstarch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Packing materials such as polystyrene take thousands of years to decompose, whereas packing peanuts made from cornstarch, which some companies are now using, can serve the same purpose, but dissolve in water. The author illustrates this point to her class one rainy day using the sculptures students made from polystyrene and with the cornstarch…

  13. Standard atomic volumes in double-stranded DNA and packing in protein–DNA interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Nadassy, Katalin; Tomás-Oliveira, Isabel; Alberts, Ian; Janin, Joël; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2001-01-01

    Standard volumes for atoms in double-stranded B-DNA are derived using high resolution crystal structures from the Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) and compared with corresponding values derived from crystal structures of small organic compounds in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). Two different methods are used to compute these volumes: the classical Voronoi method, which does not depend on the size of atoms, and the related Radical Planes method which does. Results show that atomic groups buried in the interior of double-stranded DNA are, on average, more tightly packed than in related small molecules in the CSD. The packing efficiency of DNA atoms at the interfaces of 25 high resolution protein–DNA complexes is determined by computing the ratios between the volumes of interfacial DNA atoms and the corresponding standard volumes. These ratios are found to be close to unity, indicating that the DNA atoms at protein–DNA interfaces are as closely packed as in crystals of B-DNA. Analogous volume ratios, computed for buried protein atoms, are also near unity, confirming our earlier conclusions that the packing efficiency of these atoms is similar to that in the protein interior. In addition, we examine the number, volume and solvent occupation of cavities located at the protein–DNA interfaces and compared them with those in the protein interior. Cavities are found to be ubiquitous in the interfaces as well as inside the protein moieties. The frequency of solvent occupation of cavities is however higher in the interfaces, indicating that those are more hydrated than protein interiors. Lastly, we compare our results with those obtained using two different measures of shape complementarity of the analysed interfaces, and find that the correlation between our volume ratios and these measures, as well as between the measures themselves, is weak. Our results indicate that a tightly packed environment made up of DNA, protein and solvent atoms plays a significant role

  14. Symmetric scrolled packings of multilayered carbon nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, A. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Scrolled packings of single-layer and multilayer graphene can be used for the creation of supercapacitors, nanopumps, nanofilters, and other nanodevices. The full atomistic simulation of graphene scrolls is restricted to consideration of relatively small systems in small time intervals. To overcome this difficulty, a two-dimensional chain model making possible an efficient calculation of static and dynamic characteristics of nanoribbon scrolls with allowance for the longitudinal and bending stiffness of nanoribbons is proposed. The model is extended to the case of scrolls of multilayer graphene. Possible equilibrium states of symmetric scrolls of multilayer carbon nanotribbons rolled up so that all nanoribbons in the scroll are equivalent are found. Dependences of the number of coils, the inner and outer radii, lowest vibrational eigenfrequencies of rolled packages on the length L of nanoribbons are obtained. It is shown that the lowest vibrational eigenfrequency of a symmetric scroll decreases with a nanoribbon length proportionally to L -1. It is energetically unfavorable for too short nanoribbons to roll up, and their ground state is a stack of plane nanoribbons. With an increasing number k of layers, the nanoribbon length L necessary for creation of symmetric scrolls increases. For a sufficiently small number of layers k and a sufficiently large nanoribbon length L, the scrolled packing has the lowest energy as compared to that of stack of plane nanoribbons and folded structures. The results can be used for development of nanomaterials and nanodevices on the basis of graphene scrolled packings.

  15. Packing of flexible 2D materials in vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guijin; Yi, Xin; Zhu, Wenpeng; Gao, Huajian

    2018-06-01

    To understand the mechanics of cellular packing of two-dimensional (2D) materials, we perform systematic molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical analysis to investigate the packing of a flexible circular sheet in a spherical vesicle and the 2D packing problem of a strip in a cylindrical vesicle. Depending on the system dimensions and the bending rigidity ratio between the confined sheet and the vesicle membrane, a variety of packing morphologies are observed, including a conical shape, a shape of three-fold symmetry, a cylindrically curved shape, an axisymmetrically buckled shape, as well as the initial circular shape. A set of buckling analyses lead to phase diagrams of the packing morphologies of the encapsulated sheets. These results may have important implications on the mechanism of intracellular packing and toxicity of 2D materials.

  16. Electronic and structural properties of Lu under pressure: Relation to structural phases of the rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Min, B.I.; Oguchi, T.; Jansen, H.J.F.

    1986-07-15

    Ground-state electronic and structural properties of Lu under pressure are investigated with use of the self-consistent all-electron total-energy linear muffin-tin orbital band-structure method within a local-density-functional approximation. Pressure-induced structural transitions are found to occur in the following sequence: hcp--(Sm-type)--dhcp--fcc, which is the same as that observed in the crystal structures of the trivalent rare-earth metals with decreasing atomic number. This structural transition is correlated with the increase in the number of d-italic electrons under pressure.

  17. H2S removal and bacterial structure along a full-scale biofilter bed packed with polyurethane foam in a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Yan, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide accumulated under a cover film in a landfill site was treated for 7 months by a full-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes. Sampling ports were set along the biofilter bed to investigate H2S removal and microbial characteristics in the biofilter. The H2S was removed effectively by the biofilter, and over 90% removal efficiency was achieved in steady state. Average elimination capacity of H2S was 2.21 g m(-3) h(-1) in lower part (LPB) and 0.41 g m(-3) h(-1) in upper part (UPB) of the biofilter. Most H2S was eliminated in LPB. H2S concentration varied along the polyurethane foam packed bed, the structure of the bacterial communities showed spatial variation in the biofilter, and H2S removal as well as products distribution changed accordingly. The introduction of odorants into the biofilter shifted the distribution of the existing microbial populations toward a specific culture that could metabolize the target odors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elastic constants of hcp 4He: Path-integral Monte Carlo results versus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, Luis Aldemar Peña; Vitiello, Silvio A.; de Koning, Maurice

    2011-09-01

    The elastic constants of hcp 4He are computed using the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. The stiffness coefficients are obtained by imposing different distortions to a periodic cell containing 180 atoms, followed by measurement of the elements of the corresponding stress tensor. For this purpose an appropriate path-integral expression for the stress tensor observable is derived and implemented into the pimc++ package. In addition to allowing the determination of the elastic stiffness constants, this development also opens the way to an explicit atomistic determination of the Peierls stress for dislocation motion using the PIMC technique. A comparison of the results to available experimental data shows an overall good agreement of the density dependence of the elastic constants, with the single exception of C13. Additional calculations for the bcc phase, on the other hand, show good agreement for all elastic constants.

  19. Periodic and Aperiodic Close Packing: A Spontaneous Hard-Sphere Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Waal, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how to make close-packed models from balloons and table tennis balls to illustrate structural features of clusters and organometallic cluster-compounds (which are of great interest in the study of chemical reactions). These models provide a very inexpensive and tactile illustration of the organization of matter for concrete operational…

  20. The effect of nanoparticle packing on capacitive electrode performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghee; Noh, Seonmyeong; Kim, Min-Sik; Kong, Hye Jeong; Im, Kyungun; Kwon, Oh Seok; Kim, Sungmin; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2016-06-09

    Nanoparticles pack together to form macro-scale electrodes in various types of devices, and thus, optimization of the nanoparticle packing is a prerequisite for the realization of a desirable device performance. In this work, we provide in-depth insight into the effect of nanoparticle packing on the performance of nanoparticle-based electrodes by combining experimental and computational findings. As a model system, polypyrrole nanospheres of three different diameters were used to construct pseudocapacitive electrodes, and the performance of the electrodes was examined at various nanosphere diameter ratios and mixed weight fractions. Two numerical algorithms are proposed to simulate the random packing of the nanospheres on the electrode. The binary nanospheres exhibited diverse, complicated packing behaviors compared with the monophasic packing of each nanosphere species. The packing of the two nanosphere species with lower diameter ratios at an optimized composition could lead to more dense packing of the nanospheres, which in turn could contribute to better device performance. The dense packing of the nanospheres would provide more efficient transport pathways for ions because of the reduced inter-nanosphere pore size and enlarged surface area for charge storage. Ultimately, it is anticipated that our approach can be widely used to define the concept of "the best nanoparticle packing" for desirable device performance.

  1. Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2000-01-01

    I examine leadership in Wolf (Canis lupus) packs based on published observations and data gathered during summers from 1986 to 1998 studying a free-ranging pack of Wolves on Ellesmere Island that were habituated to my presence. The breeding male tended to initiate activities associated with foraging and travel, and the breeding female to initiate, and predominate in, pup care and protection. However, there was considerable overlap and interaction during these activities such that leadership could be considered a joint function. In packs with multiple breeders, quantitative information about leadership is needed.

  2. Nonuniversality of density and disorder in jammed sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    We show for the first time that collectively jammed disordered packings of three-dimensional monodisperse frictionless hard spheres can be produced and tuned using a novel numerical protocol with packing density ϕ as low as 0.6. This is well below the value of 0.64 associated with the maximally random jammed state and entirely unrelated to the ill-defined "random loose packing" state density. Specifically, collectively jammed packings are generated with a very narrow distribution centered at any density ϕ over a wide density range ϕ ɛ(0.6,0.740 48…) with variable disorder. Our results support the view that there is no universal jamming point that is distinguishable based on the packing density and frequency of occurrence. Our jammed packings are mapped onto a density-order-metric plane, which provides a broader characterization of packings than density alone. Other packing characteristics, such as the pair correlation function, average contact number, and fraction of rattlers are quantified and discussed.

  3. Molecular structures of the inclusion complexes beta-cyclodextrin-1,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)ethane and beta-cyclodextrin-4,4'-diaminobiphenyl; packing of dimeric beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Giastas, Petros; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Mavridis, Irene M

    2003-04-01

    The present investigation is part of an ongoing study on the influence of the long end-functonalized guest molecules DBA and BNZ in the crystal packing of beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) dimeric complexes. The title compounds are 2:2 host:guest complexes showing limited host-guest hydrogen bonding at the primary faces of the betaCD dimers. Within the betaCD cavity the guests exhibit mutual pi...pi interactions and between betaCD dimers perpendicular NH...pi interactions. The DBA guest molecule exhibits one extended and two bent conformations in the complex. The BNZ guest molecule is not planar inside betaCD, in contrast to the structure of BNZ itself, which indicates that the cavity isolates the molecules and forbids the pi...pi stacking of the aromatic rings. NMR spectroscopy studies show that in aqueous solution both DBA and BNZ form strong complexes that have 1:1 stoichiometry and structures similar to the solid state ones. The relative packing of the dimers is the same in both complexes. The axes of two adjacent dimers form an angle close to 20 degrees and have a lateral displacement approximately 2.45 A, both of which characterize the screw-channel mode of packing. Although the betaCD/BNZ complex indeed crystallizes in a space group characterizing the latter mode, the betaCD/DBA complex crystallizes in a space group with novel dimensions not resembling any of the packing modes reported so far. The new lattice is attributed to the three conformations exhibited by the guest in the crystals. However, this lattice can be transformed into another, which is isostructural to that of the betaCD/BNZ inclusion complex, if the conformation of the guest is not taken into account.

  4. [Research progress on the management of no packing after septoplasty].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng; Zhang, Longcheng; Li, Jieen

    2016-01-01

    Packing the nose after septoplasty is common practice. The use of postoperative packing has been proposed to reduce the dead space between the subperichondrial flaps and minimize postoperative complications such as hemorrhage, septal hematoma, and formation of synechiae. Additionally, postoperative packing is thought to stabilize the remaining cartilaginous septum and minimize persistence or recurrence of septal deviation. Despite these theoretic advantages, evidence to support the use of postoperative packing is lacking. Additionally, nasal packing is not an innocuous procedure. The use of nasal packing actually cause these complications such as postop- erative pain, mucosal injury, bleeding, worsening of breathing due to sleep disorders, and postoperative infections. Routine use of anterior nasal packing after septoplasty should be challenged for not presenting proven benefit. As alternatives to traditional packing, septal suturing, septal stapler and fibrin glue have been used recently. The purpose of this article is to summarize the progress of traditional packing to no packing after septoplasty.

  5. Low-symmetry sphere packings of simple surfactant micelles induced by ionic sphericity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung A.; Jeong, Kyeong-Jun; Yethiraj, Arun

    We report the discovery of an ionic small molecule surfactant that undergoes water-drive self- assembly into quasispherical micelles, which pack into the first lyotropic liquid crystalline Frank–Kasper σ phase. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies indicate that this unexpected, low-symmetry phase is characterized by a tetragonal unit cell, in which 30 sub-2 nm micelles of five discrete types are arranged into a tetrahedral close packing with exceptional translational order. Varying the relative amounts of surfactant and water in these lyotropic phases enables formation of a Frank–Kasper A15 sphere packing and a more common body-centered cubic structure. MD simulations reveal that the symmetrymore » breaking that drives the selection of the σ and A15 phases arises from a delicate interplay between the drive to maintain local spherical particle symmetry and the maximization of electrostatic cohesion between the soft micellar particles.« less

  6. Low-symmetry sphere packings of simple surfactant micelles induced by ionic sphericity

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Sung A.; Jeong, Kyeong-Jun; Yethiraj, Arun; ...

    2017-04-03

    We report the discovery of an ionic small molecule surfactant that undergoes water-drive self- assembly into quasispherical micelles, which pack into the first lyotropic liquid crystalline Frank–Kasper σ phase. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies indicate that this unexpected, low-symmetry phase is characterized by a tetragonal unit cell, in which 30 sub-2 nm micelles of five discrete types are arranged into a tetrahedral close packing with exceptional translational order. Varying the relative amounts of surfactant and water in these lyotropic phases enables formation of a Frank–Kasper A15 sphere packing and a more common body-centered cubic structure. MD simulations reveal that the symmetrymore » breaking that drives the selection of the σ and A15 phases arises from a delicate interplay between the drive to maintain local spherical particle symmetry and the maximization of electrostatic cohesion between the soft micellar particles.« less

  7. Dense crystalline packings of ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiwei; Jiao, Yang; Liu, Lufeng; Yuan, Ye; Li, Shuixiang

    2017-03-01

    An ellipsoid, the simplest nonspherical shape, has been extensively used as a model for elongated building blocks for a wide spectrum of molecular, colloidal, and granular systems. Yet the densest packing of congruent hard ellipsoids, which is intimately related to the high-density phase of many condensed matter systems, is still an open problem. We discover an unusual family of dense crystalline packings of self-dual ellipsoids (ratios of the semiaxes α : √{α }:1 ), containing 24 particles with a quasi-square-triangular (SQ-TR) tiling arrangement in the fundamental cell. The associated packing density ϕ exceeds that of the densest known SM2 crystal [ A. Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255506 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.255506] for aspect ratios α in (1.365, 1.5625), attaining a maximal ϕ ≈0.758 06 ... at α = 93 /64 . We show that the SQ-TR phase derived from these dense packings is thermodynamically stable at high densities over the aforementioned α range and report a phase diagram for self-dual ellipsoids. The discovery of the SQ-TR crystal suggests organizing principles for nonspherical particles and self-assembly of colloidal systems.

  8. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  9. Thermal Measurements of Packed Copper Wire Enables Better Electric Motor

    Science.gov Websites

    transmittance characterization methods both parallel and perpendicular to the axis. A measurement of apparent from all three test methods indicated that the k_app of the packed copper wire was significantly higher methods for examining the thermal impact of new materials for winding structures relevant to motor

  10. New Structured Laves Phase in the Mg-In-Ca System with Nontranslational Symmetry and Two Unit Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongbo; Pan, Hucheng; Ren, Yuping; Wang, Liqing; He, Yufeng; Qi, Xixi; Qin, Gaowu

    2018-02-01

    All of the A B2 Laves phases discovered so far satisfy the general crystalline structure characteristic of translational symmetry; however, we report here a new structured Laves phase directly precipitated in an aged Mg-In-Ca alloy by using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The nanoprecipitate is determined to be a (Mg,In ) 2Ca phase, which has a C 14 Laves structure (hcp, space group: P 63/m m c , a =6.25 Å , c =10.31 Å ) but without any translational symmetry on the (0001) p basal plane. The (Mg,In ) 2Ca Laves phase contains two separate unit cells promoting the formation of five tiling patterns. The bonding of these patterns leads to the generation of the present Laves phase, followed by the Penrose geometrical rule. The orientation relationship between the Laves precipitate and Mg matrix is (0001) p//(0001) α and [11 ¯00 ] p//[112 ¯0 ] α . More specifically, in contrast to the traditional view that the third element would orderly replace other atoms in a manner of layer by layer on the close-packed (0001) L plane, the In atoms here have orderly occupied certain position of Mg atomic columns along the [0001] L zone axis. The finding would be interesting and important for understanding the formation mechanism of Laves phases, and even atom stacking behavior in condensed matter.

  11. Mechanism of slip and twinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastani, Mansur

    1992-01-01

    The objectives are to: (1) demonstrate the mechanisms of deformation in body centered cubic (BCC), face centered cubic (FCC), and hexagonal close-packed (HCP)-structure metals and alloys and in some ceramics as well; (2) examine the deformed microstructures (slip lines and twin boundaries) in different grains of metallic and ceramic specimens; and (3) study visually the deformed macrostructure (slip and twin bands) of metals and alloys. Some of the topics covered include: deformation behavior of materials, mechanisms of plastic deformation, slip bands, twin bands, ductile failure, intergranular fracture, shear failure, slip planes, crystal deformation, and dislocations in ceramics.

  12. Misfit dislocation patterns of Mg-Nb interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Youxing; Shao, Shuai; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    The role of heterogeneous interfaces in improving mechanical properties of polycrystalline aggregates and laminated composites has been well recognized with interface structure being of fundamental importance in designing composites containing multiple interfaces. In this paper, taking the Mg (hexagonal close-packed (hcp))/Nb (body-centered cubic (bcc)) interface as an example, we develop Mg-Nb interatomic potentials for predicting atomic configurations of Mg/Nb interfaces. We systematically characterize interface dislocations of Mg/Nb interfaces with Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) and Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) orientation relationships and propose a generalized procedure of characterizing interface structure by combining atomistic simulation and interface dislocation theory, which is applicable for not only hcp/bccmore » interfaces, but also other systems with complicated interface dislocation configurations.Here, in Mg/Nb, interface dislocation networks of two types of interfaces are significantly different although they originate from partial dislocations of similar character: the NW interface is composed of three sets of partial dislocations, while the KS interface is composed of four sets of interface dislocations - three sets of partial dislocations and one set of full dislocations that forms from the reaction of two close partial dislocations.« less

  13. Strong, Ductile, and Thermally Stable bcc-Mg Nanolaminates.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Baldwin, J Kevin; Jain, Manish; Zheng, Shijian; Mara, Nathan A; Beyerlein, Irene J

    2017-08-15

    Magnesium has attracted attention worldwide because it is the lightest structural metal. However, a high strength-to-weight ratio remains its only attribute, since an intrinsic lack of strength, ductility and low melting temperature severely restricts practical applications of Mg. Through interface strains, the crystal structure of Mg can be transformed and stabilized from a simple hexagonal (hexagonal close packed hcp) to body center cubic (bcc) crystal structure at ambient pressures. We demonstrate that when introduced into a nanocomposite bcc Mg is far more ductile, 50% stronger, and retains its strength after extended exposure to 200 C, which is 0.5 times its homologous temperature. These findings reveal an alternative solution to obtaining lightweight metals critically needed for future energy efficiency and fuel savings.

  14. Phase transition studies of germanium to 1. 25 Mbar

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Y.K.; Brister, K.E.; Desgreniers, S.

    1986-05-05

    New phase transitions in Ge were observed by energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction techniques for pressures up to 125 GPa (1.25 Mbar) as follows: the ..beta..-Sn structure to the simple hexagonal (sh) phase at 75 +- 3 GPa and to the double hexagonal close-packed structure (dhcp) at 102 +- 5 GPa. These are the highest pressures for which a crystalline structure change has been directly observed in any material by x-ray diffraction. Total-energy pseudopotential calculations predict 84 +- 10 GPa for the ..beta..-Sn to sh phase transition and 105 +- 21 GPa for sh to hcp (not dhcp) transition. The role ofmore » 3d core electrons in increasing the transformation pressures in Ge, as compared to Si, is emphasized.« less

  15. Scoring of Side-Chain Packings: An Analysis of Weight Factors and Molecular Dynamics Structures.

    PubMed

    Colbes, Jose; Aguila, Sergio A; Brizuela, Carlos A

    2018-02-26

    The protein side-chain packing problem (PSCPP) is a central task in computational protein design. The problem is usually modeled as a combinatorial optimization problem, which consists of searching for a set of rotamers, from a given rotamer library, that minimizes a scoring function (SF). The SF is a weighted sum of terms, that can be decomposed in physics-based and knowledge-based terms. Although there are many methods to obtain approximate solutions for this problem, all of them have similar performances and there has not been a significant improvement in recent years. Studies on protein structure prediction and protein design revealed the limitations of current SFs to achieve further improvements for these two problems. In the same line, a recent work reported a similar result for the PSCPP. In this work, we ask whether or not this negative result regarding further improvements in performance is due to (i) an incorrect weighting of the SFs terms or (ii) the constrained conformation resulting from the protein crystallization process. To analyze these questions, we (i) model the PSCPP as a bi-objective combinatorial optimization problem, optimizing, at the same time, the two most important terms of two SFs of state-of-the-art algorithms and (ii) performed a preprocessing relaxation of the crystal structure through molecular dynamics to simulate the protein in the solvent and evaluated the performance of these two state-of-the-art SFs under these conditions. Our results indicate that (i) no matter what combination of weight factors we use the current SFs will not lead to better performances and (ii) the evaluated SFs will not be able to improve performance on relaxed structures. Furthermore, the experiments revealed that the SFs and the methods are biased toward crystallized structures.

  16. Delta inulin: a novel, immunologically active, stable packing structure comprising β-D-[2 -> 1] poly(fructo-furanosyl) α-D-glucose polymers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Peter D; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2011-05-01

    We report a novel isoform of β-D-[2 → 1] poly(fructo-furanosyl) α-D-glucose termed delta inulin (DI), comparing it with previously described alpha (AI), beta (BI) and gamma (GI) isoforms. In vitro, DI is the most immunologically active weight/weight in human complement activation and in binding to monocytes and regulating their chemokine production and cell surface protein expression. In vivo, this translates into potent immune adjuvant activity, enhancing humoral and cellular responses against co-administered antigens. As a biocompatible polysaccharide particle, DI is safe and well tolerated by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Physico-chemically, DI forms as an insoluble precipitate from an aqueous solution of suitable AI, BI or GI held at 37-48°C, whereas the precipitate from the same solution at lower temperatures has the properties of AI or GI. DI can also be produced by heat conversion of GI suspensions at 56°C, whereas GI is converted from AI at 45°C. DI is distinguished from GI by its higher temperature of solution in dilute aqueous suspension and by its lower solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide, both consistent with greater hydrogen bonding in DI's polymer packing structure. DI suspensions can be dissolved by heat, re-precipitated by cooling as AI and finally re-converted back to DI by repeated heat treatment. Thus, DI, like the previously described inulin isoforms, reflects the formation of a distinct polymer aggregate packing structure via reversible noncovalent bonding. DI forms the basis for a potent new human vaccine adjuvant and further swells the growing family of carbohydrate structures with immunological activity.

  17. A fresh look at the wolf-pack theory of companion-animal dog social behavior.

    PubMed

    van Kerkhove, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    A popular perspective on the social behavior of dogs in multiple-dog households sees the dogs' behavior as reflecting the sociobiological laws of the rigidly structured dominance hierarchy that has been described for wolf packs. This view suggests that aggression problems among dogs are natural expressions of conflict that arise whenever dominance status is in contention. One recommended solution has been for the owner to endorse and enforce a particular dominance hierarchy because, on the wolf pack model, aggression is minimized when the structure of the hierarchy is clear, strong, and stable. This article questions the validity of this perspective on 2 principal grounds. First, because it does not seem to occur in the wild, this article suggests the strong dominance hierarchy that has been described for wolves may be a by-product of captivity. If true, it implies that social behavior--even in wolves--may be a product more of environmental circumstances and contingencies than an instinctive directive. Second, because feral dogs do not exhibit the classic wolf-pack structure, the validity of the canid, social dominance hierarchy again comes into question. This article suggests that behavioral learning theory offers another perspective regarding the behavior of dogs and wolves in the wild or in captivity and offers an effective intervention for aggression problems.

  18. Hashish Body Packing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Perez, Manuel Jesus; Serrano-Carrillo, Jose Luis; Marin-Montin, Inmaculada; Cruz-Caballero, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    A 42-year-old African male was brought by the police to the emergency department under suspicion of drug smuggling by body-packing. Plain abdominal radiograph showed multiple foreign bodies within the gastrointestinal tract. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT confirmed the findings, and the patient admitted to have swallowed “balls” of hashish. Body-packing is a recognized method of smuggling drugs across international borders. Body packers may present to the emergency department because of drug toxicity, intestinal obstruction, or more commonly, requested by law-enforcement officers for medical confirmation or exclusion of suspected body packing. PMID:19724651

  19. The evolution of the deformation substructure in a Ni-Co-Cr equiatomic solid solution alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Miao, Jiashi; Slone, C. E.; Smith, T. M.; ...

    2017-05-15

    The equiatomic NiCoCr alloy exhibits an excellent combination of strength and ductility, even greater than the FeNiCrCoMn high entropy alloy, and also displays a simultaneous increase in strength and ductility with decreasing the testing temperature. To systemically investigate the origin of the exceptional properties of NiCoCr alloy, which are related to the evolution of the deformation substructure with strain, interrupted tensile testing was conducted on the equiatomic NiCoCr single-phase solid solution alloy at both cryogenic and room temperatures at five different plastic strain levels of 1.5%, 6.5%, 29%, 50% and 70%. The evolution of deformation substructure was examined using electronmore » backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM), diffraction contrast imaging using STEM (DCI-STEM) and atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. While the deformation substructure mainly consisted of planar dislocation slip and the dissociation of dislocations into stacking faults at small strain levels (≤6.5%), at larger strain levels, additional substructures including nanotwins and a new phase with hexagonal close packed (HCP) lamellae also appeared. The volume fraction of the HCP lamellae increases with increasing deformation, especially at cryogenic temperature. First principles calculations at 0 K indicate that the HCP phase is indeed energetically favorable relative to FCC for this composition. In conclusion, the effects of the nanotwin and HCP lamellar structures on hardening rate and ductility at both cryogenic and room temperature are qualitatively discussed.« less

  20. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent. ...

  1. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent. ...

  2. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent. ...

  3. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent. ...

  4. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent. ...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment of...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment of...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment of...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment of...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment of...

  10. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed ( hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. Thismore » is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  11. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; ...

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed ( hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. Thismore » is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  12. Near-zero thermal expansion in magnetically ordered state in dysprosium at high pressures and low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Kevin M.; Samudrala, Gopi K.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2017-01-01

    The atomic volume of rare earth metal dysprosium (Dy) has been measured up to high pressures of 35 GPa and low temperatures between 200 and 7 K in a diamond anvil cell using angle dispersive X-ray diffraction at a synchrotron source. The hexagonal close-packed (hcp), alpha-Samarium (α-Sm), and double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) phases are observed to be stable in Dy under high-pressure and low-temperature conditions achieved in our experiments. Dy is known to undergo magnetic ordering below 176 K at ambient pressure with magnetic ordering Néel temperature (TN) that changes rapidly with increasing pressure. Our experimental measurement shows that Dy has near-zero thermal expansion in the magnetically ordered state and normal thermal expansion in the paramagnetic state for all the three known high pressure phases (hcp, α-Sm, and dhcp) to 35 GPa. This near-zero thermal expansion behavior in Dy is observed below the magnetic ordering temperature TN at all pressures up to 35 GPa.

  13. Densest local sphere-packing diversity. II. Application to three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The densest local packings of N three-dimensional identical nonoverlapping spheres within a radius Rmin(N) of a fixed central sphere of the same size are obtained for selected values of N up to N=1054. In the predecessor to this paper [A. B. Hopkins, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.81.041305 81, 041305 (2010)], we described our method for finding the putative densest packings of N spheres in d-dimensional Euclidean space Rd and presented those packings in R2 for values of N up to N=348. Here we analyze the properties and characteristics of the densest local packings in R3 and employ knowledge of the Rmin(N), using methods applicable in any d, to construct both a realizability condition for pair correlation functions of sphere packings and an upper bound on the maximal density of infinite sphere packings. In R3, we find wide variability in the densest local packings, including a multitude of packing symmetries such as perfect tetrahedral and imperfect icosahedral symmetry. We compare the densest local packings of N spheres near a central sphere to minimal-energy configurations of N+1 points interacting with short-range repulsive and long-range attractive pair potentials, e.g., 12-6 Lennard-Jones, and find that they are in general completely different, a result that has possible implications for nucleation theory. We also compare the densest local packings to finite subsets of stacking variants of the densest infinite packings in R3 (the Barlow packings) and find that the densest local packings are almost always most similar as measured by a similarity metric, to the subsets of Barlow packings with the smallest number of coordination shells measured about a single central sphere, e.g., a subset of the fcc Barlow packing. Additionally, we observe that the densest local packings are dominated by the dense arrangement of spheres with centers at distance Rmin(N). In particular, we find two “maracas” packings at N=77 and

  14. Simulation of abuse tolerance of lithium-ion battery packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotnitz, Robert M.; Weaver, James; Yeduvaka, Gowri; Doughty, D. H.; Roth, E. P.

    A simple approach for using accelerating rate calorimetry data to simulate the thermal abuse resistance of battery packs is described. The thermal abuse tolerance of battery packs is estimated based on the exothermic behavior of a single cell and an energy balance than accounts for radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer modes of the pack. For the specific example of a notebook computer pack containing eight 18650-size cells, the effects of cell position, heat of reaction, and heat-transfer coefficient are explored. Thermal runaway of the pack is more likely to be induced by thermal runaway of a single cell when that cell is in good contact with other cells and is close to the pack wall.

  15. Geometrical families of mechanically stable granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guo-Jie; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2009-12-01

    We enumerate and classify nearly all of the possible mechanically stable (MS) packings of bidipserse mixtures of frictionless disks in small sheared systems. We find that MS packings form continuous geometrical families, where each family is defined by its particular network of particle contacts. We also monitor the dynamics of MS packings along geometrical families by applying quasistatic simple shear strain at zero pressure. For small numbers of particles (N<16) , we find that the dynamics is deterministic and highly contracting. That is, if the system is initialized in a MS packing at a given shear strain, it will quickly lock into a periodic orbit at subsequent shear strain, and therefore sample only a very small fraction of the possible MS packings in steady state. In studies with N>16 , we observe an increase in the period and random splittings of the trajectories caused by bifurcations in configuration space. We argue that the ratio of the splitting and contraction rates in large systems will determine the distribution of MS-packing geometrical families visited in steady state. This work is part of our long-term research program to develop a master-equation formalism to describe macroscopic slowly driven granular systems in terms of collections of small subsystems.

  16. Atomic Migration Induced Crystal Structure Transformation and Core-Centered Phase Transition in Single Crystal Ge2Sb2Te5 Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Jeon, Deok-Jin; Han, Jaehyun; Yeo, Jong-Souk

    2016-10-12

    A phase change nanowire holds a promise for nonvolatile memory applications, but its transition mechanism has remained unclear due to the analytical difficulties at atomic resolution. Here we obtain a deeper understanding on the phase transition of a single crystalline Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanowire (GST NW) using atomic scale imaging, diffraction, and chemical analysis. Our cross-sectional analysis has shown that the as-grown hexagonal close-packed structure of the single crystal GST NW transforms to a metastable face-centered cubic structure due to the atomic migration to the pre-existing vacancy layers in the hcp structure going through iterative electrical switching. We call this crystal structure transformation "metastabilization", which is also confirmed by the increase of set-resistance during the switching operation. For the set to reset transition between crystalline and amorphous phases, high-resolution imaging indicates that the longitudinal center of the nanowire mainly undergoes phase transition. According to the atomic scale analysis of the GST NW after repeated electrical switching, partial crystallites are distributed around the core-centered amorphous region of the nanowire where atomic migration is mainly induced, thus potentially leading to low power electrical switching. These results provide a novel understanding of phase change nanowires, and can be applied to enhance the design of nanowire phase change memory devices for improved electrical performance.

  17. Psychrotrophic Clostridium spp. associated with 'blown pack' spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed red meats and dog rolls in gas-impermeable plastic casings.

    PubMed

    Broda, D M; DeLacy, K M; Bell, R G; Braggins, T J; Cook, R L

    1996-04-01

    'Blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled beef, lamb and venison, and of a cooked meat product, chilled dog rolls packed in an oxygen-impermeable plastic casing, was characterised by sensory, chemical and microbiological analysis. Investigation of the probable causative agents led to the isolation of eight strains of psychrotrophic clostridia. Three strains have been provisionally identified as C. difficile, C. beijerinckii and C. lituseburense; the other five remain unidentified. In inoculation studies only one isolate produced significant amount of gas on meat, causing pack 'blowing'. It is, therefore, possible that 'blown pack' spoilage involves a synergism with one or more other organisms.

  18. Ferromagnetic cobalt nanocrystals achieved by soft annealing approach—From individual behavior to mesoscopic organized properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, C.; Wang, Z. L.; Pileni, M. P.

    2007-05-01

    By gentle annealing, 7 nm cobalt nanoparticles synthesized by soft chemistry, are transformed to hard magnetic hexagonal close packed (HCP) cobalt nanocrystals without changing the size, size distribution and passivating layer. This method permits to recover the nanocrystals isolated in solution after the annealing process and then to study the magnetic properties of the HCP cobalt nanocrystals at isolated status or in a self-organized film. Monolayer self-assembly of the HCP cobalt nanocrystals is obtained, and due to the dipolar interaction, ferromagnetic behavior close to room temperature has been observed. The magnetic properties differ significantly due to the influence of the substrate on the annealing process. This different approach of the annealing process of nanocrystals is compared to the classical approach of annealing in which the nanocrystals are first deposited on a substrate and then annealed.

  19. Correlation of atomic packing with the boson peak in amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. M.; Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189

    2014-09-28

    Boson peaks (BP) have been observed from phonon specific heats in 10 studied amorphous alloys. Two Einstein-type vibration modes were proposed in this work and all data can be fitted well. By measuring and analyzing local atomic structures of studied amorphous alloys and 56 reported amorphous alloys, it is found that (a) the BP originates from local harmonic vibration modes associated with the lengths of short-range order (SRO) and medium-range order (MRO) in amorphous alloys, and (b) the atomic packing in amorphous alloys follows a universal scaling law, i.e., the ratios of SRO and MRO lengths to solvent atomic diametermore » are 3 and 7, respectively, which exact match with length ratios of BP vibration frequencies to Debye frequency for the studied amorphous alloys. This finding provides a new perspective for atomic packing in amorphous materials, and has significant implications for quantitative description of the local atomic orders and understanding the structure-property relationship.« less

  20. The structures of bare and deuterated Co{sub 19}

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, E.K.; Riley, S.J.

    1997-07-01

    The structures of bare Co{sub 19} and deuterated Co{sub 19}D{sub m} clusters are examined by the chemical probe method, and earlier assignments of bare Co{sub 19} as an fcc octahedron are reconsidered. New experimental measurements of the reactivity of Co{sub 19} with ammonia, nitrogen, and deuterium are presented, and together with earlier measurements of the reactivity with water suggest that bare Co{sub 19} has an hcp structure (D{sub 3h} symmetry). The adsorption of deuterium on Co{sub 19} is found to proceed in steps, leading to successive saturation levels at Co{sub 19}D{sub 4}, Co{sub 19}D{sub 14}, and Co{sub 19}D{sub 18}. Usingmore » binding rules derived from earlier studies of larger cobalt and nickel clusters, possible D-atom binding sites on Co{sub 19}D{sub m} (both fcc and hcp) are proposed.« less

  1. Compression of Fe-Si-H alloys to core pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Shoh; Ohta, Kenji; Hirose, Kei; Kato, Chie; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2016-04-01

    We examined the compression behavior of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) (Fe0.88Si0.12)1H0.61 and (Fe0.88Si0.12)1H0.79 (in atomic ratio) alloys up to 138 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). While contradicting experimental results were previously reported on the compression curve of double-hcp (dhcp) FeHx (x ≈ 1), our data show that the compressibility of hcp Fe0.88Si0.12Hx alloys is very similar to those of hcp Fe and Fe0.88Si0.12, indicating that the incorporation of hydrogen into iron does not change its compression behavior remarkably. The present experiments suggest that the inner core may contain up to 0.47 wt % hydrogen (FeH0.26) if temperature is 5000 K. The calculated density profile of Fe0.88Si0.12H0.17 alloy containing 0.32 wt % hydrogen in addition to geochemically required 6.5 wt % silicon matches the seismological observations of the outer core, supporting that hydrogen is an important core light element.

  2. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  3. Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H E; Merry, R J; Davies, D R; Kell, D B; Theodorou, M K; Griffith, G W

    2005-01-01

    To determine the utility of vacuum-packed polythene bags as a convenient, flexible and cost-effective alternative to fixed volume glass vessels for lab-scale silage studies. Using perennial ryegrass or red clover forage, similar fermentations (as assessed by pH measurement) occurred in glass tube and vacuum-packed silos over a 35-day period. As vacuum-packing devices allow modification of initial packing density, the effect of four different settings (initial packing densities of 0.397, 0.435, 0.492 and 0.534 g cm(-3)) on the silage fermentation over 16 days was examined. Significant differences in pH decline and lactate accumulation were observed at different vacuum settings. Gas accumulation was apparent within all bags and changes in bag volume with time was observed to vary according to initial packing density. Vacuum-packed silos do provide a realistic model system for lab-scale silage fermentations. Use of vacuum-packed silos holds potential for lab-scale evaluations of silage fermentations, allowing higher throughput of samples, more consistent packing as well as the possibility of investigating the effects of different initial packing densities and use of different wrapping materials.

  4. Pore orientation effects on the kinetics of mesostructure loss in surfactant templated titania thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Saikat; Nagpure, Suraj; Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; ...

    2016-12-17

    The mesostructure loss kinetics are measured as a function of the orientation of micelles in 2D hexagonal close packed (HCP) columnar mesostructured titania thin films using in situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). Complementary supporting information is provided by ex situ scanning electron microscopy. Pluronic surfactant P123 acts as the template to synthesize HCP structured titania thin films. When the glass substrates are modified with crosslinked P123, the micelles of the HCP mesophase align orthogonal to the films, whereas a mix of parallel and orthogonal alignment is found on unmodified glass. The rate of mesostructure loss of orthogonallymore » oriented (o-HCP) thin films (~60 nm thickness) prepared on modified substrate is consistently found to be less by a factor of 2.5 ± 0.35 than that measured for mixed orientation HCP films on unmodified substrates. The activation energy for mesostructure loss is only slightly greater for films on modified glass (155 ± 25 kJ/mol -1) than on unmodified (128 kJ/mol -1), which implies that the rate difference stems a greater activation entropy for mesostructure loss in o-HCP titania films. Nearly perfect orthogonal orientation of micelles on modified surfaces contributes to the lower rate of mesostructure loss by supporting the anisotropic stresses that develop within the films during annealing due to continuous curing, sintering and crystallization into the anatase phase during high temperature calcination (>450 °C). Because the film thickness dictates the propagation of orientation throughout the films and the degree of confinement, thicker (~250 nm) films cast onto P123-modified substrates have a much lower activation energy for mesostructure loss (89 ± 27 kJ/mol -1) due to the mix of orientations found in the films. Thus, in conclusion, this kinetic study shows that thin P123- templated o-HCP titania films are not only better able to achieve good orthogonal alignment of 3 the mesophase

  5. Pore orientation effects on the kinetics of mesostructure loss in surfactant templated titania thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Saikat; Nagpure, Suraj; Garlapalli, Ravinder K.

    The mesostructure loss kinetics are measured as a function of the orientation of micelles in 2D hexagonal close packed (HCP) columnar mesostructured titania thin films using in situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). Complementary supporting information is provided by ex situ scanning electron microscopy. Pluronic surfactant P123 acts as the template to synthesize HCP structured titania thin films. When the glass substrates are modified with crosslinked P123, the micelles of the HCP mesophase align orthogonal to the films, whereas a mix of parallel and orthogonal alignment is found on unmodified glass. The rate of mesostructure loss of orthogonallymore » oriented (o-HCP) thin films (~60 nm thickness) prepared on modified substrate is consistently found to be less by a factor of 2.5 ± 0.35 than that measured for mixed orientation HCP films on unmodified substrates. The activation energy for mesostructure loss is only slightly greater for films on modified glass (155 ± 25 kJ/mol -1) than on unmodified (128 kJ/mol -1), which implies that the rate difference stems a greater activation entropy for mesostructure loss in o-HCP titania films. Nearly perfect orthogonal orientation of micelles on modified surfaces contributes to the lower rate of mesostructure loss by supporting the anisotropic stresses that develop within the films during annealing due to continuous curing, sintering and crystallization into the anatase phase during high temperature calcination (>450 °C). Because the film thickness dictates the propagation of orientation throughout the films and the degree of confinement, thicker (~250 nm) films cast onto P123-modified substrates have a much lower activation energy for mesostructure loss (89 ± 27 kJ/mol -1) due to the mix of orientations found in the films. Thus, in conclusion, this kinetic study shows that thin P123- templated o-HCP titania films are not only better able to achieve good orthogonal alignment of 3 the mesophase

  6. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A...

  11. Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balvin, Manuel; Zheng, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of on-chip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life. In order to densely pack microbeads into the microchannels, a liquid slurry of microbeads was created. Microbeads were extracted from a commercially available high-performance liquid chromatography column. The silica beads extracted were 5 microns in diameter, and had surface coating of phenyl-hexyl. These microbeads were mixed with a 200- proof ethanol solution to create a microbead slurry with the right viscosity for packing. A microfilter is placed at the outlet via of the microchannel and the slurry is injected, then withdrawn across a filter using modified syringes. After each injection, the channel is flushed with ethanol to enhance packing. This cycle is repeated numerous times to allow for a tightly packed channel of microbeads. Typical microbead packing occurs in the macroscale into tubes or channels by using highly pressurized systems. Moreover, these channels are typically long and straight without any turns or curves. On the other hand, this method of microbead packing is completed within a microchannel 75 micrometers in diameter. Moreover, the microbead packing is completed into a serpentine type microchannel, such that it maximizes microchannel length within a microchip. Doing so enhances the interactions of the analytes with the microbeads to separate efficiently amino acids and amino acid

  12. Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balvin, Manuel; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of on-chip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life. In order to densely pack microbeads into the microchannels, a liquid slurry of microbeads was created. Microbeads were extracted from a commercially available high-performance liquid chromatography column. The silica beads extracted were 5 microns in diameter, and had surface coating of phenyl-hexyl. These microbeads were mixed with a 200- proof ethanol solution to create a microbead slurry with the right viscosity for packing. A microfilter is placed at the outlet via of the microchannel and the slurry is injected, then withdrawn across a filter using modified syringes. After each injection, the channel is flushed with ethanol to enhance packing. This cycle is repeated numerous times to allow for a tightly packed channel of microbeads. Typical microbead packing occurs in the macroscale into tubes or channels by using highly pressurized systems. Moreover, these channels are typically long and straight without any turns or curves. On the other hand, this method of microbead packing is completed within a microchannel 75 micrometers in diameter. Moreover, the microbead packing is completed into a serpentine type microchannel, such that it maximizes microchannel length within a microchip. Doing so enhances the interactions of the analytes with the microbeads to separate efficiently amino acids and amino acid

  13. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  14. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  15. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  16. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  17. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  18. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  20. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  2. Ru nanoframes with an fcc structure and enhanced catalytic properties

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Haihang; Wang, Qingxiao; Catalano, Massimo; ...

    2016-03-21

    Noble-metal nanoframes are of great interest to many applications due to their unique open structures. Among various noble metals, Ru has never been made into nanoframes. In this study, we report for the first time an effective method based on seeded growth and chemical etching for the facile synthesis of Ru nanoframes with high purity. The essence of this approach is to induce the preferential growth of Ru on the corners and edges of Pd truncated octahedra as the seeds by kinetic control. The resultant Pd–Ru core–frame octahedra could be easily converted to Ru octahedral nanoframes of ~2 nm inmore » thickness by selectively removing the Pd cores through chemical etching. Most importantly, in this approach the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure of Pd seeds was faithfully replicated by Ru that usually takes an hcp structure. Furthermore, the fcc Ru nanoframes showed higher catalytic activities toward the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH 4 and the dehydrogenation of ammonia borane compared with hcp Ru nanowires with roughly the same thickness.« less

  3. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... size, 45 size, 50 size, 55 size, etc.). (i) California peach boxes, lug boxes and small consumer packages. In layer-packed California peach boxes or lug boxes, and in small layer packed consumer packages... California peach boxes or lug boxes shall not vary more than 4 from the number indicated on the package...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... size, 45 size, 50 size, 55 size, etc.). (i) California peach boxes, lug boxes and small consumer packages. In layer-packed California peach boxes or lug boxes, and in small layer packed consumer packages... California peach boxes or lug boxes shall not vary more than 4 from the number indicated on the package...

  5. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  6. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  7. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  8. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Peter C.; Rodriguez, Patrick J.; Pereyra, Ramiro A.

    1999-01-01

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries.

  9. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, P.C.; Rodriguez, P.J.; Pereyra, R.A.

    1999-06-29

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object is disclosed. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries. 4 figs.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are packed, and conform to the marked count. (2) In... angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (c) Boxes, flats, lugs, or cartons: (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are packed...” means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (c) Boxes, flats, lugs, or cartons: (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are packed...” means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are packed, and conform to the marked count. (2) In... angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing...

  14. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of the proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are packed, and the number of... angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit. (h) Tolerances. In order to allow for variations...

  15. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of the proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are packed, and the number of... angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit. (h) Tolerances. In order to allow for variations...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are packed, and conform to the marked count. (2) In... angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing...

  17. A phenomenological force model of Li-ion battery packs for enhanced performance and health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2017-10-01

    A 1-D phenomenological force model of a Li-ion battery pack is proposed to enhance the control performance of Li-ion battery cells in pack conditions for efficient performance and health management. The force model accounts for multiple swelling sources under the operational environment of electric vehicles to predict swelling-induced forces in pack conditions, i.e. mechanically constrained. The proposed force model not only incorporates structural nonlinearities due to Li-ion intercalation swelling, but also separates the overall range of states of charge into three ranges to account for phase transitions. Moreover, an approach to study cell-to-cell variations in pack conditions is proposed with serial and parallel combinations of linear and nonlinear stiffness, which account for battery cells and other components in the battery pack. The model is shown not only to accurately estimate the reaction force caused by swelling as a function of the state of charge, battery temperature and environmental temperature, but also to account for cell-to-cell variations due to temperature variations, SOC differences, and local degradation in a wide range of operational conditions of electric vehicles. Considering that the force model of Li-ion battery packs can account for many possible situations in actual operation, the proposed approach and model offer potential utility for the enhancement of current battery management systems and power management strategies.

  18. Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanim, Tanvir R.; Shirk, Matthew G.; Bewley, Randy L.; Dufek, Eric J.; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of 50-kW (about 2C) direct current fast charging on a full-size battery electric vehicle's battery pack in comparison to a pack exclusively charged at 3.3 kW, which is the common alternating current Level 2 charging power level. Comparable scaled charging protocols are also independently applied to individual cells at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, to perform a comparative analysis with the packs. Dominant cell-level aging modes were identified through incremental capacity analysis and compared with full packs to gain a clear understanding of additional key factors that affect pack aging. While the cell-level study showed a minor impact on performance due to direct current fast charging, the packs showed a significantly higher rate of capacity fade under similar charging protocols. This indicates that pack-level aging cannot be directly extrapolated from cell evaluation. Delayed fast charging, completing shortly before discharge, was found to have less of an impact on battery degradation than conventional alternating current Level 2 charging.

  19. Characterizing AISI 1045 steel surface duplex-treated by alternating current field enhanced pack aluminizing and nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fei; Zhang, Ge; Pan, Jianwei

    2018-02-01

    Thin cases and long treating time are shortcomings of conventional duplex treatment of aluminizing followed by nitriding (DTAN). Alternating current field (ACF) enhanced DTAN was carried out on AISI 1045 steel by applying an ACF to treated samples and treating agents with a pair of electrodes for overcoming those shortcomings. By investigating cases' structures, phases, composition and hardness distributions of differently treated samples, preliminary studies were made on characterizations of the ACF enhanced duplex treatment to AISI 1045 steel. The results show that, with the help of the ACF, the surface Al-rich phase Al5Fe2 formed in conventional pack aluminizing can be easily avoided and the aluminizing process is dramatically promoted. The aluminizing case can be nitrided either with conventional pack nitriding or ACF enhanced pack nitriding. By applying ACF to pack nitriding, the diffusion of nitrogen into the aluminizing case is promoted. AlN, Fe2∼3N and solid solution of N in iron are efficiently formed as a result of reactions of N with the aluminizing case. A duplex treated case with an effective thickness of more than 170 μm can be obtained by the alternating current field enhanced 4 h pack aluminizing plus 4 h pack nitriding.

  20. A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704; Ovi, Ifat Rabbil Qudrat

    Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries. Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. Biomass is a widely accessible renewable energy source which reduces CO{sub 2} emissions for producing thermal energy or electricity. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is themore » most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging. CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. Available CFD codes can model the gas phase combustion but it can’t model the solid phase of biomass conversion. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase. It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Packed bed is considered as a porous bed and User Defined Functions (UDFs) platform is used to introduce solid phase user defined variables in the CFD. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method (DTRM) is applied to model the radiation heat transfer. Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion.« less

  1. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements Documents 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include military...

  2. Supramolecular Packing Controls H 2 Photocatalysis in Chromophore Amphiphile Hydrogels

    DOE PAGES

    Weingarten, Adam S.; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Palmer, Liam C.; ...

    2015-11-21

    Light harvesting supramolecular assemblies are potentially useful structures as components of solar-to-fuel conversion materials. The development of these functional constructs requires an understanding of optimal packing modes for chromophores. Here, we investigated assembly in water and the photocatalytic function of perylene monoimide chromophore amphiphiles with different alkyl linker lengths separating their hydrophobic core and the hydrophilic carboxylate headgroup. We found that these chromophore amphiphiles (CAs) self-assemble into charged nanostructures of increasing aspect ratio as the linker length is increased. The addition of salt to screen the charged nanostructures induced the formation of hydrogels and led to internal crystallization within somemore » of the nanostructures. For linker lengths up to seven methylenes, the CAs were found to pack into 2D crystalline unit cells within ribbon-shaped nanostructures, whereas the nine methylene CAs assembled into long nanofibers without crystalline molecular packing. At the same time, the different molecular packing arrangements after charge screening led to different absorbance spectra, despite the identical electronic properties of all PMI amphiphiles. While the crystalline CAs formed electronically coupled H-aggregates, only CAs with intermediate linker lengths showed evidence of high intermolecular orbital overlap. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using a nickel-based catalyst was observed in all hydrogels, with the highest turnovers observed for CA gels having intermediate linker lengths. Lastly, we conclude that the improved photocatalytic performance of the hydrogels formed by supramolecular assemblies of the intermediate linker CA molecules likely arises from improved exciton splitting efficiencies due to their higher orbital overlap.« less

  3. Supramolecular Packing Controls H 2 Photocatalysis in Chromophore Amphiphile Hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Weingarten, Adam S.; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Palmer, Liam C.

    2015-11-21

    Light harvesting supramolecular assemblies are potentially useful structures as components of solar-to-fuel conversion materials. The development of these functional constructs requires an understanding of optimal packing modes for chromophores. We investigated here assembly in water and the photocatalytic function of perylene monoimide chromophore amphiphiles with different alkyl linker lengths separating their hydrophobic core and the hydrophilic carboxylate headgroup. We found that these chromophore amphiphiles (CAs) self-assemble into charged nanostructures of increasing aspect ratio as the linker length is increased. The addition of salt to screen the charged nanostructures induced the formation of hydrogels and led to internal crystallization within somemore » of the nanostructures. For linker lengths up to seven methylenes, the CAs were found to pack into 2D crystalline unit cells within ribbon-shaped nanostructures, whereas the nine methylene CAs assembled into long nanofibers without crystalline molecular packing. At the same time, the different molecular packing arrangements after charge screening led to different absorbance spectra, despite the identical electronic properties of all PMI amphiphiles. While the crystalline CAs formed electronically coupled H-aggregates, only CAs with intermediate linker lengths showed evidence of high intermolecular orbital overlap. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using a nickel-based catalyst was observed in all hydrogels, with the highest turnovers observed for CA gels having intermediate linker lengths. We conclude that the improved photocatalytic performance of the hydrogels formed by supramolecular assemblies of the intermediate linker CA molecules likely arises from improved exciton splitting efficiencies due to their higher orbital overlap.« less

  4. SPH Modelling of Sea-ice Pack Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staroszczyk, Ryszard

    2017-12-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of sea-ice pack motion and deformation under the action of wind and water currents. Differential equations describing the dynamics of ice, with its very distinct mateFfigrial responses in converging and diverging flows, express the mass and linear momentum balances on the horizontal plane (the free surface of the ocean). These equations are solved by the fully Lagrangian method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Assuming that the ice behaviour can be approximated by a non-linearly viscous rheology, the proposed SPH model has been used to simulate the evolution of a sea-ice pack driven by wind drag stresses. The results of numerical simulations illustrate the evolution of an ice pack, including variations in ice thickness and ice area fraction in space and time. The effects of different initial ice pack configurations and of different conditions assumed at the coast-ice interface are examined. In particular, the SPH model is applied to a pack flow driven by a vortex wind to demonstrate how well the Lagrangian formulation can capture large deformations and displacements of sea ice.

  5. Monitoring Corrosion of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion. PMID:24558346

  6. Monitoring corrosion of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion.

  7. The self-organization of grid cells in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Do we expect periodic grid cells to emerge in bats, or perhaps dolphins, exploring a three-dimensional environment? How long will it take? Our self-organizing model, based on ring-rate adaptation, points at a complex answer. The mathematical analysis leads to asymptotic states resembling face centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal structures, which are calculated to be very close to each other in terms of cost function. The simulation of the full model, however, shows that the approach to such asymptotic states involves several sub-processes over distinct time scales. The smoothing of the initially irregular multiple fields of individual units and their arrangement into hexagonal grids over certain best planes are observed to occur relatively quickly, even in large 3D volumes. The correct mutual orientation of the planes, though, and the coordinated arrangement of different units, take a longer time, with the network showing no sign of convergence towards either a pure FCC or HCP ordering. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05913.001 PMID:25821989

  8. Infective endocarditis of native valve after anterior nasal packing.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Eisdorfer, Jacob; Indulkar, Shalaka; Zarkaria, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient who was previously treated for spontaneous epistaxis with a petroleum jelly gauze (0.5 in x 72 in) anterior nasal packing filled with an antibiotic ointment, along with prophylactic oral clindamycin. The patient presented with fever and hypotension 3 days after the nasal packing. Her blood cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the transesophageal echocardiography showed vegetation on the atrial surface of the posterior mitral valve leaflet, confirming the diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis attributable to nasal packing. Several case reports discuss toxic shock syndrome after nasal packing, but none describe endocarditis of the native heart valves subsequent to anterior nasal packing. Current guidelines on endocarditis prophylaxis produced by the American Heart Association, European Cardiac Society, and British Cardiac Society together with published evidence do not recommend endocarditis prophylaxis for patients with native heart valves undergoing anterior nasal packing.

  9. Effects of particle packing on the sintered microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, E. A.; Bowen, H. K.

    1988-04-01

    The sintering process is shown to be critically dependent on particle-packing density and porosity uniformity. Sintering experiments were conducted on compacts consisting of monodisperse, spherical TiO2 particles. Densification kinetics and microstructure evolution for two initial packing densities, 55% and 69% of theoretical, were investigated. The lower-density compacts sintered rapidly to theoretical density, yet improved particle-packing density and uniformity significantly enhanced densification.

  10. Second moment scaling and the relationship of geometric and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hoistad, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Extended Hueckel band calculations were used to show the ditellurides in the CdI[sub 2] structure type with more than 16 valence electrons/MTe[sub 2] unit should have an instability due to their electronic structure. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the electron rich Ta[sub 1[minus]x]Ti[sub x]Te[sub 2] (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) show that a statistical distortion of the CdI[sub 2] structure type has indeed occurred for these compounds confirming the theoretical calculations. Second Moment Scaled Hueckel theory was used to examine the basis of the Hume-Rothery phases are face centered cubic, hexagonal closest packed ([zeta], [epsilon] and [eta]-hcp),more » body centered cubic, [beta]-Mn and [gamma]-brass structures. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretically predicted electron concentration ranges was achieved when an s, p and contracted d orbital model was used. The results presented in this thesis were the first theoretical calculations that corroborate the entire set of Hume-Rothery electron concentration rules. Second Moment Scaled Hueckel energies were used for constructing structure maps for intermetallic compounds with stoichiometry ZA[sub 2], ZA[sub 3] and ZA[sub 6]. Calculations were performed only on the covalent network of the A atoms. The structure types considered were SmSb[sub 2], ZrSi[sub 2], Cu[sub 2]Sb, AuCu[sub 3], TiNi[sub 3], TiCu[sub 3], BiF[sub 3], SnNi[sub 3], NdTe[sub 3], TiS[sub 3], SmAu[sub 6], CeCu[sub 6] and PuGa[sub 6]. The bond distance variation found for closo-borohydrides B[sub 8]H[sub 8][sup 2[minus

  11. Scandinavian consumer preference for beef steaks packed with or without oxygen.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, M D; Tørngren, M A; Madsen, N T

    2010-07-01

    Beef steaks retail-packed with (80% O(2), 20% CO(2)) or without oxygen (either skin-packed or gas-packed (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO or 70% N(2), 30% CO(2))) were compared by consumers in Denmark (n=382), Norway (n=316) and Sweden (n=374). Two pairs of two steaks - one steak packed in a high oxygen atmosphere and one packed without oxygen - were given to the consumers. They were instructed to prepare the steaks at home on two consecutive days, and two persons had to taste each steak. In Denmark, the oxygen-free packing was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO) or without CO (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)), in Norway it was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO) or skin packing, and in Sweden it was either skin packing or gas packing without CO (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)). The meat represented animals that were between 17 and 80 months old (Denmark) and young bulls (Norway and Sweden). Consumers in all three countries clearly preferred steaks packed without oxygen, in terms of overall liking, willingness to pay and their preferred choice of one steak. Furthermore, they preferred the oxygen-free steaks in terms of both overall liking and liking of tenderness, juiciness and flavour. In Sweden, many consumers would pay more than usual for the skin-packed steak, and it was more often chosen as the preferred steak out of the four compared with gas-packed without oxygen. No difference was seen between the two oxygen-free packing methods in Denmark and Norway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlling Blown Pack Spoilage Using Anti-Microbial Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Rachael; Tyuftin, Andrey A.; Kerry, Joe P.; Whyte, Paul; Bolton, Declan

    2017-01-01

    Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum, DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly (p < 0.01) increased using Auranta FV and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid sodium salt) at both concentrations. Moreover, sodium octanoate packs had significantly (p < 0.01) delayed blown pack spoilage as compared to Auranta FV. It was therefore concluded that Auranta FV or sodium octanoate, incorporated into the packaging materials used for vacuum packaged beef, would inhibit blown pack spoilage and in the case of the latter, well beyond the 42 days storage period currently required for beef primals. PMID:28805679

  13. Controlling Blown Pack Spoilage Using Anti-Microbial Packaging.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rachael; Bolton, Declan; Tiuftin, Andrey A; Kerry, Joe P; Fanning, Séamus; Whyte, Paul

    2017-08-12

    Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum , DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly ( p < 0.01) increased using Auranta FV and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid sodium salt) at both concentrations. Moreover, sodium octanoate packs had significantly ( p < 0.01) delayed blown pack spoilage as compared to Auranta FV. It was therefore concluded that Auranta FV or sodium octanoate, incorporated into the packaging materials used for vacuum packaged beef, would inhibit blown pack spoilage and in the case of the latter, well beyond the 42 days storage period currently required for beef primals.

  14. Use of Pom Pons to Illustrate Cubic Crystal Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a method that uses olefin pom pons to illustrate cubic crystal structure. Facilitates hands-on examination of different packing arrangements such as hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed structures. (JRH)

  15. Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.

    2017-09-01

    The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (<0.7 nm) and large (0.7-1.0 nm) micropores, the former enhancing selectivity and the latter permeability. Gas permeability data for PIM-TMN-Trip surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds for O2/N2, H2/N2, CO2/N2, H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4, with the potential for biogas purification and carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.

  16. Is it more dangerous to perform inadequate packing?

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Unal; Yazici, Pinar; Zeytunlu, Murat; Coker, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Peri-hepatic packing procedure, which is the basic damage control technique for the treatment of hepatic hemorrhage, is one of the cornerstones of the surgical strategy for abdominal trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the perihepatic packing procedure by comparing the outcomes of appropriately and inappropriately performed interventions. Trauma patients with liver injury were retrospectively evaluated. The patients who had undergone adequate packing were classified as Group A, and the patients who had undergone inappropriate packing, as Group B. Over a five-year period, nineteen patients underwent perihepatic packing. Thirteen of these patients were referred by other hospitals. Of 13 patients, 9 with inappropriate packing procedure due to insertion of intraabdominal drainage catheter (n=4) and underpacking (n=5) were evaluated in Group B, and the others (n=10) with adequate packing were assessed in Group A. Mean 3 units of blood were transfused in Group A and unpacking procedure was performed in the 24th hour. Only 3 (30%) patients required segment resection with homeostasis, and the mortality rate was 20% (2/10 patients). In Group B, 4 patients required repacking in the first 6 hrs. Mean 8 units of blood were transfused until unpacking procedure. The mortality rate was 44% (4/9 patients). The length of intensive care unit stay and requirement of blood transfusion were statistically significantly lower in Group A (p < 0.05). The mortality rate of this group was also lower. However, the difference between the groups for mortality rates was not statistically significant. This study emphasizes that efficacy of the procedure is one of the determinants that affects the results, and inadequate or inappropriate packing may easily result in poor outcome. PMID:18194549

  17. High-Pressure Phase Transition of Iron: A Combined Magnetic Remanence and Mössbauer Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingguo; McCammon, Catherine; Gilder, Stuart Alan

    2017-12-01

    We measured Mössbauer spectra and the acquisition of saturation isothermal remanent magnetization in alternating steps on the same sample of polycrystalline, multidiron metal powder in a diamond anvil cell across the body centered cubic (bcc) to hexagonal closed packed (hcp) phase transition at room temperature up to 19.2 GPa. Within the bcc stability field indicated by the presence of magnetic hyperfine splitting, saturation remanent magnetization and sextet area were well correlated during compression and decompression. The areas and dips of the outer (first and sixth) and middle (second and fifth) components of the sextet changed in relative proportion as a function of pressure, which was attributed to rotation of the magnetization direction perpendicular to the gamma-ray source. Sextet peaks disappeared above ˜15 GPa, yet magnetic remanence persisted. Magnetic remanence intensity divided by the fractional area of the sextet, taken to represent bcc Fe, attained maxima at pressures near the boundaries of the hysteretic transition, which we attribute to strain-related magnetostriction effects associated with a distorted bcc-hcp phase. Magnetic remanence observed within the hcp stability field, as defined by the absence of sextet peaks, could be due to a previously described, distorted bcc-hcp phase whose hyperfine field was below detection limits of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our study suggests that distorted bcc-hcp Fe holds magnetic remanence and leaves open the possibility that this phase carries magnetic remanence into the pressure range where only pure hcp Fe is considered stable.

  18. Thermodynamics and kinetics of pack aluminide coating formation on IN-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Caves, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of pack variables on the formation of aluminide coatings on nickel-base superalloy IN-100 was conducted. Also, the thermodynamics and kinetics of coating formation were analyzed. Observed coating weights were in good agreement with predictions made from the analysis. Pack temperature rather than pack aluminum activity controls the principal coating phase formed. In 1 weight percent aluminum packs, aluminum weight gains were related to the halide pack activator. Solid-state nickel diffusion controlled coating formation from sodium fluoride and chloride and ammonium fluoride activated packs. In other ammonium and sodium halide activated 1 weight percent aluminum packs, gaseous diffusion controlled coating formation.

  19. A study of the genetic relationships within and among wolf packs using DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, Niles; Clarkson, Peter; Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Wayne, Robert K.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA analyses have not been used in combination to study relatedness in natural populations. We present an approach that involves defining the mean fingerprint similarities among individuals thought to be unrelated because they have different mtDNA genotypes. Two classes of related individuals are identified by their distance in standard errors above this mean value. The number of standard errors is determined by analysis of the association between fingerprint similarity and relatedness in a population with a known genealogy. We apply this approach to gray wolf packs from Minnesota, Alaska, and the Northwest Territories. Our results show that: (1) wolf packs consist primarily of individuals that are closely related genetically, but some packs contain unrelated, non-reproducing individuals; (2) dispersal among packs within the same area is common; and (3) short-range dispersal appears more common for female than male wolves. The first two of these genetically-based observations are consistent with behavioral data on pack structure and dispersal in wolves, while the apparent sex bias in dispersal was not expected.

  20. Optimization of heterogeneous Bin packing using adaptive genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Sriramya, C.; Page, Tom

    2017-03-01

    This research is concentrates on a very interesting work, the bin packing using hybrid genetic approach. The optimal and feasible packing of goods for transportation and distribution to various locations by satisfying the practical constraints are the key points in this project work. As the number of boxes for packing can not be predicted in advance and the boxes may not be of same category always. It also involves many practical constraints that are why the optimal packing makes much importance to the industries. This work presents a combinational of heuristic Genetic Algorithm (HGA) for solving Three Dimensional (3D) Single container arbitrary sized rectangular prismatic bin packing optimization problem by considering most of the practical constraints facing in logistic industries. This goal was achieved in this research by optimizing the empty volume inside the container using genetic approach. Feasible packing pattern was achieved by satisfying various practical constraints like box orientation, stack priority, container stability, weight constraint, overlapping constraint, shipment placement constraint. 3D bin packing problem consists of ‘n’ number of boxes being to be packed in to a container of standard dimension in such a way to maximize the volume utilization and in-turn profit. Furthermore, Boxes to be packed may be of arbitrary sizes. The user input data are the number of bins, its size, shape, weight, and constraints if any along with standard container dimension. This user input were stored in the database and encoded to string (chromosomes) format which were normally acceptable by GA. GA operators were allowed to act over these encoded strings for finding the best solution.

  1. Pack rats (Neotoma spp.): Keystone ecological engineers?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential role of two species of pack rats (Neotoma albigula and Neotoma micropus) as keystone ecological engineers was examined by estimating the species diversity of invertebrates living in the nest middens, and nitrogen mineralization rates in soils associated with the middens. Although pack-...

  2. Strong, Ductile, and Thermally Stable bcc-Mg Nanolaminates

    DOE PAGES

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Baldwin, Jon Kevin Scott; ...

    2017-08-15

    Magnesium has attracted attention worldwide because it is the lightest structural metal. However, a high strength-to-weight ratio remains its only attribute, since an intrinsic lack of strength, ductility and low melting temperature severely restricts practical applications of Mg. Through interface strains, the crystal structure of Mg can be transformed and stabilized from a simple hexagonal (hexagonal close packed hcp) to body center cubic (bcc) crystal structure at ambient pressures. Here, we demonstrate that when introduced into a nanocomposite bcc Mg is far more ductile, 50% stronger, and retains its strength after extended exposure to 200°C, which is 0.5 times itsmore » homologous temperature. These findings reveal an alternative solution to obtaining lightweight metals critically needed for future energy efficiency and fuel savings.« less

  3. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  4. FinalReport-DOE BES DMSE-UNR-QLi

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qizhen

    The primary goal of this project is to explore the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms for magnesium with a hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal structure. It is critical to perform this project for a number of reasons. First, magnesium is the lightest structural metal and its application in various structural components can save the final component weight. Second, the weight reduction from the usage of magnesium-based structural components in transportation vehicles such as automobiles and aircrafts can improve fuel efficiency and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Third, structural components often experience dynamic loading such as cyclic loading conditions. Fourth, magnesiummore » with a HCP crystal structure generally has its special deformation responses under loading conditions. This project investigated magnesium based materials (magnesium single crystal, pure polycrystalline magnesium, and some magnesium alloys) under various loading conditions, and also explored some processing routes to manipulate the microstructure and mechanical properties of magnesium. The research results were published in a number of articles and also disseminated through presentations in various conferences such as TMS annual meetings, MRS meetings, the international Plasticity conferences, the Pacific Rim International Congress on Advanced Materials and Processing, and AeroMat. In addition to the contribution to the research/academic community, this project is also beneficial to the general public. With the actual usage of magnesium in the passenger cars, the weight reduction and fuel consumption reduction will save the fuel bill of individual owners.« less

  5. Toward rational nanoparticle synthesis: predicting surface intermixing in bimetallic alloy nanocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Roling, Luke T.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2017-09-19

    In this paper, we present a database of first-principles calculated activation energy barriers for two competitive processes involving bimetallic adatom-surface permutations of ten transition metals: (i) adatom “hopping” diffusion and (ii) adatom substitution into the surface. We consider the surface structure sensitivity of these events as well as coverage effects. We find that surface hopping mechanisms are facile and always preferred to substitution events on close-packed fcc(111) and hcp(0001) surfaces. However, surface atom substitution is more facile on the more open fcc(100) surfaces and is competitive with adatom surface hopping, which is more difficult than on the close-packed surfaces. Finally,more » by comparing the absolute and relative magnitudes of the energetics of hopping and substitution, our calculations can offer qualitative predictions of intermixing and other phenomena relevant to nanocrystal growth, such as the tendency to form intermixed alloys or core–shell structures during layer-by-layer nanoparticle synthesis involving a given bimetallic pair, and thereby inform the rational design and synthesis of novel bimetallic nanomaterials.« less

  6. Precision Measurement of the Mass of the hc(P11) State of Charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Libby, J.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Ecklund, K. M.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Li, J.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sultana, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Hunt, J. M.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Mehrabyan, S.; Lowrey, N.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.

    2008-10-01

    A precision measurement of the mass of the hc(P11) state of charmonium has been made using a sample of 24.5×106 ψ(2S) events produced in e+e- annihilation at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). The reaction used was ψ(2S)→π0hc, π0→γγ, hc→γηc, and the reaction products were detected in the CLEO-c detector. Data have been analyzed both for the inclusive reaction and for the exclusive reactions in which ηc decays are reconstructed in 15 hadronic decay channels. Consistent results are obtained in the two analyses. The averaged results of the present measurements are M(hc)=3525.28±0.19(stat.)±0.12(syst.)MeV, and B(ψ(2S)→π0hc)×B(hc→γηc)=(4.19±0.32±0.45)×10-4. Using the PJ3 centroid mass, ΔMhf(1P)≡⟨M(χcJ)⟩-M(hc)=+0.02±0.19±0.13MeV.

  7. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  8. Lattice vibrations and electronic transitions in the rare-earth metals: yttrium, gadolinium and lutetium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olijnyk, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Lattice vibrations in high-pressure phases of Y, Gd and Lu were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The observed phonon frequencies decrease towards the transitions to the dhcp and fcc phases. There is evidence that the entire structural sequence {\\mathrm {hcp \\to Sm\\mbox {-}type \\to dhcp \\to fcc}} under pressure for the individual regular rare-earth metals and along the lanthanide series at ambient pressure involve softening of certain acoustic and optical phonon modes and of the elastic shear modulus C44. Comparison is made to transitions between close-packed lattices in other metals, and possible correlations to s-d electron transfer are discussed.

  9. Evaluating potential overlap between pack stock and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, Robert C.; Few, Alexandra P.; Knox, Kathleen A.; Hatfield, Brian E.; Clark, Jonathan; German, David W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The association analyses indicated the potential for overlap between pack stock and SNBS was minimal; only 1 percent of the potential meadow area in the SNBS herd home ranges overlapped that of pack stock meadows. There were no systematic differences in overall vegetation structure or composition, or in diversity, cover, or composition of forage species, that indicated pack stock were altering SNBS habitat or affecting their nutrition. Variation in plant species composition was influenced primarily by random differences among meadows and environmental gradients, and there was little evidence that pack stock use contributed in meaningful ways to this variation. The few differences among meadows with different levels of use by bighorn sheep and pack stock either were minor or were not in a direction consistent with negative effects of pack stock on SNBS. We conclude that the current plan for managing pack stock grazing has been successful in minimizing significant negative effects on Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

  10. A reliability design method for a lithium-ion battery pack considering the thermal disequilibrium in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Quan; Wang, Zili; Ren, Yi; Sun, Bo; Yang, Dezhen; Feng, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of lithium-ion battery technology in the electric vehicle (EV) industry, the lifetime of the battery cell increases substantially; however, the reliability of the battery pack is still inadequate. Because of the complexity of the battery pack, a reliability design method for a lithium-ion battery pack considering the thermal disequilibrium is proposed in this paper based on cell redundancy. Based on this method, a three-dimensional electric-thermal-flow-coupled model, a stochastic degradation model of cells under field dynamic conditions and a multi-state system reliability model of a battery pack are established. The relationships between the multi-physics coupling model, the degradation model and the system reliability model are first constructed to analyze the reliability of the battery pack and followed by analysis examples with different redundancy strategies. By comparing the reliability of battery packs of different redundant cell numbers and configurations, several conclusions for the redundancy strategy are obtained. More notably, the reliability does not monotonically increase with the number of redundant cells for the thermal disequilibrium effects. In this work, the reliability of a 6 × 5 parallel-series configuration is the optimal system structure. In addition, the effect of the cell arrangement and cooling conditions are investigated.

  11. Insight into the defects of cage-type silica mesoporous crystals with Fd3m symmetry: TEM observations and a new proposal of "polyhedron packing" for the crystals.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Che, Shunai; Terasaki, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Silica mesoporous crystals were synthesized by using a gemini cationic surfactant (C(18-3-1)) as the directing agent, carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt as the co-structure directing agent (CSDA), and varying amounts of HCl. By using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we observed 1) a structural change from the close-packed structures of spherical micelles--face-centered cubic (Fm3m) and hexagonal close-packed (P6(3)/mmc)--to Fd3m structures with an increase of HCl and 2) a few structural defects in the crystals with Fd3m symmetry. The structure of a crystal with Fd3m symmetry is described as one of the tetrahedrally close-packed (tcp) structures consisting of 5(12) and 5(12)6(4) polyhedra. The observed TEM images of the structural defects were explained well through use of simulated TEM images by introducing new 13-15 polyhedra comprising 5(12)6(2), 5(12)6(3), 4(1)5(10)6(2), 4(2)5(8)6(5), and 4(1)5(10)6(4), which have been observed in bubbles by Matzke. The mesostructural changes and defect formation are discussed in terms of the hardness of micelles composed of surfactant/CSDA/silica species that have formed through a change of the interaction between the surfactant and CSDA, which causes the micelles to change from a regime of close-packing to one of minimum-area packing.

  12. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model,more » which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.« less

  13. Marginal rigidity and history dependence in packings of attractive athermal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargteil, Dylan; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Brujic, Jasna

    2014-03-01

    The geometry and stress through particulate packings depends on the method of preparation and the interaction potential between the particles. Previously, we discovered that creaming frictionless, athermal emulsions with a short-range depletion attraction leads to an initial increase in the packing density above random close packing, followed by a monotonic decrease in density (Jorjadze et al, PNAS, 2011). This decrease is because the attractive force stabilizes loose voids, thus reducing the average coordination number, , of the packing. In order to understand the mechanism of packing creation, we investigate whether the final density is influenced by the polydispersity or the initial volume fraction of droplets, as it is in frictional packings. Finally, we compress the attractive packings by centrifugation to probe the scaling laws of pressure versus density and and compare them with those found in repulsive packings (Jorjadze et al, PRL, 2013).

  14. 21 CFR 133.123 - Cold-pack and club cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack and club cheese. 133.123 Section 133.123... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese, club cheese, is...

  15. Diffusion in Jammed Particle Packs.

    PubMed

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Grest, Gary S; Lechman, Jeremy B; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2015-08-21

    Using random walk simulations we explore diffusive transport through monodisperse sphere packings over a range of packing fractions ϕ in the vicinity of the jamming transition at ϕ(c). Various diffusion properties are computed over several orders of magnitude in both time and packing pressure. Two well-separated regimes of normal "Fickian" diffusion, where the mean squared displacement is linear in time, are observed. The first corresponds to diffusion inside individual spheres, while the latter is the long-time bulk diffusion. The intermediate anomalous diffusion regime and the long-time value of the diffusion coefficient are both shown to be controlled by particle contacts, which in turn depend on proximity to ϕ(c). The time required to recover normal diffusion t* scales as (ϕ-ϕ(c))(-0.5) and the long-time diffusivity D(∞)∼(ϕ-ϕ(c))0.5, or D(∞)∼1/t*. It is shown that the distribution of mean first passage times associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles controls both t* and D(∞) in the limit ϕ→ϕ(c).

  16. Conformational flexibility and packing plausibility of repaglinide polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Dimpy; Goyal, Parnika; Chadha, Renu

    2018-04-01

    The present manuscript highlights the structural insight into the repaglinide polymorphs. The experimental screening for the possible crystal forms were carried out using various solvents, which generated three forms. The crystal structure of Form II and III was determined using PXRD pattern whereas structural analysis of Form I has already been reported. Form I, II and II was found to exist in P212121, PNA21 and P21/c space groups respectively. Conformational analysis was performed to account the conformational flexibility of RPG. The obtained conformers were further utilized to obtain the information about the crystal packing pattern of RPG polymorphs by polymorph prediction module. The lattice energy landscape, depicting the relationship between lattice energy and density of the polymorphs has been obtained for various possible polymorphs. The experimentally isolated polymorphs were successfully fitted into lattice energy landscape.

  17. 36 CFR § 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Horses and pack animals. Â..., PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  18. Improved Taxation Rate for Bin Packing Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Walter; Qiu, Xian

    A cooperative bin packing game is a N-person game, where the player set N consists of k bins of capacity 1 each and n items of sizes a 1, ⋯ ,a n . The value of a coalition of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in the coalition that can be packed into the bins of the coalition. We present an alternative proof for the non-emptiness of the 1/3-core for all bin packing games and show how to improve this bound ɛ= 1/3 (slightly). We conjecture that the true best possible value is ɛ= 1/7.

  19. Origins of anisotropic seismic attenuation of the inner core - intrinsic anelasticity of hcp iron alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfern, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Earth's inner core is elastically anisotropic, with seismology showing faster wave propagation along the polar axis compared to the equatorial plane. Some inner core studies report anisotropic seismic attenuation. Attenuation of body-waves has, previously, been postulated to be due to scattering by anisotropic microstructure, but recent normal mode studies also show strong anisotropic attenuation (Mäkinen et al. 2014). This suggests that the anisotropic attenuation is a result of the intrinsic (and anisotropic) anelastic properties of the solid iron alloy forming Earth's inner core. Here, I consider the origins of inner core anisotropic attenuation. Possibilities include grain boundary relaxation, dislocation bowing/glide, or point defect (alloying element) relaxations. The inner core is an almost perfect environment for near-equilibrium crystallisation, with very low temperature gradients across the inner core, low gravity, and slow crystallisation rates. It is assumed that grain sizes may be of the order of hundreds of metres. This implies vanishingly small volumes of grain boundary, and insignificant grain boundary relaxation. The very high homologous temperature and the absence of obvious deviatoric stress, also leads one to conclude that dislocation densities are low. On the other hand, estimates for light element concentrations are of the order of a few % with O, S, Si, C and H at various times being suggested as candidate elements. Light element solutes in hcp metals contribute to intrinsic anelastic attenuation if they occur in sufficient concentrations to pair and form elastic dipoles. Switching of dipoles under the stress of a passing seismic wave will result in anelastic mechanical loss. Such attenuation has been measured in hcp metals in the lab, and is anisotropic due to the intrinsic elastic anisotropy of the host lattice. Such solute pair relaxations result in a "Zener effect", which is suggested here to be responsible for observed anisotropic

  20. 21 CFR 890.5730 - Moist heat pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moist heat pack. 890.5730 Section 890.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5730 Moist heat pack. (a...