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Sample records for paclitaxel inhibits growth

  1. Effect of a thiolated polymer on oral paclitaxel absorption and tumor growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Föger, Florian; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Wannaprasert, Thanakul; Huck, Christian; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Werle, Martin

    2008-02-01

    The anticancer agent paclitaxel is currently commercially available only as an infusion due to its low oral bioavailability. An oral formulation would be highly beneficial for patients. Besides the low solubility, the main reason for the limited oral bioavailability of paclitaxel is that it is a substrate of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Recently, it has been demonstrated that P-gp can be inhibited by thiolated polymers. In this study, an oral paclitaxel formulation based on thiolated polycarbophil was evaluated in vivo in wild-type rats and in mammary cancer-induced rats. The paclitaxel plasma level after a single administration of paclitaxel was observed for 12 h in healthy rats. Moreover, cancer-induced rats were treated weekly for 5 weeks with the novel formulation. It was demonstrated that (1) co-administration of thiolated polycarbophil significantly improved paclitaxel plasma levels, (2) a more constant pharmacokinetic profile could be achieved and (3) the tumor growth was reduced. These effects can most likely be attributed to P-gp inhibition. According to the achieved results, thiolated polymers are believed to be interesting tools for the delivery of P-gp substrates such as paclitaxel.

  2. Paclitaxel Impairs Adipose Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choron, Rachel L.; Chang, Shaohua; Khan, Sophia; Villalobos, Miguel A.; Zhang, Ping; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Tulenko, Thomas N.; Liu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression have poor surgical site wound healing. Prior literature supports the use of human adipose-derived stem cell (hASC) lipoinjection to improve wound healing. It has been established multipotent hASCs facilitate neovascularization, accelerated epithelialization, and wound closure in animal models. While hASC wound therapy may benefit surgical cancer patients, the chemotherapeutic effects on hASCs are unknown. We hypothesized Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, impairs hASC growth, multipotency, and induces apoptosis. METHODS hASCs were isolated and harvested from consented, chemotherapy and radiation naïve patients. Growth curves, MTT, and EdU assays measured cytotoxicity and proliferation. Oil-Red-O stain, Alazarin-Red stain, Matrigel tube-formation assay, and qPCR analyzed hASC differentiation. Annexin V assay measured apoptosis. Immunostaining and Western blot determined TNF-α expression. RESULTS hASCs were selectively more sensitive to Paclitaxel (0.01μM–30μM) than fibroblasts (p<0.05). After 12 days, Paclitaxel caused hASC growth arrest whereas control hASCs proliferated (p=0.006). Paclitaxel caused an 80.6% reduction in new DNA synthesis (p<0.001). Paclitaxel severely inhibited endothelial differentiation and capillary-like tube formation. Differentiation markers LPL (adipogenic), alkaline phosphatase (osteogenic), CD31 and vWF (endothelial) were significantly decreased (all: p<0.05) confirming Paclitaxel impaired differentiation. Paclitaxel was also found to induce apoptosis and TNF-α was up-regulated in Paclitaxel-treated hASCs (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Paclitaxel is more cytotoxic to hASCs than fibroblasts. Paclitaxel inhibits hASC proliferation, differentiation, and induces apoptosis, possibly through the TNF-α pathway. Paclitaxel’s severe inhibition of endothelial differentiation indicates neovascularization disruption, possibly causing poor wound healing in cancer patients

  3. Cancer Associated Fibroblast-Derived Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibits the Paclitaxel-Induced Apoptosis of Lung Cancer A549 Cells by Up-Regulating the PI3K/Akt and GRP78 Signaling on a Microfluidic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiyun; He, Tianrui; Li, Encheng; Guo, Zhe; Liu, Fen; Jiang, Chunmeng; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Tumor stroma and growth factors provide a survival environment to tumor cells and can modulate their chemoresistance by dysregulating several signal pathways. In this study, we fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to investigate the impact of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the Met/PI3K/AKT activation, glucose regulatory protein (GRP78) expression and the paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. With a concentration gradient generator, the assembled chip was able to reconstruct a tumor microenvironment in vitro. We found high levels of HGF in the supernatants of CAF and the CAF matrix from the supernatants of activated HFL1 fibroblasts or HGF enhanced the levels of Met, PI3K and AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression in A549 cells cultured in a 3D cell chamber, which was abrogated by anti-HGF. Inhibition of Met attenuated the CAF matrix-enhanced PI3K/AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression while inhibition of PI3K reduced GRP78 expression, but not Met phosphorylation in A549 cells. Inhibition of GRP78 failed to modulate the CAF matrix-enhanced Met/PI3K/AKT phosphorylation in A549 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 enhanced spontaneous and paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Moreover, treatment with the CAF matrix inhibited spontaneous and medium or high dose of paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 attenuated the CAF matrix-mediated inhibition on paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Our data indicated that HGF in the CAF matrix activated the Met/PI3K/AKT and up-regulated GRP78 expression, promoting chemoresistance to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Our findings suggest that the microfluidic system may represent an ideal platform for signaling research and drug screening. PMID:26115510

  4. Inhibition of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL Restores Paclitaxel Chemosensitivity in Uterine Serous Cancer.

    PubMed

    Palisoul, Marguerite L; Quinn, Jeanne M; Schepers, Emily; Hagemann, Ian S; Guo, Lei; Reger, Kelsey; Hagemann, Andrea R; McCourt, Carolyn K; Thaker, Premal H; Powell, Matthew A; Mutch, David G; Fuh, Katherine C

    2017-12-01

    Uterine serous cancer (USC) is aggressive, and the majority of recurrent cases are chemoresistant. Because the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL promotes invasion and metastasis of USC and is implicated in chemoresistance in other cancers, we assessed the role of AXL in paclitaxel resistance in USC, determined the mechanism of action, and sought to restore chemosensitivity by inhibiting AXL in vitro and in vivo We used short hairpin RNAs and BGB324 to knock down and inhibit AXL. We assessed sensitivity of USC cell lines to paclitaxel and measured paclitaxel intracellular accumulation in vitro in the presence or absence of AXL. We also examined the role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in AXL-mediated paclitaxel resistance. Finally, we treated USC xenografts with paclitaxel, BGB324, or paclitaxel plus BGB324 and monitored tumor burden. AXL expression was higher in chemoresistant USC patient tumors and cell lines than in chemosensitive tumors and cell lines. Knockdown or inhibition of AXL increased sensitivity of USC cell lines to paclitaxel in vitro and increased cellular accumulation of paclitaxel. AXL promoted chemoresistance even in cells that underwent the EMT in vitro Finally, in vivo studies of combination treatment with BGB324 and paclitaxel showed a greater than 51% decrease in tumor volume after 2 weeks of treatment when compared with no treatment or single-agent treatments ( P < 0.001). Our results show that AXL expression mediates chemoresistance independent of EMT and prevents accumulation of paclitaxel. This study supports the continued investigation of AXL as a clinical target, particularly in chemoresistant USC. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(12); 2881-91. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. MicroRNA-137 inhibits tumor growth and sensitizes chemosensitivity to paclitaxel and cisplatin in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xin; Jiang, Cheng-Fei; Shi, Zhu-Mei; Li, Dong-Mei; Liu, Wei-Tao; Yu, Xiaobo; Shu, Yong-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy resistance frequently drives tumour progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. In this study, we explored miR-137's role in the chemosensitivity of lung cancer. We found that the expression level of miR-137 is down-regulated in the human lung cancer tissues and the resistant cells strains: A549/paclitaxel(A549/PTX) and A549/cisplatin (A549/CDDP) when compared with lung cancer A549 cells. Moreover, we found that overe-expression of miR-137 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, cell survival and arrest the cell cycle in G1 phase in A549/PTX and A549/CDDP. Furthermore, Repression of miR-137 significantly promoted cell growth, migration, cell survival and cell cycle G1/S transition in A549 cells. We further demonstrated that the tumor suppressive role of miR-137 was mediated by negatively regulating Nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate1(NUCKS1) protein expression. Importantly, miR-137 inhibits A549/PTX, A549/CDDP growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Our study is the first to identify the tumor suppressive role of over-expressed miR-137 in chemosensitivity. Identification of a novel miRNA-mediated pathway that regulates chemosensitivity in lung cancer will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:26989074

  6. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid sensitizes neuroblastoma to paclitaxel by inhibiting thioredoxin-related protein 14-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zijun; Yang, Kaibin; Ye, Litong; You, Zhiyao; Chen, Rirong; Liu, Ying; He, Youjian

    2017-07-01

    Paclitaxel is not as effective for neuroblastoma as most of the front-line chemotherapeutics due to drug resistance. This study explored the regulatory mechanism of paclitaxel-associated autophagy and potential solutions to paclitaxel resistance in neuroblastoma. The formation of autophagic vesicles was detected by scanning transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The autophagy-associated proteins were assessed by western blot. Autophagy was induced and the autophagy-associated proteins LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, and thioredoxin-related protein 14 (TRP14), were found to be upregulated in neuroblastoma cells that were exposed to paclitaxel. The inhibition of Beclin 1 or TRP14 by siRNA increased the sensitivity of the tumor cells to paclitaxel. In addition, Beclin 1-mediated autophagy was regulated by TRP14. Furthermore, the TRP14 inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) downregulated paclitaxel-induced autophagy and enhanced the anticancer effects of paclitaxel in normal control cancer cells but not in cells with upregulated Beclin 1 and TRP14 expression. Our findings showed that paclitaxel-induced autophagy in neuroblastoma cells was regulated by TRP14 and that SAHA could sensitize neuroblastoma cells to paclitaxel by specifically inhibiting TRP14. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Korean red ginseng extract enhances paclitaxel distribution to mammary tumors and its oral bioavailability by P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin Kyung; Kim, You-Jin; Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Do Yeun; Choi, Han Seok; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2017-05-01

    1. Drug efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a common resistance mechanism of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel, the primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. As a means of overcoming the drug resistance-mediated failure of paclitaxel chemotherapy, the potential of Korean red ginseng extract (KRG) as an adjuvant chemotherapy has been reported only in in vitro. Therefore, we assessed whether KRG alters P-gp mediated paclitaxel efflux, and therefore paclitaxel efficacy in in vitro and vivo models. 2. KRG inhibited P-gp protein expression and transcellular efflux of paclitaxel in MDCK-mdr1 cells, but KRG was not a substrate of P-gp ATPase. In female rats with mammary tumor, the combination of paclitaxel with KRG showed the greater reduction of tumor volumes, lower P-gp protein expression and higher paclitaxel distribution in tumors, and greater oral bioavailability of paclitaxel than paclitaxel alone. 3. From these results, KRG increased systemic circulation of oral paclitaxel and its distribution to tumors via P-gp inhibition in rats and under the current study conditions.

  8. Pazopanib Enhances Paclitaxel-Induced Mitotic Catastrophe in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Isham, Crescent R.; Bossou, Ayoko R.; Negron, Vivian; Fisher, Kelly E.; Kumar, Rakesh; Marlow, Laura; Lingle, Wilma L.; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sherman, Eric J.; Suman, Vera J.; Copland, John A.; Bible, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has perhaps the worst prognosis of any cancer, with a median survival of only about 5 months regardless of stage. Pazopanib monotherapy has promising clinical activity in differentiated thyroid cancers (generally attributed to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition), yet has less effective single-agent activity in ATC. We now report that combining pazopanib with microtubule inhibitors such as paclitaxel produced heightened and synergistic antitumor effects in ATC cells and xenografts that were associated with potentiated mitotic catastrophe. We hypothesized that combined effects may reflect enhanced paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity mediated by cell cycle regulatory kinase inhibition by pazopanib. Indeed, pazopanib potently inhibited aurora A, with pazopanib/paclitaxel synergy recapitulated by aurora A short hairpin RNA knockdown or by specific aurora A pharmacological inhibition. Pazopanib/paclitaxel synergy was reversed by aurora A knockdown. Moreover, aurora A (but not B or C) message and protein levels were significantly increased in patient ATCs, and durable benefit resulted from pilot clinical translation of pazopanib/paclitaxel therapy in a patient with metastatic ATC. Collectively, these results suggest that the pazopanib/paclitaxel combination is a promising candidate therapeutic approach in ATC and that aurora A may represent a potentially viable therapeutic molecular target in ATC. PMID:23283368

  9. Masitinib Antagonizes ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Member 10-Mediated Paclitaxel Resistance: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kathawala, Rishil J.; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Kang; Patel, Atish; Abuznait, Alaa H.; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Sun, Yue-Li; Kaddoumi, Amal; Ashby, Charles R.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel displays clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors. However, resistance to paclitaxel significantly attenuates the response to chemotherapy. The ABC transporter subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10), also known as multi-drug resistance protein 7 (MRP7) efflux transporter, is a major mediator of paclitaxel resistance. In this study, we show that masitinib, a small molecule stem-cell growth factor receptor (c-Kit) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, at non-toxic concentrations, significantly attenuates paclitaxel resistance in HEK293 cells transfected with ABCC10. Our in vitro studies indicated that masitinib (2.5 μM) enhanced the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of paclitaxel by inhibiting the ABCC10 transport activity without altering the expression level of ABCC10 protein. Furthermore, masitinib, in combination with paclitaxel, significantly inhibited the growth of ABCC10-expressing tumors in nude athymic mice in vivo. Masitinib administration also resulted in a significant increase in the levels of paclitaxel in the plasma, tumors and lungs compared to paclitaxel alone. In conclusion, the combination of paclitaxel and masitinib could serve as a novel and useful therapeutic strategy to reverse paclitaxel resistance mediated by ABCC10. PMID:24431074

  10. Notch3-specific inhibition using siRNA knockdown or GSI sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Haeyoun; Jeong, Ju-Yeon; Song, Ji-Ye; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Gwangil; Huh, Jin Hyung; Kwon, Ah-Young; Jung, Sang Geun; An, Hee Jung

    2016-07-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in ovarian cancer chemoresistance, which is responsible for recurrence. Gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) is a broad-spectrum Notch inhibitor, but it has serious side effects. The efficacy of Notch3-specific inhibition in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancers was assessed in this study, which has not yet been evaluated relative to GSI. To analyze the effect of Notch3-specific inhibition on paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancers, we compared cell viability, apoptosis, cell migration, angiogenesis, cell cycle, and spheroid formation after treatment with either Notch3 siRNA or GSI in paclitaxel-resistant SKpac cells and parental SKOV3 cells. Expression levels of survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis-related proteins were measured and compared between groups. Notch3 was significantly overexpressed in chemoresistant cancer tissues and cell lines relative to chemosensitive group. In paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells, Notch inhibition significantly reduced viability, migration, and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis, thereby boosting sensitivity to paclitaxel. Spheroid formation was also significantly reduced. Both Notch3 siRNA-treated cells and GSI-treated cells arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Proteins of cell survival, cyclin D1 and cyclin D3 were reduced, whereas p21 and p27 were elevated. Both GSI and Notch3 siRNA treatment reduced expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL-W, BCL2, and BCL-XL) and increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bak, Bim, Bid, and Bax). These results indicate that Notch3-specific inhibition sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells to paclitaxel treatment, with an efficacy comparable to that of GSI. This approach would be likely to avoid the side effects of broad-spectrum GSI treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. siRNA blocking the RAS signalling pathway and inhibits the growth of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjie; Zheng, Yuling; Fan, Qingxia; Zhang, Xudong; Shi, Yonggang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to study RAS-siRNA blocking RAS pathway and suppressing cell growth in human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice. The methods in this study was to construct RAS-siRNA expression vector, establish 40 oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft animal models and divided them into five groups: control group, siRNA control group, RAS-siRNA group, paclitaxel group and RAS-siRNA and paclitaxel group. We observed tumour growth in nude mice, studied histology by HE staining, tumour growth inhibition by TUNEL assay and detected the RAS, MAPK and cyclin D1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot. We have obtained the following results: (i) successfully established animal models; (ii) nude mice in each group after treatment inhibited tumour volume was significantly reduced compared with the control group (p < 0.05); (iii) compared with the control group, the number of apoptotic cells were significantly increased in the siRNA control group and the RAS-siRNA group, and the number of apoptosis cells in the paclitaxel and RAS-siRNA group is significantly most than the paclitaxel group and RAS-siRNA group (p < 0.05); and (iv) after treatment, RAS, MAPK and cyclin D1 expression in five groups was decreasing gradually. After adding paclitaxel, the protein expression in the paclitaxel and RAS-siRNA group was significantly lower than that of paclitaxel group, negative control and paclitaxel group (p < 0.05). We therefore conclude that RAS-siRNA can block the RAS signal transduction pathway, reduce the activity of tumour cells, arrest tumour cell cycle, promote apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation and increase tumour cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [Effect of ginseng rare ginsenoside components combined with paclitaxel on A549 lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine combined with anticancer drugs is a new direction of clinical cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, the optimal ratio of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel was optimized by MTT method, and the proliferative, apoptotic and anti-tumor effects of lung cancer A549 cells were investigated. It was found that the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was the same as that on paclitaxel when the ratio of rare ginseng rare ginsenoside components to paclitaxel was 4∶6. Further studies showed that the combined therapy significantly increased the inductive effect of apoptosis in A549 cells, and up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 protein and down-regulated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. The tumor-bearing mice model showed that the combination therapy of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor and alleviate the toxic and side effects of paclitaxel on liver. A multi-component system of ginseng rare ginsenoside components-paclitaxel was established in this paper. The proliferation and growth of lung cancer A549 cells were inhibited by paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, the dosage of paclitaxel and the toxicity of paclitaxel were reduced, and the effect of anti-lung cancer was enhanced, which provided a theoretical basis for later studies and clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Potentiation of Paclitaxel-Induced Pain Syndrome in Mice by Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Involvement of Kinins.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Indiara; Silva, Cássia Regina; Trevisan, Gabriela; de Campos Velho Gewehr, Camila; Rigo, Flávia Karine; La Rocca Tamiozzo, Lidia; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Tonello, Raquel; Dalmolin, Gerusa Duarte; de Almeida Cabrini, Daniela; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Ferreira, Juliano; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan

    2017-12-01

    Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat solid tumours. However, it causes an acute and neuropathic pain syndrome that limits its use. Among the mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain caused by paclitaxel is activation of kinin receptors. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can enhance kinin receptor signalling. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of kinins on paclitaxel-associated acute pain syndromes (P-APS) and the effect of ACE inhibition on P-APS and paclitaxel-associated chronic peripheral neuropathy (P-CPN) in mice. Herein, we show that paclitaxel caused mechanical allodynia and spontaneous nociceptive behaviour that was reduced by antagonists of kinin receptors B 1 (DALBk and SSR240612) and B 2 (Hoe140 and FR173657). Moreover, enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) enhanced the mechanical allodynia induced by a low dose of paclitaxel. Likewise, paclitaxel injection inhibited ACE activity and increased the expressions of B 1 and B 2 receptors and bradykinin-related peptides levels in peripheral tissue. Together, our data support the involvement of kinin receptors in the P-APS and suggest kinin receptor antagonists to treat this syndrome. Because hypertension is the most frequent comorbidity affecting cancer patients, treatment of hypertension with ACE inhibitors in patients undergoing paclitaxel chemotherapy should be reviewed, since this could enhance the P-APS and P-CPN.

  14. Anthelminthic drug niclosamide sensitizes the responsiveness of cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel via oxidative stress-mediated mTOR inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Liping; Wang, Li; Shen, Haibin

    Drug repurposing represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to cancer treatment. The potent anti-cancer activities of a FDA-approved anthelminthic drug niclosamide have been demonstrated in various cancers. However, whether niclosamide is active against cervical cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of niclosamide alone and its combination with paclitaxel in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. We found that niclosamide significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of a panel of cervical cancer cell lines, regardless of their cellular origin and genetic pattern. Niclosamide also inhibited tumor growth in cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Importantly, niclosamide significantly enhanced the responsivenessmore » of cervical cancer cell to paclitaxel. We further found that niclosamide induced mitochondrial dysfunctions via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration, complex I activity and ATP generation, which led to oxidative stress. ROS scavenge agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) completely reversed the effects of niclosamide in increasing cellular ROS, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, suggesting that oxidative stress induction is the mechanism of action of niclosamide in cervical cancer cells. In addition, niclosamide significantly inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and its inhibitory effect on mTOR is modulated by oxidative stress. Our work suggests that niclosamide is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for cervical cancer and induction of oxidative stress may be a potential therapeutic strategy in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • Niclosamide is active against cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide sensitizes cervical cancer cell response to paclitaxel. • Niclosamide induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. • Niclosamide inhibits mTOR signaling in an oxidative stress-dependent manner.« less

  15. Tectorigenin sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through downregulation of the Akt and NFκB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeong-In; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Park, Hee-Juhn; Kim, Tae Jin; Choi, Youn Seok; Shih, Ie-Ming; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2012-12-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is currently used as the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for several cancers including ovarian carcinoma; however, the drug frequently induces drug resistance through multiple mechanisms. The new strategy of using natural compounds in combination therapies is highly attractive because those compounds may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we found that tectorigenin, an isoflavonoid isolated from flower of Pueraria thunbergiana, enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of paclitaxel in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells (MPSC1(TR), A2780(TR) and SKOV3(TR)) as well as their naive counterparts. The combination of tectorigenin with paclitaxel resulted in a synergistic apoptosis compared with either agent alone through activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9. Treatment with tectorigenin inhibited the nuclear translocation of NFκB and the expression of NFκB-dependent genes such as FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and COX-2, which are known to be associated with chemoresistance. In addition, the tectorigenin-paclitaxel combination inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB and IKK and the activation of Akt in paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells. Moreover, tectorigenin-paclitaxel-induced cell growth inhibition was enhanced by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor LY294002 or overexpression of the dominant negative Akt (Akt-DN), but reduced by overexpression of constitutively activated Akt (Akt-Myr). Furthermore, we found that Akt-Myr, at least in part, reversed tectorigenin-paclitaxel-induced nuclear translocation of NFκB and the phosphorylation of IκB and IKK. These data suggest that tectorigenin could sensitize paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through inactivation of the Akt/IKK/IκB/NFκB signaling pathway, and promise a new intervention to chemosensitize paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer.

  16. The Extracellular Matrix Protein TGFBI Induces Microtubule Stabilization and Sensitizes Ovarian Cancers to Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour; Mills, Anthony D.; Ibrahim, Ashraf E.K.; Temple, Jillian; Blenkiron, Cherie; Vias, Maria; Massie, Charlie E.; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; McGeoch, Adam; Crawford, Robin; Nicke, Barbara; Downward, Julian; Swanton, Charles; Bell, Stephen D.; Earl, Helena M.; Laskey, Ronald A.; Caldas, Carlos; Brenton, James D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce chemotherapy resistance via AKT-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Here, we show that loss of the ECM protein TGFBI (transforming growth factor beta induced) is sufficient to induce specific resistance to paclitaxel and mitotic spindle abnormalities in ovarian cancer cells. Paclitaxel-resistant cells treated with recombinant TGFBI protein show integrin-dependent restoration of paclitaxel sensitivity via FAK- and Rho-dependent stabilization of microtubules. Immunohistochemical staining for TGFBI in paclitaxel-treated ovarian cancers from a prospective clinical trial showed that morphological changes of paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity were restricted to areas of strong expression of TGFBI. These data show that ECM can mediate taxane sensitivity by modulating microtubule stability. PMID:18068629

  17. The extracellular matrix protein TGFBI induces microtubule stabilization and sensitizes ovarian cancers to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour; Mills, Anthony D; Ibrahim, Ashraf E K; Temple, Jillian; Blenkiron, Cherie; Vias, Maria; Massie, Charlie E; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; McGeoch, Adam; Crawford, Robin; Nicke, Barbara; Downward, Julian; Swanton, Charles; Bell, Stephen D; Earl, Helena M; Laskey, Ronald A; Caldas, Carlos; Brenton, James D

    2007-12-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce chemotherapy resistance via AKT-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Here, we show that loss of the ECM protein TGFBI (transforming growth factor beta induced) is sufficient to induce specific resistance to paclitaxel and mitotic spindle abnormalities in ovarian cancer cells. Paclitaxel-resistant cells treated with recombinant TGFBI protein show integrin-dependent restoration of paclitaxel sensitivity via FAK- and Rho-dependent stabilization of microtubules. Immunohistochemical staining for TGFBI in paclitaxel-treated ovarian cancers from a prospective clinical trial showed that morphological changes of paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity were restricted to areas of strong expression of TGFBI. These data show that ECM can mediate taxane sensitivity by modulating microtubule stability.

  18. Inhibition of mTOR/eIF4E by anti-viral drug ribavirin effectively enhances the effects of paclitaxel in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Dehua; Chen, Hujie; Tang, Jing

    Upregulation of eIF4E is associated with poor clinical outcome in many human cancers and represents a potential therapeutic target. However, the function of eIF4E remains unknown in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). In this work, we show that ribavirin, an anti-viral drug, effectively augments sensitivity of OTSCC cells to paclitaxel via inhibiting mTOR/eIF4E signaling pathway. Ribavirin dose-dependently inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in SCC-9 and CAL27 cells. Combination of ribavirin and paclitaxel are more effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in OTSCC cells. Importantly, the in vivo efficacy of ribavirin and its synergism with paclitaxel is confirmed by two independentmore » OTSCC xenograft mouse models. Mechanistically, ribavirin significantly decreases mTOR/eIF4E signaling pathway in OTSCC cells via suppressing phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, 4EBP1 and eIF4E. Overexpression of the phosphor-mimetic form of eIF4E (eIF4E S209D) but not the nonphosphorylatable form (eIF4E S209A) reverses the effects of ribavirin, confirming that eIF4E inhibition is the mechanism of action of ribavirin in OTSCC cells. In addition, eIF4E depletion significantly enhances the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of paclitaxel, demonstrating the critical role of eIF4E in OTSCC cell response to paclitaxel. Our work is the first to demonstrate the efficacy of ribavirin as a single agent and synergism as combination with paclitaxel in OTSCC in vitro and in vivo. Our findings also demonstrate the therapeutic value of inhibiting eIF4E in OTSCC treatment. - Highlights: • Ribavirin effectively targets OTSCC in vitro and in vivo. • Ribavirin acts synergistically with paclitaxel in OTSCC cells. • Ribavirin inhibits Akt/mTOR/eIF4E signaling in OTSCC. • eIF4E inhibition sensitizes OTSCC cell response to paclitaxel.« less

  19. Lapatinib in combination with paclitaxel plays synergistic antitumor effects on esophageal squamous cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Li, Sai-Sai; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Dou, Qiao-Hua; Liu, Duan

    2018-06-16

    Paclitaxel-based chemoradiotherapy was proven to be efficacious in treating patients with advanced esophageal cancer. However, the toxicity and the development of resistance limited its anticancer efficiency. The present study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of lapatinib, a dual tyrosine inhibitor of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), combined with paclitaxel on the esophageal squamous cancer. MTT assays were used to evaluate the effects of the combination of lapatinib and paclitaxel on the growth of esophageal squamous cancer cell lines (KYSE150, KYSE450, KYSE510 and TE-7). The activity of the combination of two agents on cell invasion, migration and apoptosis was measured by wound healing assay, transwell assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI stain assay. Western blot assay was used to analyze the effects of the two agents on the EGFR/HER2 signaling. The in vivo efficacy was evaluated in KYSE450 xenograft nude mouse model. The combination of lapatinib and paclitaxel was highly synergistic in inhibiting cell growth with a combination index of < 1, and suppressed significantly the invasion and migration capability of esophageal squamous cancer cells. Esophageal squamous cancer cells displayed increased rates of apoptosis after treatment with lapatinib plus paclitaxel. The phosphorylated EGFR and HER2 as well as the activation of downstream molecules MAPKs and AKT significantly decreased when exposed to lapatinib and paclitaxel. In vivo studies showed that the combination of two agents had greater antitumor efficacy than either agent alone. The combination of lapatinib with paclitaxel showed synergistic antitumor activity, suggesting their potential in treating patients with esophageal squamous cancer.

  20. Nab-Paclitaxel Plus S-1 Shows Increased Antitumor Activity in Patient-Derived Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ang; Xu, Xue-Feng; Han, Xu; Fang, Yuan; Shi, Chen-Ye; Jin, Da-Yong; Lou, Wen-Hui

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the antitumor activity of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) plus S-1 in patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse models and to explore biomarkers that could predict drug efficacy. Ten patient-derived xenograft models were established. The third-generation tumor-bearing mice were randomized into 4 treatment groups: (1) control; (2) S-1; (3) nab-paclitaxel; (4) S-1 plus nab-paclitaxel. Resected tumors were tested by immunohistochemistry for the expression of thymidylate synthase, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), secreted protein that is acidic and rich in cysteine, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), collagen-1, and CD31. Tumor growth inhibition of the S-1 group, nab-paclitaxel group, and combination group was 69.52%, 86.63%, 103.56%, respectively (P < 0.05). The efficacy of S-1 is better in thymidylate synthase-negative, OPRT-positive, and DPD-negative tumors. The efficacy of nab-paclitaxel is better in HER2-positive tumors. Collagen-1 was decreased and CD31 was increased in tumors treated with nab-paclitaxel and S-1 plus nab-paclitaxel compared with control or S-1. This preclinical study showed that S-1 plus nab-paclitaxel exerted significantly better antitumor activity than S-1 or nab-paclitaxel alone. Thymidylate synthase, OPRT, and DPD were possibly biomarkers of S-1 and HER2 of nab-paclitaxel.

  1. Fentanyl Enhances Hepatotoxicity of Paclitaxel via Inhibition of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 Transport Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jia-Hao; Bi, Bing-Tian; Feng, Kun-Yao; Huang, Wan; Zeng, Wei-An

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl, a potent opioid analgesic that is used to treat cancer pain, is commonly administered with paclitaxel in advanced tumors. However, the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanism of action is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanisms of action. Pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel were tested using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and mouse liver histopathology were examined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens was examined using 1-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 was detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of ABCB1 and the activity of ABCB1 ATPase and CYP3A4 were also examined. In this study, the co-administration of fentanyl and paclitaxel prolonged the half-life (t1/2) of paclitaxel from 1.455 hours to 2.344 hours and decreased the clearance (CL) from 10.997 ml/h to 7.014 ml/h in mice. Fentanyl significantly increased the levels of ALT in mice to 88.2 U/L, which is more than 2-fold higher than the level detected in the control group, and it increased the histological damage in mouse livers. Furthermore, fentanyl enhanced the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens that are ABCB1 substrates and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123. Additionally, fentanyl stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited CYP3A4 activity in the liver microsomes of mice. Our study indicates that the obvious hepatotoxicity during this co-administration was due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity and ABCB1 transport activity. These findings suggested that the accumulation-induced hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel when it is combined with fentanyl should be avoided. PMID:26633878

  2. Effect of Antioxidants and Carbohydrates in Callus Cultures of Taxus brevifolia: Evaluation of Browning, Callus Growth, Total Phenolics and Paclitaxel Production

    PubMed Central

    Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Toft Simonsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Introduction To control the tissue browning phenomenon, callus growth, total phenolics and paclitaxel production, in the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of citric acid and ascorbic acid (as antioxidants) and glucose, fructose and sucrose in callus cultures of Taxus brevifolia. Methods To obtain healthy callus/cell lines of Taxus brevifolia, the effects of two antioxidants ascorbic acid (100-1000 mg/L) and citric acid (50-500 mg/L), and three carbohydrates (glucose, fructose and sucrose (5-10 g/L)) were studied evaluating activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (PO) enzymes, callus growth/browning, total phenolics and paclitaxel production. Results These antioxidants (ascorbic acid and citric acid) failed to show significant effects on callus growth, browning intensity or paclitaxel production. However, the carbohydrates imposed significant effects on the parameters studied. High concentrations of both glucose and sucrose increased the browning intensity, thus decreased callus growth. Glucose increased paclitaxel production, but sucrose decreased it. Conclusion These results revealed that the browning phenomenon can be controlled through supplementation of the growth media with glucose, sucrose (5 g/L) and fructose (10 g/L), while increased paclitaxel production can be obtain by the optimized media supplemented with glucose (10 g/L), sucrose and fructose (5 g/L). PMID:23678406

  3. Low doses of Paclitaxel repress breast cancer invasion through DJ-1/KLF17 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ismail Ahmed; El-Sokkary, Gamal H; Saber, Saber H

    2018-04-27

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is an important agent against many tumours, including breast cancer. Ample data documents that paclitaxel inhibits breast cancer metastasis while others prove that paclitaxel enhances breast cancer metastasis. The mechanisms by which paclitaxel exerts its action are not well established. This study focuses on the effect of paclitaxel, particularly the low doses on breast cancer metastasis and the mechanisms that regulate it. Current results show that, paclitaxel exerts significant cytotoxicity even at low doses in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Interestingly, paclitaxel significantly inhibits cell invasion and migration, decreases Snail and increases E-cadherin mRNA expression levels at the indicated low doses. Furthermore, paclitaxel-inhibiting breast cancer metastasis is associated with down-regulation of DJ-1 and ID-1 mRNA expression level with a concurrent increase in KLF17 expression. Under the same experimental conditions, paclitaxel induces KLF17 and concurrently represses ID-1 protein levels. Our results show for the first time that paclitaxel inhibits breast cancer metastasis through regulating DJ-1/KLF17/ID-1 signalling pathway; repressed DJ-1 and ID-1 and enhanced KLF17 expression. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. TRPV4 inhibition prevents paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Boehmerle, Wolfgang; Huehnchen, Petra; Lee, Sabrina Lin Lin; Harms, Christoph; Endres, Matthias

    2018-04-30

    Paclitaxel is a cytotoxic drug which frequently causes sensory peripheral neuropathy in patients. Increasing evidence suggests that altered intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) signals play an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. In the present study, we examined the interplay between Ca 2+ release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Ca 2+ permeable channels in the plasma membrane in the context of paclitaxel mediated neurotoxicity. We observed that in small to medium size dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGN) the inositol-trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) type 1 was often concentrated in the periphery of cells, which is in contrast to homogenous ER distribution. G protein-coupled designer receptors were used to further elucidate phosphoinositide mediated Ca 2+ signaling: This approach showed strong InsP 3 mediated Ca 2+ signals close to the plasma membrane, which can be amplified by Ca 2+ entry through TRPV4 channels. In addition, our results support a physical interaction and partial colocalization of InsP 3 R1 and TRPV4 channels. In the context of paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity, blocking Ca 2+ influx through TRPV4 channels reduced cell death in cultured DRGN. Pretreatment of mice with the pharmacological TRPV4 inhibitor HC067047 prior to paclitaxel injections prevented electrophysiological and behavioral changes associated with paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. In summary, these results underline the relevance of TRPV4 signaling for the pathogenesis of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy and suggest novel preventive strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of lipoic acid combined with paclitaxel on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, B J; Hao, X Y; Ren, G H; Gong, Y

    2015-12-22

    Breast cancer is the most common gynecologic tumor globally that threatens women's health. Lipoic acid is a type of antioxidant that can alleviate oxidative stress damage. Studies showed that lipoic acid could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in cervical cancer and colon cancer. This paper intends to explore the combined effect of lipoic acid and paclitaxel on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer MCF-7 cells were divided into four groups: control group, lipoic acid group, paclitaxel group, and a combination group. MTT was applied to detect the drugs' influence on breast cancer cell proliferation. A colony formation test was used to determine the effects on breast cancer cell clone formation rate. Western blot was performed to detect the effects on nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Lipoic acid alone can inhibit tumor cell proliferation and clone formation with time dependence. Compared with the control, paclitaxel alone can significantly suppress tumor cell proliferation and clone formation (P < 0.05). Lipoic acid and paclitaxel in combination obviously strengthened their individual inhibitory effects on tumor cells (P < 0.05). Compared with the paclitaxel alone group, the combination group exhibited more remarkable inhibitory effect (P < 0.05). Lipoic acid alone or combined with paclitaxel can inhibit NF-κB expression and inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation.

  6. Synthesis and anti-cancer efficacy of rapid hydrolysed water-soluble paclitaxel pro-drugs.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Beom-Young; Sohn, Jeong-Sun; Hess, Michael; Choi, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Jae-Kon; Jo, Byung-Wook

    2008-01-01

    A new series of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-paclitaxel conjugates that increases water solubility of paclitaxel was synthesized. We developed well-designed self-immolating linkers between a drug and a water-soluble polymer moiety which gave an extremely rapid hydrolysis rate to convert a pro-drug into a parent drug without any reduction in drug efficacy. The self-immolating spacer groups were introduced between the solubilizing PEG and C7-OH of paclitaxel in order to control the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. All these pro-drugs had a water-solubility of 400 mg/ml or more compared with a solubility of about 0.01 mg/ml. The rate of hydrolysis for the pro-drugs in rat plasma showed considerable variation of t((1/2)) ranging from 0.94 min to 42.7 min. To evaluate the anti-tumor efficacy of the pro-drug which had the fastest enzymatic hydrolysis rate, the growth inhibitory effect (IC(50)), the anti-tumor activity and the anti-metastatic potential of the pro-drug were examined. The pro-drug was potent to inhibit the growth of various cancer cell lines, such as human lung, ovarian, colon and melanoma cancer cells. On the development of melanoma lung colonies in C57B/6 mice following intravenous administration of metastatic murine B16/F10 melanoma cells, the pro-drug seems to be more efficacious than paclitaxel. The reduction of the number of melanoma lung colonies was 46.9% (dose: 5 mg/kg) with pure paclitaxel, and 24.5%, and 40.0% with the pro-drug in the dose of 0.71 mg paclitaxel equivalent/kg and 1.42 mg paclitaxel equivalent/kg, respectively.

  7. Curcumin increases the sensitivity of Paclitaxel-resistant NSCLC cells to Paclitaxel through microRNA-30c-mediated MTA1 reduction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yimin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Lei; Yu, Lequn; Zhao, Nian; Zhou, Xingju; Lu, Xudong

    2017-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in the worldwide. Although Paclitaxel-based combinational therapies have long been used as a standard treatment in aggressive non-small-cell lung cancers, Paclitaxel resistance emerges as a major clinical problem. It has been demonstrated that Curcumin from Curcuma longa as a traditional Chinese medicine can inhibit cancer cell proliferation. However, the role of Curcumin in Paclitaxel-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer cells is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Curcumin on the Paclitaxel-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer cells and found that Curcumin treatment markedly increased the sensitivity of Paclitaxel-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer cells to Paclitaxel. Mechanically, the study revealed that Curcumin could reduce the expression of metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) gene through upregulation of microRNA-30c in Paclitaxel-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer cells. During the course, MTA1 reduction sensitized Paclitaxel-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer cells and enhanced the effect of Paclitaxel. Taken together, our studies indicate that Curcumin increases the sensitivity of Paclitaxel-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer cells to Paclitaxel through microRNA-30c-mediated MTA1 reduction. Curcumin might be a potential adjuvant for non-small-cell lung cancer patients during Paclitaxel treatment.

  8. Nanosuspension delivery of paclitaxel to xenograft mice can alter drug disposition and anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Gould, Stephen; Nannini, Michelle; Qin, Ann; Deng, Yuzhong; Arrazate, Alfonso; Kam, Kimberly R.; Ran, Yingqing; Wong, Harvey

    2014-04-01

    Paclitaxel is a common chemotherapeutic agent that is effective against various cancers. The poor aqueous solubility of paclitaxel necessitates a large percentage of Cremophor EL:ethanol (USP) in its commercial formulation which leads to hypersensitivity reactions in patients. We evaluate the use of a crystalline nanosuspension versus the USP formulation to deliver paclitaxel to tumor-bearing xenograft mice. Anti-tumor efficacy was assessed following intravenous administration of three 20 mg/kg doses of paclitaxel. Paclitaxel pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution were evaluated, and differences were observed between the two formulations. Plasma clearance and tissue to plasma ratio of mice that were dosed with the nanosuspension are approximately 33- and 11-fold higher compared to those of mice that were given the USP formulation. Despite a higher tumor to plasma ratio for the nanosuspension treatment group, absolute paclitaxel tumor exposure was higher for the USP group. Accordingly, a higher anti-tumor effect was observed in the xenograft mice that were dosed with the USP formulation (90% versus 42% tumor growth inhibition). This reduction in activity of nanoparticle formulation appeared to result from a slower than anticipated dissolution in vivo. This study illustrates a need for careful consideration of both dose and systemic solubility prior utilizing nanosuspension as a mode of intravenous delivery.

  9. The Role of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 Genotypes in Losartan-Dependent Inhibition of Paclitaxel Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yuji; Senda, Asuna; Toda, Takaki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate a previously identified metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel, which is one of the marker substrates of CYP2C8, by using human liver microsomes (HLMs) from donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. Although CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 exhibit genetic linkage, previous studies have yet to determine whether losartan or its active metabolite, EXP-3174 which is specifically generated by CYP2C9, is responsible for CYP2C8 inhibition. Concentrations of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and EXP-3174 were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after incubations with paclitaxel, losartan or EXP-3174 in HLMs from seven donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values were not fully dependent on CYP2C8 genotypes. Although the degree of inhibition was small, losartan significantly inhibited the production of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel at a concentration of 1 μmol/L in only HL20 with the CYP2C8*3/*3 genotype. HLMs with either CYP2C9*2/*2 or CYP2C9*1/*3 exhibited a lower losartan intrinsic clearance (Vmax /Km ) than other HLMs including those with CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C9*1/*2. Significant inhibition of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel formation by EXP-3174 could only be found at levels that were 50 times higher (100 μmol/L) than the maximum concentration generated in the inhibition study using losartan. These results suggest that the metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel is dependent on losartan itself rather than its metabolite and that the CYP2C8 inhibition by losartan is not affected by the CYP2C9 genotype. Further study is needed to define the effect of CYP2C8 genotypes on losartan-paclitaxel interaction. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies Attached to Carbon Nanotube Transistors for Paclitaxel Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonbae; Lau, Calvin; Richardson, Mark; Rajapakse, Arith; Weiss, Gregory; Collins, Philip; UCI, Molecular Biology; Biochemistry Collaboration; UCI, Departments of Physics; Astronomy Collaboration

    Paclitaxel is a naturally-occurring pharmaceutical used in numerous cancer treatments, despite its toxic side effects. Partial inhibition of this toxicity has been demonstrated using weakly interacting monoclonal antibodies (3C6 and 8A10), but accurate monitoring of antibody and paclitaxel concentrations remains challenging. Here, single-molecule studies of the kinetics of antibody-paclitaxel interactions have been performed using single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The devices were sensitized with single antibody attachments to record the single-molecule binding dynamics of paclitaxel. This label-free technique recorded a range of dynamic interactions between the antibody and paclitaxel, and it provided sensitive paclitaxel detection for pM to nM concentrations. Measurements with two different antibodies suggest ways of extending this working range and uncovering the mechanistic differences among different antibodies.

  11. Fluorocopolymer-coated nitinol self-expanding paclitaxel-eluting stent: pharmacokinetics and vascular biology responses in a porcine iliofemoral model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dongming; Huibregtse, Barbara A; Eppihimer, Michael; Stoffregen, William; Kocur, Gordon; Hitzman, Cory; Stejskal, Elizabeth; Heil, John; Dawkins, Keith D

    2016-08-20

    Our aim was to evaluate arterial responses to paclitaxel and a novel fluorocopolymer-coated nitinol low-dose paclitaxel-eluting stent (FP-PES). Human smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration was assessed after exposure to paclitaxel in vitro. For pharmacokinetics and vascular response, FP-PES or bare metal stents (BMS) were implanted in porcine iliofemoral arteries. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited human coronary and femoral artery SMC migration at doses as low as 1 pM. Inhibition was significantly greater for femoral compared with coronary artery SMCs from 1 pM to 1 μM. Pharmacokinetics showed consistent paclitaxel release from FP-PES over the study duration. The peak arterial wall paclitaxel level was 3.7 ng/mg at 10 days, with levels decreasing to 50% of peak at 60 days and 10% at 180 days. Paclitaxel was not detected in blood or remote organs. Arteriogram and histomorphometry analyses showed FP-PES significantly inhibits neointimal proliferation versus BMS at 30 and 90 days. Re-endothelialisation scores were not different between groups. Paclitaxel affected femoral artery SMC migration at lower concentrations and to a greater degree than it did coronary artery SMCs. The novel FP-PES used in this preclinical study demonstrated a vascular healing response similar to BMS, while significantly inhibiting neointimal formation up to 90 days.

  12. Augmented growth inhibition of B16-BL6 melanoma by combined treatment with a selective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMI-166, and cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Kanji; Maki, Hideo; Sawada, Takuko Yamada; Maekawa, Ryuji; Yoshioka, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    MMI-166 is a selective matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of the combined treatment of MMI-166 with paclitaxel or carboplatin. Mice bearing B16-BL6 melanoma were treated p.o. with MMI-166 from 1 day after tumor inoculation. The mice were administered i.v. with either paclitaxel or carboplatin at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). MMI-166 monotherapy inhibited in vivo growth of the B16-BL6 tumor to an extent similar to that of paclitaxel or carboplatin monotherapy. When MMI-166 was combined with paclitaxel or carboplatin, the antitumor efficacy was significantly (p < 0.01) augmented in comparison with either MMI-166 or each cytotoxic agent alone. The hematotoxicity study demonstrated that daily treatment with MMI-166 did not affect the blood cell number in the mice and more importantly the combination of MMI-166 with paclitaxel did not augment the hematotoxicity caused by paclitaxel. An in vitro cytotoxicity study showed that MMI-166 itself has neither direct cytotoxicity against B16-BL6 tumor cells nor does it augment the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel or carboplatin. These results indicate that augmented antitumor activity of the combination treatment was not simply due to the augmentation of direct cytotoxic activity, but was rather an additive effect of the antitumor activities of different mechanisms. They suggest the effectiveness of a combination therapy of MMI-166 with paclitaxel or carboplatin in clinical therapy.

  13. Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Michelle; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Benbow, Jennifer H.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect that occurs in many patients undergoing chemotherapy. It is often irreversible and frequently leads to early termination of treatment. In this study, we have identified two compounds, lithium and ibudilast, that when administered as a single prophylactic injection prior to paclitaxel treatment, prevent the development of CIPN in mice at the sensory-motor and cellular level. The prevention of neuropathy was not observed in paclitaxel-treated mice that were only prophylactically treated with a vehicle injection. The coadministration of lithium with paclitaxel also allows for administration of higher doses of paclitaxel (survival increases by 60%), protects against paclitaxel-induced cardiac abnormalities, and, notably, does not interfere with the antitumor effects of paclitaxel. Moreover, we have determined a mechanism by which CIPN develops and have discovered that lithium and ibudilast inhibit development of peripheral neuropathy by disrupting the interaction between paclitaxel, neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) to prevent treatment-induced decreases in intracellular calcium signaling. This study shows that lithium and ibudilast are candidate therapeutics for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy and could enable patients to tolerate more aggressive treatment regimens.—Mo, M., Erdelyi, I., Szigeti-Buck, K., Benbow, J. H., Ehrlich, B. E. Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment. PMID:22889832

  14. Dairy milk fat augments paclitaxel therapy to suppress tumour metastasis in mice, and protects against the side-effects of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueying; Zhang, Jie; Gupta, Rita; Macgibbon, Alastair K H; Kuhn-Sherlock, Barbara; Krissansen, Geoffrey W

    2011-10-01

    Milk fat is a natural product containing essential nutrients as well as fatty acids and other food factors with reported anti-cancer potential. Here bovine milk fat was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth of breast and colon cancers and their metastasis to the lung and liver; either alone or in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. A diet containing 5% typical anhydrous milk fat (representing ~70% of the total dietary fat component) fed to Balb/c mice delayed the appearance of subcutaneous 4T1 breast and CT26 colon cancer tumours and inhibited their metastasis to the lung and liver, when compared to the control diet containing soybean oil as the only fat component. It augmented the inhibitory effects of paclitaxel on tumour growth and metastasis, and reduced the microvessel density of tumours. It displayed no apparent organ toxicity, but instead was beneficial for well-being of tumour-bearing mice by maintaining gastrocnemius muscle and epididymal adipose tissue that were otherwise depleted by cachexia. The milk fat diet ameliorated gut damage caused by paclitaxel in non-tumour-bearing mice, as evidenced by retention of jejunal morphology, villi length and intestinal γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, and inhibition of crypt apoptosis. It prevented loss of red and white blood cells due to both cancer-mediated immunosuppression and the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. The present study warrants the use of milk fat as an adjuvant to inhibit tumour metastasis during cancer chemotherapy, and to spare patients from the debilitating side-effects of cytotoxic drugs.

  15. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel: a novel Cremphor-EL-free formulation of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2007-08-01

    Standard formulation paclitaxel requires the use of solvents, such as Cremphor-EL, which contribute to some of the toxicities commonly associated with paclitaxel-based therapy. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) is a novel solvent-free formulation of paclitaxel. The formulation is prepared by high-pressure homogenization of paclitaxel in the presence of serum albumin into a nanoparticle colloidal suspension. The human albumin-stabilized paclitaxel particles have an average size of 130 nm. Nab-paclitaxel has several practical advantages over Cremphor-EL-paclitaxel, including a shorter infusion time (30 min) and no need for premedications for hypersensitivity reactions. The nab-paclitaxel formulation eliminates the impact of Cremphor-EL on paclitaxel pharmacokinetics and utilizes the endogenous albumin transport mechanisms to concentrate nab-paclitaxel within the tumor. A recent Phase III trial compared nab- and Cremphor-EL-paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients treated with nab-paclitaxel experienced a higher response, longer time to tumor progression and, in patients receiving second-line or greater therapy, a longer median survival. Patients treated with nab-paclitaxel had a significantly lower rate of severe neutropenia and a higher rate of sensory neuropathy. The preclinical and clinical data indicate that the nab-paclitaxel formulation has significant advantages over Cremphor-EL-paclitaxel.

  16. The BTK Inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) Overcomes Paclitaxel Resistance in ABCB1- and ABCC10-Overexpressing Cells and Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Patel, Atish; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Kathawala, Rishil J; Qiu, Long-Hui; Patel, Bhargav A; Huang, Li-Hua; Shukla, Suneet; Yang, Dong-Hua; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most widely used antineoplastic drugs in the clinic. Unfortunately, the occurrence of cellular resistance has limited its efficacy and application. The ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1/P-glycoprotein) and subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10/MRP7) are the major membrane protein transporters responsible for the efflux of paclitaxel, constituting one of the most important mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance. Here, we demonstrated that the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of paclitaxel by antagonizing the efflux function of ABCB1 and ABCC10 in cells overexpressing these transporters. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ABCB1 or ABCC10 protein expression was not altered after treatment with ibrutinib for up to 72 hours using Western blot analysis. However, the ATPase activity of ABCB1 was significantly stimulated by treatment with ibrutinib. Molecular docking analysis suggested the binding conformation of ibrutinib within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1. Importantly, ibrutinib could effectively enhance paclitaxel-induced inhibition on the growth of ABCB1- and ABCC10-overexpressing tumors in nude athymic mice. These results demonstrate that the combination of ibrutinib and paclitaxel can effectively antagonize ABCB1- or ABCC10-mediated paclitaxel resistance that could be of great clinical interest. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(6); 1021-30. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. The Urtica dioica extract enhances sensitivity of paclitaxel drug to MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Aghapour, Mahyar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Nami, Sanam; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Due to the chemo resistant nature of cancer cells and adverse effects of current therapies, researchers are looking for the most efficient therapeutic approach which has the lowest side effects and the highest toxicity on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergic effect of Urtica dioica extract in combination with paclitaxel on cell death and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cell line. To determine the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel, MTT assay was performed. The scratch test was exploited to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of cancer cells. The expression levels of snail-1, ZEB1, ZEB2, twist, Cdc2, cyclin B1 and Wee1 genes were quantified using qRT-PCR and western blot performed for snail-1expression. The effects of plant extract, Paclitaxel alone and combination on different phases of cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results of MTT assay showed that Urtica dioica significantly destroyed cancer cells. Interestingly, Concurrent use of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel resulted in decreased IC50 dose of paclitaxel. Moreover, findings of scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of MDA-MB-468 cell line. Our findings also demonstrated that the extract substantially decreased the Snail-1 and related gene expression. Ultimately, Cell cycle arrest occurred at G2/M phase post-treatment by deregulating Cdc2 and wee1. Our results demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica inhibit cell growth and migration. Also, Urtica dioica extract substantially increased sensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel. Therefore, it can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of breast cancer with paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Synergistic Effects of Apigenin and Paclitaxel on Apoptosis of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Ying; Lu, Changyan; Fu, Jin; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Background It was well known that the clinical use of chemotherapeutic drugs is restricted by severe adverse reactions and drug resistances. Thus it is necessary to figure out a strategy to increase the specific anti-tumor efficiency of chemotherapeutic drugs. Apigenin, a kind of flavonoids, has been reported to possess anticancer activities with very low cytotoxicity to normal tissue. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results from cell viability assay, western-blots and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay demonstrated the synergistic pro-apoptotic effects of a low dose of apigenin and paclitaxel in human cancer cell lines. To analyze the underlying mechanism, we examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) staining after cells were treated with a combination of apigenin and paclitaxel, or each of them alone. Data from flow-cytometry showed that superoxides but not reduction of peroxides accumulated in HeLa cells treated with apigenin or a combination of apigenin and paclitaxel. Apigenin and paclitaxel-induced HeLa cell apoptosis was related to the level of ROS in cells. We further evaluated activity and protein level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Apigenin significantly inhibited SOD activity but did not alter the SOD protein level suggesting that apigenin promoted ROS accumulation through suppressing enzyme activity of SOD. Addition of Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ to cell lysates inhibited apigenin's effects on SOD activity. At the same time, data from caspase-2 over-expression and knocked-down experiments demonstrated that caspase-2 participated in apigenin and paclitaxel-induced HeLa cell apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our study demonstrated that apigenin can sensitize cancer cells to paclitaxel induced apoptosis through suppressing SOD activity, which then led to accumulation of ROS and cleavage of caspase-2, suggesting that the combined use of apigenin and paclitaxel was an effective way to decrease the dose of paclitaxel taken

  19. Paclitaxel-loaded iron platinum stealth immunomicelles are potent MRI imaging agents that prevent prostate cancer growth in a PSMA-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert M; Sillerud, Laurel O

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods: Problems with the clinical management of prostate cancer include the lack of both specific detection and efficient therapeutic intervention. We report the encapsulation of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and paclitaxel in a mixture of polyethyleneglycolated, fluorescent, and biotin-functionalized phospholipids to create multifunctional SIPP-PTX micelles (SPMs) that were conjugated to an antibody against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for the specific targeting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and treatment of human prostate cancer xenografts in mice. Results: SPMs were 45.4 ± 24.9 nm in diameter and composed of 160.7 ± 22.9 μg/mL iron, 247.0 ± 33.4 μg/mL platinum, and 702.6 ± 206.0 μg/mL paclitaxel. Drug release measurements showed that, at 37°C, half of the paclitaxel was released in 30.2 hours in serum and two times faster in saline. Binding assays suggested that PSMA-targeted SPMs specifically bound to C4-2 human prostate cancer cells in vitro and released paclitaxel into the cells. In vitro, paclitaxel was 2.2 and 1.6 times more cytotoxic than SPMs to C4-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours of incubation, respectively. After 72 hours of incubation, paclitaxel and SPMs were equally cytotoxic. SPMs had MRI transverse relaxivities of 389 ± 15.5 Hz/mM iron, and SIPP micelles with and without drug caused MRI contrast enhancement in vivo. Conclusion: Only PSMA-targeted SPMs and paclitaxel significantly prevented growth of C4-2 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, mice injected with PSMA-targeted SPMs showed significantly more paclitaxel and platinum in tumors, compared with nontargeted SPM-injected and paclitaxel-injected mice. PMID:22915856

  20. Pharmacological Modulation of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Paclitaxel-Induced Painful Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Lisa A; Flatters, Sarah J L

    2015-10-01

    Paclitaxel is an effective first-line chemotherapeutic with the major dose-limiting side effect of painful neuropathy. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in paclitaxel-induced painful neuropathy. Here we show the effects of pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial sites that produce reactive oxygen species using systemic rotenone (complex I inhibitor) or antimycin A (complex III inhibitor) on the maintenance and development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The maximally tolerated dose (5 mg/kg) of rotenone inhibited established paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. However, some of these inhibitory effects coincided with decreased motor coordination; 3 mg/kg rotenone also significantly attenuated established paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity without any motor impairment. The maximally tolerated dose (.6 mg/kg) of antimycin A reversed established paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity without any motor impairment. Seven daily doses of systemic rotenone or antimycin A were given either after paclitaxel administration or before and during paclitaxel administration. Rotenone had no significant effect on the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. However, antimycin A significantly inhibited the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity when given before and during paclitaxel administration but had no effect when given after paclitaxel administration. These studies provide further evidence of paclitaxel-evoked mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo, suggesting that complex III activity is instrumental in paclitaxel-induced pain. This study provides further in vivo evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is a key contributor to the development and maintenance of chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy. This work also indicates that selective modulation of the electron transport chain can induce antinociceptive

  1. DEAE-Dextran coated paclitaxel nanoparticles act as multifunctional nano system for intranuclear delivery to triple negative breast cancer through VEGF and NOTCH1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, Anita K; Variya, Bhavesh C; Rathod, Lalaji V; Patel, Snehal S

    2018-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer revolution has identified a plethora of therapeutic targets making it apparent that a single target for its treatment could be rare hence creating an urge to develop robust technologies for combination drug therapy. Paclitaxel, hailed as the most significant advancement in chemotherapy faces several underpinnings due to its low solubility and permeability. Advancing research has demonstrated the role of interferons in cancer. DEAE-Dextran, an emerging molecule with evidence of interferon induction was utilized in the present study to develop a nanoformulation in conjugation with paclitaxel to target multiple therapeutic pathways, with diminution of paclitaxel adverse effects and develop a specific targeted nano system. Evidently, it was demonstrated that DEAE-Dextran coated nanoformulation portrays significant synergistic cytotoxicity in the various cell lines. Moreover, overcoming the activation of ROS by paclitaxel, the combination drug therapy more effectively inhibited ROS through β-interferon induction. The nanoformulation was further conjugated to FITC for internalization studies which subsequently indicated maximum cellular uptake at 60min post treatment demonstrated by green fluorescence from FITC lighting up the nuclear membrane. Precisely, the mechanistic approach of nuclear-targeted nanoformulation was evaluated by in vivo xenograft studies which showed a synergistic release of β-interferon at the target organ. Moreover, the combination nanoformulation inculcated multiple mechanistic approaches through VEGF and NOTCH1 inhibition along with dual β and γ-interferon overexpression. Overall, the combination therapy may be a promising multifunctional nanomaterial for intranuclear drug delivery in TNBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A multifunctional lipid nanoparticle for co-delivery of paclitaxel and curcumin for targeted delivery and enhanced cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the work was to develop a multifunctional nanomedicine based on a folate-conjugated lipid nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel and curcumin. The novel system combines therapeutic advantageous of efficient targeted delivery via folate and timed-release of curcumin and paclitaxel via 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, thereby overcoming multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). The faster release of curcumin from the folate-conjugated curcumin and paclitaxel-loaded lipid nanoparticles enables sufficient p-glycoprotein inhibition, which allows increased cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of paclitaxel. In western blot assay, curcumin can efficiently inhibit the expression of p-glycoprotein, conformed the enhancement of cytotoxicity by paclitaxel. Furthermore, folate-conjugated curcumin and paclitaxel-loaded lipid nanoparticles exhibited increased uptake of paclitaxel and curcumin into MCF-7/ADR cells through the folate receptor-mediated internalization. Taken together, these results indicate that folate-conjugated curcumin and paclitaxel-loaded lipid nanoparticles enables the enhanced, folate-targeted delivery of multiple anticancer drugs by inhibiting the multi-drug resistance efficiently, which may also serve as a useful nano-system for co-delivery of other anticancer drugs. PMID:28423731

  3. Identification of P-Glycoprotein and Transport Mechanism of Paclitaxel in Syncytiotrophoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Young; Lee, Ha-Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

    2014-01-01

    When chemotherapy is administered during pregnancy, it is important to consider the fetus chemotherapy exposure, because it may lead to fetal consequences. Paclitaxel has become widely used in the metastatic and adjuvant settings for woman with cancer including breast and ovarian cancer. Therefore, we attempted to clarify the transport mechanisms of paclitaxel through blood-placenta barrier using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell lines (TR-TBTs). The uptake of paclitaxel was time- and temperature-dependent. Paclitaxel was eliminated about 50% from the cells within 30 min. The uptake of paclitaxel was saturable with Km of 168 μM and 371 μM in TR-TBT 18d-1 and TR-TBT 18d-2, respectively. [3H]Paclitaxel uptake was markedly inhibited by cyclosporine and verapamil, well-known substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter. However, several MRP substrates and organic anions had no effect on [3H]paclitaxel uptake in TR-TBT cells. These results suggest that P-gp may be involved in paclitaxel transport at the placenta. TR-TBT cells expressed mRNA of P-gp. These findings are important for therapy of breast and ovarian cancer of pregnant women, and should be useful data in elucidating teratogenicity of paclitaxel during pregnancy. PMID:24596624

  4. Inhibiting prenylation augments chemotherapy efficacy in renal cell carcinoma through dual inhibition on mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiangrong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Peng, Xiaochun; Huang, Wei

    2017-11-18

    Prenylation is a posttranslational lipid modification required for the proper functions of a number of proteins involved in cell regulation. Here, we show that prenylation inhibition is important for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) growth, survival and response to chemotherapy, and its underlying mechanism may be contributed to mitochondrial dysfunction. We first demonstrated that a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor pitavastatin inhibited mevalonate pathway and thereby prenylation in RCC cells. In addition, pitavastatin is effective in inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis in a panel of RCC cell lines. Combination of pitavastatin and paclitaxel is significantly more effective than pitavastatin or paclitaxel alone as shown by both in vitro cell culture system and in vivo RCC xenograft model. Importantly, pitavastatin treatment inhibits mitochondrial respiration via suppressing mitochondrial complex I and II enzyme activities. Interestingly, different from mitochondrial inhibitor phenformin that inhibits mitochondrial respiration but activates glycolytic rate in RCC cells, pitavastatin significantly decreases glycolytic rate. The dual inhibitory action of pitavastatin on mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis results in remarkable energy depletion and oxidative stress in RCC cells. In addition, inhibition of prenylation by depleting Isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase (Icmt) also mimics the inhibitory effects of pitavastatin in RCC cells. Our work demonstrates the previously unappreciated association between prenylation inhibition and energy metabolism in RCC, which can be therapeutically exploited, likely in tumors that largely rely on energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Italian cost-effectiveness analysis of paclitaxel albumin (nab-paclitaxel) versus conventional paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer patients: the COSTANza study

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Carlo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Cognetti, Francesco; Fabi, Alessandra; De Placido, Sabino; Arpino, Grazia; Marchetti, Paolo; Botticelli, Andrea; Pronzato, Paolo; Martelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Paclitaxel albumin (nab-paclitaxel) is a nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel formulation aimed at increasing therapeutic index in metastatic breast cancer. When compared to conventional paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel has a reported longer time to progression, higher response, lower incidence of neutropenia, no need for premedication, shorter time of administration, and in pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients, extended overall survival. This study investigates the cost-effectiveness of nab-paclitaxel versus conventional paclitaxel for pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients in Italy. Materials and methods A Markov model with progression-free, progressed, and dead states was developed to estimate costs, outcomes, and quality adjusted life years over 5 years from the Italian National Health Service viewpoint. Patients were assumed to receive nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m2 three times weekly or conventional paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 three times weekly. Data on health care resource consumption was collected from a convenience sample of five Italian centers. Resources were valued at Euro (€) 2011. Published utility weights were applied to health states to estimate the impact of response, disease progression, and adverse events on quality adjusted life years. Three sensitivity analyses tested the robustness of the base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results and conclusion Compared to conventional paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel gains an extra 0.165 quality adjusted life years (0.265 life years saved) and incurs additional costs of €2506 per patient treated. This translates to an ICER of €15,189 (95% confidence interval: €11,891–€28,415). One-way sensitivity analysis underscores that ICER for nab-paclitaxel remains stable despite varying taxanes cost. Threshold analysis shows that ICER for nab-paclitaxel exceeds €40,000 only if cost per mg of conventional paclitaxel is set to zero. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlights that nab-paclitaxel

  6. CX3CL1-mediated macrophage activation contributed to paclitaxel-induced DRG neuronal apoptosis and painful peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Dai; Liu, Cui-Cui; Cui, Yu; Zhu, He-Quan; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Yong-Yong; Xin, Wen-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel therapy, which hampers the optimal clinical management of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Currently the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we showed that the clinically relevant dose of paclitaxel (3×8mg/kg, cumulative dose 24mg/kg) induced significant upregulation of the chemokine CX3CL1 in the A-fiber primary sensory neurons in vivo and in vitro and infiltration of macrophages into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. Paclitaxel treatment also increased cleaved caspase-3 expression, induced the loss of primary afferent terminal fibers and decreased sciatic-evoked A-fiber responses in the spinal dorsal horn, indicating DRG neuronal apoptosis induced by paclitaxel. In addition, the paclitaxel-induced DRG neuronal apoptosis occurred exclusively in the presence of macrophage in vitro study. Intrathecal or systemic injection of CX3CL1 neutralizing antibody blocked paclitaxel-induced macrophage recruitment and neuronal apoptosis in the DRG, and also attenuated paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Furthermore, depletion of macrophage by systemic administration of clodronate inhibited paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Blocking CX3CL1 decreased activation of p38 MAPK in the macrophage, and inhibition of p38 MAPK activity blocked the neuronal apoptosis and development of mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel. These findings provide novel evidence that CX3CL1-recruited macrophage contributed to paclitaxel-induced DRG neuronal apoptosis and painful peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Paclitaxel targets VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in ovarian cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Bin; Bie, Zhixin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Ailing

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the gynecologic cancers with the highest mortality, wherein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in regulating tumor vascularization, growth, migration, and invasion. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in tumors has been targeted in various cancer treatments, and anti-VEGF therapy has been used clinically for treatment of several types of cancer. Paclitaxel is a natural antitumor agent in the standard front-line treatment that has significant efficiency to treat advanced cancers, including ovarian cancer. Although platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy has good response rates, most patients eventually relapse because the disease develops drug resistance. We aim to review the recent advances in paclitaxel treatment of ovarian cancer via antiangiogenesis. Single-agent therapy may be used in selected cases of ovarian cancer. However, to prevent drug resistance, drug combinations should be identified for optimal effectiveness and existing therapies should be improved. PMID:27648354

  8. Paclitaxel sensitivity of breast cancer cells requires efficient mitotic arrest and disruption of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores, M Luz; Castilla, Carolina; Ávila, Rainiero; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel A

    2012-06-01

    Taxanes are being used for the treatment of breast cancer. However, cancer cells frequently develop resistance to these drugs with the subsequent recurrence of the tumor. MDA-MB-231 and T-47D breast cancer cell lines were used to assess the effect of paclitaxel treatment on apoptosis and cell cycle, the possible mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance as well as the enhancement of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis based on its combination with phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). T-47D cells undergo apoptosis in response to paclitaxel treatment. The induction of apoptosis was associated with a robust mitotic arrest and the disruption of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction. By contrary, MDA-MB-231 cells were insensitive to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and this was associated with a high percentage of cells that slip out of paclitaxel-imposed mitotic arrest and also with the maintenance of Bcl-xL/Bak interaction. The sequential treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with PEITC followed by paclitaxel inhibited the slippage induced by paclitaxel and increased the apoptosis induction achieved with any of the drugs alone. In breast cancer tissues, high Bcl-xL expression was correlated with a shorter time of disease-free survival in patients treated with a chemotherapeutic regimen that contains paclitaxel, in a statistically significant way. Thus, resistance to paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231 cells is related to the inability to disrupt the Bcl-xL/Bak interaction and increased slippage. In this context, the combination of a drug that induces a strong mitotic arrest, such as paclitaxel, with another that inhibits slippage, such as PEITC, translates into increased apoptotic induction.

  9. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  10. Potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity in hypopharynx cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Zhi; Shi, Run-Jie; Chen, Dong; Sun, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Qing-Wei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Pei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel has been proved to be active in treatment and larynx preservation of HNSCC, however, the fact that about 20-40% patients do not respond to paclitaxel makes it urgent to figure out the biomarkers for paclitaxel-based treatment in Hypopharynx cancer (HPC) patients to improve the therapy effect. In this work, Fadu cells, treated or untreated with low dose of paclitaxel for 24 h, were applied to DNA microarray chips. The differential expression in mRNAs and miRs was analyzed and the network between expression-altered mRNAs and miRs was constructed. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (ACAT2, MSMO1, LSS, FDFT1 and FDPS etc.), complement system (C3, C1R, C1S, CFR and CFB etc.), interferon signaling (IFIT1, IFIT3, IFITM1 and MX1 etc.), mTOR signaling (MRAS, PRKAA2, PLD1, RND3 and EIF4A1 etc.) and IGF1 signaling (MRAS, IGFBP7, JUN and FOS etc.), most of these pathways are implicated in tumorigenesis or chemotherapy resistance. The first three pathways were predicted to be suppressed, while the last two pathways were predicted to be induced by paclitaxel, suggesting the combination therapy with mTOR inhibition and paclitaxel might be better than single one. The dramatically expression-altered miRs were miR-112, miR-7, miR-1304, miR-222*, miR-29b-1* (these five miRs were upregulated) and miR-210 (downregulated). The 26 putative target genes mediated by the 6 miRs were figured out and the miR-gene network was constructed. Furthermore, immunoblotting assay showed that ERK signaling in Fadu cells was active by low dose of paclitaxel but repressed by high dose of paclitaxel. Collectively, our data would provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for paclitaxel-based therapy in HPC patients.

  11. Potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity in hypopharynx cancer cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng-Zhi; Shi, Run-Jie; Chen, Dong; Sun, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Qing-Wei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Pei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel has been proved to be active in treatment and larynx preservation of HNSCC, however, the fact that about 20-40% patients do not respond to paclitaxel makes it urgent to figure out the biomarkers for paclitaxel-based treatment in Hypopharynx cancer (HPC) patients to improve the therapy effect. In this work, Fadu cells, treated or untreated with low dose of paclitaxel for 24 h, were applied to DNA microarray chips. The differential expression in mRNAs and miRs was analyzed and the network between expression-altered mRNAs and miRs was constructed. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (ACAT2, MSMO1, LSS, FDFT1 and FDPS etc.), complement system (C3, C1R, C1S, CFR and CFB etc.), interferon signaling (IFIT1, IFIT3, IFITM1 and MX1 etc.), mTOR signaling (MRAS, PRKAA2, PLD1, RND3 and EIF4A1 etc.) and IGF1 signaling (MRAS, IGFBP7, JUN and FOS etc.), most of these pathways are implicated in tumorigenesis or chemotherapy resistance. The first three pathways were predicted to be suppressed, while the last two pathways were predicted to be induced by paclitaxel, suggesting the combination therapy with mTOR inhibition and paclitaxel might be better than single one. The dramatically expression-altered miRs were miR-112, miR-7, miR-1304, miR-222*, miR-29b-1* (these five miRs were upregulated) and miR-210 (downregulated). The 26 putative target genes mediated by the 6 miRs were figured out and the miR-gene network was constructed. Furthermore, immunoblotting assay showed that ERK signaling in Fadu cells was active by low dose of paclitaxel but repressed by high dose of paclitaxel. Collectively, our data would provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for paclitaxel-based therapy in HPC patients. PMID:24294361

  12. Paclitaxel suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis through regulation of ROS and the AKT/MAPK signaling pathway in canine mammary gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoli; Zhao, Bingbing; Chang, Hongjian; Xiao, Min; Wu, Yuhong; Liu, Yun

    2018-06-01

    Paclitaxel is a diterpenoid compound, derived from the pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) berry, which exhibits antineoplastic effects against various types of cancer. However, the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of paclitaxel on canine CHMm cells remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects of paclitaxel on CHMm cells and identify relevant signal transduction pathways modulated by paclitaxel using multiple methods including MTT assay, flow cytometry, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, transmission electron microscopy, determination of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondiadehyde (MDA) and western blotting, the data indicated that paclitaxel decreased cell viability, induced G2/M‑phase cell cycle arrest, suppressed the expression of cyclin B1 and induced apoptosis in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, paclitaxel upregulated the expression of Bax and cytochrome c, but reduced expression of apoptosis regulator Bcl‑2, resulting in activation of caspase‑3, chromatin condensation, karyopyknosis, intracellular vacuolization, increased production of ROS and MDA, and decreased activity of SOD. However, these effects were inhibited when CHMm cells were treated with N‑acetyl‑L‑cysteine. Furthermore, treatment with paclitaxel inhibited the level of of phospho (p)‑RAC‑α serine/threonine‑protein kinase (AKT) and p‑ribosomal protein S6 kinase proteins, and promoted phosphorylation of P38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p‑90 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 proteins in CHMm cells. It was observed that paclitaxel in combination with pharmacological inhibitors of the P38 and phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways (SB203580 and LY294002, respectively) exerted synergistic inhibitory effects on the proliferation of the CHMm cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that paclitaxel

  13. RSPO3 antagonism inhibits growth and tumorigenicity in colorectal tumors harboring common Wnt pathway mutations.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marcus M; Yeung, V Pete; Cattaruzza, Fiore; Hussein, Rajaa; Yen, Wan-Ching; Murriel, Christopher; Evans, James W; O'Young, Gilbert; Brunner, Alayne L; Wang, Min; Cain, Jennifer; Cancilla, Belinda; Kapoun, Ann; Hoey, Timothy

    2017-11-10

    Activating mutations in the Wnt pathway are a characteristic feature of colorectal cancer (CRC). The R-spondin (RSPO) family is a group of secreted proteins that enhance Wnt signaling and RSPO2 and RSPO3 gene fusions have been reported in CRC. We have previously shown that Wnt pathway blockers exhibit potent combinatorial activity with taxanes to inhibit tumor growth. Here we show that RSPO3 antagonism synergizes with paclitaxel based chemotherapies in patient-derived xenograft models (PDX) with RSPO3 fusions and in tumors with common CRC mutations such as APC, β-catenin, or RNF43. In these latter types of tumors that represent over 90% of CRC, RSPO3 is produced by stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment and the activating mutations appear to sensitize the tumors to Wnt-Rspo synergy. The combination of RSPO3 inhibition and taxane treatment provides an approach to effectively target oncogenic WNT signaling in a significant number of patients with colorectal and other intestinal cancers.

  14. Low doses of paclitaxel enhance liver metastasis of breast cancer cells in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Ma, Zhuang; Liu, Yinhua; Kan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Changjun; Su, Bingnan; Li, Yuchen; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Pingzhang; Luo, Yang; Na, Daxiang; Wang, Lanlan; Zhang, Guoying; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Lu

    2016-08-01

    Paclitaxel is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer treatment. In addition to its well-known cytotoxic effects, recent studies have shown that paclitaxel has tumor-supportive activities. Importantly, paclitaxel levels are not maintained at the effective concentration through one treatment cycle; rather, the concentration decreases during the cycle as a result of drug metabolism. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of paclitaxel's effects requires insight into the dose-specific activities of paclitaxel and their influence on cancer cells and the host microenvironment. Here we report that a low dose of paclitaxel enhances metastasis of breast cancer cells to the liver in mouse models. We used microarray analysis to investigate gene expression patterns in invasive breast cancer cells treated with low or clinically relevant high doses of paclitaxel. We also investigated the effects of low doses of paclitaxel on cell migration, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that low doses of paclitaxel promoted inflammation and initiated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro. These effects could be reversed by inhibiting NF-κB. Furthermore, low doses of paclitaxel promoted liver metastasis in mouse xenografts, which correlated with changes in estrogen metabolism in the host liver. Collectively, these findings reveal the paradoxical and dose-dependent effects of paclitaxel on breast cancer cell activity, and suggest that increased consideration be given to potential adverse effects associated with low concentrations of paclitaxel during treatment. Gene expression microarray data are available in the GEO database under accession number GSE82048. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Cytoskeleton and paclitaxel sensitivity in breast cancer: the role of beta-tubulins.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Stefania; Mangia, Anita; Lacalamita, Rosanna; Bellizzi, Antonia; Fedele, Vita; Chiriatti, Annalisa; Thomssen, Christopher; Kendzierski, Nancy; Latorre, Agnese; Lorusso, Vito; Schittulli, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Kavallaris, Maria; Paradiso, Angelo

    2007-05-15

    The antineoplastic effect of paclitaxel is mainly related to its ability to bind the beta subunit of tubulin, thus preventing tubulin chain depolarization and inducing apoptosis. The relevance of the Class I beta-tubulin characteristics have also been confirmed in the clinical setting where mutations of paclitaxel-binding site of beta-tubulin Class I have been related to paclitaxel resistance in non small cell lung and ovarian cancers. In the present study, we verified the hypothesis of a relationship between molecular alterations of beta-tubulin Class I and paclitaxel sensitivity in a panel of breast cell lines with different drug IC(50). The Class I beta-tubulin gene cDNA has been sequenced detecting heterozygous missense mutations (exon 1 and 4) only in MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 lines. Furthermore, the expression (at both mRNA and protein level) of the different isotypes have been analyzed demonstrating an association between low cell sensitivity to paclitaxel and Class III beta-tubulin expression increasing. Antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) experiments confirmed that the inhibition of Class III beta-tubulin could at least partially increase paclitaxel-chemosensitivity. The hypothesis of a relationship between beta-tubulin tumor expression and paclitaxel clinical response has been finally verified in a series of 92 advanced breast cancer patients treated with a first line paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. Thirty-five percent (95% CI: 45-31) of patients with high Class III beta-tubulin expression showed a disease progression vs. only 7% of patients with low expression (35% vs. 7%, p < 0.002). Our study suggests that Class III beta-tubulin tumor expression could be considered a predictive biomarker of paclitaxel-clinical resistance for breast cancer patients. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. MENA confers resistance to paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Madeleine J.; Barbier, Lucie; Schäfer, Claudia; Kosciuk, Tatsiana; Miller, Miles A.; Han, Sangyoon; Jonas, Oliver; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Gertler, Frank B.

    2017-01-01

    Taxane therapy remains the standard of care for triple-negative breast cancer. However, high frequencies of recurrence and progression in treated patients indicate that metastatic breast cancer cells can acquire resistance to this drug. The actin regulatory protein MENA, particularly its invasive isoform, MENAINV, are established drivers of metastasis. MENAINV expression is significantly correlated with metastasis and poor outcome in human breast cancer patients. We investigated whether MENA isoforms might play a role in driving resistance to chemotherapeutics. We find that both MENA and MENAINV confer resistance to the taxane paclitaxel, but not to the widely used DNA damaging agents doxorubicin or cisplatin. Furthermore, paclitaxel treatment does not attenuate growth of MENAINV-driven metastatic lesions. Mechanistically, MENA isoform expression alters the ratio of dynamic and stable microtubule populations in paclitaxel-treated cells. MENA expression also increases MAPK signaling in response to paclitaxel treatment. Decreasing ERK phosphorylation by co-treatment with MEK inhibitor restored paclitaxel sensitivity by driving microtubule stabilization in MENA isoform-expressing cells. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of taxane resistance in highly metastatic breast cancer cells and identify a combination therapy to overcome such resistance. PMID:27811011

  17. Therapeutic effects of antibiotic drug tigecycline against cervical squamous cell carcinoma by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Jiao, Shun; Li, Xin

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is common in human cervical cancers and has great potential therapeutic value. We show that tigecycline, a FDA-approved antibiotic drug, targets cervical squamous cell carcinoma through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Tigecycline is effective in inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation of Hela cells. The inhibitory effects of tigecycline are further enhanced upon combination with paclitaxel, a most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for cervical cancer. In a cervical xenograft model, tigecycline inhibits tumor growth as a single agent and its combination with paclitaxel significantly inhibits more tumor growth throughout the duration ofmore » treatment. We further show that tigecycline decreases level of both cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin and suppressed Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through increasing levels of Axin 1 in Hela cells. In addition, stabilization or overexpression of β-catenin using pharmacological and genetic approaches abolished the effects of tigecycline in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of Hela cells. Our study suggests that tigecycline is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for cervical cancer and targeting Wnt/β-catenin represents a potential therapeutic strategy in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • We repurposed the antibiotic drug tigecycline for cervical cancer treatment. • Tigecycline is effectively against cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. • Combination of tigecycline and paclitaxel is synergistic in targeting Hela cells. • Tigecycline acts on Hela cells through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.« less

  18. Patritumab plus trastuzumab and paclitaxel in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hirofumi; Saeki, Toshiaki; Aogi, Kenjiro; Naito, Yoichi; Matsubara, Nobuaki; Shigekawa, Takashi; Ueda, Shigeto; Takashima, Seiki; Hara, Fumikata; Yamashita, Tomonari; Ohwada, Shoichi; Sasaki, Yasutsuna

    2016-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) expression in lung and breast cancers has a negative impact on survival. Patritumab, a human anti-HER3 mAb, has shown anticancer activity in preclinical models. This study examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of patritumab in combination with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. In this open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation, phase Ib study, patients received patritumab 9 or 18 mg/kg plus trastuzumab and paclitaxel at known tolerated doses. Safety and tolerability were assessed based on dose-limiting toxicities and other non-life threatening adverse events. The pharmacokinetic profile for patritumab was determined based on the target trough level. Clinical efficacy was evaluated based on the overall response rate and progression-free survival. Six patients received patritumab 9 mg/kg and 12 received 18 mg/kg. The most common adverse events were diarrhea, alopecia, leukopenia, neutropenia, and maculopapular rash. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The target trough serum concentration was achieved in all patients at a dose of 18 mg/kg. Overall response rate was 38.9% and median progression-free survival was 274 days. In conclusion, patritumab plus trastuzumab and paclitaxel was tolerable and efficacious at both doses. We recommend the dose level of 18 mg/kg for future phase II studies. (Clinical trial registration: JapicCTI-121772.). © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Prostate cancer cell response to paclitaxel is affected by abnormally expressed securin PTTG1.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Carolina; Flores, M Luz; Medina, Rafael; Pérez-Valderrama, Begoña; Romero, Francisco; Tortolero, María; Japón, Miguel A; Sáez, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    PTTG1 protein, the human securin, has a central role in sister chromatid separation during mitosis, and its altered expression has been reported in many tumor types. Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, whose mechanism of action is related to its ability to arrest cells in mitosis and the subsequent induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. By using two prostate cancer cell lines with different responses to paclitaxel treatment, we have identified two situations in which PTTG1 influences cell fate differentially. In slippage-prone PC3 cells, both PTTG1 downregulation and overexpression induce an increase in mitotic cells that is associated with diminished apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. In LNCaP cells, however, PTTG1 downregulation prevents mitotic entry and, subsequently, inhibits mitosis-associated, paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, PTTG1 overexpression induces an increase in mitotic cells and apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. We have also identified a role for Mcl-1 protein in preventing apoptosis during mitosis in PC3 cells, as simultaneous PTTG1 and Mcl-1 silencing enhances mitosis-associated apoptosis after paclitaxel treatment. The finding that a more efficient mitotic arrest alone in PC3 cells is not enough to increase apoptosis was also confirmed with the observation that a selected paclitaxel-resistant PC3 cell line showed an apoptosis-resistant phenotype associated with increased mitosis upon paclitaxel treatment. These findings could contribute to identify putative responsive and nonresponsive cells and help us to approach incomplete responses to paclitaxel in the clinical setting. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Phase I study of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, carboplatin and trastuzumab in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tezuka, Kenji; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Kawajiri, Hidemi; Tokunaga, Shinya; Tei, Seika; Nishimura, Shigehiko; Yamagata, Shigehito; Noda, Satoru; Nishimori, Takeo; Mizuyama, Yoko; Sunami, Takeshi; Ikeda, Katsumi; Ogawa, Yoshinari; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuro; Kudoh, Shinzoh; Takada, Minoru; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2017-01-01

    Although the concurrent use of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy and taxane with trastuzumab are considered the treatment of choice for the primary systemic therapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing early breast cancer, non-anthracycline regimens, such as concurrent administration of docetaxel and carboplatin with trastuzumab, exhibited similar efficacies in a previous study. In addition, tri-weekly treatment with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) resulted in significantly higher response rates and a favorable safety profile compared with standard paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer patients in another phase III study. Based on these results, a phase I study of combination therapy with nab-paclitaxel, carboplatin and trastuzumab was planned, in order to estimate its efficacy and safety for HER2-overexpressing locally advanced breast cancer. The present study was designed to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose and recommended dose of this combination treatment in women with HER2-overexpressing locally advanced breast cancer. The starting dose of nab-paclitaxel was 220 mg/m2 (level 1), and the dose was escalated to 260 mg/m2 (level 2). Nab-paclitaxel was administered with carboplatin (area under the curve, 6 mg/ml/min) and trastuzumab tri-weekly. A total of 6 patients were enrolled. Although no DLT was observed during the first cycle, 4 patients developed grade 4 thrombocytopenia, 2 had grade 4 neutropenia and 3 exhibited a grade 4 decrease in hemoglobin levels. In the present phase I study, although no patients experienced DLTs, this regimen was associated with severe hematological toxicities and it was not well tolerated. However, considering the high efficacy and lower risk of cardiotoxicity and secondary carcinogenesis with taxane, platinum and trastuzumab combination therapy, further evaluation of another regimen including weekly administration or a more accurate dose

  1. Apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppresses tumor growth in cervical cancer and synergizes with Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Haifeng; Li, Jing; Liu, Qiuli; Tang, Mei; Wang, Yuan

    2018-06-09

    Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR2 signal and exhibits potent anti-tumor effects in human cancers. In this study, we aim to investigate the efficacy of Apatinib in cervical cancer. The protein expression of VEGFR2 and its relationships with clinical parameters were investigated in a panel of cervical cancer patients. In vitro, a series of experiments were performed to detect the effects of Apatinib on the proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in cervical cancer cells. Both the immortalized cell lines and primary cultured tissues were used to investigate the synergy between Apatinib and chemotherapeutic drugs. The in vivo effects of Apatinib were validated in a nude mouse model. Compared to that in normal cervix, VEGFR2 protein was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues (P<0.001); this was positively correlated with advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and a poor prognosis. In vitro, Apatinib markedly induced apoptosis and G1-phase arrest, suppressed cell growth, and decreased colony formation ability. We also found that primary cancer tissues with higher level of VEGFR2 were much more sensitive to Apatinib. Further, we proved that Apatinib significantly increased the sensitivity to Paclitaxel in cervical cancer cells and the mouse model. Collectively, we firstly report the anti-tumor efficacy of Apatinib in cervical cancer. Moreover, Apatinib synergized with Paclitaxel to achieve more significant suppression on tumor growth, proposing that Apatinib might be a potent drug for cervical cancer.

  2. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tony S; Wu, Yi-Long; Thongprasert, Sumitra; Yang, Chih-Hsin; Chu, Da-Tong; Saijo, Nagahiro; Sunpaweravong, Patrapim; Han, Baohui; Margono, Benjamin; Ichinose, Yukito; Nishiwaki, Yutaka; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yang, Jin-Ji; Chewaskulyong, Busyamas; Jiang, Haiyi; Duffield, Emma L; Watkins, Claire L; Armour, Alison A; Fukuoka, Masahiro

    2009-09-03

    Previous, uncontrolled studies have suggested that first-line treatment with gefitinib would be efficacious in selected patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. In this phase 3, open-label study, we randomly assigned previously untreated patients in East Asia who had advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma and who were nonsmokers or former light smokers to receive gefitinib (250 mg per day) (609 patients) or carboplatin (at a dose calculated to produce an area under the curve of 5 or 6 mg per milliliter per minute) plus paclitaxel (200 mg per square meter of body-surface area) (608 patients). The primary end point was progression-free survival. The 12-month rates of progression-free survival were 24.9% with gefitinib and 6.7% with carboplatin-paclitaxel. The study met its primary objective of showing the noninferiority of gefitinib and also showed its superiority, as compared with carboplatin-paclitaxel, with respect to progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). In the subgroup of 261 patients who were positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutation, progression-free survival was significantly longer among those who received gefitinib than among those who received carboplatin-paclitaxel (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.64; P<0.001), whereas in the subgroup of 176 patients who were negative for the mutation, progression-free survival was significantly longer among those who received carboplatin-paclitaxel (hazard ratio for progression or death with gefitinib, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.05 to 3.98; P<0.001). The most common adverse events were rash or acne (in 66.2% of patients) and diarrhea (46.6%) in the gefitinib group and neurotoxic effects (69.9%), neutropenia (67.1%), and alopecia (58.4%) in the carboplatin-paclitaxel group. Gefitinib is superior to carboplatin-paclitaxel as an initial treatment for

  3. MENA Confers Resistance to Paclitaxel in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Oudin, Madeleine J; Barbier, Lucie; Schäfer, Claudia; Kosciuk, Tatsiana; Miller, Miles A; Han, Sangyoon; Jonas, Oliver; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2017-01-01

    Taxane therapy remains the standard of care for triple-negative breast cancer. However, high frequencies of recurrence and progression in treated patients indicate that metastatic breast cancer cells can acquire resistance to this drug. The actin regulatory protein MENA and particularly its invasive isoform, MENA INV , are established drivers of metastasis. MENA INV expression is significantly correlated with metastasis and poor outcome in human patients with breast cancer. We investigated whether MENA isoforms might play a role in driving resistance to chemotherapeutics. We find that both MENA and MENA INV confer resistance to the taxane paclitaxel, but not to the widely used DNA-damaging agents doxorubicin or cisplatin. Furthermore, paclitaxel treatment does not attenuate growth of MENA INV -driven metastatic lesions. Mechanistically, MENA isoform expression alters the ratio of dynamic and stable microtubule populations in paclitaxel-treated cells. MENA expression also increases MAPK signaling in response to paclitaxel treatment. Decreasing ERK phosphorylation by co-treatment with MEK inhibitor restored paclitaxel sensitivity by driving microtubule stabilization in MENA isoform-expressing cells. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of taxane resistance in highly metastatic breast cancer cells and identify a combination therapy to overcome such resistance. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 143-55. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Induction of E-cadherin in lung cancer and interaction with growth suppression by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Chan, Daniel; Webster, Robin B; Kato, Harubumi; Drabkin, Harry A; Gemmill, Robert M

    2009-12-01

    Loss of E-cadherin confers a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients and is associated with in vitro resistance to endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors. Zinc finger E box-binding homeobox (ZEB)-1, the predominant transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin in lung tumor lines, recruits histone deacetylases (HDACs) as co-repressors. NSCLC cell lines were treated with HDAC inhibitors and analyzed for E-cadherin induction, growth inhibition and apoptosis. National Cancer Institute-H157 cells expressing ectopic E-cadherin were tested for tumorigenicity in murine xenografts. We found that treatment with MS-275, compared to vorinostat (SAHA), valproic acid or trichostatin A, was most effective in E-cadherin up-regulation and persistence in non-small cell lung cancers. As with other tumor types and HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis. Importantly, blocking E-cadherin induction by short hairpin RNA resulted in less inhibition by MS-275, implicating the epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype process as a contributing factor. In contrast to H460 and H661, H157 cells were resistant to E-cadherin up-regulation by HDAC inhibitors. However, E-cadherin was restored, in a synergistic manner, by combined knockdown of ZEB-1 and ZEB-2. In addition, H157 cells stably transfected with E-cadherin were markedly attenuated in their tumor forming ability. Lastly, combining MS-275 with the microtubule stabilizing agent, paclitaxel, or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. Since MS-275 has no reported activity against HDAC6, which regulates both microtubule and heat shock protein 90 functions, other mechanisms of synergy are anticipated. These results support the role of ZEB proteins and HDAC inhibitors in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung cancer.

  5. The effects of opioid receptor antagonists on electroacupuncture-produced anti-allodynia/hyperalgesia in rats with paclitaxel-evoked peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianze; Zhang, Yu; Li, Aihui; Xin, Jiajia; Lao, Lixing; Ren, Ke; Berman, Brian M; Tan, Ming; Zhang, Rui-Xin

    2011-09-26

    Research supports the effectiveness of acupuncture for conditions such as chronic low back and knee pain. In a five-patient pilot study the modality also improved the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Using an established rat model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we evaluated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia that has not been studied in an animal model. We hypothesize that EA would relieve the paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia, which was assessed 30 min after EA using von Frey filaments. Beginning on day 13, the response frequency to von Frey filaments (4-15 g) was significantly increased in paclitaxel-injected rats compared to those injected with vehicle. EA at 10 Hz significantly (P<0.05) decreased response frequency at 4-15 g compared to sham EA; EA at 100 Hz only decreased response frequency at 15 g stimulation. Compared to sham EA plus vehicle, EA at 10 Hz plus either a μ, δ, or κ opioid receptor antagonist did not significantly decrease mechanical response frequency, indicating that all three antagonists blocked EA inhibition of allodynia and hyperalgesia. Since we previously demonstrated that μ and δ but not κ opioid receptors affect EA anti-hyperalgesia in an inflammatory pain model, these data show that EA inhibits pain through different opioid receptors under varying conditions. Our data indicate that EA at 10 Hz inhibits mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia more potently than does EA at 100 Hz. Thus, EA significantly inhibits paclitaxel-induced allodynia/hyperalgesia through spinal opioid receptors, and EA may be a useful complementary treatment for neuropathic pain patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paclitaxel inhibits post-traumatic recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrea M; Bhatt, Neel K; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy of paclitaxel, a potent microtubule inhibitor with a more favorable therapeutic index as compared with vincristine, in preventing post-traumatic nerve regeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerve into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle in a canine laryngeal model. Experimental animal study. Forty-nine canine hemilaryngeal specimens were divided into five experimental groups. Under general anesthesia, a tracheostomy, recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) transection and repair, and laryngeal adductory pressures (LAP) were measured pre-RLN injury. The approach to the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle for neurotoxin injection was transoral or open transcervical, at 0 or 3 months. At 6 months, postinjury LAPs were measured and the animals were sacrificed at 6 months to allow for laryngeal harvesting and analysis. Paclitaxel demonstrated increased mean laryngeal adductory pressures (70.6%) as compared with saline control (55.5%). The effect of paclitaxel was the same as observed with vincristine at 0 months and with a delayed injection at 3 months. There was no difference between transoral or open injection groups. PCA muscle injection with paclitaxel resulted in improved strength of laryngeal adduction. This effect was similar to that of vincristine at both 0 and 3 months following nerve injury. A single intramuscular injection of paclitaxel was well tolerated. Additional human studies are needed to determine the degree of clinical benefit of this intervention. NA Laryngoscope, 127:651-655, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Prodrug Strategies for Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziyuan; Lv, Quanxia; Lu, Jun; Yao, Houzong; Lv, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-05-23

    Paclitaxel is an anti-tumor agent with remarkable anti-tumor activity and wide clinical uses. However, it is also faced with various challenges especially for its poor water solubility and low selectivity for the target. To overcome these disadvantages of paclitaxel, approaches using small molecule modifications and macromolecule modifications have been developed by many research groups from all over the world. In this review, we discuss the different strategies especially prodrug strategies that are currently used to make paclitaxel more effective.

  8. A Review of Paclitaxel and Novel Formulations Including Those Suitable for Use in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Khanna, C; Rosenberg, M; Vail, D M

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent with a broad spectrum of activity against cancers in humans. In 1992, paclitaxel was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as Taxol(®) for use in advanced ovarian cancer. Two years later, it was approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Paclitaxel was originally isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia in 1971. Taxanes are a family of microtubule inhibitors. As a member of this family, paclitaxel suppresses spindle microtubule dynamics. This activity results in the blockage of the metaphase-anaphase transitions, and ultimately in the inhibition of mitosis, and induction of apoptosis in a wide spectrum of cancer cells. Additional anticancer activities of paclitaxel have been defined that are independent of these effects on the microtubules and may include the suppression of cell proliferation as well as antiangiogenic effects. Based on its targeting of a fundamental feature of the cancer phenotype, the mitotic complex, it is not surprising that paclitaxel has been found to be active in a wide variety of cancers in humans. This review summarizes the evidence in support of paclitaxel's broad anticancer activity and introduces the rationale for, and the progress in development of novel formulations of paclitaxel that may preferentially target cancers and that are not associated with the risks for hypersensitivity in dogs. Of note, a novel nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel that substantially limits hypersensitivity was recently given conditional approval by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine for use in dogs with resectable and nonresectable squamous cell carcinoma and nonresectable stage III, IV and V mammary carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Ototoxicity of paclitaxel in rat cochlear organotypic cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yang; Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, NY 14214; Ding, Dalian

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used antineoplastic drug employed alone or in combination to treat many forms of cancer. Paclitaxel blocks microtubule depolymerization thereby stabilizing microtubules and suppressing cell proliferation and other cellular processes. Previous reports indicate that paclitaxel can cause mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss and some histopathologic changes in the mouse cochlea; however, damage to the neurons and the underlying cell death mechanisms are poorly understood. To evaluate the ototoxicity of paclitaxel in more detail, cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 3 rats were treated with paclitaxel for 24 or 48 h with doses ranging from 1more » to 30 μM. No obvious histopathologies were observed after 24 h treatment with any of the paclitaxel doses employed, but with 48 h treatment, paclitaxel damaged cochlear hair cells in a dose-dependent manner and also damaged auditory nerve fibers and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) near the base of the cochlea. TUNEL labeling was negative in the organ of Corti, but positive in SGN with karyorrhexis 48 h after 30 μM paclitaxel treatment. In addition, caspase-6, caspase-8 and caspase-9 labeling was present in SGN treated with 30 μM paclitaxel for 48 h. These results suggest that caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways are involved in paclitaxel-induced damage of SGN, but not hair cells in cochlea. - Highlights: • Paclitaxel was toxic to cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. • Paclitaxel-induced spiral ganglion degeneration was apoptotic. • Paclitaxel activated caspase-6, -8 and -8 in spiral ganglion neurons.« less

  10. Ferulic acid reverses ABCB1-mediated paclitaxel resistance in MDR cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Ganesan; Balupillai, Agilan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Gunaseelan, Srithar; Mary, Beaulah; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-09-05

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The use of the dietary phytochemicals as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention as a plausible approach for overcoming the drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based phenolic acid, ferulic acid, could sensitize paclitaxel efficacy in ABCB1 overexpressing (P-glycoprotein) colchicine selected KB Ch(R)8-5 cell line. In vitro drug efflux assays demonstrated that ferulic acid inhibits P-glycoprotein transport function in drug resistant KB Ch(R)8-5 cell lines. However, ferulic acid significantly downregulates ABCB1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. Cytotoxicity assay reveals that ferulic acid decreased paclitaxel resistance in KBCh(R)8-5 and HEK293/ABCB1 cells, which indicates its chemosensitizing potential. Clonogenic cell survival assay and apoptotic morphological staining further confirm the chemosensitizing potential of ferulic acid in drug resistant KB Ch(R)8-5 cell lines. Ferulic acid treatment enhances paclitaxel mediated cell cycle arrest and upregulates paclitaxel-induced apoptotic signaling in KB resistant cells. Hence, it has been concluded that downregulation of ABCB1 and subsequent induction of paclitaxel-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptotic signaling may be the cause for the chemosensitizing potential of ferulic acid in P-gp overexpressing cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DSC and EPR investigations on effects of cholesterol component on molecular interactions between paclitaxel and phospholipid within lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingyun; Feng, Si-Shen; Kocherginsky, Nikolai; Kostetski, Iouri

    2007-06-29

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) were applied to investigate effects of cholesterol component on molecular interactions between paclitaxel, which is one of the best antineoplastic agents found from nature, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) within lipid bilayer vesicles (liposomes), which could also be used as a model cell membrane. DSC analysis showed that incorporation of paclitaxel into the DPPC bilayer causes a reduction in the cooperativity of bilayer phase transition, leading to a looser and more flexible bilayer structure. Including cholesterol component in the DPPC/paclitaxel mixed bilayer can facilitate the molecular interaction between paclitaxel and lipid and make the tertiary system more stable. EPR analysis demonstrated that both of paclitaxel and cholesterol have fluidization effect on the DPPC bilayer membranes although cholesterol has more significant effect than paclitaxel does. The reduction kinetics of nitroxides by ascorbic acid showed that paclitaxel can inhibit the reaction by blocking the diffusion of either the ascorbic acid or nitroxide molecules since the reaction is tested to be a first order one. Cholesterol can remarkably increase the reduction reaction speed. This research may provide useful information for optimizing liposomal formulation of the drug as well as for understanding the pharmacology of paclitaxel.

  12. Nicotine Prevents and Reverses Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia in a Mouse Model of CIPN.

    PubMed

    Kyte, S Lauren; Toma, Wisam; Bagdas, Deniz; Meade, Julie A; Schurman, Lesley D; Lichtman, Aron H; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Del Fabbro, Egidio; Fang, Xianjun; Bigbee, John W; Damaj, M Imad; Gewirtz, David A

    2018-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a consequence of peripheral nerve fiber dysfunction or degeneration, continues to be a dose-limiting and debilitating side effect during and/or after cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel, a taxane commonly used to treat breast, lung, and ovarian cancers, causes CIPN in 59-78% of cancer patients. Novel interventions are needed due to the current lack of effective CIPN treatments. Our studies were designed to investigate whether nicotine can prevent and/or reverse paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of CIPN, while ensuring that nicotine will not stimulate lung tumor cell proliferation or interfere with the antitumor properties of paclitaxel. Male C57BL/6J mice received paclitaxel every other day for a total of four injections (8 mg/kg, i.p.). Acute (0.3-0.9 mg/kg, i.p.) and chronic (24 mg/kg per day, s.c.) administration of nicotine respectively reversed and prevented paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. Blockade of the antinociceptive effect of nicotine with mecamylamine and methyllycaconitine suggests that the reversal of paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia is primarily mediated by the α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype. Chronic nicotine treatment also prevented paclitaxel-induced intraepidermal nerve fiber loss. Notably, nicotine neither promoted proliferation of A549 and H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells nor interfered with paclitaxel-induced antitumor effects, including apoptosis. Most importantly, chronic nicotine administration did not enhance Lewis lung carcinoma tumor growth in C57BL/6J mice. These data suggest that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways may be promising drug targets for the prevention and treatment of CIPN. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Dihydrotestosterone inhibits hair growth in mice by inhibiting insulin-like growth factor-I production in dermal papillae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Harada, Naoaki; Okajima, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production in dermal papillae was increased and hair growth was promoted after sensory neuron stimulation in mice. Although the androgen metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inhibits hair growth by negatively modulating growth-regulatory effects of dermal papillae, relationship between androgen metabolism and IGF-I production in dermal papillae is not fully understood. We examined whether DHT inhibits IGF-I production by inhibiting sensory neuron stimulation, thereby preventing hair growth in mice. Effect of DHT on sensory neuron stimulation was examined using cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from mice. DHT inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from cultured DRG neurons. The non-steroidal androgen-receptor antagonist flutamide reversed DHT-induced inhibition of CGRP release. Dermal levels of IGF-I and IGF-I mRNA, and the number of IGF-I-positive fibroblasts around hair follicles were increased at 6h after CGRP administration. DHT administration for 3weeks decreased dermal levels of CGRP, IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA in mice. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and the number of proliferating cells in hair follicles were decreased and hair re-growth was inhibited in animals administered DHT. Co-administration of flutamide and CGRP reversed these changes induced by DHT administration. These observations suggest that DHT may decrease IGF-I production in dermal papillae by inhibiting sensory neuron stimulation through interaction with the androgen receptor, thereby inhibiting hair growth in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiosensitization of paclitaxel, etanidazole and paclitaxel+etanidazole nanoparticles on hypoxic human tumor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng; Bai, Ling; Wu, Hong; Tian, Furong; Guo, Guozhen

    2007-09-01

    Paclitaxel and etanidazole are hypoxic radiosensitizers that exhibit cytotoxic action at different mechanisms. The poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing paclitaxel, etanidazole and paclitaxel+etanidazole were prepared by o/w and w/o/w emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The morphology of the nanoparticles was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The drug encapsulation efficiency (EE) and release profile in vitro were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The cellular uptake of nanoparticles for the human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7) and the human carcinoma cervicis cells (HeLa) was evaluated by transmission electronic microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Cell viability was determined by the ability of single cell to form colonies in vitro. The prepared nanoparticles were spherical shape with size between 80 and 150 nm. The EE was higher for paclitaxel and lower for etanidazole. The drug release was controlled over time. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was observed. Co-culture of the two tumor cell lines with drug-loaded nanoparticles demonstrated that released drug effectively sensitized hypoxic tumor cells to radiation. The radiosensitization of paclitaxel+etanidazole nanoparticles was more significant than that of single drug-loaded nanoparticles.

  15. Ephrin type-A receptor 2 regulates sensitivity to paclitaxel in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUNYUN; LIU, YONG; LI, GUO; SU, ZHONGWU; REN, SHULING; TAN, PINGQING; ZHANG, XIN; QIU, YUANZHENG; TIAN, YONGQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is associated with cancer cell metastasis. There has been little investigation into its impact on the regulation of sensitivity to paclitaxel in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In the present study, upregulation of EphA2 expression enhanced the survival of NPC 5-8F cells, compared with control cells exposed to the same concentrations of paclitaxel. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis demonstrated that over-expression of EphA2 decreased NPC cancer cell sensitivity to paclitaxel by regulating paclitaxel-mediated cell cycle progression but not apoptosis in vitro. This was accompanied by alterations in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27, and of inactive phosphorylated-retinoblastoma protein. Furthermore, paclitaxel stimulation and EphA2 over-expression resulted in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway in NPC cells. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway restored sensitivity to paclitaxel in 5-8F cells over-expressing EphA2, which indicated that the PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in EphA2-mediated paclitaxel sensitivity. The current study demonstrated that EphA2 mediates sensitivity to paclitaxel via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in NPC. PMID:25351620

  16. [The influence of mitomycin C and paclitaxel on the proliferation and apoptosis of human pulmonary fibroblast].

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Min; Wang, Ting; Wang, Yu-ling; Pei, Ying-hua

    2013-09-01

    To observe the inhibitory effect and potential mechanism of mitomycin C and paclitaxel on the proliferation of Human Pulmonary Fibroblast in vitro. So as to providing an experimental reference for the design of drug eluting airway stents. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after different concentrations of mitomycin C or paclitaxel varying from 10(-1)1 mol/L to 10(-4) mol/L had been applied to the fibroblasts for 24, 48 or 72 h, respectively. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry using dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide 48 h after administering mitomycin C or paclitaxel at a concentration of 5×10(-6), 10(-5), 5×10(-5), 10(-4), 2×10(-4) mol/L, respectively. And the morphological character of cell apoptosis was observed by Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. The results of MTT revealed that cell proliferation were inhibited by mitomycin C and paclitaxel at all concentrations and exposure times. Among them, the inhibitory effect of mitomycin C were weak when the concentrations were between 10(-1)1 mol/L to 10(-8) mol/L. And within this context, the inhibitory ratio didn't correspond to the elevation of the concentration or the prolongation of the exposure times.However, when the concentration were between 10(-7) mol/L to 10(-4) mol/L, the inhibitory ratio rise progressively as the elevation of the concentration at all exposure times. The inhibitory ratio were 53.52%, 60.23%, 89.81% and 96.47% respectively when cells were treated by 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5) mol/L and 10(-4) mol/L mitomycin C for 72 h. An apparent "threshold dose effect" was observed in the paclitaxel treated groups.It's worth noting that the inhibitory ratio was only 48.22% when the cells had already been treated by 10(-5) mol/L paclitaxel for 72 h.However, when the concentration had reached 10(-4) mol/L, the inhibitory ratio sharply climbed to 93.38% even the cells had only been treated for 24 h. And the inhibitory ratio continued to rise as time prolonged. The

  17. Pharmacoethnicity in Paclitaxel-Induced Sensory Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Masaaki; Wheeler, Heather E.; Chung, Suyoun; Low, Siew-Kee; Wing, Claudia; Delaney, Shannon M.; Gorsic, Lidija K.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Zhang, Wei; Nakamura, Yusuke; Dolan, M. Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Paclitaxel is used worldwide in the treatment of breast, lung, ovarian and other cancers. Sensory peripheral neuropathy is an associated adverse effect that cannot be predicted, prevented or mitigated. To better understand the contribution of germline genetic variation to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we undertook an integrative approach that combines genome-wide association study (GWAS) data generated from HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and Asian patients. Methods GWAS was performed with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity generated in 363 LCLs and with paclitaxel-induced neuropathy from 145 Asian patients. A gene-based approach was used to identify overlapping genes and compare to a European clinical cohort of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were used for functional validation of candidate genes. Results SNPs near AIPL1 were significantly associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in Asian LCLs (P < 10−6). Decreased expression of AIPL1 resulted in decreased sensitivity of neurons to paclitaxel by inducing neurite morphological changes as measured by increased relative total outgrowth, number of processes and mean process length. Using a gene-based analysis, there were 32 genes that overlapped between Asian LCL cytotoxicity and Asian patient neuropathy (P < 0.05) including BCR. Upon BCR knockdown, there was an increase in neuronal sensitivity to paclitaxel as measured by neurite morphological characteristics. Conclusion We identified genetic variants associated with Asian paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and functionally validated the AIPL1 and BCR in a neuronal cell model. Furthermore, the integrative pharmacogenomics approach of LCL/patient GWAS may help prioritize target genes associated with chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26015512

  18. Autophagy promotes paclitaxel resistance of cervical cancer cells: involvement of Warburg effect activated hypoxia-induced factor 1-α-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, X; Gong, F; Chen, Y; Jiang, Y; Liu, J; Yu, M; Zhang, S; Wang, M; Xiao, G; Liao, H

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapy drugs for advanced cervical cancer. However, acquired resistance of paclitaxel represents a major barrier to successful anticancer treatment. In this study, paclitaxel-resistant HeLa sublines (HeLa-R cell lines) were established by continuous exposure and increased autophagy level was observed in HeLa-R cells. 3-Methyladenine or ATG7 siRNA, autophagy inhibitors, could restore sensitivity of HeLa-R cells to paclitaxel compared with parental HeLa cells. To determine the underlying molecular mechanism, differentially expressed proteins between HeLa and HeLa-R cells were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight MS/MS. We found glycolysis-associated proteins were upregulated in HeLa-R cell lines. Inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose or koningic acid could decrease autophagy and enhance sensitivity of HeLa-R cells to paclitaxel. Moreover, glycolysis could activate HIF1-α. Downregulation of HIF1-α by specific siRNA could decrease autophagy and resensitize HeLa-R cells to paclitaxel. Taken together, a possible Warburg effect activated HIF1-α-mediated signaling-induced autophagic pathway is proposed, which may provide new insight into paclitaxel chemoresistance. PMID:25118927

  19. Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling leads to inhibition of renal cell carcinoma growth in the bone of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristy L; Doucet, Michele; Price, Janet E; Baker, Cheryl; Kim, Sun Jin; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2003-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) frequently produces metastases to the musculoskeletal system that are a major source of morbidity in the form of pain, immobilization, fractures, neurological compromise, and a decreased ability to perform activities of daily living. Patients with metastatic RCC therefore have a dismal prognosis because there is no effective adjuvant treatment for this disease. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signaling cascade is important in the growth and metastasis of RCC, its blockade has been hypothesized to inhibit tumor growth and hence prevent resultant bone destruction. We determined whether blockade of EGF-R by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKI 166 inhibited the growth of RCC in bone. We use a novel cell line, RBM1-IT4, established from a human RCC bone metastasis. Protein and mRNA expression of the ligands and receptors was assessed by Western and Northern blots. The stimulation of RBM1-IT4 cells with epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor alpha resulted in increased cellular proliferation and tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation. PKI 166 prevented these effects. First, RBM1-IT4 cells were implanted into the tibia of nude mice, where they established lytic, progressively growing lesions, after which the mice were treated with PKI 166 alone or in combination with paclitaxel (Taxol). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in control mice expressed activated EGF-R. Treatment of mice with PKI 166 alone or in combination with Taxol produced a significant decrease in the incidence and size of bone lesions as compared with the results in control or Taxol-treated mice (P < 0.001). Treatment with PKI 166 also decreased the expression of phosphorylated EGF-R by tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells, and this was even more pronounced with PKI 166 plus Taxol treatment. The PKI 166 plus Taxol combination produced apoptosis of tumor cells and tumor

  20. Minoxidil is a potential neuroprotective drug for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Chen, Li-Hsien; Yeh, Yu-Min; Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Yih-Fung; Chang, Lian-Yun; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of cancer treatment. No medication has been shown to be effective in the treatment of CIPN. This study aims to integrate the image-based high-content screening, mouse behavior models and mechanistic cell-based assays to discover potential neuroprotective drugs. Among screened compounds, minoxidil showed the most potent neuroprotective effect against paclitaxel, with regard to neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Minoxidil protected mice from thermal insensitivity and alleviated mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-treated mice. The ultrastructure and quantified G-ratio of myelin integrity of sciatic nerve tissues supported the observations in mouse behavioral tests. The mechanistic study on DRG neurons suggested that minoxidil suppressed neuroinflammation and remodeled the dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis provoked by paclitaxel. Importantly, minoxidil showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect with paclitaxel both in tumor xenograft models of cervical and breast cancer. Interestingly, the quantitative assays on hair length and hair growth both exhibited that minoxidil significantly improved the hair quality after chemotherapy. Since minoxidil is a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the safety and biocompatibility are well documented. The immediate next step is to launch an early-stage clinical trial intending to prevent CIPN by minoxidil. PMID:28349969

  1. Noncovalent interaction-assisted drug delivery system with highly efficient uptake and release of paclitaxel for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuping; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    An effective drug delivery system requires efficient drug uptake and release inside cancer cells. Here, we report a novel drug delivery system, in which paclitaxel (PTX) interacts with a novel cell penetrating peptide (CPP) through noncovalent interaction designed based on molecular simulations. This CPP/PTX complex confers high efficiency in delivering PTX into cancer cells not by endocytosis but by an energy-independent pathway. Once inside cells, the noncovalent interaction between PTX and the CPP may allow fast release of PTX within cells due to the direct translocation of CPP/PTX. This drug delivery system exhibits strong capacity for inhibition of tumor growth and offers a new avenue for the development of advanced drug delivery systems for anticancer therapy.

  2. Tumor therapy with a urokinase plasminogen activator-activated anthrax lethal toxin alone and in combination with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Wein, Alexander N; Liu, Shihui; Zhang, Yi; McKenzie, Andrew T; Leppla, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    PA-U2, an engineered anthrax protective antigen that is activated by urokinase was combined with wildtype lethal factor in the treatment of Colo205 colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and B16-BL6 mouse melanoma in vitro and in vivo. This therapy was also tested in combination with the small molecule paclitaxel, based on prior reports suggesting synergy between ERK1/2 inhibition and chemotherapeutics. Colo205 was sensitive to PA-U2/LF while B16-BL6 was not. For the combination treatment of B16-BL6, paclitaxel showed a dose response in vitro, but cells remained resistant to PA-U2/LF even in the presence of paclitaxel. In vivo, each therapy slowed tumor progression, and an additive effect between the two was observed. Since LF targets tumor vasculature while paclitaxel is an antimitotic, it is possible the agents were acting against different cells in the stroma, precluding a synergistic effect. The engineered anthrax toxin PA-U2/LF warrants further development and testing, possibly in combination with an antiangiogenesis therapy such as sunitinib or sorafinib.

  3. Suppression for lung metastasis by depletion of collagen I and lysyl oxidase via losartan assisted with paclitaxel-loaded pH-sensitive liposomes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Yang; Xia, Tai; Yu, Qianwen; Zhang, Qianyu; Yang, Yuting; Cun, Xingli; Lu, Libao; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2016-10-01

    Tumor metastasis would seriously impair the efficacy of chemotherapy. Our previous studies showed losartan combined with paclitaxel-loaded pH-sensitive cleavable liposomes (PTX-Cl-Lip) facilitated paclitaxel accumulation and led to enhanced antitumor efficacy in 4T1 bearing mice. Since losartan could inhibit the level of collagen I which was related to tumor metastasis, this strategy was further applied to suppress tumor metastasis this time. Our in vivo anti-metastatic study manifested losartan could lower the colonies occupied in lungs by 76.4% compared with that of saline group. When losartan and PTX-Cl-Lip were combined, anti-metastatic efficiency reached to 88.2%, which was the best among all the groups. In vitro 3D tumor spheroids studies proved losartan could significantly suppress the invasion of tumor cells. Losartan plus PTX-Cl-Lip could further weaken the metastasis of tumor cells. Mechanism study showed the declination of collagen I level via losartan was caused by inhibition of active transforming growth factor-β1. Western-blot study showed losartan could decrease the level of lysyl oxidase, then inhibit the cross-linking of collagen I, finally weakened the cell signaling transmit via integrin and the metastasis of tumor cells was restrained. All above studies illustrated this combined tactic could achieve favorable effect on suppression of lung tumor metastasis.

  4. Paclitaxel Nano-Delivery Systems: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs ever developed and is active against a broad range of cancers, such as lung, ovarian, and breast cancers. Due to its low water solubility, paclitaxel is formulated in a mixture of Cremophor EL and dehydrated ethanol (50:50, v/v) a combination known as Taxol. However, Taxol has some severe side effects related to Cremophor EL and ethanol. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative Taxol formulations. The encapsulation of paclitaxel in biodegradable and non-toxic nano-delivery systems can protect the drug from degradation during circulation and in-turn protect the body from toxic side effects of the drug thereby lowering its toxicity, increasing its circulation half-life, exhibiting improved pharmacokinetic profiles, and demonstrating better patient compliance. Also, nanoparticle-based delivery systems can take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect for passive tumor targeting, therefore, they are promising carriers to improve the therapeutic index and decrease the side effects of paclitaxel. To date, paclitaxel albumin-bound nanoparticles (Abraxane®) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, there are a number of novel paclitaxel nanoparticle formulations in clinical trials. In this comprehensive review, several types of developed paclitaxel nano-delivery systems will be covered and discussed, such as polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based formulations, polymer conjugates, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanocrystals, and cyclodextrin nanoparticles. PMID:24163786

  5. Stanniocalcin-2 Inhibits Mammalian Growth by Proteolytic Inhibition of the Insulin-like Growth Factor Axis*

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Malene R.; Kløverpris, Søren; Mikkelsen, Jakob H.; Pedersen, Josefine H.; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Laursen, Lisbeth S.; Oxvig, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian stanniocalcin-2 (STC2) is a secreted polypeptide widely expressed in developing and adult tissues. However, although transgenic expression in mice is known to cause severe dwarfism, and targeted deletion of STC2 causes increased postnatal growth, its precise biological role is still unknown. We found that STC2 potently inhibits the proteolytic activity of the growth-promoting metalloproteinase, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Proteolytic inhibition requires covalent binding of STC2 to PAPP-A and is mediated by a disulfide bond, which involves Cys-120 of STC2. Binding of STC2 prevents PAPP-A cleavage of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-4 and hence release within tissues of bioactive IGF, required for normal growth. Concordantly, we show that STC2 efficiently inhibits PAPP-A-mediated IGF receptor signaling in vitro and that transgenic mice expressing a mutated variant of STC2, STC2(C120A), which is unable to inhibit PAPP-A, grow like wild-type mice. Our work identifies STC2 as a novel proteinase inhibitor and a previously unrecognized extracellular component of the IGF system. PMID:25533459

  6. A phase I trial of the novel farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor, BMS-214662, in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Dy, Grace K; Bruzek, Laura M; Croghan, Gary A; Mandrekar, Sumithra; Erlichman, Charles; Peethambaram, Prema; Pitot, Henry C; Hanson, Lorelei J; Reid, Joel M; Furth, Alfred; Cheng, Shinta; Martell, Robert E; Kaufmann, Scott H; Adjei, Alex A

    2005-03-01

    This phase I study was conducted to determine the toxicities, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of BMS-214662, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients with solid tumors received one of six escalating dose levels of BMS-214662 infused over 1 hour given following paclitaxel and carboplatin on the first day of a 21-day cycle. Toxicities were graded by the National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria and recorded as maximum grade per patient for each treatment cycle. Inhibition of farnesyl transferase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated. Accumulation of unfarnesylated HDJ-2 in PBMCs of patients was evaluated as a marker of farnesyl transferase inhibition by BMS-214662. Thirty patients received 141 cycles of treatment through six dose levels. Dose-limiting toxicities were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, and vomiting. There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between BMS-214662 and paclitaxel. The maximum tolerated dose was established as BMS-214662 (160 mg/m(2)), paclitaxel (225 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (area under the curve = 6 on day 1), every 21 days. Inhibition of HDJ-2 farnesylation in PBMCs of patients was shown. One measurable partial response was observed in a patient with taxane-resistant esophageal cancer. There was partial regression of evaluable disease in two other patients (endometrial and ovarian cancer). Stable disease (> 4 cycles) occurred in eight other patients. The combination of BMS-214662 with paclitaxel and carboplatin was well tolerated, with broad activity in solid tumors. There was no correlation between dose level and accumulation of unfarnesylated HDJ-2 in PBMCs nor tumor response.

  7. Utility of Risk Stratification for Paclitaxel Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    PubMed

    Otani, Iris M; Lax, Timothy; Long, Aidan A; Slawski, Benjamin R; Camargo, Carlos A; Banerji, Aleena

    2017-10-03

    Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are a common impediment to paclitaxel therapy. Management strategies to guide care after a paclitaxel-induced HSR are needed. The objective was to evaluate the utility and safety of risk stratification on the basis of severity of the initial HSR. A risk stratification pathway was developed on the basis of a retrospective review of the management and outcome of 130 patients with paclitaxel-induced HSRs at Massachusetts General Hospital. This pathway was then studied prospectively in patients referred to Allergy/Immunology with paclitaxel-induced HSRs. The study population (n = 35) had a mean age of 56.1 ± 12 years and most were women (n = 33 [94%]). All 5 patients (15%) with grade 1 initial HSRs were successfully reexposed to paclitaxel, 1 patient at the standard infusion rate and 4 patients at 50% of the standard infusion rate. Thirty patients (85%) with grade 2 to 4 initial HSRs underwent initial paclitaxel desensitization based on the risk stratification pathway. No patients developed severe HSRs using the pathway. Eleven (31%) patients had HSRs that were mild to moderate in nature (grade 1, n = 4 [11%]; grade 2, n = 6 [17%]; grade 3, n = 1 [3%]) during their first desensitization. Sixteen (46%) of the 35 patients safely returned to the outpatient infusion setting for paclitaxel treatment at 50% of the standard infusion rate. Seven (20%) discontinued paclitaxel before the completion of the risk stratification pathway because of disease progression, completion of therapy, or death. A management strategy using the initial HSR severity for risk stratification allowed patients to receive paclitaxel safely. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Folic acid conjugation improves the bioavailability and chemosensitizing efficacy of curcumin-encapsulated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles towards paclitaxel chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar T; Retnakumari, Archana P; Shankar, Mohan; Vijayakurup, Vinod; Anwar, Shabna; Thankachan, Sanu; Pillai, Kavya S; Pillai, Jisha J; Nandan, C Devika; Alex, Vijai V; Chirayil, Teena Jacob; Sundaram, Sankar; Kumar, Gopalakrishnapillai Sankaramangalam Vinod; Anto, Ruby John

    2017-12-08

    Nanoencapsulation has emerged as a novel strategy to enhance the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic potential of conventional drugs. Recent studies from our lab have established the efficacy of curcumin in sensitizing cervical cancer cells and breast cancer cells towards paclitaxel and 5-FU chemotherapy respectively. Factors that hinder the clinical use of curcumin as a sensitizer or therapeutic agent include its poor bioavailability and retention time. Earlier reports of improvement in bioavailability and retention of drugs upon nanoencapsulation have motivated us in developing various nanoformulations of curcumin, which were found to exhibit significant enhancement in bioavailability and retention time as assessed by our previous in vitro studies. Among the various formulations tested, curcumin-entrapped in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles conjugated to folic acid (PPF-curcumin) displayed maximum cell death. In the present study, we have demonstrated the efficacy of this formulation in augmenting the bioavailability and retention time of curcumin, in vivo , in Swiss albino mice. Further, the acute and chronic toxicity studies proved that the formulation is pharmacologically safe. We have also evaluated its potential in chemosensitizing cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel and have verified the results using cervical cancer xenograft model in NOD-SCID mice. Folic acid conjugation significantly enhanced the efficacy of curcumin in down-regulating various survival signals induced by paclitaxel in cervical cancer cells and have considerably improved its potential in inhibiting the tumor growth of cervical cancer xenografts. The non-toxic nature coupled with improved chemosensitization potential makes PPF-curcumin a promising candidate formulation for clinical trials.

  9. Folic acid conjugation improves the bioavailability and chemosensitizing efficacy of curcumin-encapsulated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles towards paclitaxel chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Mohan; Vijayakurup, Vinod; Anwar, Shabna; Thankachan, Sanu; Pillai, Kavya S.; Pillai, Jisha J.; Nandan, C. Devika; Alex, Vijai V.; Chirayil, Teena Jacob; Sundaram, Sankar; Kumar, Gopalakrishnapillai Sankaramangalam Vinod; Anto, Ruby John

    2017-01-01

    Nanoencapsulation has emerged as a novel strategy to enhance the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic potential of conventional drugs. Recent studies from our lab have established the efficacy of curcumin in sensitizing cervical cancer cells and breast cancer cells towards paclitaxel and 5-FU chemotherapy respectively. Factors that hinder the clinical use of curcumin as a sensitizer or therapeutic agent include its poor bioavailability and retention time. Earlier reports of improvement in bioavailability and retention of drugs upon nanoencapsulation have motivated us in developing various nanoformulations of curcumin, which were found to exhibit significant enhancement in bioavailability and retention time as assessed by our previous in vitro studies. Among the various formulations tested, curcumin-entrapped in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles conjugated to folic acid (PPF-curcumin) displayed maximum cell death. In the present study, we have demonstrated the efficacy of this formulation in augmenting the bioavailability and retention time of curcumin, in vivo, in Swiss albino mice. Further, the acute and chronic toxicity studies proved that the formulation is pharmacologically safe. We have also evaluated its potential in chemosensitizing cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel and have verified the results using cervical cancer xenograft model in NOD-SCID mice. Folic acid conjugation significantly enhanced the efficacy of curcumin in down-regulating various survival signals induced by paclitaxel in cervical cancer cells and have considerably improved its potential in inhibiting the tumor growth of cervical cancer xenografts. The non-toxic nature coupled with improved chemosensitization potential makes PPF-curcumin a promising candidate formulation for clinical trials. PMID:29296172

  10. ß3 integrin modulates transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) function and paclitaxel response in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, David A; Temple, Jillian; Brenton, James D

    2012-05-28

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) has a key role in facilitating the progression of ovarian cancer and we have shown recently that the secreted ECM protein TGFBI modulates the response of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel-induced cell death. We have determined TGFBI signaling from the extracellular environment is preferential for the cell surface αvß3 integrin heterodimer, in contrast to periostin, a TGFBI paralogue, which signals primarily via a ß1 integrin-mediated pathway. We demonstrate that suppression of ß1 integrin expression, in ß3 integrin-expressing ovarian cancer cells, increases adhesion to rTGFBI. In addition, Syndecan-1 and -4 expression is dispensable for adhesion to rTGFBI and loss of Syndecan-1 cooperates with the loss of ß1 integrin to further enhance adhesion to rTGFBI. The RGD motif present in the carboxy-terminus of TGFBI is necessary, but not sufficient, for SKOV3 cell adhesion and is dispensable for adhesion of ovarian cancer cells lacking ß3 integrin expression. In contrast to TGFBI, the carboxy-terminus of periostin, lacking a RGD motif, is unable to support adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. Suppression of ß3 integrin in SKOV3 cells increases resistance to paclitaxel-induced cell death while suppression of ß1 integrin has no effect. Furthermore, suppression of TGFBI expression stimulates a paclitaxel resistant phenotype while suppression of fibronectin expression, which primarily signals through a ß1 integrin-mediated pathway, increases paclitaxel sensitivity. Therefore, different ECM components use distinct signaling mechanisms in ovarian cancer cells and in particular, TGFBI preferentially interacts through a ß3 integrin receptor mediated mechanism to regulate the response of cells to paclitaxel-induced cell death.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a fluorescent water-soluble paclitaxel prodrug.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Sun; Jo, Byung-Wook; Hess, Michael; Han, Song-Hee

    2010-05-01

    A fluorescence susceptible water-soluble paclitaxel was synthesized by a condensation reaction between PEGylated paclitaxel (namely, PP7) and 1-pyrene butyric acid (PBA) in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of paclitaxel as well as of the environment of the paclitaxel-binding site. The reaction was performed successfully and the resulting paclitaxel was characterized by FT-NMR, analytical-HPLC, UV spectro photometry, and fluorescence spectrometry. The synthesized paclitaxel analogue showed a high susceptibility to fluorescence in both excitation and emission spectra. And we have investigated the time-resolved fluorescence behavior of them in different solvents and at different excitation wavelengths.

  12. Development of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres for topical skin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoyle, Brian E.; Sheihet, Larisa; Zhang, Zheng; Laohoo, Marissa; Kohn, Joachim; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    A potential topical psoriasis therapy has been developed consisting of tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres) with encapsulated anti-proliferative paclitaxel. TyroSpheres provide enhancement of paclitaxel solubility (almost 4,000 times greater than PBS) by effective encapsulation and enable sustained, dose-controlled release over 72 hours under conditions mimicking skin permeation. TyroSpheres offer potential in the treatment of psoriasis, a disease resulting from over-proliferation of keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, by (a) enabling delivery of paclitaxel into the epidermis at concentrations >100 ng/cm2 of skin surface area and (b) enhancing the cytotoxicity of loaded paclitaxel to human keratinocytes (IC50 of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres was approximately 45% lower than that of free paclitaxel). TyroSpheres were incorporated into a gel-like viscous formulation to improve their flow characteristics with no impact on homogeneity, release or skin distribution of the payload. The findings reported here confirm that the TyroSpheres provide a platform for paclitaxel topical administration allowing skin drug localization and minimal systemic escape. PMID:22732474

  13. Excel-Based Tool for Pharmacokinetically Guided Dose Adjustment of Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Kraff, Stefanie; Lindauer, Andreas; Joerger, Markus; Salamone, Salvatore J; Jaehde, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Neutropenia is a frequent and severe adverse event in patients receiving paclitaxel chemotherapy. The time above a paclitaxel threshold concentration of 0.05 μmol/L (Tc > 0.05 μmol/L) is a strong predictor for paclitaxel-associated neutropenia and has been proposed as a target pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter for paclitaxel therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adaptation. Up to now, individual Tc > 0.05 μmol/L values are estimated based on a published PK model of paclitaxel by using the software NONMEM. Because many clinicians are not familiar with the use of NONMEM, an Excel-based dosing tool was developed to allow calculation of paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 μmol/L and give clinicians an easy-to-use tool. Population PK parameters of paclitaxel were taken from a published PK model. An Alglib VBA code was implemented in Excel 2007 to compute differential equations for the paclitaxel PK model. Maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimates of the PK parameters were determined with the Excel Solver using individual drug concentrations. Concentrations from 250 patients were simulated receiving 1 cycle of paclitaxel chemotherapy. Predictions of paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 μmol/L as calculated by the Excel tool were compared with NONMEM, whereby maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimates were obtained using the POSTHOC function. There was a good concordance and comparable predictive performance between Excel and NONMEM regarding predicted paclitaxel plasma concentrations and Tc > 0.05 μmol/L values. Tc > 0.05 μmol/L had a maximum bias of 3% and an error on precision of <12%. The median relative deviation of the estimated Tc > 0.05 μmol/L values between both programs was 1%. The Excel-based tool can estimate the time above a paclitaxel threshold concentration of 0.05 μmol/L with acceptable accuracy and precision. The presented Excel tool allows reliable calculation of paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 μmol/L and thus allows target concentration intervention to improve the benefit-risk ratio of the

  14. Stabilized micelles as delivery vehicles for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Calleja, Patricia; Agüeros, Maite; Petrov, Petar; Miladinova, Ivanka; Tsvetanov, Christo; Irache, Juan M

    2012-10-15

    Paclitaxel is an antineoplastic drug used against a variety of tumors, but its low aqueous solubility and active removal caused by P-glycoprotein in the intestinal cells hinder its oral administration. In our study, new type of stabilized Pluronic micelles were developed and evaluated as carriers for paclitaxel delivery via oral or intravenous route. The pre-stabilized micelles were loaded with paclitaxel by simple solvent/evaporation technique achieving high encapsulation efficiency of approximately 70%. Gastrointestinal transit of the developed micelles was evaluated by oral administration of rhodamine-labeled micelles in rats. Our results showed prolonged gastrointestinal residence of the marker encapsulated into micelles, compared to a solution containing free marker. Further, the oral administration of micelles in mice showed high area under curve of micellar paclitaxel (similar to the area of i.v. Taxol(®)), longer mean residence time (9-times longer than i.v. Taxol(®)) and high distribution volume (2-fold higher than i.v. Taxol(®)) indicating an efficient oral absorption of paclitaxel delivered by micelles. Intravenous administration of micelles also showed a significant improvement of pharmacokinetic parameters of micellar paclitaxel vs. Taxol(®), in particular higher area under curve (1.2-fold), 5-times longer mean residence time and lower clearance, indicating longer systemic circulation of the micelles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neratinib Plus Paclitaxel vs Trastuzumab Plus Paclitaxel in Previously Untreated Metastatic ERBB2-Positive Breast Cancer: The NEfERT-T Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Awada, Ahmad; Colomer, Ramon; Inoue, Kenichi; Bondarenko, Igor; Badwe, Rajendra A; Demetriou, Georgia; Lee, Soo-Chin; Mehta, Ajay O; Kim, Sung-Bae; Bachelot, Thomas; Goswami, Chanchal; Deo, Suryanarayan; Bose, Ron; Wong, Alvin; Xu, Feng; Yao, Bin; Bryce, Richard; Carey, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Efficacious ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)-directed treatments, in addition to trastuzumab and lapatinib, are needed. To determine whether neratinib, an irreversible pan-ERBB tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus paclitaxel improves progression-free survival compared with trastuzumab plus paclitaxel in the first-line treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer. In the randomized, controlled, open-label NEfERT-T trial conducted from August 2009 to December 2014 at 188 centers in 34 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America, 479 women with previously untreated recurrent and/or metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms (neratinib-paclitaxel [n = 242] or trastuzumab-paclitaxel [n = 237]). Women with asymptomatic central nervous system metastases were eligible, and randomization was stratified by prior trastuzumab and lapatinib exposure, hormone-receptor status, and region. Women received neratinib (240 mg/d orally) or trastuzumab (4 mg/kg then 2 mg/kg weekly), each combined with paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days). Primary prophylaxis for diarrhea was not mandatory. The primary outcome was progression-free survival. Secondary end points were response rate, clinical benefit rate, duration of response, frequency, and time to symptomatic and/or progressive central nervous system lesions, and safety. The intent-to-treat population comprised 479 women 18 years or older (neratinib-paclitaxel, n = 242; trastuzumab-paclitaxel, n = 237) randomized and stratified in their respective treatment arms by prior trastuzumab and lapatinib exposure, hormone-receptor status, and region. Median progression-free survival was 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.1-14.9) with neratinib-paclitaxel and 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.1-14.8) with trastuzumab-paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.81-1.27; P =.89). With neratinib-paclitaxel, the incidence of central nervous system recurrences was

  16. Tumor therapy with a urokinase plasminogen activator-activated anthrax lethal toxin alone and in combination with paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Alexander N.; Liu, Shihui; Zhang, Yi; McKenzie, Andrew T.; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    PA-U2, an engineered anthrax protective antigen that is activated by urokinase was combined with wild-type lethal factor in the treatment of Colo205 colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and B16-BL6 mouse melanoma in vitro and in vivo. This therapy was also tested in combination with the small molecule paclitaxel, based on prior reports suggesting synergy between ERK1/2 inhibition and chemotherapeutics. Colo205 was sensitive to PA-U2/LF while B16-BL6 was not. For the combination treatment of B16-BL6, paclitaxel showed a dose response in vitro, but cells remained resistant to PA-U2/LF even in the presence of paclitaxel. In vivo, each therapy slowed tumor progression, and an additive effect between the two was observed. Since LF targets tumor vasculature while paclitaxel is an anti-mitotic, it is possible the agents were acting against different cells in the stroma, precluding a synergistic effect. The engineered anthrax toxin PA-U2/LF warrants further development and testing, possibly in combination with an anti-angiogenesis therapy such as sunitinib or sorafinib. PMID:22843210

  17. Non-invasive endotracheal delivery of paclitaxel-loaded alginate microparticles.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Shohreh; Montaseri, Hashem; Khalili, Azadeh; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Aerosolized chemotherapeutics leads to higher, localized and continuous concentrations of active agents in lung tissue with lower side effects for other organs. The present study was performed on jugular vein cannulated rats which endothracheally received 4 mg/kg of free paclitaxel powder (Free-PTX), paclitaxel-loaded alginate microparticles (PTX-ALG-MPs) and i.v. paclitaxel (Anzatax(®)). Pharmacokinetic parameters for Free-PTX and PTX-ALG-MPs contain higher AUC, mean residence time (MRT),half-life and bioavailability, with lower elimination constant (ke). Statistical analysis showed that the amount of paclitaxel per gram of lung tissue after 0.5, 6 and 24 h after administration of Free-PTX was lower than PTX-ALG-MPs. Lung tissue AUC for Free-PTX was lower than PTX-ALG-MPs. According to the obvious advantages obtained, such as dose lowering and increasing paclitaxel residence time and half-life. It should be noted that cell cytotoxicity test on normal airway cell lines was not examined in this study but due to previous reports on safety of inhaled paclitaxel, it can be suggested that pulmonary delivery of paclitaxel can be a useful non-invasive route of administration compared with i.v administration.

  18. Formulation and pharmacokinetic evaluation of a paclitaxel nanosuspension for intravenous delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming; Wang, Liyao; Xu, Yuanlong; Cheng, Xiaodan; Wei, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a diterpenoid isolated from Taxus brevifolia. It is effective for various cancers, especially ovarian and breast cancer. Due to its aqueous insolubility, it is administered dissolved in ethanol and Cremophor® EL (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany), which can cause serious allergic reactions. In order to eliminate Cremophor EL, paclitaxel was formulated as a nanosuspension by high-pressure homogenization. The nanosuspension was lyophilized to obtain the dry paclitaxel nanoparticles (average size, 214.4 ± 15.03 nm), which enhanced both the physical and chemical stability of paclitaxel nanoparticles. Paclitaxel dissolution was also enhanced by the nanosuspension. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the crystallinity of paclitaxel was preserved during the high-pressure homogenization process. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of paclitaxel were compared after intravenous administration of paclitaxel nanosuspension and paclitaxel injection. In rat plasma, paclitaxel nanosuspension exhibited a significantly (P < 0.01) reduced area under the concentration curve (AUC)0–∞ (20.343 ± 9.119 μg · h · mL−1 vs 5.196 ± 1.426 μg · h · mL−1), greater clearance (2.050 ± 0.616 L · kg−1 · h−1 vs 0.556 ± 0.190 L · kg−1 · h−1), and shorter elimination half-life (5.646 ± 2.941 vs 3.774 ± 1.352 hours) compared with the paclitaxel solution. In contrast, the paclitaxel nanosuspension resulted in a significantly greater AUC0–∞ in liver, lung, and spleen (all P < 0.01), but not in heart or kidney. PMID:21796250

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Cryptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Rella, Antonella; Yang, Mo Wei; Gruber, Jordon; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Luberto, Chiara; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterium that inhibits the growth of different microorganisms, including Gram-positive bacteria and fungi such as Candida spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this study, we investigated the interaction between P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus spp. We found that P. aeruginosa PA14 and, to a lesser extent, PAO1 significantly inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus spp. The inhibition of growth was observed on solid medium by the visualization of a zone of inhibition of yeast growth and in liquid culture by viable cell counting. Interestingly, such inhibition was only observed when P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus were co-cultured. Minimal inhibition was observed when cell-cell contact was prevented using a separation membrane, suggesting that cell contact is required for inhibition. Using mutant strains of Pseudomonas quinoline signaling, we showed that P. aeruginosa inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus spp. by producing antifungal molecules pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine, and 2-heptyl-3,4-dihydroxyquinoline (PQS), an extracellular quorum-sensing signal. Because both P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus neoformans are commonly found in lung infections of immunocompromised patients, this study may have important implication for the interaction of these microbes in both an ecological and a clinical point of view.

  20. MicroRNA-128 suppresses paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer by inhibiting MUC1-C and BMI-1 in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hyebin; Park, Hyeri; Chandimali, Nisansala; Huynh, Do Luong; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Gera, Meeta; Kim, Nameun; Bak, Yesol; Yoon, Do-Young; Park, Yang Ho; Kwon, Taeho; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2017-12-15

    The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is the main reason for failure of cancer treatment caused by drug resistance. Therefore, eradicating cancers by targeting CSCs remains a significant challenge. In the present study, because of the important role of BMI-1 proto-oncogene, polycomb ring finger (BMI-1) and C-terminal Mucin1 (MUC1-C) in tumor growth and maintenance of CSCs, we aimed to confirm that microRNA miR-128, as an inhibitor of BMI-1 and MUC1-C, could effectively suppress paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant lung cancer stem cells. We showed that CSCs have significantly higher expression levels of BMI-1, MUC1-C, stemness proteins, signaling factors, and higher malignancy compared with normal tumor cells. After transfection with miR-128, the BMI-1 and MUC1-C levels in CSCs were suppressed. When miR-128 was stably expressed in PTX-resistant lung cancer stem cells, the cells showed decreased proliferation, metastasis, self-renewal, migration, invasive ability, clonogenicity, and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo and increased apoptosis compared with miR-NC (negative control) CSCs. Furthermore, miR-128 effectively decreased the levels of β-catenin and intracellular signaling pathway-related factors in CSCs. MiR-128 also decreased the luciferase activity of MUC1 reporter constructs and reduced the levels of transmembrane MUC1-C and BMI-1. These results suggested miR-128 as an attractive therapeutic strategy for PTX-resistant lung cancer via inhibition of BMI-1 and MUC1-C.

  1. Increased risk of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients using clopidogrel: a retrospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Hisakatsu; Takemura, Yoshinori; Hattori, Mizuki; Kawakami, Masaaki; Takahashi, Norimasa; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki

    2017-08-01

    Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is one of the serious adverse events associated with paclitaxel-based cancer treatments. A recent case study showed that the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel inhibits paclitaxel metabolism via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8, resulting in severe PIPN. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of clopidogrel as a risk factor for the development of PIPN, using a retrospective cohort study. Data from paclitaxel-treated patients with or without clopidogrel and low-dose aspirin treatment were retrieved from medical charts. A total of 161 adult patients were included in this study: 135 were controls, 9 were clopidogrel-treated and 17 were aspirin-treated. The clopidogrel group had a greater proportion of males and a higher rate of comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, than the control group. However, patient characteristics were similar between the clopidogrel and aspirin groups. Severe PIPN was diagnosed in 3 (2.2%) and 2 (22.2%) patients in the control and clopidogrel groups, respectively (odds ratio: 12.0; p = 0.031). No patients in the aspirin group presented with severe neuropathy. These pilot data suggest that concomitant treatment with clopidogrel leads to a greater risk of PIPN. The avoidance of concomitant clopidogrel use may be effective in reducing clopidogrel-associated PIPN.

  2. Inhibition of gamma-secretase activity impedes uterine serous carcinoma growth in a human xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Groeneweg, Jolijn W; Hall, Tracilyn R; Zhang, Ling; Kim, Minji; Byron, Virginia F; Tambouret, Rosemary; Sathayanrayanan, Sriram; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R; Growdon, Whitfield B

    2014-06-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) represents an aggressive subtype of endometrial cancer. We sought to understand Notch pathway activity in USC and determine if pathway inhibition has anti-tumor activity. Patient USC tissue blocks were obtained and used to correlate clinical outcomes with Notch1 expression. Three established USC cell lines were treated with gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) in vitro. Mice harboring cell line derived or patient derived USC xenografts (PDXs) were treated with vehicle, GSI, paclitaxel and carboplatin (P/C), or combination GSI and P/C. Levels of cleaved Notch1 protein and Hes1 mRNA were determined in GSI treated samples. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank sum and Kaplan-Meier methods. High nuclear Notch1 protein expression was observed in 58% of USC samples with no correlation with overall survival. GSI induced dose-dependent reductions in cell number and decreased levels of cleaved Notch1 protein and Hes1 mRNA in vitro. Treatment of mice with GSI led to decreased Hes1 mRNA expression in USC xenografts. In addition, GSI impeded tumor growth of cell line xenografts as well as UT1 USC PDXs. When GSI and P/C were combined, synergistic anti-tumor activity was observed in UT1 xenografts. Notch1 is expressed in a large subset of USC. GSI-mediated Notch pathway inhibition led to both reduced cell numbers in vitro and decreased tumor growth of USC some xenograft models. When combined with conventional chemotherapy, GSI augmented anti-tumor activity in one USC PDX line suggesting that targeting of the Notch signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic strategy for future investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microvesicle- and exosome-mediated drug delivery enhances the cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel in autologous prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Saari, Heikki; Lázaro-Ibáñez, Elisa; Viitala, Tapani; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina; Siljander, Pia; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-12-28

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are naturally occurring membrane particles that mediate intercellular communication by delivering molecular information between cells. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of two different populations of EVs (microvesicle- and exosome-enriched) as carriers of Paclitaxel to autologous prostate cancer cells. EVs were isolated from LNCaP- and PC-3 prostate cancer cell cultures using differential centrifugation and characterized by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blot. The uptake of microvesicles and exosomes by the autologous prostate cancer cells was assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The EVs were loaded with Paclitaxel and the effectiveness of EV-mediated drug delivery was assessed with viability assays. The distribution of EVs and EV-delivered Paclitaxel in cells was inspected by confocal microscopy. Our main finding was that the loading of Paclitaxel to autologous prostate cancer cell-derived EVs increased its cytotoxic effect. This capacity was independent of the EV population and the cell line tested. Although the EVs without the drug increased cancer cell viability, the net effect of enhanced cytotoxicity remained. Both EV populations delivered Paclitaxel to the recipient cells through endocytosis, leading to the release of the drug from within the cells. The removal of EV surface proteins did not affect exosomes, while the drug delivery mediated by microvesicles was partially inhibited. Cancer cell-derived EVs can be used as effective carriers of Paclitaxel to their parental cells, bringing the drug into the cells through an endocytic pathway and increasing its cytotoxicity. However, due to the increased cell viability, the use of cancer cell-derived EVs must be further investigated before any clinical applications can be designed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of paclitaxel with anticancer activity by two local fungal endophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria tenuissima.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Ahmed, Ashraf S; Hassan, Ismail A; El-Sayed, El-Sayed R; Karam El-Din, Al-Zahraa A

    2017-07-01

    Among 60 fungal endophytes isolated from twigs, bark, and mature leaves of different plant species, two fungal isolates named TXD105 and TER995 were capable of producing paclitaxel in amounts of up to 84.41 and 37.92 μg L -1 , respectively. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic characteristic analysis, the two respective isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria tenuissima. In the effort to increase paclitaxel magnitude by the two fungal strains, several fermentation conditions including selection of the proper fermentation medium, agitation rate, incubation temperature, fermentation period, medium pH, medium volume, and inoculum nature (size and age of inoculum) were tried. Fermentation process carried out in M1D medium (pH 6.0) and maintained at 120 rpm for 10 days and at 25 °C using 4% (v/v) inoculum of 5-day-old culture stimulated the highest paclitaxel production to attain 307.03 μg L -1 by the A. fumigatus strain. In the case of the A. tenuissima strain, fermentation conditions conducted in flask basal medium (pH 6.0) and maintained at 120 rpm for 14 days and at 25 °C using 8% (v/v) inoculum of 7-day-old culture were found the most favorable to attain the highest paclitaxel production of 124.32 μg L -1 . Using the MTT-based assay, fungal paclitaxel significantly inhibited the proliferation of five different cancer cell lines with 50% inhibitory concentration values varied from 3.04 to 14.8 μg mL -1 . Hence, these findings offer new and alternate sources with excellent biotechnological potential for paclitaxel production by fungal fermentation.

  5. Mechanisms of tissue uptake and retention of paclitaxel-coated balloons: impact on neointimal proliferation and healing.

    PubMed

    Granada, Juan F; Stenoien, Mark; Buszman, Piotr P; Tellez, Armando; Langanki, Dan; Kaluza, Greg L; Leon, Martin B; Gray, William; Jaff, Michael R; Schwartz, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) for restenosis prevention has been demonstrated in humans. However, the mechanism of action for sustained drug retention and biological efficacy following single-time drug delivery is still unknown. The pharmacokinetic profile and differences in drug concentration (vessel surface vs arterial wall) of two different paclitaxel coating formulations (3 µg/mm(2)) displaying opposite solubility characteristics (CC=crystalline vs AC=amorphous) were tested in vivo and compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). Also, the biological effect of both PCB formulations on vascular healing was tested in the porcine coronary injury model. One hour following balloon inflation, both formulations achieved similar arterial paclitaxel levels (CC=310 vs AC=245 ng/mg; p=NS). At 24 h, the CC maintained similar tissue concentrations, whereas the AC tissue levels declined by 99% (p<0.01). At this time point, arterial levels were 20-fold (CC) and 5-fold (AC) times higher compared to the PES group (p<0.05). At 28 days, arterial levels retained were 9.2% (CC) and 0.04% (AC, p<0.01) of the baseline levels. Paclitaxel concentration on the vessel surface was higher in the CC at 1 (CC=36.7% vs AC=13.1%, p<0.05) and 7 days (CC=38.4% vs AC=11%, p<0.05). In addition, the CC induced higher levels of neointimal inhibition, fibrin deposition and delayed healing compared with the AC group. The presence of paclitaxel deposits on the vessel surface driving diffusion into the arterial tissue in a time-dependent fashion supports the mechanism of action of PCB. This specific pharmacokinetic behaviour influences the patterns of neointimal formation and healing.

  6. Mechanisms of tissue uptake and retention of paclitaxel-coated balloons: impact on neointimal proliferation and healing

    PubMed Central

    Granada, Juan F; Stenoien, Mark; Buszman, Piotr P; Tellez, Armando; Langanki, Dan; Kaluza, Greg L; Leon, Martin B; Gray, William; Jaff, Michael R; Schwartz, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Background The efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) for restenosis prevention has been demonstrated in humans. However, the mechanism of action for sustained drug retention and biological efficacy following single-time drug delivery is still unknown. Methods and results The pharmacokinetic profile and differences in drug concentration (vessel surface vs arterial wall) of two different paclitaxel coating formulations (3 µg/mm2) displaying opposite solubility characteristics (CC=crystalline vs AC=amorphous) were tested in vivo and compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). Also, the biological effect of both PCB formulations on vascular healing was tested in the porcine coronary injury model. One hour following balloon inflation, both formulations achieved similar arterial paclitaxel levels (CC=310 vs AC=245 ng/mg; p=NS). At 24 h, the CC maintained similar tissue concentrations, whereas the AC tissue levels declined by 99% (p<0.01). At this time point, arterial levels were 20-fold (CC) and 5-fold (AC) times higher compared to the PES group (p<0.05). At 28 days, arterial levels retained were 9.2% (CC) and 0.04% (AC, p<0.01) of the baseline levels. Paclitaxel concentration on the vessel surface was higher in the CC at 1 (CC=36.7% vs AC=13.1%, p<0.05) and 7 days (CC=38.4% vs AC=11%, p<0.05). In addition, the CC induced higher levels of neointimal inhibition, fibrin deposition and delayed healing compared with the AC group. Conclusions The presence of paclitaxel deposits on the vessel surface driving diffusion into the arterial tissue in a time-dependent fashion supports the mechanism of action of PCB. This specific pharmacokinetic behaviour influences the patterns of neointimal formation and healing. PMID:25332821

  7. RNA-based micelles: A novel platform for paclitaxel loading and delivery.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yi; Yin, Hongran; Rajabi, Mehdi; Li, Hui; Vieweger, Mario; Guo, Sijin; Shu, Dan; Guo, Peixuan

    2018-04-28

    RNA can serve as powerful building blocks for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures for biotechnological and biomedical applications. In addition to current self-assembly strategies utilizing base pairing, motif piling and tertiary interactions, we reported for the first time the formation of RNA based micellar nanoconstruct with a cholesterol molecule conjugated onto one helical end of a branched pRNA three-way junction (3WJ) motif. The resulting amphiphilic RNA micelles consist of a hydrophilic RNA head and a covalently linked hydrophobic lipid tail that can spontaneously assemble in aqueous solution via hydrophobic interaction. Taking advantage of pRNA 3WJ branched structure, the assembled RNA micelles are capable of escorting multiple functional modules. As a proof of concept for delivery for therapeutics, Paclitaxel was loaded into the RNA micelles with significantly improved water solubility. The successful construction of the drug loaded RNA micelles was confirmed and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and fluorescence Nile Red encapsulation assay. The estimate critical micelle formation concentration ranges from 39 nM to 78 nM. The Paclitaxel loaded RNA micelles can internalize into cancer cells and inhibit their proliferation. Further studies showed that the Paclitaxel loaded RNA micelles induced cancer cell apoptosis in a Caspase-3 dependent manner but RNA micelles alone exhibited low cytotoxicity. Finally, the Paclitaxel loaded RNA micelles targeted to tumor in vivo without accumulation in healthy tissues and organs. There is also no or very low induction of pro-inflammatory response. Therefore, multivalence, cancer cell permeability, combined with controllable assembly, low or non toxic nature, and tumor targeting are all promising features that make our pRNA micelles a suitable platform for potential drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyaluronic acid-coated liposomes for targeted delivery of paclitaxel, in-vitro characterization and in-vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ravar, Fatemeh; Saadat, Ebrahim; Gholami, Mehdi; Dehghankelishadi, Pouya; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Azami, Samira; Dorkoosh, Farid A

    2016-05-10

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women. Chemotherapy is regarded as the most essential strategy in inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells. Paclitaxel is a widely used taxane; however, the side effects of available Cremophor-based formulations and also the limitations of passive targeting uncovered an essential need to develop tumor-specific targeted nanocarriers. A hyaluronic acid targeted liposomal formulation of paclitaxel was prepared in which, hyaluronic acid was electrostatistically attracted to the surface of liposomes. Liposomes, had a particle size of 106.4±3.2nm, a weakly negative zeta potential of -9.7±0.8mV and an acceptable encapsulation efficiency of 92.1±1.7%. The release profile of liposomes in buffer showed that 95% of PTX was released during 40h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis showed the greater cellular internalization of coumarin-loaded liposomes compared to free coumarin. MTT assay on 4T1 and T47D cells demonstrated the stronger cytotoxic activity of liposomes in comparison to free paclitaxel. Cell cycle analysis showed that cells were mainly blocked at G2/M phases after 48h treatment with liposomes. In vivo real time imaging on 4T1 tumor-bearing mice revealed that the liposomal formulation mainly accumulated in the tumor area. Liposomes also had better antitumor efficacy against Cremophor-based formulation. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid targeted paclitaxel liposome can serve as a promising targeted formulation of paclitaxel for future cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Eribulin and Paclitaxel Differentially Affect Neuronal Cell Bodies in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Sarah J; Wozniak, Krystyna M; Kulesh, Bridget; Savage, April; Slusher, Barbara S; Littlefield, Bruce A; Jordan, Mary Ann; Wilson, Leslie; Feinstein, Stuart C

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of anticancer treatment with microtubule-targeted agents (MTAs). The frequency of severe CIPN, which can be dose limiting and even life threatening, varies widely among different MTAs. For example, paclitaxel induces a higher frequency of severe CIPN than does eribulin. Different MTAs also possess distinct mechanisms of microtubule-targeted action. Recently, we demonstrated that paclitaxel and eribulin differentially affect sciatic nerve axons, with paclitaxel inducing more pronounced neurodegenerative effects and eribulin inducing greater microtubule stabilizing biochemical effects. Here, we complement and extend these axonal studies by assessing the effects of paclitaxel and eribulin in the cell bodies of sciatic nerve axons, housed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Importantly, the microtubule network in cell bodies is known to be significantly more dynamic than in axons. Paclitaxel induced activating transcription factor 3 expression, a marker of neuronal stress/injury. Paclitaxel also increased expression levels of acetylated tubulin and end binding protein 1, markers of microtubule stability and growth, respectively. These effects are hypothesized to be detrimental to the dynamic microtubule network within the cell bodies. In contrast, eribulin had no significant effect on any of these parameters in the cell bodies. Taken together, DRG cell bodies and their axons, two distinct neuronal cell compartments, contain functionally distinct microtubule networks that exhibit unique biochemical responses to different MTA treatments. We hypothesize that these distinct mechanistic actions may underlie the variability seen in the initiation, progression, persistence, and recovery from CIPN.

  10. Inhibition of the EGFR/STAT3/CEBPD Axis Reverses Cisplatin Cross-resistance with Paclitaxel in the Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Jan; Li, Chien-Feng; Chu, Yu-Yi; Wang, Yu-Hui; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Yen, Chia-Jui; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2017-01-15

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is frequently used in combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel for treating urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB). CDDP cross-resistance has been suggested to develop with paclitaxel, thus hindering successful UCUB treatment. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying CDDP-induced anticancer drug resistance is imperative and may provide an insight in developing novel therapeutic strategy. Loss-of-function assays were performed to elucidate the role of the EGFR and STAT3 in CDDP-induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) expression in UCUB cells. Reporter and in vivo DNA-binding assays were employed to determine whether CEBPD directly regulates ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) and ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2) activation. Finally, a xenograft animal assay was used to examine the abilities of gefitinib and S3I-201 (a STAT3 inhibitor) to reverse CDDP and paclitaxel sensitivity. CEBPD expression was maintained in postoperative chemotherapy patients, and this expression was induced by CDDP even in CDDP-resistant UCUB cells. Upon CDDP treatment, CEBPD activated ABCB1 and ABCC2. Furthermore, the EGFR/STAT3 pathway contributed to CDDP-induced CEBPD expression in UCUB cells. Gefitinib and S3I-201 treatment significantly reduced the expression of CEBPD and enhanced the sensitivity of CDDP-resistant UCUB cells to CDDP and paclitaxel. Our results revealed the risk of CEBPD activation in CDDP-resistant UCUB cells and suggested a therapeutic strategy for patients with UCUB or UCUB resisted to CDDP and paclitaxel by combination with either gefitinib or S3I-201. Clin Cancer Res; 23(2); 503-13. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Randomized Phase II Trial of Seribantumab in Combination With Paclitaxel in Patients With Advanced Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Selle, Frederic; Poveda, Andrés M.; Cibula, David; Hirte, Hal; Hilpert, Felix; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Gladieff, Laurence; Harter, Philipp; Siena, Salvatore; del Campo, Josep Maria; Tabah-Fisch, Isabelle; Pearlberg, Joseph; Moyo, Victor; Riahi, Kaveh; Nering, Rachel; Kubasek, William; Adiwijaya, Bambang; Czibere, Akos; Naumann, R. Wendel; Coleman, Robert L.; Vergote, Ignace; MacBeath, Gavin; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Seribantumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody that binds to human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 3 (ErbB3), blocking heregulin (HRG) –mediated ErbB3 signaling and inducing ErbB3 receptor downregulation. This open-label randomized phase II study evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) with seribantumab in combination with once-per-week paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory ovarian cancer. A key secondary objective was to determine if any of five prespecified biomarkers predicted benefit from seribantumab. Patients and Methods Patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer were randomly assigned at a ratio of two to one to receive seribantumab plus paclitaxel or paclitaxel alone. Patients underwent pretreatment core needle biopsy; archival tumor samples were also obtained to support biomarker analyses. Results A total of 223 patients were randomly assigned (seribantumab plus paclitaxel, n = 140; paclitaxel alone, n = 83). Median PFS in the unselected intent-to-treat population was 3.75 months with seribantumab plus paclitaxel compared with 3.68 months with paclitaxel alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.027; 95% CI, 0.741 to 1.425; P = .864). Among patients whose tumors had detectable HRG mRNA and low HER2 (n = 57 [38%] of 151 with available biomarker data), increased treatment benefit was observed in those receiving seribantumab plus paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone (PFS HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76; P = .007). The HR in patients not meeting these criteria was 1.80 (95% CI, 1.08 to 2.98; P = .023). Conclusion The addition of seribantumab to paclitaxel did not result in improved PFS in unselected patients. Exploratory analyses suggest that detectable HRG and low HER2, biomarkers that link directly to the mechanism of action of seribantumab, identified patients who might benefit from this combination

  12. Randomized Phase II Trial of Seribantumab in Combination With Paclitaxel in Patients With Advanced Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joyce F; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Selle, Frederic; Poveda, Andrés M; Cibula, David; Hirte, Hal; Hilpert, Felix; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Gladieff, Laurence; Harter, Philipp; Siena, Salvatore; Del Campo, Josep Maria; Tabah-Fisch, Isabelle; Pearlberg, Joseph; Moyo, Victor; Riahi, Kaveh; Nering, Rachel; Kubasek, William; Adiwijaya, Bambang; Czibere, Akos; Naumann, R Wendel; Coleman, Robert L; Vergote, Ignace; MacBeath, Gavin; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2016-12-20

    Purpose Seribantumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody that binds to human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 3 (ErbB3), blocking heregulin (HRG) -mediated ErbB3 signaling and inducing ErbB3 receptor downregulation. This open-label randomized phase II study evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) with seribantumab in combination with once-per-week paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory ovarian cancer. A key secondary objective was to determine if any of five prespecified biomarkers predicted benefit from seribantumab. Patients and Methods Patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer were randomly assigned at a ratio of two to one to receive seribantumab plus paclitaxel or paclitaxel alone. Patients underwent pretreatment core needle biopsy; archival tumor samples were also obtained to support biomarker analyses. Results A total of 223 patients were randomly assigned (seribantumab plus paclitaxel, n = 140; paclitaxel alone, n = 83). Median PFS in the unselected intent-to-treat population was 3.75 months with seribantumab plus paclitaxel compared with 3.68 months with paclitaxel alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.027; 95% CI, 0.741 to 1.425; P = .864). Among patients whose tumors had detectable HRG mRNA and low HER2 (n = 57 [38%] of 151 with available biomarker data), increased treatment benefit was observed in those receiving seribantumab plus paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone (PFS HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76; P = .007). The HR in patients not meeting these criteria was 1.80 (95% CI, 1.08 to 2.98; P = .023). Conclusion The addition of seribantumab to paclitaxel did not result in improved PFS in unselected patients. Exploratory analyses suggest that detectable HRG and low HER2, biomarkers that link directly to the mechanism of action of seribantumab, identified patients who might benefit from this combination. Future

  13. Nab-Paclitaxel Plus Gemcitabine for Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared the combination of albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel [Abraxane®]) and gemcitabine (Gemzar®) versus gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

  14. Effects of eribulin, vincristine, paclitaxel and ixabepilone on fast axonal transport and kinesin-1 driven microtubule gliding: implications for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    LaPointe, Nichole E; Morfini, Gerardo; Brady, Scott T; Feinstein, Stuart C; Wilson, Leslie; Jordan, Mary Ann

    2013-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious, painful and dose-limiting side effect of cancer drugs that target microtubules. The mechanisms underlying the neuronal damage are unknown, but may include disruption of fast axonal transport, an essential microtubule-based process that moves cellular components over long distances between neuronal cell bodies and nerve terminals. This idea is supported by the "dying back" pattern of degeneration observed in CIPN, and by the selective vulnerability of sensory neurons bearing the longest axonal projections. In this study, we test the hypothesis that microtubule-targeting drugs disrupt fast axonal transport using vesicle motility assays in isolated squid axoplasm and a cell-free microtubule gliding assay with defined components. We compare four clinically-used drugs, eribulin, vincristine, paclitaxel and ixabepilone. Of these, eribulin is associated with a relatively low incidence of severe neuropathy, while vincristine has a relatively high incidence. In vesicle motility assays, we found that all four drugs inhibited anterograde (conventional kinesin-dependent) fast axonal transport, with the potency being vincristine=ixabepilone>paclitaxel=eribulin. Interestingly, eribulin and paclitaxel did not inhibit retrograde (cytoplasmic dynein-dependent) fast axonal transport, in contrast to vincristine and ixabepilone. Similarly, vincristine and ixabepilone both exerted significant inhibitory effects in an in vitro microtubule gliding assay consisting of recombinant kinesin (kinesin-1) and microtubules composed of purified bovine brain tubulin, whereas paclitaxel and eribulin had negligible effects. Our results suggest that (i) inhibition of microtubule-based fast axonal transport may be a significant contributor to neurotoxicity induced by microtubule-targeting drugs, and (ii) that individual microtubule-targeting drugs affect fast axonal transport through different mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  15. A novel anti-alpha-fetoprotein single-chain variable fragment displays anti-tumor effects in HepG2 cells as a single agent or in combination with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaonan; Shen, Yanli; Sun, Hao; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-08-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high rate of tumor recurrence and metastasis, resulting in shortened survival time. The function of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a regulatory factor in the growth of HCC cells has been well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a novel AFP-specific single-chain variable fragment that blocked AFP and inhibited HCC cell growth. The results indicated that the anti-AFP single-chain variable fragment (scFv) induced growth inhibition of AFP-expressing HCC cell lines in vitro through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of apoptosis probably involved with blocking AFP internalization and regulation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling network. Moreover, the anti-AFP-scFv also effectively sensitized the HepG2 cells to paclitaxel (PTX) at a lower concentration. The combination effect of PTX and anti-AFP-scFv displayed a synergistic effect on HepG2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that targeting AFP by specific antibodies has potential immunotherapeutic efficacy in human HCC.

  16. Mefloquine effectively targets gastric cancer cells through phosphatase-dependent inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanwei; Chen, Sen; Xue, Rui

    Deregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has been recently identified to play a crucial role in the progress of human gastric cancer. In this study, we show that mefloquine, a FDA-approved anti-malarial drug, effectively targets human gastric cancer cells. Mefloquine potently inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of a panel of human gastric cancer cell lines, with EC{sub 50} ∼0.5–0.7 μM. In two independent gastric cancer xenograft mouse models, mefloquine significantly inhibits growth of both tumors. The combination of mefloquine with paclitaxel enhances the activity of either drug alone in in vitro and in vivo. In addition, mefloquine potently decreased phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR andmore » rS6. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt significantly restored mefloquine-mediated inhibition of mTOR phosphorylation and growth, and induction of apoptosis, suggesting that mefloquine acts on gastric cancer cells via suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We further show that mefloquine-mediated inhibition of Akt/mTOR singaling is phosphatase-dependent as pretreatment with calyculin A does-dependently reversed mefloquine-mediated inhibition of Akt/mTOR phosphorylation. Since mefloquine is already available for clinic use, these results suggest that it is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for gastric cancer. - Highlights: • Mefloquine targets a panel of gastric cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. • Combination of mefloquine and paclitaxel is synergistic. • Mefloquine acts on gastric cancer via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. • Mefloquine can be repurposed for gastric cancer treatment.« less

  17. Ultrasonication assisted Layer-by-Layer technology for the preparation of multi-functional anticancer drugs paclitaxel and lapatinib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingcai

    growth inhibition in comparison with the LbL paclitaxel-only and LbL lapatinib-only treatment, not to say the free one drug treatment.

  18. Effect of flavonol and its dimethoxy derivatives on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Sayeli, Vijaykumar; Nadipelly, Jagan; Kadhirvelu, Parimala; Cheriyan, Binoy Varghese; Shanmugasundaram, Jaikumar; Subramanian, Viswanathan

    2018-04-13

    Peripheral neuropathy is the dose limiting side effect of many anticancer drugs. Flavonoids exhibit good antinociceptive effect in animal models. Their efficacy against different types of nociception has been documented. The present study investigated the effect of flavonol (3-hydroxy flavone), 3',4'-dimethoxy flavonol, 6,3'-dimethoxy flavonol, 7,2'-dimethoxy flavonol and 7,3'-dimethoxy flavonol against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. A single dose of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to induce peripheral neuropathy in mice and the manifestations of peripheral neuropathy such as tactile allodynia, cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed 24 h later by employing Von Frey hair aesthesiometer test, acetone bubble test and hot water tail immersion test, respectively. The test compounds were prepared as a suspension in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose and were administered s.c. in various doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). The above behavioral responses were assessed prior to and 30 min after drug treatment. In addition, the effect of test compounds on proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and free radicals was investigated by using suitable in vitro assays. A dose-dependent attenuation of tactile allodynia, cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia was evidenced in mice treated with flavonol derivatives. The test compounds inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β and free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. These results revealed that flavonol and its dimethoxy derivatives ameliorated the manifestations of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. The inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and free radicals could contribute to this beneficial effect.

  19. Predicting paclitaxel-induced neutropenia using the DMET platform.

    PubMed

    Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Smid, Marcel; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Elbouazzaoui, Samira; de Bruijn, Peter; Martens, John W; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2015-01-01

    The use of paclitaxel in cancer treatment is limited by paclitaxel-induced neutropenia. We investigated the ability of genetic variation in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters to predict hematological toxicity. Using a discovery and validation approach, we identified a pharmacogenetic predictive model for neutropenia. For this, a drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters plus DNA chip was used, which contains 1936 SNPs in 225 metabolic enzyme and drug-transporter genes. Our 10-SNP model in 279 paclitaxel-dosed patients reached 43% sensitivity in the validation cohort. Analysis in 3-weekly treated patients only resulted in improved sensitivity of 79%, with a specificity of 33%. None of our models reached statistical significance. Our drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters-based SNP-models are currently of limited value for predicting paclitaxel-induced neutropenia in clinical practice. Original submitted 9 March 2015; Revision submitted 20 May 2015.

  20. Co-loaded paclitaxel/rapamycin liposomes: Development, characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Josimar O; Petrilli, Raquel; Topan, José Fernando; Antonio, Heriton Marcelo Ribeiro; Barcellos, Juliana Palma Abriata; Chesca, Deise L; Serafini, Luciano Neder; Tiezzi, Daniel G; Lee, Robert J; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2016-05-01

    Paclitaxel and rapamycin have been reported to act synergistically to treat breast cancer. Albeit paclitaxel is available for breast cancer treatment, the most commonly used formulation in the clinic presents side effects, limiting its use. Furthermore, both drugs present pharmacokinetics drawbacks limiting their in vivo efficacy and clinic combination. As an alternative, drug delivery systems, particularly liposomes, emerge as an option for drug combination, able to simultaneously deliver co-loaded drugs with improved therapeutic index. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop and characterize a co-loaded paclitaxel and rapamycin liposome and evaluate it for breast cancer efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that a SPC/Chol/DSPE-PEG (2000) liposome was able to co-encapsulate paclitaxel and rapamycin with suitable encapsulation efficiency values, nanometric particle size, low polydispersity and neutral zeta potential. Taken together, FTIR and thermal analysis evidenced drug conversion to the more bioavailable molecular and amorphous forms, respectively, for paclitaxel and rapamycin. The pegylated liposome exhibited excellent colloidal stability and was able to retain drugs encapsulated, which were released in a slow and sustained fashion. Liposomes were more cytotoxic to 4T1 breast cancer cell line than the free drugs and drugs acted synergistically, particularly when co-loaded. Finally, in vivo therapeutic evaluation carried out in 4T1-tumor-bearing mice confirmed the in vitro results. The co-loaded paclitaxel/rapamycin pegylated liposome better controlled tumor growth compared to the solution. Therefore, we expect that the formulation developed herein might be a contribution for future studies focusing on the clinical combination of paclitaxel and rapamycin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Paclitaxel modulates TGFbeta signaling in scleroderma skin grafts in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xialin; Zhu, Shoukang; Wang, Tao; Hummers, Laura; Wigley, Fredrick M; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J; Dong, Chunming

    2005-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by excessive fibrosis and obliterative vascular lesions. Abnormal TGFbeta activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of SSc. Aberrant TGFbeta/Smad signaling can be controlled by stabilization of microtubules with paclitaxel. SSc and healthy human skin biopsies were incubated in the presence or absence of paclitaxel followed by transplantation into severe combined immunodeficient mice. TGFbeta signaling, fibrosis, and neovessel formation were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Paclitaxel markedly suppressed Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation and collagen deposition in SSc grafts. As a result, the autonomous maintenance/reconstitution of the SSc phenotype was prevented. Remarkably, SSc grafts showed a 2-fold increase in neovessel formation relative to normal grafts, regardless of paclitaxel treatment. Angiogenesis in SSc grafts was associated with a substantial increase in mouse PECAM-1 expression, indicating the mouse origin of the neovascular cells. Low-dose paclitaxel can significantly suppress TGFbeta/Smad activity and lessen fibrosis in SCID mice. Transplantation of SSc skin into SCID mice elicits a strong angiogenesis-an effect not affected by paclitaxel. Although prolonged chemotherapy with paclitaxel at higher doses is associated with pro-fibrotic and anti-angiogenic changes, the findings described here indicate that low-dose paclitaxel may have therapeutic benefits for SSc via modulating TGFbeta signaling.

  2. Nab-paclitaxel after docetaxel hypersensitivity reaction: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Benedetta; Boggiani, Daniela; Tommasi, Chiara; Palli, Dante; Musolino, Antonino

    2017-10-23

    Taxanes, including paclitaxel and docetaxel, are one of the most active cytotoxic agents in breast cancer  treatment  including  Her-2  positive  subtype characterized  by  aggressive  clinical  and pathological features since the early stage. However, their use is sometimes limited by the occurrence of hypersensivity reactions (HSRs) characterized by erythematous rashes, bronchospasm, respiratory distress, hypotension, and pulmonary edema. Cross-reactions between paclitaxel and docetaxel are described in literature with a rate ranging from 49% to 90%. Abraxane (nab-paclitaxel), an albumin-bound form of paclitaxel, has a different toxicity profile from solvent-based paclitaxel and a lower rate of HSRs. Interestingly, several authors have recently reported cases of patients who developed HSRs to taxanes, principally paclitaxel, and were then safety treated with Abraxane, suggesting the absence of cross-reactivity between these drugs. Based on these considerations, we report our clinical experience and perform a literature review on this topic with the aim to investigate the cross-reactivity between nab-paclitaxel and other taxanes, in particular with docetaxel.

  3. Resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel does not affect the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to antiprogestin-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gamarra-Luques, Carlos D; Hapon, Maria B; Goyeneche, Alicia A; Telleria, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Antiprogestin compounds have been shown to be effective in blocking the growth of ovarian cancer cells of different genetic backgrounds. Herein we studied the anti-ovarian cancer effect of a series of antiprogestins sharing the chemical backbone of the most characterized antiprogestin, mifepristone, but with unique modifications in position C-17 of the steroid ring. We assessed the effect of mifepristone-like antiprogestins on the growth of ovarian cancer cells sensitive to the standard combination therapy cisplatin-paclitaxel or made double-resistant upon six cycles of pulse-selection with the drugs used at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. IGROV-1 and SKOV-3 cells were pulsed with 20 μM cisplatin for 1 h followed by 100 nM paclitaxel for 3 h once a week for six weeks. The cells that did not die and repopulate the culture after the chemotherapies were termed Platinum-Taxane-EScape cells (PTES). Parental cells were compared against their PTES derivatives in their responses to further platinum-taxane treatments. Moreover, both ovarian cancer cells and their PTES siblings were exposed to escalating doses of the various antiprogestin derivatives. We assessed cell growth, viability and sub-G1 DNA content using microcapillary cytometry. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) and cleavage of downstream caspase-3 substrate PARP were used to assess whether cell fate, as a consequence of treatment, was limited to cytostasis or progressed to lethality. Cells subjected to six pulse-selection cycles of cisplatin-paclitaxel gave rise to sibling derivatives that displayed ~2-7 fold reduction in their sensitivities to further chemotherapy. However, regardless of the sensitivity the cells developed to the combination cisplatin-paclitaxel, they displayed similar sensitivity to the antiprogestins, which blocked their growth in a dose-related manner, with lower concentrations causing cytostasis, and higher concentrations causing lethality

  4. Resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel does not affect the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to antiprogestin-induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiprogestin compounds have been shown to be effective in blocking the growth of ovarian cancer cells of different genetic backgrounds. Herein we studied the anti-ovarian cancer effect of a series of antiprogestins sharing the chemical backbone of the most characterized antiprogestin, mifepristone, but with unique modifications in position C-17 of the steroid ring. We assessed the effect of mifepristone-like antiprogestins on the growth of ovarian cancer cells sensitive to the standard combination therapy cisplatin-paclitaxel or made double-resistant upon six cycles of pulse-selection with the drugs used at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. Methods IGROV-1 and SKOV-3 cells were pulsed with 20 μM cisplatin for 1 h followed by 100 nM paclitaxel for 3 h once a week for six weeks. The cells that did not die and repopulate the culture after the chemotherapies were termed Platinum-Taxane-EScape cells (PTES). Parental cells were compared against their PTES derivatives in their responses to further platinum-taxane treatments. Moreover, both ovarian cancer cells and their PTES siblings were exposed to escalating doses of the various antiprogestin derivatives. We assessed cell growth, viability and sub-G1 DNA content using microcapillary cytometry. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21cip1 and p27kip1 and cleavage of downstream caspase-3 substrate PARP were used to assess whether cell fate, as a consequence of treatment, was limited to cytostasis or progressed to lethality. Results Cells subjected to six pulse-selection cycles of cisplatin-paclitaxel gave rise to sibling derivatives that displayed ~2-7 fold reduction in their sensitivities to further chemotherapy. However, regardless of the sensitivity the cells developed to the combination cisplatin-paclitaxel, they displayed similar sensitivity to the antiprogestins, which blocked their growth in a dose-related manner, with lower concentrations causing cytostasis, and higher

  5. Chemosensitizing effects of metformin on cisplatin- and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Guimarães, Isabella; Ladislau-Magescky, Taciane; Tessarollo, Nayara Gusmão; Dos Santos, Diandra Zipinotti; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Silva, Ian Victor; Rangel, Leticia Batista Azevedo

    2017-11-21

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Primary cytoreductive surgery with adjuvant taxane-platinum chemotherapy is the standard treatment to fight ovarian cancer, however, their side effects are severe, and chemoresistance emerges at high rates. Therefore, EOC clinic urges for novel treatment strategies to reverse chemoresistance and to improve the survival rates. Metformin has been shown to act in synergy with certain anti-cancer agents, overcoming chemoresistance in various types of tumors. This paper aims to investigate the use of metformin as a new treatment option for cisplatin- and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer. The effects of metformin alone or in combination with conventional drugs on resistant EOC cell lines were investigated using the MTT assay for cell proliferation; Flow Cytometry analysis for cell cycle and the mRNA expression was analyzed using the real-time PCR technique. We found that metformin exhibited antiproliferative effects in paclitaxel-resistant A2780-PR, and in cisplatin-resistant ACRP cell lines. The combined therapy containing conventional drugs and metformin improved the effect of the treatment in cell proliferation rate, especially in the resistant cells. We found that metformin, in clinical relevant doses, could significantly reduce the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our observations suggest that metformin inhibits the inflammatory pathway induced by paclitaxel and cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, metformin in combination with paclitaxel or cisplatin improved the sensitivity in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, metformin may be beneficial treatment strategy, particularly in patients with tumors refractory to platinum and taxanes. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrin-assisted drug delivery of nano-scaled polymer therapeutics bearing paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Eldar-Boock, Anat; Miller, Keren; Sanchis, Joaquin; Lupu, Ruth; Vicent, María J; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit

    2011-05-01

    Angiogenesis plays a prominent role in cancer progression. Anti-angiogenic therapy therefore, either alone or in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapy, offers a promising therapeutic approach. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a widely-used potent cytotoxic drug that also exhibits anti-angiogenic effects at low doses. However, its use, at its full potential, is limited by severe side effects. Here we designed and synthesized a targeted conjugate of PTX, a polymer and an integrin-targeted moiety resulting in a polyglutamic acid (PGA)-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)(2)] nano-scaled conjugate. Polymer conjugation converted PTX to a macromolecule, which passively targets the tumor tissue exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect, while extravasating via the leaky tumor neovasculature. The cyclic RGD peptidomimetic enhanced the effects previously seen for PGA-PTX alone, utilizing the additional active targeting to the α(v)β(3) integrin overexpressed on tumor endothelial and epithelial cells. This strategy is particularly valuable when tumors are well-vascularized, but they present poor vascular permeability. We show that PGA is enzymatically-degradable leading to PTX release under lysosomal acidic pH. PGA-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)(2)] inhibited the growth of proliferating α(v)β(3)-expressing endothelial cells and several cancer cells. We also showed that PGA-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)(2)] blocked endothelial cells migration towards vascular endothelial growth factor; blocked capillary-like tube formation; and inhibited endothelial cells attachment to fibrinogen. Orthotopic studies in mice demonstrated preferential tumor accumulation of the RGD-bearing conjugate, leading to enhanced anti-tumor efficacy and a marked decrease in toxicity as compared with free PTX-treated mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy increases substance P release in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Terumasa; Oka, Yusuke; Kambe, Toshie; Koizumi, Naoya; Abe, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Utsunomiya, Iku; Taguchi, Kyoji

    2016-01-05

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse effect of paclitaxel treatment. The major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel is peripheral sensory neuropathy, which is characterized by painful paresthesia of the hands and feet. To analyze the contribution of substance P to the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, substance P expression in the superficial layers of the rat spinal dorsal horn was analyzed after paclitaxel treatment. Behavioral assessment using the von Frey test and the paw thermal test showed that intraperitoneal administration of 2 and 4mg/kg paclitaxel induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia 7 and 14 days after treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that paclitaxel (4mg/kg) treatment significantly increased substance P expression (37.6±3.7% on day 7, 43.6±4.6% on day 14) in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn, whereas calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression was unchanged. Moreover, paclitaxel (2 and 4mg/kg) treatment significantly increased substance P release in the spinal cord on day 14. These results suggest that paclitaxel treatment increases release of substance P, but not CGRP in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn and may contribute to paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; He, Chunmei; Ma, Yanqi; Herde, Marco; Ding, Zhaojun

    2017-02-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Efficacy and toxicological studies of cremophor EL free alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    PubMed

    Utreja, Puneet; Jain, Subheet; Yadav, Subodh; Khandhuja, K L; Tiwary, A K

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, Cremophor EL free paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation consisting of soya phosphatidylcholine and biosurfactant sodium deoxycholate was developed and optimized. The toxicological profile, antitumor efficacy and hemolytic toxicity of paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation in comparison to Cremophor EL based marketed formulation were evaluated. Paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulations were prepared and characterized in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo. Single dose toxicity study of paclitaxel elastic liposomal and marketed formulation was carried out in dose range of 10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 mg/kg. Cytotoxicity of developed formulation was evaluated using small cell lung cancer cell line (A549). Antitumor activity of developed formulation was compared with the marketed formulation using Cytoselect™ 96-well cell transformation assay. In vivo administration of paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation into mice showed 6 fold increase in Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) in comparison to the marketed formulation. Similarly, LD50 (141.6 mg/kg) was also found to increase significantly than the marketed formulation (16.7 mg/kg). Result of antitumor assay revealed a high reduction of tumor density with paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation. Reduction in hemolytic toxicity was also observed with paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation in comparison to the marketed formulation. The carrier based approach for paclitaxel delivery demonstrated significant reduction in toxicity as compared to the Cremophor EL based marketed formulation following intra-peritoneal administration in mice model. The reduced toxicity and enhanced anti-cancer activity of elastic liposomal formulation strongly indicate its potential for safe and effective delivery of paclitaxel.

  10. Noscapine alters microtubule dynamics in living cells and inhibits the progression of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Landen, Jaren W; Lang, Roland; McMahon, Steve J; Rusan, Nasser M; Yvon, Anne-Marie; Adams, Ashley W; Sorcinelli, Mia D; Campbell, Ross; Bonaccorsi, Paola; Ansel, John C; Archer, David R; Wadsworth, Patricia; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Joshi, Harish C

    2002-07-15

    Cellular microtubules, polymers of tubulin, alternate relentlessly between phases of growth and shortening. We now show that noscapine, a tubulin-binding agent, increases the time that cellular microtubules spend idle in a paused state. As a result, most mammalian cell types observed arrest in mitosis in the presence of noscapine. We demonstrate that noscapine-treated murine melanoma B16LS9 cells do not arrest in mitosis but rather become polyploid followed by cell death, whereas primary melanocytes reversibly arrest in mitosis and resume a normal cell cycle after noscapine removal. Furthermore, in a syngeneic murine model of established s.c. melanoma, noscapine treatment resulted in an 85% inhibition of tumor volume on day 17 when delivered by gavage compared with untreated animals (P inhibition was greater than that seen in vivo by paclitaxel (Taxol) alone and similar to the inhibition of tumor volume observed when noscapine was combined with paclitaxel. Importantly, noscapine also demonstrated the ability to significantly inhibit melanoma progression by 83% on day 18 when delivered in drinking water (P inhibits the progression of melanoma cells through alterations in microtubule dynamics, with no detected toxicity to the host. Consequently, noscapine could be a valuable chemotherapeutic agent, alone or in combination, for the treatment of advanced melanoma.

  11. Acoustically active lipospheres containing paclitaxel: a new therapeutic ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Unger, E C; McCreery, T P; Sweitzer, R H; Caldwell, V E; Wu, Y

    1998-12-01

    Paclitaxel-carrying lipospheres (MRX-552) were developed and evaluated as a new ultrasound contrast agent for chemotherapeutic drug delivery. Paclitaxel was suspended in soybean oil and added to an aqueous suspension of phospholipids in vials. The headspace of the vials was replaced with perfluorobutane gas; the vials were sealed, and they were agitated at 4200 rpm on a shaking device. The resulting lipospheres containing paclitaxel were studied for concentration, size, acute toxicity in mice, and acoustic activity and drug release with ultrasound. Lipospheres containing sudan black dye were produced to demonstrate the acoustically active liposphere (AAL)-ultrasound release concept. Acoustically active lipospheres containing paclitaxel had a mean particle count of approximately 1 x 10(9) particles per mL and a mean size of 2.9 microns. Acute toxicity studies in mice showed a 10-fold reduction in toxicity for paclitaxel in AALs compared with free paclitaxel. The AALs reflected ultrasound as a contrast agent. Increasing amounts of ultrasound energy selectively ruptured the AALs and released the paclitaxel. Acoustically active lipospheres represent a new class of acoustically active drug delivery vehicles. Future studies will assess efficacy of AALs for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery.

  12. Paclitaxel-induced sickle cell crisis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicole M; Espirito, Janet L; Valero, Vicente; Pusztai, Lajos

    2008-07-15

    A case of paclitaxel-induced painful crisis in a patient with breast cancer and hemoglobin sickle cell disease (SCD) is reported. A 55-year-old postmenopausal African-American woman had stage IIB invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast. She was not taking any medications and did not report a history of cancer or other diseases. She had mild microcytic anemia, but the rest of her blood counts and liver function test values were normal. Bone scans and computed tomography scans of her chest and abdomen did not reveal any metastatic disease. She underwent a routine left segmental mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection that revealed a 4-cm invasive cancer with 1 of 10 axillary lymph nodes positive for metastatic disease. Her treatment plan included chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel, followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide and radiation. The first cycle of paclitaxel was well tolerated until one week after initiation when the patient woke up in the middle of the night with a sudden onset of excruciating back pain and muscle spasms. Other symptoms that developed included fatigue, left-sided rib pain, and shortness of breath. The patient recalled being told that she had sickle cell trait but said that she never had a sickle cell crisis. Laboratory tests during her 13-day hospitalization revealed hemolysis. The patient was diagnosed with hemoglobin SCD and later discharged with as-needed, low-dose oxycodone and baclofen, antibiotics, and folic acid. A patient with breast cancer and SCD had a painful crisis after receiving paclitaxel as part of her chemotherapy regimen.

  13. Subcutaneous administration of paclitaxel in dogs with cancer: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniella M.; Franciosi, Aline I.; Pezzini, Paula C.F.; Guérios, Simone D.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous paclitaxel has been underused in dogs due to severe and acute hypersensitivity reactions. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of paclitaxel and its safety are unknown. In this preliminary study, SC administration of paclitaxel was evaluated for hypersensitivity reactions and toxicity in 21 dogs with advanced cancer. Dogs received 1 to 5 paclitaxel doses, ranging from 85 to 170 mg/m2, SC every 14 or 21 days. A total of 40 paclitaxel doses were administered and none of the 21 dogs developed systemic or acute local hypersensitivity reactions. Severe skin lesions at the injection site developed in 2 dogs after the 4th injection at the same location. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 50% of the dogs 5 days after the first treatment at 115 mg/m2 (n = 14). Two animals developed Grade 5 diarrhea and died likely due to hemodynamic failure or sepsis. Paclitaxel can be administered SC in dogs with no hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:26246628

  14. The taccalonolides and paclitaxel cause distinct effects on microtubule dynamics and aster formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microtubule stabilizers suppress microtubule dynamics and, at the lowest antiproliferative concentrations, disrupt the function of mitotic spindles, leading to mitotic arrest and apoptosis. At slightly higher concentrations, these agents cause the formation of multiple mitotic asters with distinct morphologies elicited by different microtubule stabilizers. Results We tested the hypothesis that two classes of microtubule stabilizing drugs, the taxanes and the taccalonolides, cause the formation of distinct aster structures due, in part, to differential effects on microtubule dynamics. Paclitaxel and the taccalonolides suppressed the dynamics of microtubules formed from purified tubulin as well as in live cells. Both agents suppressed microtubule dynamic instability, with the taccalonolides having a more pronounced inhibition of microtubule catastrophe, suggesting that they stabilize the plus ends of microtubules more effectively than paclitaxel. Live cell microscopy was also used to evaluate the formation and resolution of asters after drug treatment. While each drug had similar effects on initial formation, substantial differences were observed in aster resolution. Paclitaxel-induced asters often coalesced over time resulting in fewer, larger asters whereas numerous compact asters persisted once they were formed in the presence of the taccalonolides. Conclusions We conclude that the increased resistance of microtubule plus ends to catastrophe may play a role in the observed inability of taccalonolide-induced asters to coalesce during mitosis, giving rise to the distinct morphologies observed after exposure to these agents. PMID:24576146

  15. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis between plant and fungi species raises the question about whether the origin of this pathway in these two physically associated groups could have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. Results The ability of the endophytic fungus of hazel Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 to independently synthesize paclitaxel was established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The genome of Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 was sequenced and gene candidates that may be involved in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified by comparison with the 13 known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in Taxus. We found that paclitaxel biosynthetic gene candidates in P. aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 have evolved independently and that horizontal gene transfer between this endophytic fungus and its plant host is unlikely. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on how paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi synthesize paclitaxel, and will facilitate metabolic engineering for the industrial production of paclitaxel from fungi. PMID:24460898

  16. Pullulan-coated phospholipid and Pluronic F68 complex nanoparticles for carrying IR780 and paclitaxel to treat hepatocellular carcinoma by combining photothermal therapy/photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wan, Guoyun; Chen, Bowei; Xiong, Qingqing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wenxue; Wang, Yinsong

    2017-01-01

    IR780, a near-infrared dye, can also be used as a photosensitizer both for photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, we designed a simple but effective nanoparticle system for carrying IR780 and paclitaxel, thus hoping to combine PTT/PDT and chemotherapy to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This nanosystem, named PDF nanoparticles, consisted of phospholipid/Pluronic F68 complex nanocores and pullulan shells. IR780 and paclitaxel were loaded separately into PDF nanoparticles to form PDFI and PDFP nanoparticles, which had regular sphere shapes and relatively small sizes. Upon near-infrared laser irradiation at 808 nm, PDFI nanoparticles showed strong PTT/PDT efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. In MHCC-97H cells, the combined treatment of PDFI nanoparticles/laser irradiation and PDFP nanoparticles exhibited significant synergistic effects on inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In MHCC-97H tumor-bearing mice, PDFI nanoparticles exhibited excellent HCC-targeting and accumulating capability after intravenous injection. Furthermore, the combined treatment of PDFI nanoparticles/laser irradiation and PDFP nanoparticles also effectively inhibited the tumor growth and the tumor angiogenesis in MHCC-97H tumor-bearing mice. In summary, we put forward a therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment by combining PTT/PDT and chemotherapy. PMID:29255359

  17. Pullulan-coated phospholipid and Pluronic F68 complex nanoparticles for carrying IR780 and paclitaxel to treat hepatocellular carcinoma by combining photothermal therapy/photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Sipei; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Guoyun; Chen, Bowei; Xiong, Qingqing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wenxue; Wang, Yinsong

    2017-01-01

    IR780, a near-infrared dye, can also be used as a photosensitizer both for photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, we designed a simple but effective nanoparticle system for carrying IR780 and paclitaxel, thus hoping to combine PTT/PDT and chemotherapy to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This nanosystem, named PDF nanoparticles, consisted of phospholipid/Pluronic F68 complex nanocores and pullulan shells. IR780 and paclitaxel were loaded separately into PDF nanoparticles to form PDFI and PDFP nanoparticles, which had regular sphere shapes and relatively small sizes. Upon near-infrared laser irradiation at 808 nm, PDFI nanoparticles showed strong PTT/PDT efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. In MHCC-97H cells, the combined treatment of PDFI nanoparticles/laser irradiation and PDFP nanoparticles exhibited significant synergistic effects on inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In MHCC-97H tumor-bearing mice, PDFI nanoparticles exhibited excellent HCC-targeting and accumulating capability after intravenous injection. Furthermore, the combined treatment of PDFI nanoparticles/laser irradiation and PDFP nanoparticles also effectively inhibited the tumor growth and the tumor angiogenesis in MHCC-97H tumor-bearing mice. In summary, we put forward a therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment by combining PTT/PDT and chemotherapy.

  18. Neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids and paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Rita; Bielawski, Jacek; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Othman, Alaa; Alecu, Irina; Ernst, Daniela; Kornhauser, Drew; Hornemann, Thorsten; Spassieva, Stefka

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In the current study, we tested the involvement of a novel class of neurotoxic sphingolipids, the 1-deoxysphingolipids. 1-Deoxysphingolipids are produced when the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase uses l-alanine instead of l-serine as its amino acid substrate. We tested whether treatment of cells with paclitaxel (250 nM, 1 µM) and cisplatin (250 nM, 1 µM) would result in elevated cellular levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids. Our results revealed that paclitaxel, but not cisplatin treatment, caused a dose-dependent elevation of 1-deoxysphingolipids levels and an increase in the message and activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (P < 0.05). We also tested whether there is an association between peripheral neuropathy symptoms [evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-20 (CIPN20) instrument] and the 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels (measured by mass spectrometry) in 27 patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel chemotherapy. Our results showed that there was an association between the incidence and severity of neuropathy and the levels of very-long-chain 1-deoxyceramides such as C24 (P < 0.05), with the strongest association being with motor neuropathy (P < 0.001). Our data from cells and from patients with breast cancer suggest that 1-deoxysphingolipids, the very-long-chain in particular, play a role as molecular intermediates of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.—Kramer, R., Bielawski, J., Kistner-Griffin, E., Othman, A., Alecu, I., Ernst, D., Kornhauser, D., Hornemann, T., Spassieva, S. Neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids and paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26198449

  19. The Effect of Short-term Intra-arterial Delivery of Paclitaxel on Neointimal Hyperplasia and the Local Thrombotic Environment after Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Yajun, E, E-mail: eyj7681@yahoo.com.cn; He Nengshu, E-mail: eyajun@hotmail.com; Fan Hailun, E-mail: mydream510@yahoo.com.cn

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effects of short-term intra-arterial delivery of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia and the local thrombotic environment after angioplasty.MethodsAn experimental common carotid artery injury model was established in 60 rats, which were divided into experimental groups (40 rats) and controls (20 rats). Local intra-arterial administration of paclitaxel was applied at 2 doses (90 and 180 {mu}g/30 {mu}l), and the effects of short-term delivery of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia and the expression of tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were evaluated at days 15 and 30 by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry.ResultsAt 15more » and 30 days after injury, neointimal thickness and area, the ratio of intimal area to medial area and the stenotic rate were all significantly decreased in the group provided the high concentrations (180 {mu}g/30 {mu}l) of paclitaxel for 2 min or 10 min and in the group provided the low concentration (90 {mu}g/30 {mu}l) of paclitaxel for 10 min (p < 0.05). At 30 days after injury, there were no significant changes in TF expression among all experimental groups. PAI-1 expression increased in the neointima of the high concentration 10 min group (p < 0.05), while t-PA expression decreased in the neointima of the high concentration 2 min group (p < 0.05).ConclusionIn the rat common carotid artery injury model, the short-term delivery of paclitaxel could effectively inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in the long term, with very little influence on the local expression of TF and PAI-1.« less

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel versus Solvent-Based Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichansavakul, Kittaya

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the US. Although early detection and treatment help to increase survival rates, some unfortunate patients develop metastatic breast cancer that has no cure. Palliative treatment is the main objective in this group of patients in order to prolong life and reduce toxicities from interventions. In the advancement of treatment for metastatic breast cancer, solvent-based paclitaxel has been widely used. However, solvent-based paclitaxel often causes adverse reactions. Therefore, researchers have developed a new chemotherapy based on nanotechnology. One of these drugs is the Nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel. This nanodrug aims to increase therapeutic index by reducing adverse reactions from solvents and to improve efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Breast cancer is a disease with high epidemiological and economic burden. The treatment of metastatic breast cancer has not only high direct costs but also high indirect costs. Breast cancer affects mass populations, especially women younger than 50 years of age. It relates to high indirect costs due to lost productivity and premature death because the majority of these patients are in the workforce. Because of the high cost of breast cancer therapies and short survival rates, the question is raised whether the costs and benefits are worth paying or not. Due to the rising costs in healthcare and new financing policies that have been developed to address this issue, economic evaluation is an important aspect of the development and use of any new interventions. To guide policy makers on how to allocate limited healthcare resources in the most efficient and effective manner, many economic evaluation methods can be used to measure the costs, benefits, and impacts of healthcare innovations. Currently, economic evaluation and health outcomes studies have focused greatly on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. However, the previous studies

  1. Paclitaxel Drug-Eluting Stents in Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease is a condition in which atherosclerotic plaques partially or completely block blood flow to the legs. Although percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and metallic stenting have high immediate success rates in treating peripheral arterial disease, long-term patency and restenosis rates in long and complex lesions remain unsatisfactory. Objective The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness and budget impact of Zilver paclitaxel self-expanding drug-eluting stents for the treatment of de novo or restenotic lesions in above-the-knee peripheral arterial disease. Data Sources Literature searches were performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews. For the economic review, a search filter was applied to limit search results to economics-related literature. Data sources for the budget impact analysis included expert opinion, published literature, and Ontario administrative data. Review Methods Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies were included in the clinical effectiveness review, and full economic evaluations were included in the economic literature review. Studies were included if they examined the effect of Zilver paclitaxel drug-eluting stents in de novo or restenotic lesions in above-the-knee arteries. For the budget impact analysis, 3 scenarios were constructed based on different assumptions. Results One randomized controlled trial reported a significantly higher patency rate with Zilver paclitaxel drug-eluting stents for lesions ≤ 14 cm than with angioplasty or bare metal stents. One observational study showed no difference in patency rates between Zilver paclitaxel drug-eluting stents and paclitaxel drug-coated balloons. Zilver paclitaxel drug-eluting stents were associated with

  2. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Mahalingam, Sharada, E-mail: mahalin2@illinois.edu; Gao, Liying, E-mail: lgao@uiuc.edu; Gonnering, Marni, E-mail: mgonne2@illinois.edu

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral folliclesmore » isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, and 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Equol exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Equol exposure increases follicle atresia. • Equol exposure inhibits sex steroid hormone levels. • Equol exposure inhibits mRNA levels of certain steroidogenic enzymes.« less

  3. Comparison of oxaliplatin and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy (Alliance A151505).

    PubMed

    Pachman, Deirdre R; Qin, Rui; Seisler, Drew; Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Kaggal, Suneetha; Novotny, Paul; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Lafky, Jacqueline M; Ta, Lauren E; Beutler, Andreas S; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D; Staff, Nathan P; Grothey, Axel; Dougherty, Patrick M; Cavaletti, Guido; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2016-12-01

    Oxaliplatin and paclitaxel are commonly used chemotherapies associated with acute and chronic neuropathies. There is a need to better understand the similarities and differences of these clinical syndromes. Neuropathy data were pooled from patients receiving adjuvant oxaliplatin and weekly paclitaxel or every 3 weeks of paclitaxel. Patients completed daily questionnaires after each chemotherapy dose and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire for patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy before each chemotherapy cycle and for 12 months post-treatment. Acute neuropathy symptoms from both drugs peaked around day 3. Acute symptoms experienced in cycle 1 predicted occurrence in subsequent cycles. Paclitaxel-induced acute symptoms were similar in intensity in each cycle and largely resolved between cycles. Oxaliplatin-induced acute symptoms were about half as severe in the first cycle as in later cycles and did not resolve completely between cycles. Both drugs caused a predominantly sensory chronic neuropathy (with numbness and tingling being more common than pain). Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy worsened after the completion of treatment and began to improve 3 months post-treatment. In contrast, paclitaxel-induced neuropathy began improving immediately after chemotherapy cessation. During treatment, the incidence of paclitaxel sensory symptoms was similar in the hands and feet; with oxaliplatin, the hands were affected more than the feet. Both paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-induced acute neurotoxicity appeared to predict the severity of chronic neuropathy, more prominently with oxaliplatin. Knowledge of the similarities and differences between neuropathy syndromes may provide insight into their underlying pathophysiology and inform future research to identify preventative treatment approaches.

  4. Effect of several compounds on biliary excretion of paclitaxel and its metabolites in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Bun, Sok-Siya; Giacometti, Sarah; Fanciullino, Raphaëlle; Ciccolini, Joseph; Bun, Hot; Aubert, Claude

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo metabolic profile of paclitaxel and to examine the effect of potential co-administered drugs on the biliary secretion of paclitaxel and its metabolites in guinea-pigs. We first investigated in vitro paclitaxel metabolism using liver microsomes obtained from various species to identify the most suitable animal model with a similar metabolism to humans. Then, in vivo paclitaxel metabolism was investigated in male guinea-pigs. The levels of paclitaxel and its metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in bile samples from guinea-pigs after paclitaxel i.v. injection (6 mg/kg). We further evaluated the effects of various drugs (quercetin, ketoconazole, dexamethasone, cotrimoxazole) on the biliary secretion of paclitaxel and its metabolites in guinea-pigs. This work demonstrated significant in vitro interspecies differences in paclitaxel metabolism. Our findings showed both in vitro and in vivo similarities between human and guinea-pig biotransformation of paclitaxel. 6alpha-Hydroxypaclitaxel, the main human metabolite of paclitaxel, was found in guinea-pig bile. After paclitaxel combination with ketoconazole or quercetin in guinea-pigs, the cumulative biliary excretion of paclitaxel and its metabolites up to 6 h was significantly decreased by 62 and 76%, respectively. The co-administration of cotrimoxazole or pretreatment with dexamethasone did not alter significantly cumulative biliary excretion. The guinea-pig is a suitable model to study metabolism and biliary excretion of paclitaxel, and to investigate in vivo drug interactions.

  5. Hemocompatibility of folic-acid-conjugated amphiphilic PEG-PLGA copolymer nanoparticles for co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel: treatment effects for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Zelai; Shi, Zengfang; Sun, Wenjie; Ma, Jing; Xia, Junyong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Chen, Wenjun; Huang, Jingwen

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we used folic-acid-modified poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (FA-PEG-PLGA) to encapsulate cisplatin and paclitaxel (separately or together), and evaluated their antitumor effects against lung cancer; this study was conducted in order to investigate the antitumor effects of the co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel by a targeted drug delivery system. Blood compatibility assays and complement activation tests revealed that FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles did not induce blood hemolysis, blood clotting, or complement activation. The results also indicated that FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles had no biotoxic effects, the drug delivery system allowed controlled release of the cargo molecules, and the co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel efficiently induces cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle retardation. In addition, co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel showed the ability to suppress xenograft lung cancer growth and prolong the survival time of xenografted mice. These results implied that FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles can function as effective carriers of cisplatin and paclitaxel, and that co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel by FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles results in more effective antitumor effects than the combination of free-drugs or single-drug-loaded nanoparticles.

  6. MicroRNA-136 inhibits cancer stem cell activity and enhances the anti-tumor effect of paclitaxel against chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells by targeting Notch3.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ju-Yeon; Kang, Haeyoun; Kim, Tae Hoen; Kim, Gwangil; Heo, Jin-Hyung; Kwon, Ah-Young; Kim, Sewha; Jung, Sang-Geun; An, Hee-Jung

    2017-02-01

    To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating Notch3 expression in association with paclitaxel resistance, candidate miRNAs targeting Notch3 were predicted using TargetScan. We found that miR-136 directly targets Notch3, and miR-136 was significantly downregulated in OSC tissues relative to normal control tissues, and low expression of miR-136 correlated with poor overall in ovarian cancer patients. Artificial miR-136 overexpression significantly reduced cell viability, proliferation, Cancer stem cell (CSC) spheroid formation, and angiogenesis, and increased apoptosis in paclitaxel-resistant SKpac cells compared with the effects of paclitaxel alone. miR-136 overexpression downregulated cell survival- (survivin, DNA-PK, pS6, S6) and cell cycle- (Cyclin D1, NF-κB) related proteins, and anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL2, and BCL-XL), and upregulated pro-apoptotic proteins (Bim, Bid, and Bax). Taken together, miR-136 targets the Notch3 oncogene and functions as a tumor suppressor. miR-136 overexpression resensitized paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells and reduced CSC activities, suggesting a promising new target for the treatment of chemoresistant ovarian cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth rates measured in the presence of several polycarboxyclic acids show that tetrahydrofurantetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA) and cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) are effective growth rate inhibitors at low solution concentrations (0.01 to 1 mg/L). In contrast, linear polycarbocylic acids (citric acid and tricarballylic acid) had no inhibiting effect on calcite growth rates at concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by cyclic polycarboxyclic acids appears to involve blockage of crystal growth sites on the mineral surface by several carboxylate groups. Growth morphology varied for growth in the absence and in the presence of both THFTCA and CPTCA. More effective growth rate reduction by CPTCA relative to THFTCA suggests that inhibitor carboxylate stereochemical orientation controls calcite surface interaction with carboxylate inhibitors. ?? 20O1 Academic Press.

  8. Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT(1A) receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sara Jane; McAllister, Sean D; Kawamura, Rumi; Murase, Ryuchi; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen A

    2014-02-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) is associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CIPN) that can lead to the cessation of treatment in cancer patients even in the absence of alternate therapies. We previously reported that chronic administration of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) prevents PAC-induced mechanical and thermal sensitivity in mice. Hence, we sought to determine receptor mechanisms by which CBD inhibits CIPN and whether CBD negatively effects nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. The ability of acute CBD pretreatment to prevent PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was assessed, as was the effect of CBD on place conditioning and on an operant-conditioned learning and memory task. The potential interaction of CBD and PAC on breast cancer cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was prevented by administration of CBD (2.5 - 10 mg·kg⁻¹) in female C57Bl/6 mice. This effect was reversed by co-administration of the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY 100635, but not the CB₁ antagonist SR141716 or the CB₂ antagonist SR144528. CBD produced no conditioned rewarding effects and did not affect conditioned learning and memory. Also, CBD + PAC combinations produce additive to synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Our data suggest that CBD is protective against PAC-induced neurotoxicity mediated in part by the 5-HT(1A) receptor system. Furthermore, CBD treatment was devoid of conditioned rewarding effects or cognitive impairment and did not attenuate PAC-induced inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Hence, adjunct treatment with CBD during PAC chemotherapy may be safe and effective in the prevention or attenuation of CIPN. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Phase I/II dose-finding study of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab®-Paclitaxel) plus Cisplatin as Treatment for Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Liang, Wenhua; Yang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Liping; Zhao, Hongyun; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Li

    2016-07-13

    This phase I/II study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab (®)-paclitaxel) plus cisplatin as treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients were enrolled into 1 of 3 dose cohorts, each with 21-day treatment cycles: 1) intravenous (IV) nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) on day 1; 2) IV nab-paclitaxel 140 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8; 3) IV nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15. All patients received IV cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1. Treatment continued for 4-6 cycles, or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. If more than one-third of the patients in a cohort experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), the dose used in the previous cohort would be designated the MTD. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression was detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 64 and 67 were eligible for efficacy and safety analysis, respectively. Two DLTs occurred in cohort 1 (grade 4 febrile neutropenia, grade 3 myalgia), none occurred in cohort 2, and 2 occurred in cohort 3 (both grade 3 fatigue). The MTD was not reached. Partial responses were achieved by 42 patients, 15 had stable disease, and 7 had progressive disease, giving an overall response rate of 66 %. Median progression-free survival was 9 months (95 % CI, 6-12 months). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were mainly hematologic. There was no significant difference between the 3 cohorts with respect to efficacy or safety. Biomarker analyses indicated that stromal, rather than tumoral, SPARC may predict the response to nab-paclitaxel in NPC. Our findings suggest that nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin is a highly active regimen with moderate toxicity for the treatment of metastatic NPC, which warrants further investigation in a phase III study. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01735409 . The trial was registered on November 20th, 2012.

  10. Metastatic melanoma cells with BRAF G469A mutation: nab-paclitaxel better than vemurafenib?

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Letizia; Guida, Gabriella; Tommasi, Stefania; Guida, Michele; Azzariti, Amalia

    2015-08-01

    BRAF G469A is a missense mutation within exon 11 of the BRAF gene resulting in a constitutively activated enzyme frequently associated with MAP kinase cascade signaling activation. No evidence currently exists about its role in determining sensitivity/resistance to BRAF inhibitors, utilized in the treatment of patients carrying BRAF V600 mutations, and to chemotherapy. The newly established metastatic melanoma (MM) cell line MO-1 was characterized for its sensitivity to vemurafenib and nab-paclitaxel, both already utilized for the treatment of MM. All analyses were carried out by comparing results with those found in MM cells wild type for BRAF or mutated in V600. In addition, cellular effectors were investigated by ELISA kits, western blotting and flow cytometry. The exposure to vemurafenib inhibited MO-1 cell proliferation at concentrations similar to those obtained in vemurafenib-resistant melanoma models, and an explanation of this sensitivity is the strong activation of Erk1/2 and the low expression of MITF. Nab-paclitaxel strongly reduced proliferation of MO-1 cells perhaps for the very low expression level of PMEL17, transcriptionally regulated by MITF and negatively involved in determining sensitivity to taxanes. Thus, the mutation BRAF G469A in MM might be related to a weak effectiveness of therapy with BRAF inhibitors and a promising therapeutic approach may be with nab-paclitaxel.

  11. Nutraceutical phycocyanin nanoformulation for efficient drug delivery of paclitaxel in human glioblastoma U87MG cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Madhunika; Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar; Agrawal, Satyam Kumar; Karmakar, Surajit

    2017-08-01

    To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy on glioblastoma U87MG cell line, paclitaxel-loaded phycocyanin nanoparticles (PTX-PcNPs) were prepared by modified desolvation process. PTX-PcNPs were characterised in terms of size, zeta potential, drug loading efficiency and drug release. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed PTX-PcNPs could be internalised by U87MG cells. The anti-cancer activity was investigated in vitro by 3-(4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with and without photodynamic therapy. It was observed that formulation could significantly inhibit growth of U87MG cells as compared to PTX alone and also induced apoptosis, which was evidenced by presence of apoptotic bodies and nuclear fragmentation in treated cells. The present study suggests that PTX-PcNPs can act as a promising drug delivery system for cancer treatment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. [Mucopenetrating nanoparticles: vehicles for the oral administration of paclitaxel].

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, V; Calleja, P; Espuelas, S; Corrales, L; Pío, R; Agüeros, M; Irache, J M

    2013-03-01

    Paclitaxel is an anticancer drug used as solution for perfusion for the treatment of certain types of cancers. In the last years, a number of strategies have been proposed for the development of an oral formulation of this drug. However, this task is quite complicated due to the poor aqueous solubility of paclitaxel as well as the fact that this compound is substrate of the intestinal P-glycoprotein and the cytochrome P450 enzymatic complex. In this work, we have developed pegylated nanoparticles with mucopenetrating properties in order to conduct paclitaxel onto the surface of the enterocyte. These nanoparticles displayed a size of about 180 nm and a drug loading close to 15% by weight. The pharmacokinetic study in mice has shown that these nanoparticles were capable to offer therapeutic plasma levels of paclitaxel up to 72 hours. In addition, the oral relative bioavailability of paclitaxel when loaded in nanoparticles pegylated with poly(ethylene glycol) 2000 (PEG) was found to be 85%. In a subcutaneous model of tumour in mice, these pegylated nanoparticles administered orally every 3 days have demonstrated a similar efficacy than Taxol® administered intravenously every day during 9 days. All of these results suggested that these pegylated nanoparticles were capable to cross the mucus layer of the gut and, then, reach the surface of the enterocytes. The PEG molecules would facilitate the adhesion of nanoparticles to this epithelial surface, minimise the pre-systemic metabolism of paclitaxel and, thus, promote its absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids and paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Rita; Bielawski, Jacek; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Othman, Alaa; Alecu, Irina; Ernst, Daniela; Kornhauser, Drew; Hornemann, Thorsten; Spassieva, Stefka

    2015-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In the current study, we tested the involvement of a novel class of neurotoxic sphingolipids, the 1-deoxysphingolipids. 1-Deoxysphingolipids are produced when the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase uses l-alanine instead of l-serine as its amino acid substrate. We tested whether treatment of cells with paclitaxel (250 nM, 1 µM) and cisplatin (250 nM, 1 µM) would result in elevated cellular levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids. Our results revealed that paclitaxel, but not cisplatin treatment, caused a dose-dependent elevation of 1-deoxysphingolipids levels and an increase in the message and activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (P < 0.05). We also tested whether there is an association between peripheral neuropathy symptoms [evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-20 (CIPN20) instrument] and the 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels (measured by mass spectrometry) in 27 patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel chemotherapy. Our results showed that there was an association between the incidence and severity of neuropathy and the levels of very-long-chain 1-deoxyceramides such as C24 (P < 0.05), with the strongest association being with motor neuropathy (P < 0.001). Our data from cells and from patients with breast cancer suggest that 1-deoxysphingolipids, the very-long-chain in particular, play a role as molecular intermediates of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. © FASEB.

  14. Hsp90 Inhibition Results in Glucocorticoid Receptor Degradation in Association with Increased Sensitivity to Paclitaxel in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Abena S; Jun, Wesley J; Proia, David A; Kim, Caroline R; Skor, Maxwell N; Kocherginsky, Masha; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2016-04-01

    Targetable molecular drivers for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have been difficult to identify; therefore, standard treatment remains limited to conventional chemotherapy. Recently, new-generation small-molecule Hsp90 inhibitors (e.g., ganetespib and NVP-AUY922) have demonstrated improved safety and activity profiles over the first-generation ansamycin class. In breast cancer, clinical responses have been observed in a subset of TNBC patients following ganetespib monotherapy; however, the underlying biology of Hsp90 inhibitor treatment and tumor response is not well understood. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity in TNBC is associated with chemotherapy resistance. Here, we find that treatment of TNBC cell lines with ganetespib resulted in GR degradation and decreased GR-mediated gene expression. Ganetespib-associated GR degradation also sensitized TNBC cells to paclitaxel-induced cell death both in vitro and in vivo. The beneficial effect of the Hsp90 inhibitor on paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity was reduced when GR was depleted in TNBC cells but could be recovered with GR overexpression. These findings suggest that GR-regulated anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative signaling networks in TNBC are disrupted by Hsp90 inhibitors, thereby sensitizing TNBC to paclitaxel-induced cell death. Thus, GR+ TNBC patients may be a subgroup of breast cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from adding an Hsp90 inhibitor to taxane therapy.

  15. A proof-of-concept trial of protein kinase C iota inhibition with auranofin for the paclitaxel-induced acute pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jatoi, Aminah; Grudem, Megan E; Dockter, Travis J; Block, Matthew S; Villasboas, Jose C; Tan, Angelina; Deering, Erin; Kasi, Pashtoon M; Mansfield, Aaron S; Botero, Juliana Perez; Okuno, Scott H; Smith, Deanne R; Fields, Alan P

    2017-03-01

    Paclitaxel causes the paclitaxel-induced acute pain (PIAP) syndrome. Based on preclinical data, we hypothesized that the protein kinase C (PKC) iota inhibitor, auranofin (a gold salt used for other pain conditions), palliates this pain. In a randomized, double-blinded manner, patients who had suffered this syndrome were assigned a one-time dose of auranofin 6 mg orally on day #2 of the chemotherapy cycle (post-paclitaxel) versus placebo. Patients completed the Brief Pain Inventory and a pain diary on days 2 through 8 and at the end of the cycle. The primary endpoint was pain scores, as calculated by area under the curve, in response to "Please rate your pain by circling the one number that best describes your pain at its worse in the last 24 hours." Thirty patients were enrolled. For the primary endpoint, mean area under the curve of 55 units (standard deviation 19) and 61 units (standard deviation 22) were observed in auranofin-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.44). On day 8 and at the end of the cycle, pain scores in auranofin-treated patients were more favorable, although differences were not statistically significant. In the dose schedule studied, auranofin did not palliate the PIAP syndrome, but delayed beneficial trends suggest further study for this indication.

  16. EphA2 silencing in nasopharyngeal carcinoma leads to decreased proliferation, invasion and increased sensitization to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    TAN, PINGQING; LIU, YONG; YU, CHANGYUN; SU, ZHONGWU; LI, GUO; ZHOU, XIAOJUAN; HUANG, DONGHAI; ZHANG, XIN; QIU, YUANZHENG; TIAN, YONGQUAN

    2012-01-01

    EphA2 is frequently overexpressed and functionally altered in a variety of human cancers. However, its roles in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. To investigate the roles of EphA2 in the development and progression of NPC, we initially evaluated the expression pattern of EphA2 protein in NPC tissues using western blotting and CCK-8 assay. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and invasion assay were conducted to observe the effects of EphA2 inhibition in vivo. Our results demonstrated that EphA2 was overexpressed in NPC specimens and the expression of EphA2 was significantly associated with T classification, advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, human NPC 5-8F cells were infected with lentiviral vector-mediated EphA2-specific shRNA, which resulted in the significant inhibition of cell growth, invasion of 5-8F cells and markedly enhanced the sensitivity of 5-8F cells to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel in vitro. Collectively, our results demonstrate that EphA2 is involved in malignant cell behavior and is a potential therapeutic target in human NPC. PMID:23741245

  17. Phase II study of paclitaxel given once per week along with trastuzumab and pertuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chau; Iyengar, Neil; Datko, Farrah; D'Andrea, Gabriella; Theodoulou, Maria; Dickler, Maura; Goldfarb, Shari; Lake, Diana; Fasano, Julie; Fornier, Monica; Gilewski, Theresa; Modi, Shanu; Gajria, Devika; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Hamilton, Nicola; Patil, Sujata; Jochelson, Maxine; Norton, Larry; Baselga, Jose; Hudis, Clifford

    2015-02-10

    The CLEOPATRA (Clinical Evaluation of Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab) study demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival when pertuzumab was added to trastuzumab and docetaxel. Paclitaxel given once per week is effective and less toxic than docetaxel. We performed a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab and trastuzumab with paclitaxel given once per week. Patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer with zero to one prior therapy were enrolled. Treatment consisted of paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) once per week plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose → 6 mg/kg) once every 3 weeks plus pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose → 420 mg) once every 3 weeks, all given intravenously. The primary end point was 6-month PFS assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods. From January 2011 to December 2013, we enrolled 69 patients: 51 (74%) and 18 (26%) treated in first- and second-line metastatic settings, respectively. At a median follow-up of 21 months (range, 3 to 38 months), 6-month PFS was 86% (95% CI, 75% to 92%). The median PFS was 19.5 months (95% CI, 14 to 26 months) overall. PFS was 24.2 months (95% CI, 14 months to not reached [NR]) and 16.4 months (95% CI, 8.5 months to NR) for those without and with prior treatment, respectively. At 1 year, Kaplan-Meier PFS was 70% (95% CI, 56% to 79%) overall, 71% (95% CI, 55% to 82%) for those without prior therapy, and 66% (95% CI, 40% to 83%) for those with prior therapy. Treatment was well-tolerated; there was no febrile neutropenia or symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Paclitaxel given once per week with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is highly active and well tolerated and seems to be an effective alternative to docetaxel-based combination therapy. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced cardio-toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Ahsan, Sima; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh; Cheraghi, Hadi; Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Janbaz-Acyabar, Hamed

    2016-02-01

    Paclitaxel is a potent chemotherapy agent with severe side effects, including allergic reactions, cardiovascular problems, complete hair loss, joint and muscle pain, which may limit its use and lower its efficiency. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly was investigated on paclitaxel-induced damages. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups (n=8). The test group was assigned into five subgroups; 4 groups, along with paclitaxel administration (7.5 mg/kg BW, weekly), received various doses of royal jelly (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW) for 28 consecutive days. The last group received only royal jelly at 100 mg/kg. In addition to oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers, the creatine kinase (CK-BM) level was also determined. To show the cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced damages, histopathological examinations were conducted. Royal jelly lowered the paclitaxel-elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in the heart. Royal jelly could also remarkably reduce the paclitaxel-induced cardiac biomarker of creatine kinase (CK-BM) level and pathological injuries such as diffused edema, hemorrhage, congestion, hyaline exudates, and necrosis. Moreover, royal jelly administration in a dose-dependent manner resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in the paclitaxel-reduced total antioxidant capacity. Our data suggest that the paclitaxel-induced histopathological and biochemical alterations could be protected by the royal jelly administration. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly may be related to the suppression of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  19. Biocatalysis of a Paclitaxel Analogue: Conversion of Baccatin III to N-Debenzoyl-N-(2-furoyl)paclitaxel and Characterization of an Amino Phenylpropanoyl CoA Transferase.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Chelsea K; Walter, Tyler; Walker, Kevin D

    2017-11-07

    In this study, we demonstrate an enzyme cascade reaction using a benzoate CoA ligase (BadA), a modified nonribosomal peptide synthase (PheAT), a phenylpropanoyltransferase (BAPT), and a benzoyltransferase (NDTNBT) to produce an anticancer paclitaxel analogue and its precursor from the commercially available biosynthetic intermediate baccatin III. BAPT and NDTNBT are acyltransferases on the biosynthetic pathway to the antineoplastic drug paclitaxel in Taxus plants. For this study, we addressed the recalcitrant expression of BAPT by expressing it as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-BAPT). Further, the preparative-scale in vitro biocatalysis of phenylisoserinyl CoA using PheAT enabled thorough kinetic analysis of MBP-BAPT, for the first time, with the cosubstrate baccatin III. The turnover rate of MBP-BAPT was calculated for the product N-debenzoylpaclitaxel, a key intermediate to various bioactive paclitaxel analogues. MBP-BAPT also converted, albeit more slowly, 10-deacetylbaccatin III to N-deacyldocetaxel, a precursor of the pharmaceutical docetaxel. With PheAT available to make phenylisoserinyl CoA and kinetic characterization of MBP-BAPT, we used Michaelis-Menten parameters of the four enzymes to adjust catalyst and substrate loads in a 200-μL one-pot reaction. This multienzyme network produced a paclitaxel analogue N-debenzoyl-N-(2-furoyl)paclitaxel (230 ng) that is more cytotoxic than paclitaxel against certain macrophage cell types. Also in this pilot reaction, the versatile N-debenzoylpaclitaxel intermediate was made at an amount 20-fold greater than the N-(2-furoyl) product. This reaction network has great potential for optimization to scale-up production and is attractive in its regioselective O- and N-acylation steps that remove protecting group manipulations used in paclitaxel analogue synthesis.

  20. Development of New Lipid-Based Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Using Sequential Simplex Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael; Cho, Moo; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to develop Cremophor-free lipid-based paclitaxel (PX) nanoparticle formulations prepared from warm microemulsion precursors. To identify and optimize new nanoparticles, experimental design was performed combining Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization. The combination of Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization efficiently directed the design of paclitaxel nanoparticles. Two optimized paclitaxel nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained: G78 NPs composed of glyceryl tridodecanoate (GT) and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78), and BTM NPs composed of Miglyol 812, Brij 78 and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). Both nanoparticles successfully entrapped paclitaxel at a final concentration of 150 μg/ml (over 6% drug loading) with particle sizes less than 200 nm and over 85% of entrapment efficiency. These novel paclitaxel nanoparticles were stable at 4°C over three months and in PBS at 37°C over 102 hours as measured by physical stability. Release of paclitaxel was slow and sustained without initial burst release. Cytotoxicity studies in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells showed that both nanoparticles have similar anticancer activities compared to Taxol®. Interestingly, PX BTM nanocapsules could be lyophilized without cryoprotectants. The lyophilized powder comprised only of PX BTM NPs in water could be rapidly rehydrated with complete retention of original physicochemical properties, in-vitro release properties, and cytotoxicity profile. Sequential Simplex Optimization has been utilized to identify promising new lipid-based paclitaxel nanoparticles having useful attributes. PMID:19111929

  1. Controlled release of paclitaxel from a self-assembling peptide hydrogel formed in situ and antitumor study in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingping; Zhang, Lanlan; Yang, Zehong; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Background A nanoscale injectable in situ-forming hydrogel drug delivery system was developed in this study. The system was based on a self-assembling peptide RADA16 solution, which can spontaneously form a hydrogel rapidly under physiological conditions. We used the RADA16 hydrogel for the controlled release of paclitaxel (PTX), a hydrophobic antitumor drug. Methods The RADA16-PTX suspension was prepared simply by magnetic stirring, followed by atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism analysis, dynamic light scattering, rheological analysis, an in vitro release assay, and a cell viability test. Results The results indicated that RADA16 and PTX can interact with each other and that the amphiphilic peptide was able to stabilize hydrophobic drugs in aqueous solution. The particle size of PTX was markedly decreased in the RADA16 solution compared with its size in water. The RADA16-PTX suspension could form a hydrogel in culture medium, and the elasticity of the hydrogel showed a positive correlation with peptide concentration. In vitro release measurements indicated that hydrogels with a higher peptide concentration had a longer half-release time. The RADA16-PTX hydrogel could effectively inhibit the growth of the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-435S, in vitro, and hydrogels with higher peptide concentrations were more effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. The RADA16-PTX hydrogel was effective at controlling the release of PTX and inhibiting tumor cell growth in vitro. Conclusion Self-assembling peptide hydrogels may work well as a system for drug delivery. PMID:22114478

  2. Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, Patrick M; Merriman, Joseph A; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Mueller, Elizabeth A; Spaulding, Adam R; Vu, Bao G; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N; Kohler, Petra L; Kirby, John R

    2013-11-01

    Gram-positive bacteria cause serious human illnesses through combinations of cell surface and secreted virulence factors. We initiated studies with four of these organisms to develop novel topical antibacterial agents that interfere with growth and exotoxin production, focusing on menaquinone analogs. Menadione, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and coenzymes Q1 to Q3 but not menaquinone, phylloquinone, or coenzyme Q10 inhibited the growth and to a greater extent exotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae at concentrations of 10 to 200 μg/ml. Coenzyme Q1 reduced the ability of S. aureus to cause toxic shock syndrome in a rabbit model, inhibited the growth of four Gram-negative bacteria, and synergized with another antimicrobial agent, glycerol monolaurate, to inhibit S. aureus growth. The staphylococcal two-component system SrrA/B was shown to be an antibacterial target of coenzyme Q1. We hypothesize that menaquinone analogs both induce toxic reactive oxygen species and affect bacterial plasma membranes and biosynthetic machinery to interfere with two-component systems, respiration, and macromolecular synthesis. These compounds represent a novel class of potential topical therapeutic agents.

  3. Overexpression of centrosomal protein Nlp confers breast carcinoma resistance to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weihong; Song, Yongmei; Xu, Binghe; Zhan, Qimin

    2012-02-01

    Nlp (ninein-like protein), an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis and its abnormal expression was recently observed in human breast and lung cancers. In this study, the correlation between overexpression of Nlp and paclitaxel chemosensitivity was investigated to explore the mechanisms of resistance to paclitaxel and to understand the effect of Nlp upon apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Nlp expression vector was stably transfected into breast cancer MCF-7 cells. With Nlp overexpression, the survival rates, cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were analyzed in transfected MCF-7 cells by MTT test and FCM approach. The immunofluorescent assay was employed to detect the changes of microtubule after paclitaxel treatment. Immunoblotting analysis was used to examine expression of centrosomal proteins and apoptosis associated proteins. Subsequently, Nlp expression was retrospectively examined with 55 breast cancer samples derived from paclitaxel treated patients. Interestingly, the survival rates of MCF-7 cells with Nlp overexpressing were higher than that of control after paclitaxel treatment. Nlp overexpression promoted G2-M arrest and attenuated apoptosis induced by paclitaxel, which was coupled with elevated Bcl-2 protein. Nlp expression significantly lessened the microtubule polymerization and bundling elicited by paclitaxel attributing to alteration on the structure or dynamics of β-tubulin but not on its expression. The breast cancer patients with high expression of Nlp were likely resistant to the treatment of paclitaxel, as the response rate in Nlp negative patients was 62.5%, whereas was 58.3 and 15.8% in Nlp (+) and Nlp (++) patients respectively (p = 0.015). Nlp expression was positive correlated with those of Plk1 and PCNA. These findings provide insights into more rational chemotherapeutic regimens in clinical practice, and more effective approaches might be

  4. Paclitaxel: a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, M; Plosker, G L

    2001-01-01

    Paclitaxel belongs to the group of antitumour agents called the taxanes. Its efficacy in advanced ovarian cancer has been established in large, randomised phase III clinical trials. When used in combination with cisplatin for first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer, it is superior to cyclophosphamide/cisplatin, with gains in median survival of around 1 year. Paclitaxel plus carboplatin has similar efficacy to paclitaxel plus cisplatin. There is now consensus that paclitaxel plus either carboplatin or cisplatin is the recommended first-line therapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. The particular combination employed may vary between institutions and geographical regions, although paclitaxel plus carboplatin is generally better tolerated (i.e. lower incidence of non-haematological adverse events) than paclitaxel plus cisplatin and is widely used in many countries. Paclitaxel is also used as monotherapy in second-line (salvage) treatment of ovarian cancer. Pharmacoeconomic analyses performed to date have primarily focused on first-line therapy comparing the combination of paclitaxel/cisplatin with cyclophosphamide/cisplatin. All studies incorporated clinical outcomes data, most commonly from the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 111 trial, showing a survival advantage for paclitaxel/cisplatin. These studies report incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) ranging from $US 6395 per additional life-year gained (LYG) in Spain (1995/96 values) to $US 44,690 per additional progression-free LYG in France (year of costs not reported). Five studies were based in the US and Canada and these reported very similar ICERs of $US 13,135 (year of costs not reported) to $US 25,131 (1993 costs) per additional LYG. In all of these studies the incremental costs of paclitaxel/cisplatin therapy fall well within the commonly cited threshold limit of $US 50,000 for new therapies and compare well with incremental costs reported for other oncological and life

  5. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and geneticmore » silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.« less

  6. Cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced cardio-toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Ahsan, Sima; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh; Cheraghi, Hadi; Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Janbaz-Acyabar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Paclitaxel is a potent chemotherapy agent with severe side effects, including allergic reactions, cardiovascular problems, complete hair loss, joint and muscle pain, which may limit its use and lower its efficiency. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly was investigated on paclitaxel-induced damages. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups (n=8). The test group was assigned into five subgroups; 4 groups, along with paclitaxel administration (7.5 mg/kg BW, weekly), received various doses of royal jelly (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW) for 28 consecutive days. The last group received only royal jelly at 100 mg/kg. In addition to oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers, the creatine kinase (CK-BM) level was also determined. To show the cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced damages, histopathological examinations were conducted. Results: Royal jelly lowered the paclitaxel-elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in the heart. Royal jelly could also remarkably reduce the paclitaxel-induced cardiac biomarker of creatine kinase (CK-BM) level and pathological injuries such as diffused edema, hemorrhage, congestion, hyaline exudates, and necrosis. Moreover, royal jelly administration in a dose-dependent manner resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in the paclitaxel-reduced total antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the paclitaxel-induced histopathological and biochemical alterations could be protected by the royal jelly administration. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly may be related to the suppression of oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:27081469

  7. Evaluation of safety in clinical use of generic paclitaxel [NK] for injection.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Hotta, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Onishi, Masahumi; Toyama, Yukio; Saito, Hiroko; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Hasegawa, Takaaki

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of generic drugs is a favored strategy in reducing medical costs, but some clinicians are often reluctant to use them because of lack of information with regard to their side effects. Generic paclitaxel [NK] differs from the proprietary version, Taxol®, in containing added citric acid and a more pure form of castor oil. However, little information exists regarding the effects of these additives on adverse events such as vascular pain, phlebitis, hypersensitivity and hepatic dysfunction. To compensate for this lack of information and to validate the safety of using generic paclitaxel, we investigated adverse events in response to generic paclitaxel [NK]. Our investigation focused on patients treated with both the proprietary formulation (Taxol® for injection) and the generic version(paclitaxel [NK] for injection)sequentially from April 2008 to March 2009. Adverse events were investigated retrospectively. Incidence of vascular pain, phlebitis and hypersensitivity was similar to that with the original product. Although the expression of some liver enzymes was slightly increased and some gastrointestinal events were reduced following generic paclitaxel [NK] treatment there was no statistically significant difference. The profiles of other adverse events were not significantly different. Increased vascular pain and phlebitis, predicted due to low pH conditions caused by citric acid, were not observed. Similarly, the pure castor oil included in generic paclitaxel [NK] did not influence hypersensitivity and hepatic function. We found no significant differences in our study of proprietary and generic paclitaxel [NK]. Thus, clinicians have no reason for prejudice against using generic paclitaxel [NK] on the basis of increased risk of side effects.

  8. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; ...

    2015-11-06

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 10 8 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 10 8 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). In conclusion, this rapid reportmore » provides the first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic.« less

  9. Prevention of 5-Fluorouracil-Caused Growth Inhibition in Sordaria fimicola

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Howard F.; Berech, John

    1977-01-01

    Growth (dry weight accumulation) of Sordaria fimicola in standing liquid culture (sucrose-nitrate-salts-vitamins) is inhibited by the presence of 5 μM 5-fluorouracil in the medium. This inhibition is completely prevented by uracil, deoxyuridine, and 5-bromouracil, partly prevented (40 to 90% of growth observed without 5-fluorouracil) by uridine, thymidine, and 5-bromodeoxyuridine, and slightly prevented by trifluorothymine, cytosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, and 5-methylcytosine (all at 0.5 to 1 mM). Thymidine and thymine riboside were without any apparent effect. Growth is also inhibited by 0.2 mM 6-azauracil, and this inhibition was completely prevented by uracil and uridine, partly prevented by deoxyuridine, 5-bromouracil, cytidine, and 5-methylcytosine, and slightly prevented by thymine, thymidine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, cytosine, and deoxycytidine. The data suggest that the observed inhibition of growth by 5-fluorouracil is due to inhibition of both ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. The data also allow inferences concerning pyrimidine interconversions in S. fimicola; i.e., thymine can be anabolized to thymidylic acid without first being demethylated, although demethylation appears to occur also. PMID:848926

  10. Prevention of 5-fluorouracil-caused growth inhibition in Sordaria fimicola.

    PubMed

    Schoen, H F; Berech, J

    1977-02-01

    Growth (dry weight accumulation) of Sordaria fimicola in standing liquid culture (sucrose-nitrate-salts-vitamins) is inhibited by the presence of 5 muM 5-fluorouracil in the medium. This inhibition is completely prevented by uracil, deoxyuridine, and 5-bromouracil, partly prevented (40 to 90% of growth observed without 5-fluorouracil) by uridine, thymidine, and 5-bromodeoxyuridine, and slightly prevented by trifluorothymine, cytosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, and 5-methylcytosine (all at 0.5 to 1 mM). Thymidine and thymine riboside were without any apparent effect. Growth is also inhibited by 0.2 mM 6-azauracil, and this inhibition was completely prevented by uracil and uridine, partly prevented by deoxyuridine, 5-bromouracil, cytidine, and 5-methylcytosine, and slightly prevented by thymine, thymidine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, cytosine, and deoxycytidine. The data suggest that the observed inhibition of growth by 5-fluorouracil is due to inhibition of both ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. The data also allow inferences concerning pyrimidine interconversions in S. fimicola; i.e., thymine can be anabolized to thymidylic acid without first being demethylated, although demethylation appears to occur also.

  11. Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT1A receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Sara Jane; McAllister, Sean D; Kawamura, Rumi; Murase, Ryuchi; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Paclitaxel (PAC) is associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CIPN) that can lead to the cessation of treatment in cancer patients even in the absence of alternate therapies. We previously reported that chronic administration of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) prevents PAC-induced mechanical and thermal sensitivity in mice. Hence, we sought to determine receptor mechanisms by which CBD inhibits CIPN and whether CBD negatively effects nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. Experimental Approach The ability of acute CBD pretreatment to prevent PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was assessed, as was the effect of CBD on place conditioning and on an operant-conditioned learning and memory task. The potential interaction of CBD and PAC on breast cancer cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Key Results PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was prevented by administration of CBD (2.5 – 10 mg·kg−1) in female C57Bl/6 mice. This effect was reversed by co-administration of the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635, but not the CB1 antagonist SR141716 or the CB2 antagonist SR144528. CBD produced no conditioned rewarding effects and did not affect conditioned learning and memory. Also, CBD + PAC combinations produce additive to synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Conclusions and Implications Our data suggest that CBD is protective against PAC-induced neurotoxicity mediated in part by the 5-HT1A receptor system. Furthermore, CBD treatment was devoid of conditioned rewarding effects or cognitive impairment and did not attenuate PAC-induced inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Hence, adjunct treatment with CBD during PAC chemotherapy may be safe and effective in the prevention or attenuation of CIPN. PMID:24117398

  12. Phase II Study of Paclitaxel Given Once per Week Along With Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab in Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Chau; Iyengar, Neil; Datko, Farrah; D'Andrea, Gabriella; Theodoulou, Maria; Dickler, Maura; Goldfarb, Shari; Lake, Diana; Fasano, Julie; Fornier, Monica; Gilewski, Theresa; Modi, Shanu; Gajria, Devika; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Hamilton, Nicola; Patil, Sujata; Jochelson, Maxine; Norton, Larry; Baselga, Jose; Hudis, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The CLEOPATRA (Clinical Evaluation of Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab) study demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival when pertuzumab was added to trastuzumab and docetaxel. Paclitaxel given once per week is effective and less toxic than docetaxel. We performed a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab and trastuzumab with paclitaxel given once per week. Patients and Methods Patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer with zero to one prior therapy were enrolled. Treatment consisted of paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 once per week plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose → 6 mg/kg) once every 3 weeks plus pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose → 420 mg) once every 3 weeks, all given intravenously. The primary end point was 6-month PFS assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods. Results From January 2011 to December 2013, we enrolled 69 patients: 51 (74%) and 18 (26%) treated in first- and second-line metastatic settings, respectively. At a median follow-up of 21 months (range, 3 to 38 months), 6-month PFS was 86% (95% CI, 75% to 92%). The median PFS was 19.5 months (95% CI, 14 to 26 months) overall. PFS was 24.2 months (95% CI, 14 months to not reached [NR]) and 16.4 months (95% CI, 8.5 months to NR) for those without and with prior treatment, respectively. At 1 year, Kaplan-Meier PFS was 70% (95% CI, 56% to 79%) overall, 71% (95% CI, 55% to 82%) for those without prior therapy, and 66% (95% CI, 40% to 83%) for those with prior therapy. Treatment was well-tolerated; there was no febrile neutropenia or symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Conclusion Paclitaxel given once per week with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is highly active and well tolerated and seems to be an effective alternative to docetaxel-based combination therapy. PMID:25547504

  13. The co-solvent Cremophor EL limits absorption of orally administered paclitaxel in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Malingré, M M; Schellens, J H; Van Tellingen, O; Ouwehand, M; Bardelmeijer, H A; Rosing, H; Koopman, F J; Schot, M E; Ten Bokkel Huinink, W W; Beijnen, J H

    2001-11-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the co-solvents Cremophor EL and polysorbate 80 on the absorption of orally administered paclitaxel. 6 patients received in a randomized setting, one week apart oral paclitaxel 60 mg m(-2) dissolved in polysorbate 80 or Cremophor EL. For 3 patients the amount of Cremophor EL was 5 ml m(-2), for the other three 15 ml m(-2). Prior to paclitaxel administration patients received 15 mg kg(-1) oral cyclosporin A to enhance the oral absorption of the drug. Paclitaxel formulated in polysorbate 80 resulted in a significant increase in the maximal concentration (C(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of paclitaxel in comparison with the Cremophor EL formulations (P = 0.046 for both parameters). When formulated in Cremophor EL 15 ml m(-2), paclitaxel C(max) and AUC values were 0.10 +/- 0.06 microM and 1.29 +/- 0.99 microM h(-1), respectively, whereas these values were 0.31 +/- 0.06 microM and 2.61 +/- 1.54 microM h(-1), respectively, when formulated in polysorbate 80. Faecal data revealed a decrease in excretion of unchanged paclitaxel for the polysorbate 80 formulation compared to the Cremophor EL formulations. The amount of paclitaxel excreted in faeces was significantly correlated with the amount of Cremophor EL excreted in faeces (P = 0.019). When formulated in Cremophor EL 15 ml m(-2), paclitaxel excretion in faeces was 38.8 +/- 13.0% of the administered dose, whereas this value was 18.3 +/-15.5% for the polysorbate 80 formulation. The results show that the co-solvent Cremophor EL is an important factor limiting the absorption of orally administered paclitaxel from the intestinal lumen. They highlight the need for designing a better drug formulation in order to increase the usefulness of the oral route of paclitaxel

  14. Paclitaxel: a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Plosker, G L; Hurst, M

    2001-01-01

    A number of first-line chemotherapy options for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are advocated in treatment guidelines and/or by various clinical investigators. Platinum-based chemotherapy has clearly demonstrated efficacy in patients with advanced NSCLC and is generally recommended as first-line therapy, although there is increasing interest in the use of non-platinum chemotherapy regimens. Among the platinum-based combinations currently used in clinical practice are regimens such as cisplatin or carboplatin combined with paclitaxel, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, docetaxel or irinotecan. The particular combinations employed may vary between institutions and geographical regions. Several pharmacoeconomic analyses have been conducted on paclitaxel in NSCLC and most have focused on its use in combination with cisplatin. In terms of clinical efficacy, paclitaxel-cisplatin combinations achieved significantly higher response rates than teniposide plus cisplatin or etoposide plus cisplatin (previously thought to be among the more effective regimens available) in two large randomised trials. One of these studies showed a survival advantage for paclitaxel plus cisplatin [with or without a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)] compared with etoposide plus cisplatin. A Canadian cost-effectiveness analysis incorporated data from one of the large randomised comparative trials and showed that the incremental cost per life-year saved for outpatient administration of paclitaxel plus cisplatin versus etoposide plus cisplatin was $US 22181 (30619 Canadian dollars; $Can) [1997 costs]. A European analysis incorporated data from the other large randomised study and showed slightly higher costs per responder for paclitaxel plus cisplatin than for teniposide plus cisplatin in The Netherlands ($US 30769 vs $US 29592) and Spain ($US 19 923 vs $US 19724) but lower costs per responder in Belgium ($US 22852 vs $US 25000) and France ($US28 080 vs $US 34747) [1995

  15. Characterization of acquired paclitaxel resistance of breast cancer cells and involvement of ABC transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta, E-mail: vlasta.furstova@

    Development of taxane resistance has become clinically very important issue. The molecular mechanisms underlying the resistance are still unclear. To address this issue, we established paclitaxel-resistant sublines of the SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines that are capable of long-term proliferation in 100 nM and 300 nM paclitaxel, respectively. Application of these concentrations leads to cell death in the original counterpart cells. Both sublines are cross-resistant to doxorubicin, indicating the presence of the MDR phenotype. Interestingly, resistance in both paclitaxel-resistant sublines is circumvented by the second-generation taxane SB-T-1216. Moreover, we demonstrated that it was not possible to establish sublinesmore » of SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells resistant to this taxane. It means that at least the tested breast cancer cells are unable to develop resistance to some taxanes. Employing mRNA expression profiling of all known human ABC transporters and subsequent Western blot analysis of the expression of selected transporters, we demonstrated that only the ABCB1/PgP and ABCC3/MRP3 proteins were up-regulated in both paclitaxel-resistant sublines. We found up-regulation of ABCG2/BCRP and ABCC4 proteins only in paclitaxel-resistant SK-BR-3 cells. In paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells, ABCB4/MDR3 and ABCC2/MRP2 proteins were up-regulated. Silencing of ABCB1 expression using specific siRNA increased significantly, but did not completely restore full sensitivity to both paclitaxel and doxorubicin. Thus we showed a key, but not exclusive, role for ABCB1 in mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance. It suggests the involvement of multiple mechanisms in paclitaxel resistance in tested breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Expression of all ABC transporters in paclitaxel-resistant sublines of SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells was analyzed. • SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cells are unable to develop resistance to some taxanes. • Some taxanes are able to overcome developed resistance to

  16. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  17. Simultaneous delivery of Paclitaxel and Bcl-2 siRNA via pH-Sensitive liposomal nanocarrier for the synergistic treatment of melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Teegala Lakshminarayan; Garikapati, Koteswara Rao; Reddy, S. Gopal; Reddy, B. V. Subba; Yadav, J. S.; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2016-10-01

    pH-sensitive drug carriers that are sensitive to the acidic (pH = ~6.5) microenvironments of tumor tissues have been primarily used as effective drug/gene/siRNA/microRNA carriers for releasing their payloads to tumor cells/tissues. Resistance to various drugs has become a big hurdle in systemic chemotherapy in cancer. Therefore delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and siRNA’s targeting anti apoptotic genes possess advantages to overcome the efflux pump mediated and anti apoptosis-related drug resistance. Here, we report the development of nanocarrier system prepared from kojic acid backbone-based cationic amphiphile containing endosomal pH-sensitive imidazole ring. This pH-sensitive liposomal nanocarrier effectively delivers anti-cancer drug (Paclitaxel; PTX) and siRNA (Bcl-2), and significantly inhibits cell proliferation and reduces tumor growth. Tumor inhibition response attributes to the synergistic effect of PTX potency and MDR reversing ability of Bcl-2 siRNA in the tumor supporting that kojic acid based liposomal pH-sensitive nanocarrier as efficient vehicle for systemic co-delivery of drugs and siRNA.

  18. Tumor-penetrating codelivery of siRNA and paclitaxel with ultrasound-responsive nanobubbles hetero-assembled from polymeric micelles and liposomes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tinghui; Wang, Ping; Li, Jingguo; Wang, Yiru; Zheng, Bowen; Zheng, Rongqin; Cheng, Du; Shuai, Xintao

    2014-07-01

    Drug resistance is a big problem in systemic chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and nanomedicines loaded with both chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. paclitaxel, PTX) and siRNA's targeting antiapoptosis genes (e.g. BCL-2) possess the advantages to simultaneously overcome the efflux pump-mediated drug resistance and antiapoptosis-related drug resistance. However, tumor-penetrating drug delivery with this type of nanomedicines is extremely difficult due to their relatively big size compared to the single drug-loaded nanomedicines. Aiming at address this problem, US-responsive nanobubbles encapsulating both anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) and siRNA (PTX-NBs/siRNA) for HCC treatment were developed by hetero-assembly of polymeric micelles and liposomes in the present study. Utilizing an external low-frequency US force imposed to the tumor site, effective tumor-penetrating codelivery of siRNA and PTX was achieved via tail vein injection of PTX-NBs/siRNA into nude mice bearing human HepG2 xerografts. Consequently, the PTX treatment-inducible antiapoptosis in HepG2 cells was effectively suppressed by the codelivered siRNA targeting an antiapoptosis gene (BCL-2 siRNA) during chemotherapy. Owing to the synergistic anti-cancer effect of two therapeutic agents, tumor growth was completely inhibited using low-dose PTX in animal study. Our results highlight the great potential of this type of US-responsive hetero-assemblies carrying both anti-cancer drug and siRNA as an effective nanomedicinal system for HCC therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluoxetine regulates cell growth inhibition of interferon-α.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Min; Yu, Bu-Chin; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Sun, Hung-Yu; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Su, Hui-Chen; Yen, Shu-Yang; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Young, Kung-Chia; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Fluoxetine, a well-known anti-depression agent, may act as a chemosensitizer to assist and promote cancer therapy. However, how fluoxetine regulates cellular signaling to enhance cellular responses against tumor cell growth remains unclear. In the present study, addition of fluoxetine promoted growth inhibition of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in human bladder carcinoma cells but not in normal uroepithelial cells through lessening the IFN-α-induced apoptosis but switching to cause G1 arrest, and maintaining the IFN-α-mediated reduction in G2/M phase. Activations and signal transducer and transactivator (STAT)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) were involved in this process. Chemical inhibitions of STAT-1 or PPAR-α partially rescued bladder carcinoma cells from IFN-α-mediated growth inhibition via blockades of G1 arrest, cyclin D1 reduction, p53 downregulation and p27 upregulation in the presence of fluoxetine. However, the functions of both proteins were not involved in the control of fluoxetine over apoptosis and maintained the declined G2/M phase of IFN-α. These results indicated that activation of PPAR-α and STAT-1 participated, at least in part, in growth inhibition of IFN-α in the presence of fluoxetine.

  20. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Ma, Yanqi

    2017-01-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. PMID:27932419

  1. Effects of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San on the Peripheral and Lymphatic Pharmacokinetics of Paclitaxel in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Lu, Chia-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is effective against breast cancer. The herbal medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS), is the most frequent prescription used to relieve the symptoms of breast cancer treatments. The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction effects of a herbal medicine on the distribution of paclitaxel to lymph. A validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was used to determine the paclitaxel levels in rat plasma and lymph after intravenous infusion of paclitaxel alone with or without 7 days of JWXYS pretreatment. The pharmacokinetic results indicate that paclitaxel concentrations in plasma exceeded those in lymph by approximately 3.6-fold. The biodistribution of paclitaxel from plasma to lymph was 39 ± 5%; however, this increased to 45 ± 4% with JWXYS pretreatment. With JWXYS pretreatment, the AUC and C max of paclitaxel in plasma were significantly reduced by approximately 1.5-fold, compared to paclitaxel alone. Additionally, JWXYS decreased the AUC and C max of paclitaxel in lymph. However, the lymph absorption rate of paclitaxel with or without JWXYS pretreatment was not significantly changed (27 ± 3 and 30 ± 2%, resp.). Our findings demonstrate that when paclitaxel is prescribed concurrently with herbal medicine, monitoring of the blood pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel is recommended.

  2. Effects of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San on the Peripheral and Lymphatic Pharmacokinetics of Paclitaxel in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Lu, Chia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is effective against breast cancer. The herbal medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS), is the most frequent prescription used to relieve the symptoms of breast cancer treatments. The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction effects of a herbal medicine on the distribution of paclitaxel to lymph. A validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was used to determine the paclitaxel levels in rat plasma and lymph after intravenous infusion of paclitaxel alone with or without 7 days of JWXYS pretreatment. The pharmacokinetic results indicate that paclitaxel concentrations in plasma exceeded those in lymph by approximately 3.6-fold. The biodistribution of paclitaxel from plasma to lymph was 39 ± 5%; however, this increased to 45 ± 4% with JWXYS pretreatment. With JWXYS pretreatment, the AUC and C max of paclitaxel in plasma were significantly reduced by approximately 1.5-fold, compared to paclitaxel alone. Additionally, JWXYS decreased the AUC and C max of paclitaxel in lymph. However, the lymph absorption rate of paclitaxel with or without JWXYS pretreatment was not significantly changed (27 ± 3 and 30 ± 2%, resp.). Our findings demonstrate that when paclitaxel is prescribed concurrently with herbal medicine, monitoring of the blood pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel is recommended. PMID:27057200

  3. Indocyanine green angiography findings of cystoid macular edema secondary to paclitaxel therapy.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Nanami; Ota, Manami; Fukumura, Miho; Nuno, Yoshihisa; Hatano, Makoto; Wakuta, Makiko; Yanai, Ryoji; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-01

    To report 2 cases of paclitaxel-related maculopathy manifesting as cystoid macular edema (CME) with late petaloid hyperfluorescence on indocyanine green angiography (IA). A 74-year-old man (patient 1) undergoing paclitaxel chemotherapy for gastric and metastatic liver cancer and a 69-year-old man (patient 2) receiving paclitaxel for hypopharyngeal cancer presented with anorthopia in both eyes. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed macular edema in both eyes of each patient. Fluorescein angiography showed weak petaloid pooling around the fovea in the late phase. IA revealed CME with petaloid hyperfluorescence that matched the region of macular edema detected by SD-OCT. The CME was attenuated in the right eye but not in the left eye of patient 1 at 2 weeks after discontinuation of paclitaxel treatment, whereas it was no longer apparent in either eye at 3 months. The CME was no longer detected in either eye of patient 2 at 3 months after discontinuation of paclitaxel. These cases suggest that paclitaxel-induced CME may result from intraretinal accumulation of intracellular fluid and minimal impairment of the blood retinal barrier.

  4. Induction of apoptosis and suppression of tumor growth by Nur77-derived Bcl-2 converting peptide in chemoresistant lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Martin C; Gamble, John T; Kopparapu, Prasad R; O'Donnell, Edmond F; Mueller, Monica J; Jang, Hyo Sang; Greenwood, Julie A; Satterthwait, Arnold C; Tanguay, Robert L; Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Kolluri, Siva Kumar

    2018-05-25

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major cause of treatment failure and poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer. Identification of molecular targets present in resistant cancer cells is essential for addressing therapeutic resistance and prolonging lung cancer patient survival. Members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins are associated with chemotherapeutic resistance. In this study, we found that pro-survival protein Bcl-2 is upregulated in paclitaxel resistant cells, potentially contributing to chemotherapy resistance. To exploit the increase in Bcl-2 expression for targeting therapy resistance, we investigated the effects of a peptide derived from the nuclear receptor Nur77 that converts Bcl-2 from an anti-apoptotic protein to a pro-apoptotic protein. The Nur77 derived peptide preferentially induced apoptosis in paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells with high expression of Bcl-2. This peptide also induced apoptosis of multidrug resistant H69AR lung cancer cells that express Bcl-2 and inhibited their growth in 3D spheroids. The Nur77 peptide strongly suppressed the growth of paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells in a zebrafish xenograft tumor model. Taken together, our data supports a new strategy for treating lung cancers that acquire resistance to chemotherapy through overexpression of Bcl-2.

  5. Advanced ovarian cancer: phase III randomized study of sequential cisplatin-topotecan and carboplatin-paclitaxel vs carboplatin-paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, P; Vergote, I; Cervantes, A; Tu, D; Stuart, G; Zola, P; Poveda, A; Provencher, D; Katsaros, D; Ojeda, B; Ghatage, P; Grimshaw, R; Casado, A; Elit, L; Mendiola, C; Sugimoto, A; D'Hondt, V; Oza, A; Germa, J R; Roy, M; Brotto, L; Chen, D; Eisenhauer, E A

    2010-10-20

    Topotecan has single-agent activity in recurrent ovarian cancer. It was evaluated in a novel combination compared with standard frontline therapy. Women aged 75 years or younger with newly diagnosed stage IIB or greater ovarian cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status of 1 or less, were stratified by type of primary surgery and residual disease, treatment center, and age; then randomly assigned to one of the two 21-day intravenous regimens. Patients in arm 1 (n = 409) were administered four cycles of cisplatin 50 mg/m(2) on day 1 and topotecan 0.75 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, then four cycles of paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) over 3 hours on day 1 followed by carboplatin (area under the curve = 5) on day 1. Patients in arm 2 (n = 410) were given paclitaxel plus carboplatin as in arm 1 for eight cycles. We compared progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and cancer antigen-125 normalization rates in the two treatment arms. A stratified log-rank test was used to assess the primary endpoint, PFS. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 819 patients were randomly assigned. At baseline, the median age of the patients was 57 years (range = 28-78); 81% had received debulking surgery, and of these, 55% had less than 1 cm residual disease; 66% of patients were stage III and 388 (47.4%) patients had measurable disease. After a median follow-up of 43 months, 650 patients had disease progression or died without documented progression and 406 had died. Patients in arm 1 had more hematological toxicity and hospitalizations than patients in arm 2; PFS was 14.6 months in arm 1 vs 16.2 months in arm 2 (hazard ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval = 0.94 to 1.28, P = .25). Among patients with elevated baseline cancer antigen-125, fewer in arm 1 than in arm 2 had levels return to normal by 3 months after random assignment (51.6% vs 63.3%, P = .007) Topotecan and cisplatin, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel, were more toxic than carboplatin and

  6. Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (RAINBOW): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Hansjochen; Muro, Kei; Van Cutsem, Eric; Oh, Sang-Cheul; Bodoky, György; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Hironaka, Shuichi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Lipatov, Oleg; Kim, Tae-You; Cunningham, David; Rougier, Philippe; Komatsu, Yoshito; Ajani, Jaffer; Emig, Michael; Carlesi, Roberto; Ferry, David; Chandrawansa, Kumari; Schwartz, Jonathan D; Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    VEGFR-2 has a role in gastric cancer pathogenesis and progression. We assessed whether ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody VEGFR-2 antagonist, in combination with paclitaxel would increase overall survival in patients previously treated for advanced gastric cancer compared with placebo plus paclitaxel. This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial was done at 170 centres in 27 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Patients aged 18 years or older with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma and disease progression on or within 4 months after first-line chemotherapy (platinum plus fluoropyrimidine with or without an anthracycline) were randomly assigned with a centralised interactive voice or web-response system in a 1:1 ratio to receive ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo intravenously on days 1 and 15, plus paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. A permuted block randomisation, stratified by geographic region, time to progression on first-line therapy, and disease measurability, was used. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat, and safety analysis included all patients who received at least one treatment with study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01170663, and has been completed; patients who are still receiving treatment are in the extension phase. Between Dec 23, 2010, and Sept 23, 2012, 665 patients were randomly assigned to treatment-330 to ramucirumab plus paclitaxel and 335 to placebo plus paclitaxel. Overall survival was significantly longer in the ramucirumab plus paclitaxel group than in the placebo plus paclitaxel group (median 9·6 months [95% CI 8·5-10·8] vs 7·4 months [95% CI 6·3-8·4], hazard ratio 0·807 [95% CI 0·678-0·962]; p=0·017). Grade 3 or higher adverse events that occurred in more than 5% of patients in the ramucirumab plus paclitaxel group versus placebo

  7. Efficient purification of paclitaxel from yews using high-performance displacement chromatography technique.

    PubMed

    Watchueng, Jean; Kamnaing, Pierre; Gao, Jin-Ming; Kiyota, Taira; Yeboah, Faustinus; Konishi, Yasuo

    2011-05-20

    Paclitaxel was purified using high-performance displacement chromatography (HPDC) technique, but not by the mechanism of HPDC. On small scale, paclitaxel was extracted with methanol from dry needles of Taxus canadensis and was enriched by extracting with chloroform after removing water-soluble hydrophilic components and hexane-soluble hydrophobic components. Then, 93-99% purity of paclitaxel was obtained using the HPDC technique. On large scale, taxanes were enriched by solvent partitioning between acetic acid/MeOH/H(2)O and hexane and extracted with CH(2)Cl(2). Taxanes except paclitaxel were further removed by extracting with methanol-water-trifluoroacetic acid (1.0:98.9:0.1, v/v/v). Applying HPDC technique to water-insoluble substances is problematic as this method requires a highly aqueous solvent system. In order to overcome this incompatibility, a system was set up where paclitaxel, although in low concentration, was extracted by methanol-water-trifluoroacetic acid (10.0:89.9:0.1, v/v/v). Recycling the extracting solvent to ensure minimal volume, the extracted paclitaxel was adsorbed on a C(18) trap column. A C(18) column of 4.6mm internal diameter was then connected to the trap column. The HPDC technique was thus carried out using an isocratic acetonitrile-water-trifluoroacetic acid (30.0:69.9:0.1, v/v/v) mobile phase consisting of a displacer cetylpyridinium trifluoroacetate (3mg/mL). Paclitaxel was co-eluted with the displacer and spontaneously crystallized. The crystal (114mg) showed 99.4% purity and only 10% of paclitaxel in the starting crude extract was lost during the enrichment/purification processes. This large scale purification method was successfully applied to purify paclitaxel from Chinese yew in small scale, suggesting general applicability of the method. This is the first report of purifying a water-insoluble natural product using HPDC technique. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Auxin-induced ethylene triggers abscisic acid biosynthesis and growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Grossmann, K

    2000-11-01

    The growth-inhibiting effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at high concentration and the synthetic auxins 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinmerac), 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (dicamba), 4-amino-3,6, 6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), and naphthalene acetic acid, were investigated in cleavers (Galium aparine). When plants were root treated with 0.5 mM IAA, shoot epinasty and inhibition of root and shoot growth developed during 24 h. Concomitantly, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase activity, and ACC and ethylene production were transiently stimulated in the shoot tissue within 2 h, followed by increases in immunoreactive (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and its precursor xanthoxal (xanthoxin) after 5 h. After 24 h of treatment, levels of xanthoxal and ABA were elevated up to 2- and 24-fold, relative to control, respectively. In plants treated with IAA, 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid, levels of ethylene, ACC, and ABA increased in close correlation with inhibition of shoot growth. Aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and cobalt ions, which inhibit ethylene synthesis, decreased ABA accumulation and growth inhibition, whereas the ethylene-releasing ethephon promoted ABA levels and growth inhibition. In accordance, tomato mutants defective in ethylene perception (never ripe) did not produce the xanthoxal and ABA increases and growth inhibition induced by auxins in wild-type plants. This suggests that auxin-stimulated ethylene triggers ABA accumulation and the consequent growth inhibition. Reduced catabolism most probably did not contribute to ABA increase, as indicated by immunoanalyses of ABA degradation and conjugation products in shoot tissue and by pulse experiments with [(3)H]-ABA in cell suspensions of G. aparine. In contrast, studies using inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis (fluridone, naproxen, and tungstate), ABA

  9. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MERiDiAN): A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial with prospective biomarker evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miles, David; Cameron, David; Bondarenko, Igor; Manzyuk, Lyudmila; Alcedo, Juan Carlos; Lopez, Roberto Ivan; Im, Seock-Ah; Canon, Jean-Luc; Shparyk, Yaroslav; Yardley, Denise A; Masuda, Norikazu; Ro, Jungsil; Denduluri, Neelima; Hubeaux, Stanislas; Quah, Cheng; Bais, Carlos; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    MERiDiAN evaluated plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-A (pVEGF-A) prospectively as a predictive biomarker for bevacizumab efficacy in metastatic breast cancer (mBC). In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial, eligible patients had HER2-negative mBC previously untreated with chemotherapy. pVEGF-A was measured before randomisation to paclitaxel 90 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8 and 15 with either placebo or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15, repeated every 4 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Stratification factors were baseline pVEGF-A, prior adjuvant chemotherapy, hormone receptor status and geographic region. Co-primary end-points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat and pVEGF-A high populations. Of 481 patients randomised (242 placebo-paclitaxel; 239 bevacizumab-paclitaxel), 471 received study treatment. The stratified PFS hazard ratio was 0.68 (99% confidence interval, 0.51-0.91; log-rank p = 0.0007) in the intent-to-treat population (median 8.8 months with placebo-paclitaxel versus 11.0 months with bevacizumab-paclitaxel) and 0.64 (96% confidence interval, 0.47-0.88; log-rank p = 0.0038) in the pVEGF-A high subgroup. The PFS treatment-by-VEGF-A interaction p value (secondary end-point) was 0.4619. Bevacizumab was associated with increased incidences of bleeding (all grades: 45% versus 27% with placebo), neutropenia (all grades: 39% versus 29%; grade ≥3: 25% versus 13%) and hypertension (all grades: 31% versus 13%; grade ≥3: 11% versus 4%). The significant PFS improvement with bevacizumab is consistent with previous placebo-controlled first-line trials in mBC. Results do not support using baseline pVEGF-A to identify patients benefitting most from bevacizumab. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01663727. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The co-solvent Cremophor EL limits absorption of orally administered paclitaxel in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Malingré, M M; Schellens, J H M; Tellingen, O Van; Ouwehand, M; Bardelmeijer, H A; Rosing, H; Koopman, F J; Schot, M E; Huinink, W W Ten Bokkel; Beijnen, J H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the co-solvents Cremophor EL and polysorbate 80 on the absorption of orally administered paclitaxel. 6 patients received in a randomized setting, one week apart oral paclitaxel 60 mg m−2 dissolved in polysorbate 80 or Cremophor EL. For 3 patients the amount of Cremophor EL was 5 ml m−2, for the other three 15 ml m−2. Prior to paclitaxel administration patients received 15 mg kg−1 oral cyclosporin A to enhance the oral absorption of the drug. Paclitaxel formulated in polysorbate 80 resulted in a significant increase in the maximal concentration (C max) and area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) of paclitaxel in comparison with the Cremophor EL formulations (P = 0.046 for both parameters). When formulated in Cremophor EL 15 ml m−2, paclitaxel C max and AUC values were 0.10 ± 0.06 μM and 1.29 ± 0.99 μM h−1, respectively, whereas these values were 0.31 ± 0.06 μM and 2.61 ± 1.54 μM h−1, respectively, when formulated in polysorbate 80. Faecal data revealed a decrease in excretion of unchanged paclitaxel for the polysorbate 80 formulation compared to the Cremophor EL formulations. The amount of paclitaxel excreted in faeces was significantly correlated with the amount of Cremophor EL excreted in faeces (P = 0.019). When formulated in Cremophor EL 15 ml m−2, paclitaxel excretion in faeces was 38.8 ± 13.0% of the administered dose, whereas this value was 18.3 ±15.5% for the polysorbate 80 formulation. The results show that the co-solvent Cremophor EL is an important factor limiting the absorption of orally administered paclitaxel from the intestinal lumen. They highlight the need for designing a better drug formulation in order to increase the usefulness of the oral route of paclitaxel © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign   http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11720431

  11. DSGOST inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF/VEGFR2-activated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Lee, Kangwook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Kang Min; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-04-19

    Tumor growth requires a process called angiogenesis, a new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels, as newly formed vessels provide tumor cells with oxygen and nutrition. Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-Tang (DSGOST), one of traditional Chinese medicines, has been widely used in treatment of vessel diseases including Raynaud's syndrome in Northeast Asian countries including China, Japan and Korea. Therefore, we hypothesized that DSGOST might inhibit tumor growth by targeting newly formed vessels on the basis of its historical prescription. Here, we demonstrate that DSGOST inhibits tumor growth by inhibiting VEGF-induced angiogenesis. DSGOST inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic abilities of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, which resulted from its inhibition of VEGF/VEGFR2 interaction. Furthermore, DSGOST attenuated pancreatic tumor growth in vivo by reducing angiogenic vessel numbers, while not affecting pancreatic tumor cell viability. Thus, our data conclude that DSGOST inhibits VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis, suggesting a new indication for DSGOST in treatment of cancer.

  12. Gradient microfluidics enables rapid bacterial growth inhibition testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Qiu, Yong; Glidle, Andrew; McIlvenna, David; Luo, Qian; Cooper, Jon; Shi, Han-Chang; Yin, Huabing

    2014-03-18

    Bacterial growth inhibition tests have become a standard measure of the adverse effects of inhibitors for a wide range of applications, such as toxicity testing in the medical and environmental sciences. However, conventional well-plate formats for these tests are laborious and provide limited information (often being restricted to an end-point assay). In this study, we have developed a microfluidic system that enables fast quantification of the effect of an inhibitor on bacteria growth and survival, within a single experiment. This format offers a unique combination of advantages, including long-term continuous flow culture, generation of concentration gradients, and single cell morphology tracking. Using Escherichia coli and the inhibitor amoxicillin as one model system, we show excellent agreement between an on-chip single cell-based assay and conventional methods to obtain quantitative measures of antibiotic inhibition (for example, minimum inhibition concentration). Furthermore, we show that our methods can provide additional information, over and above that of the standard well-plate assay, including kinetic information on growth inhibition and measurements of bacterial morphological dynamics over a wide range of inhibitor concentrations. Finally, using a second model system, we show that this chip-based systems does not require the bacteria to be labeled and is well suited for the study of naturally occurring species. We illustrate this using Nitrosomonas europaea, an environmentally important bacteria, and show that the chip system can lead to a significant reduction in the period required for growth and inhibition measurements (<4 days, compared to weeks in a culture flask).

  13. WWOX sensitises ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel via modulation of the ER stress response.

    PubMed

    Janczar, Szymon; Nautiyal, Jaya; Xiao, Yi; Curry, Edward; Sun, Mingjun; Zanini, Elisa; Paige, Adam Jw; Gabra, Hani

    2017-07-27

    There are clear gaps in our understanding of genes and pathways through which cancer cells facilitate survival strategies as they become chemoresistant. Paclitaxel is used in the treatment of many cancers, but development of drug resistance is common. Along with being an antimitotic agent paclitaxel also activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here, we examine the role of WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase), a gene frequently lost in several cancers, in mediating paclitaxel response. We examine the ER stress-mediated apoptotic response to paclitaxel in WWOX-transfected epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and following siRNA knockdown of WWOX. We show that WWOX-induced apoptosis following exposure of EOC cells to paclitaxel is related to ER stress and independent of the antimitotic action of taxanes. The apoptotic response to ER stress induced by WWOX re-expression could be reversed by WWOX siRNA in EOC cells. We report that paclitaxel treatment activates both the IRE-1 and PERK kinases and that the increase in paclitaxel-mediated cell death through WWOX is dependent on active ER stress pathway. Log-rank analysis of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in two prominent EOC microarray data sets (Tothill and The Cancer Genome Atlas), encompassing ~800 patients in total, confirmed clinical relevance to our findings. High WWOX mRNA expression predicted longer OS and PFS in patients treated with paclitaxel, but not in patients who were treated with only cisplatin. The association of WWOX and survival was dependent on the expression level of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), a key ER stress marker in paclitaxel-treated patients. We conclude that WWOX sensitises EOC to paclitaxel via ER stress-induced apoptosis, and predicts clinical outcome in patients. Thus, ER stress response mechanisms could be targeted to overcome chemoresistance in cancer.

  14. A phase I report of paclitaxel dose escalation combined with a fixed dose of carboplatin in the treatment of head and neck carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, F R; Boyd, J H; Kim, H J; Dunphy, C H; Harrison, B R; Dunleavy, T L; Rodriguez, J J; McDonough, E M; Minster, J R; Hilton, J G

    1997-05-15

    Standard therapy for advanced head and neck carcinoma is surgery and radiation, and the subsequent 5-year survival with this treatment has been less than 50%. New combined modality treatment strategies are being tested to improve survival. New chemotherapy combinations are being developed and administered simultaneously with, or sequenced with, radiation and surgery. This article reports the Phase I results of administering paclitaxel and carboplatin preoperatively. The authors' objective was to develop an outpatient chemotherapy that would downstage tumors and allow organ preservation with equal or improved survival as compared with standard therapy. Thirty-six patients with untreated Stage III/IV head and neck carcinoma were treated and were evaluable for toxicity. All patients had lesions that were measurable in perpendicular planes. A nonrandomized, Phase I design was used, according to which cohorts of patients were treated every 21 days with escalating doses of paclitaxel (150-265 mg/m2) given as a 3-hour infusion immediately preceding carboplatin. Premedication was used to avoid acute hypersensitivity reactions. Carboplatin was administered intravenously over 1 hour at a constant dose calculated with the Calvert formula (area under the curve, 7.5). The dose-limiting toxicities were neuropathy and thrombocytopenia at a paclitaxel dose of 265 mg/m2. Neutropenic fever was observed in 30% of patients at a paclitaxel dose of 250-265 mg/m2. Other observed adverse effects included pruritus, myalgia, arthralgia, alopecia, nausea, and vomiting. Toxicity was acceptable. The maximum tolerated dose of paclitaxel was 230 mg/m2 without hematopoietic growth factor, or 250 mg/m2 with hematopoietic growth factor, the carboplatin dose held constant, calculated at area under the curve of 7.5. Phase II studies of this combination are warranted in the treatment of these carcinomas.

  15. Microtubule stabilization with paclitaxel does not protect against infarction in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Abad, Elena; Sánchez, Jose A; Fernández-Sanz, Celia; Inserte, Javier; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan José; García-Dorado, David

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? The microtubule network is disrupted during myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It was suggested that prevention of microtubule disruption with paclitaxel might reduce cardiac infarct size; however, the effects on infarction have not been studied. What is the main finding and its importance? Paclitaxel caused a reduction in microtubule disruption and cardiomyocyte hypercontracture during ischaemia-reperfusion. However, it induced a greater increase in cytosolic calcium, which may explain the lack of effect against infarction that we have seen in isolated rat hearts. The large increase in perfusion pressure induced by paclitaxel in this model may have clinical implications, because detrimental effects of the drug were reported after its clinical application. Microtubules play a major role in the transmission of mechanical forces within the myocardium and in maintenance of organelle function. However, this intracellular network is disrupted during myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion. We assessed the effects of prevention of microtubule disruption with paclitaxel on ischaemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat cardiomyocytes and hearts. Isolated rat cardiomyocytes were submitted to normoxia (1 h) or 45 min of simulated ischaemia (pH 6.4, 0% O2 , 37 °C) and reoxygenation, without or with treatment with the microtubule stabilizer, paclitaxel (10(-5) M), or the inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, colchicine (5 × 10(-6) M). Simulated ischaemia leads to microtubule disruption before the onset of ischaemic contracture. Paclitaxel attenuated both microtubule disruption and the incidence of hypercontracture, whereas treatment with colchicine mimicked the effects of simulated ischaemia and reoxygenation. In isolated normoxic rat hearts, treatment with paclitaxel induced concentration-dependent decreases in heart rate and left ventricular developed pressure and increases in perfusion pressure. Despite protection against

  16. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Sharada; Gao, Liying; Gonnering, Marni; Helferich, William; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. PMID:26876617

  17. Human ovarian cancer xenografts in nude mice: chemotherapy trials with paclitaxel, cisplatin, vinorelbine and titanocene dichloride.

    PubMed

    Villena-Heinsen, C; Friedrich, M; Ertan, A K; Farnhammer, C; Schmidt, W

    1998-07-01

    The new cytostatics titanocene dichloride and vinorelbine were compared to cisplatin and paclitaxel using a human ovarian cancer xenografts model. Biopsy material from a native human ovarian carcinoma was expanded and transplanted into 96 nude mice. The animals were divided into six treatment groups: cisplatin 3 x 4 mg/kg, paclitaxel 5 x 26 mg/kg, vinorelbine 1 x 20 mg/kg, titanocene dichloride 3 x 30 mg/kg, titanocene dichloride 3 x 40 mg/kg and a control group treated with 0.9% saline. Each experiment was repeated with eight mice in each treatment group. Treatment groups were evaluated in terms of average daily increase in tumor volume and average daily body weight increase of nude mice based on slopes of least-square regressions performed on individual animals. The slope factors alpha and beta of the body weight (alpha) and tumor volume changes (beta) within each group during the course of an experiment were calculated. Both a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in the body weight of the experimental animals (cisplatin: alpha = -0.5163, vinorelbine: alpha = -0.6598, paclitaxel: alpha = -0.6746, titanocene dichloride 3 x 30 mg/kg: alpha = -0.6259, titanocene dichloride 3 x 40 mg/kg: alpha = -0.7758) and a significant reduction (p<0.05) of the increase in tumor volume (cisplatin: beta = 12.049, vinorelbine: beta = 0.504, paclitaxel: beta = -1.636, titanocene dichloride 3 x 30 mg/kg: beta = 6.212, titanocene dichloride 3 x 40 mg/kg: beta= -0.685) was shown in all treated groups compared to the control group (alpha = -0.1398; beta = 23.056). No significant weight changes were observed between the individually treated groups. A statistically significant reduction of the tumor growth occured under paclitaxel (beta = -1.636), vinorelbine (beta = 0.504) and titanocene dichloride medication 3 x 40 mg/kg (beta = -0.685), as compared to the group treated with cisplatin (beta = 12.049). We found titanocene dichloride to be as effective as paclitaxel and more

  18. Phosphorylation of caspase-9 at Thr125 directs paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Byun, Mi Ran; Choi, Jin Woo

    2018-01-02

    Although paclitaxel is routinely prescribed for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), paclitaxel resistance is common in EOC and correlates with short survival of patients. A previous pharmacogenomic study revealed the importance of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) activity in a response on paclitaxel. However, a subsequent research showed that the expression level of CDK1 failed to show significant correlation with delayed apoptosis and patient survival. Rather, the expression and phosphorylation of capase-9, the downstream target molecule of CDK1, appeared to determine drug resistance. Our results suggest that treatment with the CDK1 inhibitor alsterpaullone reduces phosphorylation of caspase-9. Its phosphorylation level was dependent on CDK1 activity and it directs paclitaxel resistance. This observation was reproducible in xenografted tumors. Thus, the regulation of caspase-9 may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reverse paclitaxel-induced resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

  19. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. PMID:24549172

  20. Evidence That P-glycoprotein Inhibitor (Elacridar)-Loaded Nanocarriers Improve Epidermal Targeting of an Anticancer Drug via Absorptive Cutaneous Transporters Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Giacone, Daniela V; Carvalho, Vanessa F M; Costa, Soraia K P; Lopes, Luciana B

    2018-02-01

    Because P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays an absorptive role in the skin, its pharmacological inhibition represents a strategy to promote cutaneous localization of anticancer agents that serve as its substrates, improving local efficacy while reducing systemic exposure. Here, we evaluated the ability of a nanoemulsion (NE) coencapsulating a P-gp inhibitor (elacridar) with the antitumor drug paclitaxel to promote epidermal targeting. Loaded NE displayed a nanometric size (45.2 ± 4.0 nm) and negative zeta potential (-4.2 ± 0.8 mV). Elacridar improved NE ability to inhibit verapamil-induced ATPase activity of P-gp; unloaded NE-inhibited P-gp when used at a concentration of 1500 μM, while elacridar encapsulation decreased this concentration by 3-fold (p <0.05). Elacridar-loaded NE reduced paclitaxel penetration into the dermis of freshly excised mice skin and its percutaneous permeation by 1.5- and 1.7-fold (p <0.05), respectively at 6 h, whereas larger drug amounts (1.4-fold, p <0.05) were obtained in viable epidermis. Assessment of cutaneous distribution of a fluorescent paclitaxel derivative confirmed the smaller delivery into the dermis at elacridar presence. In conclusion, we have provided novel evidence that NE containing elacridar exhibited a clear potential for P-gp inhibition and enabled epidermal targeting of paclitaxel, which in turn, can potentially reduce adverse effects associated with systemic exposure to anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Near-infrared mediated quantum dots and paclitaxel co-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for cancer theragnostic.

    PubMed

    Olerile, Livesey David; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Tianqi; Mu, Shengjun; Zhang, Jing; Selotlegeng, Lesego; Zhang, Na

    2017-02-01

    Timing is an important factor in cancer management. Theragnostic systems have benefit of improving patients' life-quality by expediting therapeutic decisions. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of co-loaded [quantum dots (CdTe/CdS/ZnS) and paclitaxel] NLC (nanostructured lipid carriers) as a parenteral multifunctional delivery system. The co-loaded NLC was prepared by emulsion-evaporation and low temperature-solidification method utilising glyceryl monostearate, oleic acid, and soya phosphatidylcholine as lipid matrix. In characterising the co-loaded NLC, physicochemical properties of particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), morphology, encapsulation efficacy (EE) and drug loading (DL) were investigated. Moreover, in-vitro paclitaxel release profile, cytotoxicity, histopathological, in-vivo anti-tumour efficacy, and in-vivo and ex-vivo fluorescence optical imaging abilities of the co-loaded NLC were assessed. The mean particle size, PDI and ZP were reported to be 115.93±1.61nm, 0.17±0.04 and -0.22±0.03mV, respectively. The particles were spheroid-like in shape with relatively smooth surface. A higher EE (80.70±2.11%) and DL (4.68±0.04%) were recorded. The coloaded NLC exhibited a biphasic pattern of drug release. IC 50 value was found to be 1.05±0.58μM. The tumour growth inhibition rate of 77.85% was registered. The in-vivo and ex-vivo imaging results indicated capability of the co-loaded NLC to specifically target and detect the H22 tumour. Tissues showed no significant cytoarchitectural differences. We can satisfactorily conclude that co-loaded NLC formulation can be qualified as a splendid parenteral drug delivery system foundation for cancer theragnostic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of paclitaxel on conjunctival wound healing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koz, Ozlem Gurbuz; Ozhuy, Serife; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Karaman, Nazmiye; Unlu, Nursen; Yarangumeli, Alper; Kural, Gulcan

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effects of mitomycin C (MMC) and paclitaxel entrapped within Carbopol 980 hydrogel (CH) on conjunctival wound healing. Twenty rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. In group 1, limbal-based conjunctival flaps were created in both eyes. In this stage, eyes were randomized for 4 different processes. In process 1, a dry cellulose sponge soaked with 0.2 mg/mL of MMC was applied to the scleral surface. A cellulose sponge soaked with balanced saline solution was applied in the same manner in process 2. In process 3, paclitaxel 1 mg/mL entrapped within CH was placed between the conjunctiva and sclera. In process 4, CH without paclitaxel was applied in the same manner. The conjunctiva was then sutured. All procedures were applied in the same manner in both eyes of animals in group 2. Eyes from group 1 were sampled at the seventh day, and the sampling was also carried out in group 2 on day 14. The inflammatory response and fibrosis were evaluated with light microscopy. Among 4 different processes, lower cell counts and fibrosis scores were found in eyes treated with MMC and paclitaxel compared with balanced saline solution and CH groups (P<0.05). There was no difference between eyes treated with MMC and paclitaxel in terms of these histopathologic parameters (P>0.05). Paclitaxel was shown to provide MMC-like antifibrotic effects during conjunctival wound healing, particularly when delivered with CH and might be a promising alternative as an adjunctive antimetabolite in glaucoma filtration surgery.

  3. Predicting chemotherapy response to paclitaxel with 18F-Fluoropaclitaxel and PET.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Wei-Ann; Kesner, Amanda L; Gangloff, Anne; Pegram, Mark D; Beryt, Malgorzata; Czernin, Johannes; Phelps, Michael E; Silverman, Daniel H S

    2006-12-01

    Paclitaxel is used as a chemotherapy drug for the treatment of various malignancies, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. To evaluate the potential of a noninvasive prognostic tool for specifically predicting the resistance of tumors to paclitaxel therapy, we examined the tumoral uptake of (18)F-fluoropaclitaxel ((18)F-FPAC) in mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts by using small-animal-dedicated PET and compared (18)F-FPAC uptake with the tumor response to paclitaxel treatment. PET data were acquired after tail vein injection of approximately 9 MBq of (18)F-FPAC in anesthetized nude mice bearing breast cancer xenografts. Tracer uptake in reconstructed images was quantified by region-of-interest analyses and compared with the tumor response, as measured by changes in tumor volume, after treatment with paclitaxel. Mice with tumors that progressed demonstrated lower tumoral uptake of (18)F-FPAC than mice with tumors that did not progress or that regressed (r = 0.55, P < 0.02; n = 19), indicating that low (18)F-FPAC uptake was a significant predictor of chemoresistance. Conversely, high (18)F-FPAC uptake predicted tumor regression. This relationship was found for mice bearing xenografts from cell lines selected to be either sensitive or intrinsically resistant to paclitaxel in vitro. PET data acquired with (18)F-FPAC suggest that this tracer holds promise for the noninvasive quantification of its distribution in vivo in a straightforward manner. In combination with approaches for examining other aspects of resistance, such quantification could prove useful in helping to predict subsequent resistance to paclitaxel chemotherapy of breast cancer.

  4. Amphiphilic dendrimer engineered nanocarrier systems for co-delivery of siRNA and paclitaxel to matrix metalloproteinase-rich tumors for synergistic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Sun, A.-ning; Liu, Yu-jie; Zhang, Wen-jie; Pang, Ning; Cheng, Shi-xuan; Qi, Xian-rong

    2018-04-01

    Combinations of chemotherapeutics with small interfering RNA (siRNA) can incorporate the advantages of their different mechanisms to exert a synergetic effect. A safe and effective vehicle for simultaneous delivery of the components to tumor cells is a prerequisite for obtaining the optimum effect. We developed an amphiphilic dendrimer engineered nanocarrier system (ADENS) for co-delivering paclitaxel and siRNA for cancer treatment. This nanocarrier possesses a unique hollow core/shell structure in which siRNA is incorporated in the hydrophilic cavity and large quantities of paclitaxel are stored in the hydrophobic interlayer, while the outer PEG layer serves to prolong the circulation time. Further modification by tumor microenvironment-sensitive polypeptides (TMSP) significantly enhanced the cellular uptake, tumor penetration and tumor accumulation of the ADENS by a tumor microenvironment-triggered mechanism. TMSP-ADENS had prominent therapeutic effects at a relatively low drug dose both in vitro and in vivo. In A375 xenograft mice, TMSP-ADENS/siRNA/PTX showed the highest VEGF mRNA inhibition rate of 73% and suppressed tumor growth and relapse, while Taxol did not show an effect on tumor relapse. The anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects were further confirmed in an HT-1080 xenograft tumor model. Our findings, combined with the known biodegradability and tunable physicochemical properties of these polymers, suggest that this TMSP-ADENS can be a robust co-delivery system for cancer combination therapy in the future.

  5. KSP inhibitor ARRY-520 as a substitute for Paclitaxel in Type I ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Xie, Yanhua; Tytler, Ewan M; Woessner, Richard; Mor, Gil; Alvero, Ayesha B

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously described a sub-population of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells with a functional TLR-4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway (Type I EOC cells), which confers the capacity to respond to Paclitaxel, a known TLR-4 ligand, by enhancing NF-κB activity and upregulating cytokine secretion – events that are known to promote tumor progression. It is therefore important to distinguish those patients that should not receive Paclitaxel; it is also important to identify alternative chemotherapy options that would benefit this sub-group of patients. The objective of this study is to determine if the KSP inhibitor, ARRY-520, can be a substitute for Paclitaxel in patients with Type I EOC. Methods EOC cells isolated from either ascites or tumor tissue were treated with increasing concentrations of ARRY-520 or Paclitaxel and cell viability determined. Activation of the apoptotic pathway was determined using Western blot analysis. Mitochondrial integrity was quantified using JC1 dye. Cytokine profiling was performed from supernatants using xMAP technology. NF-κB activity was measured using a Luciferase reporter system. In vivo activity was determined using a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model. Results ARRY-520 and Paclitaxel exhibited the same cytotoxic effect on Type I and II cells. The GI50 at 48 h for Type II EOC cells was 0.0015 μM and 0.2 μM for ARRY-520 and Paclitaxel, respectively. For Type I EOC cells, the GI50 at 48 h was > 3 μM and >20 μM for ARRY-520 and Paclitaxel, respectively. Decrease in the number of viable cells was accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activation. Unlike Paclitaxel, ARRY-520 did not induce NF-κB activation, did not enhance cytokine secretion, nor induce ERK phosphorylation in Type I EOC cells. Conclusion Administration of Paclitaxel to patients with high percentage Type I cancer cells could have detrimental effects due to Paclitaxel-induced enhancement of NF-κB and ERK activities, and cytokine production (e

  6. A preliminary report on the effects of paclitaxel-impregnated stents on sheep nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Brian W; Citardi, Martin J; Vogler, George; Gardner, Laura; Smith, Greg; Javer, Amin R; Burt, Helen M; Jackson, John; Kuhn, Frederick A

    2004-01-01

    Traditional frontal sinus stents serve only as mechanical devices. It has been proposed that stents also may serve as drug-delivery systems for the topical application of drugs that minimize postoperative scarring. Paclitaxel (Taxol), which has recognized antiscarring effects, may be incorporated via a polymeric formulation into standard rubber stents. The impact of topically applied paclitaxel on the morphology of the nasal mucosa is unknown. An adult sheep model was used for this study. A modified rubber T-tube stent (incorporating paclitaxel at varying dosages) was secured to each side of the septum in four animals (eight sides). An unmodified T-tube was placed on each side of one animal, a T-tube with the drug carrier (but no paclitaxel) was placed on each side of the second animal, and T-tubes with varying paclitaxel were placed on each side of the final two animals. After 4 weeks, animals were killed and the nasal mucosa was harvested. The nasal mucosa was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. A pathologist then assessed the nasal mucosa for vascular congestion, glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, mucosal metaplasia, and mucosal ulceration. No consistent histopathological differences were noted in the specimens. All specimens showed varying degrees of vascular congestion, glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, and mucosal metaplasia; the paclitaxel-impregnated stents were not consistently associated with more severe mucosal injury. Finally, mucosal ulceration was noted to be very rare in all specimens. This preliminary report describes the impact of paclitaxel-impregnated stents on sheep nasal mucosa, which tolerated these stents very well. Because paclitaxel minimizes scarring reactions at very low concentrations, paclitaxel-impregnated stents may prove useful in clinical situations in which frontal sinus stenting is deemed necessary. Additional investigations with animal models, as well as clinical trials, may be warranted.

  7. Acetaminophen Enhances Cisplatin- and Paclitaxel-mediated Cytotoxicity to SKOV3 Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y. Jeffrey; Neuwelt, Alexander J.; Muldoon, Leslie L.; Neuwelt, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is commonly treated with cisplatin/paclitaxel but many tumors become resistant. Acetaminophen reduced glutathione and enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in treating hepatic cancer. The objective of this study was to examine if acetaminophen enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin/paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro and a subcutaneous tumor nude rat model were used and treated with cisplatin/paclitaxel with or without acetaminophen. Results In vitro, acetaminophen enhanced apoptosis induced by cisplatin and paclitaxel with similar effects on glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential but different effects on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) translocation. In vivo, acetaminophen was uniformly distributed in tissue and significantly reduced hepatic glutathione. Acetaminophen enhanced cisplatin chemotherapeutic effect by reducing tumor recurrence Conclusion Our results suggest that acetaminophen as a chemoenhancing adjuvant could improve the efficacy of cisplatin and paclitaxel in treating patients with ovarian carcinoma and other tumor types. PMID:23749887

  8. Paclitaxel stimulates chromosomal fusion and instability in cells with dysfunctional telomeres: Implication in multinucleation and chemosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong-Eun; Woo, Seon Rang; Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705

    Research highlights: {yields} Paclitaxel serves as a stimulator of chromosomal fusion in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional. {yields} Typical fusions involve p-arms, but paclitaxel-induced fusions occur between both q- and p-arms. {yields} Paclitaxel-stimulated fusions in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional evoke prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest and delay multinucleation. {yields} Upon telomere erosion, paclitaxel promotes chromosomal instability and subsequent apoptosis. {yields} Chromosomal fusion enhances paclitaxel chemosensitivity under telomere dysfunction. -- Abstract: The anticancer effect of paclitaxel is attributable principally to irreversible promotion of microtubule stabilization and is hampered upon development of chemoresistance by tumor cells. Telomere shortening, andmore » eventual telomere erosion, evoke chromosomal instability, resulting in particular cellular responses. Using telomerase-deficient cells derived from mTREC-/-p53-/- mice, here we show that, upon telomere erosion, paclitaxel propagates chromosomal instability by stimulating chromosomal end-to-end fusions and delaying the development of multinucleation. The end-to-end fusions involve both the p- and q-arms in cells in which telomeres are dysfunctional. Paclitaxel-induced chromosomal fusions were accompanied by prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest, delayed multinucleation, and apoptosis. Telomere dysfunctional cells with mutlinucleation eventually underwent apoptosis. Thus, as telomere erosion proceeds, paclitaxel stimulates chromosomal fusion and instability, and both apoptosis and chemosensitization eventually develop.« less

  9. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel as neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yu; Wu, Jiayi; Shen, Kunwei

    2017-03-07

    The value of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) in neoadjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer remains uncertain. Both electronic databases and proceedings of oncologic meetings were included in systematic literature search. Pooled rates of pathological complete response (pCR), odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed-effect or random-effect model to determine the effect of neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel. Twenty-one studies with 2357 patients were included, 3 of which were randomized clinical trials. The aggregate pCR(ypT0/is ypN0) rate was 32% (95% CI 25-38%) in unselected breast cancer patients and variated in different subtypes. Within randomized clinical trials, the probability of achieving pCR was significantly higher in the nab-paclitaxel group than in the conventional taxanes group (OR = 1.383, 95%CI 1.141-1.676, p = 0.001). For non-hematological toxic effect, any grade and grade 3-4 peripheral sensory neuropathy occurred more frequently with nab-paclitaxel compared to paclitaxel (any grade, OR = 2.090, 95%CI 1.016-4.302, p = 0.045; grade3-4, OR = 3.766, 95%CI 2.324-6.100, p < 0.001). Hypersensitivity was more common with paclitaxel than nab-paclitaxel at any grade and grade 3-4. nab-paclitaxel is an effective cytotoxic drug in neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer, especially for aggressive tumors in terms of pCR. Exchange of nab-paclitaxel for conventional taxanes could significantly improve pCR rate with reasonable toxicities.

  10. Computational studies on self-assembled paclitaxel structures: templates for hierarchical block copolymer assemblies and sustained drug release.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin D; Tan, Jeremy P K; Kim, Sung H; Zhang, Li J; Zhang, Ying; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Y; Qian, Yu

    2009-11-01

    Paclitaxel-loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(lactide) (PEO-b-PLA) systems have been observed to assemble into fiber structures with remarkably different properties using different chirality and molecular weight of PLA segments. In this study, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were carried out to elaborate the microstructures and properties of pure paclitaxel and paclitaxel-loaded PEO-b-PLA systems. Paclitaxel molecules formed ribbon or fiber like structures in water. With the addition of PEO-b-PDLA, PEO-b-PLLA and their stereocomplex, paclitaxel acted as a template and polymer molecules assembled around the paclitaxel structure to form core/shell structured fibers having a PEO shell. For PEO19-b-PDLA27 and PEO19-b-PLLA27 systems, PLA segments and paclitaxel molecules were distributed homogeneously in the core of fibers based on the hydrophobic interactions. In the stereocomplex formulation, paclitaxel molecules were more concentrated in the inner PLA stereocomplex core, which led to slower release of paclitaxel. By increasing the length of PLA segments (e.g. 8,16,22 and 27), the crystalline structure of paclitaxel was gradually weakened and destroyed, which was further proved by X-ray diffraction studies. All the simulation results agreed well with experimental data, suggesting that the DPD simulations may provide a powerful tool for designing drug delivery systems.

  11. Cold therapy to prevent paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Claire; Kwon, Nancy; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Paice, Judith A

    2018-04-21

    This case-control study was designed to assess the efficacy of cryotherapy to prevent paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in women with breast cancer. Participants served as their own paired control, with randomization of the cooled glove/sock to either the dominant or the non-dominant hand/foot, worn for 15 min prior to, during, and 15 min after completion of the paclitaxel infusion. Outcome measures included the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, and quantitative sensory testing. Data were measured at each of six time points-baseline, post-treatment (approximately 2 weeks after the last paclitaxel infusion), and at the first, fifth, ninth, and final weekly paclitaxel treatments. Of 29 randomized participants, 20 (69%) received at least one cryotherapy treatment, and 11 (38%) received all four cryotherapy treatments. Ten (34%) participants could not tolerate the cryotherapy, and six (21%) declined further participation at some point during the trial. Only seven participants (24%) were available for the final post-chemotherapy QST and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in measures of neuropathy or pain between treated and untreated hands or feet. Strategies to prevent painful peripheral neuropathy are urgently needed. In this current trial, dropout due to discomfort precluded adequate power to fully understand the potential benefits of cryotherapy. Much more research is needed to discover safe and effective preventive strategies that can be easily implemented within busy infusion centers.

  12. Efficacy and safety findings from DREAM: a phase III study of DHP107 (oral paclitaxel) versus i.v. paclitaxel in patients with advanced gastric cancer after failure of first-line chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y-K; Ryu, M-H; Park, S H; Kim, J G; Kim, J W; Cho, S-H; Park, Y-I; Park, S R; Rha, S Y; Kang, M J; Cho, J Y; Kang, S Y; Roh, S Y; Ryoo, B-Y; Nam, B-H; Jo, Y-W; Yoon, K-E; Oh, S C

    2018-05-01

    Paclitaxel is currently only available as an intravenous (i.v.) formulation. DHP107 is a novel oral formulation of lipid ingredients and paclitaxel. DHP107 demonstrated comparable efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics to i.v. paclitaxel as a second-line therapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). DREAM is a multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized phase III study of patients with histologically/cytologically confirmed, unresectable/recurrent AGC after first-line therapy failure. Patients were randomized 1 : 1 to DHP107 (200 mg/m2 orally twice daily days 1, 8, 15 every 4 weeks) or i.v. paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 day 1 every 3 weeks). Patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, disease status, and prior treatment; response was assessed (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) every 6 weeks. Primary end point: non-inferiority of progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points: overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. For the efficacy analysis, sequential tests for non-inferiority were carried out, first with a non-inferiority margin of 1.48, then with a margin of 1.25. Baseline characteristics were balanced in the 236 randomized patients (n = 118 per arm). Median PFS (per-protocol) was 3.0 (95% CI 1.7-4.0) months for DHP107 and 2.6 (95% CI 1.8-2.8) months for paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.85; 95% CI 0.64-1.13). A sensitivity analysis on PFS using independent central review showed similar results (HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.70-1.24). Median OS (full analysis set) was 9.7 (95% CI 7.1 - 11.5) months for DHP107 versus 8.9 (95% CI 7.1-12.2) months for paclitaxel (HR = 1.04; 95% CI 0.76-1.41). ORR was 17.8% for DHP107 (CR 4.2%; PR 13.6%) versus 25.4% for paclitaxel (CR 3.4%; PR 22.0%). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mucositis were more common with DHP107; peripheral neuropathy was more common with paclitaxel. There were only few Grade≥3 adverse events

  13. Auxin-Induced Ethylene Triggers Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Growth Inhibition1

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Hauke; Grossmann, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The growth-inhibiting effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at high concentration and the synthetic auxins 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinmerac), 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (dicamba), 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), and naphthalene acetic acid, were investigated in cleavers (Galium aparine). When plants were root treated with 0.5 mm IAA, shoot epinasty and inhibition of root and shoot growth developed during 24 h. Concomitantly, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase activity, and ACC and ethylene production were transiently stimulated in the shoot tissue within 2 h, followed by increases in immunoreactive (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and its precursor xanthoxal (xanthoxin) after 5 h. After 24 h of treatment, levels of xanthoxal and ABA were elevated up to 2- and 24-fold, relative to control, respectively. In plants treated with IAA, 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid, levels of ethylene, ACC, and ABA increased in close correlation with inhibition of shoot growth. Aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and cobalt ions, which inhibit ethylene synthesis, decreased ABA accumulation and growth inhibition, whereas the ethylene-releasing ethephon promoted ABA levels and growth inhibition. In accordance, tomato mutants defective in ethylene perception (never ripe) did not produce the xanthoxal and ABA increases and growth inhibition induced by auxins in wild-type plants. This suggests that auxin-stimulated ethylene triggers ABA accumulation and the consequent growth inhibition. Reduced catabolism most probably did not contribute to ABA increase, as indicated by immunoanalyses of ABA degradation and conjugation products in shoot tissue and by pulse experiments with [3H]-ABA in cell suspensions of G. aparine. In contrast, studies using inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis (fluridone, naproxen, and tungstate), ABA

  14. Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of a polymer-paclitaxel conjugate for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danbo; Van, Sang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Xinguo; Wang, Yiting; Yu, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Poly(L-γ-glutamylglutamine) paclitaxel (PGG-PTX) conjugate is a non-diblock polymeric drug nanoparticle intended to improve the therapeutic index of paclitaxel. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate further the physicochemical properties of PGG-PTX in order to proceed with its clinical development. PGG-PTX was designed by integration of a hydrophobic paclitaxel conjugate through an added hydrophilic glutamic acid onto poly(L-glutamic acid). The addition of a flexible glutamic linker between PGA and paclitaxel resulted in spontaneous self-assembly of a PGG-PTX conjugate into nanoparticles. The PGG-PTX conjugate was stable as a lyophilized solid form. An in vitro viability experiment showed that PGG-PTX was effective after a longer incubation period, the same trend as Taxol. In vitro studies using NCI-H460 and B16F0 cancer cells demonstrated significantly high cellular uptake after 30 minutes of incubation. The in vivo biocompatibility of PGG-PTX conjugate was evaluated in the NCI-H460 tumor model, the assessment of tissue seemed to be normal after 21 days of treatment. These results are encouraging for further development of non-block polymeric paclitaxel nanoparticles for treatment of cancer.

  15. Bioadhesive drug delivery system using glyceryl monooleate for the intravesical administration of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Sae Woong; Chung, Hesson; Park, Yeong Taek; Choi, Young Wook; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Yoon, Moon Soo

    2005-10-01

    Many reports have shown that the efficacy of intravesical therapy for bladder cancer is in part limited by the poor penetration of drugs into the urothelium. The present study evaluated the effect of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) on the absorption of intravesically administered paclitaxel in a rabbit model of bladder cancer. Urine, plasma, and tissue pharmacokinetics were determined in rabbits treated for 120 min with paclitaxel (500 microg/20 ml) by intravesical instillation. Two formulations of GMO/paclitaxel were evaluated using different proportions of water, 15 and 30%, and Taxol was used as a control. Animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and necropsy was performed. 120 min after instillation, the bladder was emptied and excised. In the urine, paclitaxel concentration was decreased by 39.6 and 41.2% in the two experimental groups and by 25.2% in the control group. The paclitaxel concentrations in the urothelium were 53 and 56% of the urine concentration in both experimental groups, but 11% in the control group. The concentration then declined exponentially in the underlying capillary-perfused tissues, reaching equilibrium at a depth of 1,400-1,700 microm. The plasma concentrations were extremely low compared with concentrations in urine and bladder tissues and were not associated with clinical toxicity. We conclude that GMO has a significantly increased bioadhesiveness to bladder mucosa. Therefore, intravesical administration of GMO/paclitaxel/water provides a significant advantage for drugs targeting the bladder tissue, and paclitaxel represents a viable option for intravesical bladder cancer therapy. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Establishment of paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cell line and nude mice models, and underlying multidrug resistance mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-Ying; Hu, Sa-Sa; Dong, Qian; Cai, Jiang-Xia; Zhang, Wei-Peng; Sun, Jin-Yao; Wang, Tao-Tao; Xie, Jiao; He, Hai-Rong; Xing, Jian-Feng; Lu, Jun; Dong, Ya-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignant tumor which affects health of women and multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main factors leading to failure of chemotherapy. This study was conducted to establish paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cell line and nude mice models to explore underlying mechanisms of MDR. The breast cancer drug-sensitive cell line MCF-7 (MCF-7/S) was exposed in stepwise escalating paclitaxel (TAX) to induce a resistant cell line MCF-7/TAX. Cell sensitivity to drugs and growth curves were measured by MTT assay. Changes of cell morphology and ultrastructure were examined by optical and electron microscopy. The cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, expression of proteins related to breast cancer occurrence and MDR was tested by immunocytochemistry. In Vivo, nude mice were injected with MCF-7/S and MCF-7/TAX cells and weights and tumor sizes were observed after paclitaxel treatment. In addition, proteins involved breast cancer and MDR were detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared to MCF-7/S, MCF-7/TAX cells had a higher resistance to paclitaxel, cross-resistance and prolonged doubling time. Moreover, MCF-7/TAX showed obvious alterations of ultrastructure. Estrogen receptor (ER) expression was low in drug resistant cells and tumors while expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and Ki-67 was up-regulated. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), lung resistance-related protein (LRP) and glutathione-S-transferase-π (GST-π) involved in the MDR phenotype of resistant cells and tumors were all overexpressed. The underlying MDR mechanism of breast cancer may involve increased expression of P-gp, LRP and GST-π.

  17. Predicting the dynamics of bacterial growth inhibition by ribosome-targeting antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greulich, Philip; Doležal, Jakub; Scott, Matthew; Evans, Martin R.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how antibiotics inhibit bacteria can help to reduce antibiotic use and hence avoid antimicrobial resistance—yet few theoretical models exist for bacterial growth inhibition by a clinically relevant antibiotic treatment regimen. In particular, in the clinic, antibiotic treatment is time-dependent. Here, we use a theoretical model, previously applied to steady-state bacterial growth, to predict the dynamical response of a bacterial cell to a time-dependent dose of ribosome-targeting antibiotic. Our results depend strongly on whether the antibiotic shows reversible transport and/or low-affinity ribosome binding (‘low-affinity antibiotic’) or, in contrast, irreversible transport and/or high affinity ribosome binding (‘high-affinity antibiotic’). For low-affinity antibiotics, our model predicts that growth inhibition depends on the duration of the antibiotic pulse, and can show a transient period of very fast growth following removal of the antibiotic. For high-affinity antibiotics, growth inhibition depends on peak dosage rather than dose duration, and the model predicts a pronounced post-antibiotic effect, due to hysteresis, in which growth can be suppressed for long times after the antibiotic dose has ended. These predictions are experimentally testable and may be of clinical significance.

  18. Predicting the dynamics of bacterial growth inhibition by ribosome-targeting antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Greulich, Philip; Doležal, Jakub; Scott, Matthew; Evans, Martin R; Allen, Rosalind J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how antibiotics inhibit bacteria can help to reduce antibiotic use and hence avoid antimicrobial resistance—yet few theoretical models exist for bacterial growth inhibition by a clinically relevant antibiotic treatment regimen. In particular, in the clinic, antibiotic treatment is time-dependent. Here, we use a theoretical model, previously applied to steady-state bacterial growth, to predict the dynamical response of a bacterial cell to a time-dependent dose of ribosome-targeting antibiotic. Our results depend strongly on whether the antibiotic shows reversible transport and/or low-affinity ribosome binding (‘low-affinity antibiotic’) or, in contrast, irreversible transport and/or high affinity ribosome binding (‘high-affinity antibiotic’). For low-affinity antibiotics, our model predicts that growth inhibition depends on the duration of the antibiotic pulse, and can show a transient period of very fast growth following removal of the antibiotic. For high-affinity antibiotics, growth inhibition depends on peak dosage rather than dose duration, and the model predicts a pronounced post-antibiotic effect, due to hysteresis, in which growth can be suppressed for long times after the antibiotic dose has ended. These predictions are experimentally testable and may be of clinical significance. PMID:28714461

  19. Delivery of paclitaxel across cellular barriers using a dendrimer-based nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Teow, Huey Minn; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Najlah, Mohammad; Yusof, Siti R; Abbott, N Joan; D'Emanuele, Antony

    2013-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a third-generation (G3) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-based carrier to enhance the permeability of paclitaxel (pac) and to overcome cellular barriers. G3 dendrimers were surface modified with lauryl chains (L) and conjugated with paclitaxel (pac) via a glutaric anhydride (glu) linker, followed by labeling with FITC. Biological evaluation of the dendrimer and conjugates was conducted using the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) and primary cultured porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs). LDH assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the dendrimer and conjugates. Cytotoxicity studies showed that the conjugation of lauryl chains and paclitaxel on G3 dendrimer significantly (p<0.05) increased the cytotoxicity against both cell types. Permeability studies of dendrimer-drug conjugates demonstrated an increase in the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) in both apical to basolateral A→B and basolateral to apical B→A directions across both cell monolayers compared to unmodified G3 and free drug. The B→A P(app) of paclitaxel was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the A→B P(app), indicating active function of P-gp efflux transporter system in both cell models. L6-G3-glu-pac conjugate had approximately 12-fold greater permeability across both cell monolayers than that of paclitaxel alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of paclitaxel as adjuvant treatment for benign cicatricial airway stenosis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Juan; Wang, Yu-Ling; Xu, Min

    2016-12-01

    Benign cicatricial airway stenosis (BCAS) is a potentially life-threatening disease. Recurrence occurs frequently after endoscopic treatment. Paclitaxel is known to prevent restenosis, but its clinical efficacy and safety is undetermined. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the efficacy and associated complications of paclitaxel as adjuvant treatment for BCAS of different etiologies. The study cohort included 28 patients with BCAS resulting from tuberculosis, intubation, tracheotomy, and other etiologies. All patients were treated at the Department of Respiratory Diseases, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China, between January 2010 and August 2014. After primary treatment by balloon dilation, cryotherapy, and/or high-frequency needle-knife treatment, paclitaxel was applied to the airway mucosa at the site of stenosis using a newly developed local instillation catheter. The primary outcome measures were the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel as adjuvant treatment, and the incidence of complications was observed as well. According to our criteria for evaluating the clinical effects on BCAS, 24 of the 28 cases achieved durable remission, three cases had remission, and one case showed no remission. Thus, the durable remission rate was 85.7%, and the combined effective rate was 96.4%. No differences in outcomes were observed among the different BCAS etiologies (P=0.144), and few complications were observed. Our results indicated that paclitaxel as an adjuvant treatment has greater efficacy than previously reported BCAS treatment methods.

  1. Loxoprofen sodium suppresses mouse tumor growth by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Akio; Ebihara, Satoru; Takahashi, Hidenori; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest the anti-tumor effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In this study it was shown that the most popular NSAID in Japan, loxoprofen sodium (LOX), inhibited in vivo growth of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), whereas LOX did not affect the proliferation and viability of LLC cells in vitro. Intratumoral vessel density in LOX-treated mice was significantly lower than that of mice without treatment. Intratumoral expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA were attenuated by the LOX treatment. LOX suppressed both intratumoral and systemic VEGF protein in LLC-implanted mice. LOX also inhibited tubular formation of primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, presumably due to the inhibition of VEGF. In patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, LOX medication (120 mg/day) for a week significantly decreased the plasma VEGF level. These results suggest that LOX may have potent anti-cancer effects in patients with advanced NSCLC.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of docetaxel versus weekly paclitaxel in adjuvant treatment of regional breast cancer in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Webber-Foster, Rachel; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Rivalland, Gareth; Blakely, Tony

    2014-07-01

    There have been recent important changes to adjuvant regimens and costs of taxanes for the treatment of early breast cancer, requiring a re-evaluation of comparative cost effectiveness. In particular, weekly paclitaxel is now commonly used but has not been subjected to cost-effectiveness analysis. Our aim was to estimate the cost effectiveness of adjuvant docetaxel and weekly paclitaxel versus each other, and compared with standard 3-weekly paclitaxel, in women aged ≥25 years diagnosed with regional breast cancer in New Zealand. A macrosimulation Markov model was used, with a lifetime horizon and health system perspective. The model compared 3-weekly docetaxel and weekly paclitaxel versus standard 3-weekly paclitaxel (E1199 regimen) in the hospital setting. Data on overall survival and toxicities (febrile neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy) were derived from relevant published clinical trials. Epidemiological and cost data were derived from New Zealand datasets. Health outcomes were measured with health-adjusted life-years (HALYs), similar to quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs included intervention and health system costs in year 2011 values, with 3% per annum discounting on costs and HALYs. The mean HALY gain per patient compared with standard 3-weekly paclitaxel was 0.51 with weekly paclitaxel and 0.21 with docetaxel, while incremental costs were $NZ 12,284 and $NZ 4,021, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of docetaxel versus 3-weekly paclitaxel was $NZ 19,400 (purchasing power parity [PPP]-adjusted $US 13,100) per HALY gained, and the ICER of weekly paclitaxel versus docetaxel was $NZ 27,100 ($US 18,300) per HALY gained. In terms of net monetary benefit, weekly paclitaxel was the optimal strategy for willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds >$NZ 27,000 per HALY gained. However, the model was highly sensitive to uncertainty around survival differences, while toxicity-related morbidity had little impact. Thus, if it was assumed

  3. Release of paclitaxel from polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microparticles and discs under irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Ng, C W; Win, K Y; Shoemakers, P; Lee, T K Y; Feng, S S; Wang, C H

    2003-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a promising anti-cancer drug as well as a radiosensitizer for chemotherapy and radiotherapy applications. Because of the poor solubility of paclitaxel in water and most pharmaceutical reagents, it is usually formulated with an adjuvant called Cremophor EL, which causes severe side effects. This work develops new dosage forms of paclitaxel for controlled release application, which do not require the adjuvant and, thus, can avoid its associated side effects. Paclitaxel was encapsulated into the PLGA matrix with various additives such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol (Vitamin E TPGS). These additives were used to enhance the release rate of paclitaxel from the polymer matrix. Spray-drying and an hydraulic press were used to prepare paclitaxel-PLGA microspheres and discs. The microspheres and discs were given different irradiation doses to investigate their effects on the surface morphology (characterized by SEM, AFM and XPS) and in vitro release properties. There seems to be a small effect of the ionizing radiation on various formulations. Although the irradiation did not cause observable changes on the morphology of the polymer matrix, the release rate can be enhanced by a few per cent. It was found that PEG has the highest enhancement effect for release rate among all the additives investigated in this study.

  4. Prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition-induced growth arrest of human gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kanayo; Sakaguchi, Minoru, E-mail: sakaguti@gly.oups.ac.jp; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We examined the effects of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibition on p53 null gastric cancer cell growth. •POP inhibition-induced cell growth suppression was associated with an increase in a quiescent G{sub 0} state. •POP might regulate the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle. -- Abstract: Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase that hydrolyzes post-proline peptide bonds in peptides that are <30 amino acids in length. We recently reported that POP inhibition suppressed the growth of human neuroblastoma cells. The growth suppression was associated with pronounced G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle arrest and increased levels of the CDKmore » inhibitor p27{sup kip1} and the tumor suppressor p53. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of POP inhibition-induced cell growth arrest using a human gastric cancer cell line, KATO III cells, which had a p53 gene deletion. POP specific inhibitors, 3-((4-[2-(E)-styrylphenoxy]butanoyl)-L-4-hydroxyprolyl)-thiazolidine (SUAM-14746) and benzyloxycarbonyl-thioprolyl-thioprolinal, or RNAi-mediated POP knockdown inhibited the growth of KATO III cells irrespective of their p53 status. SUAM-14746-induced growth inhibition was associated with G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle phase arrest and increased levels of p27{sup kip1} in the nuclei and the pRb2/p130 protein expression. Moreover, SUAM-14746-mediated cell cycle arrest of KATO III cells was associated with an increase in the quiescent G{sub 0} state, defined by low level staining for the proliferation marker, Ki-67. These results indicate that POP may be a positive regulator of cell cycle progression by regulating the exit from and/or reentry into the cell cycle by KATO III cells.« less

  5. Paclitaxel Encapsulated in Halloysite Clay Nanotubes for Intestinal and Intracellular Delivery.

    PubMed

    Yendluri, Raghuvara; Lvov, Yuri; de Villiers, Melgardt M; Vinokurov, Vladimir; Naumenko, Ekaterina; Tarasova, Evgenya; Fakhrullin, Rawil

    2017-10-01

    Naturally formed halloysite tubules have a length of 1 μm and lumens with a diameter of 12-15 nm which can be loaded with drugs. Halloysite's biocompatibility allows for its safe delivering to cells at a concentration of up to 0.5 mg/mL. We encapsulated the anticancer drug paclitaxel in halloysite and evaluated the drug release kinetics in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. To facilitate maximum drug release in intestinal tract, halloysite tubes were coated with the pH-responsive polymer poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate). Release kinetics indicated a triggered drug release pattern at higher pH, corresponding to digestive tract environment. Tablets containing halloysite, loaded with paclitaxel, as a compression excipient were formulated with drug release occurring at a sustained rate. In vitro anticancer effects of paclitaxel-loaded halloysite nanotubes were evaluated on human cancer cells. In all the treated cell samples, polyploid nuclei of different sizes and fragmented chromatin were observed, indicating a high therapeutic effect of halloysite formulated paclitaxel. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized phase II study of sequential carboplatin plus paclitaxel and gefitinib in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: Long-term follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Emi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Kanda, Shintaro; Goto, Yasushi; Ohe, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib was initially approved in Japan in 2002 for the treatment of advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the optimal order of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel) and gefitinib administration has not been determined. We conducted a randomized phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by gefitinib vs. gefitinib followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel to select a candidate for further development in a phase III study of chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC, regardless of their EGFR mutation status. A total of 97 patients meeting this description were randomly assigned to arm A (carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by gefitinib; n=49) or B (gefitinib followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel; n=48) from June, 2003 to October, 2005. Carboplatin and paclitaxel were administered in 4 cycles every 3 weeks; gefitinib was continued until disease progression or development of unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall survival; the secondary endpoints were response rate and adverse event prevalence. The median overall follow-up was 65.1 months (range, 28.7-75.1 months). The major toxicities were hematological (carboplatin and paclitaxel) or skin rash, diarrhea and hepatic dysfunction (gefitinib). Interstitial lung disease was observed in 1 patient from each arm. In arms A and B, the carboplatin and paclitaxel response rate, gefitinib response rate, and median survival durations were 34.8 and 26.5%, 33.3 and 35.7%, and 18.8 and 17.2 months, respectively. Arm A was selected for a subsequent phase III study.

  7. Paclitaxel (3-hour infusion) followed by carboplatin (24 hours after paclitaxel): a phase II study in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, D F; Desai, P; Zhu, Y W

    1997-08-01

    This phase II study was performed to investigate the efficacy of a 3-hour 225 mg/m2 paclitaxel infusion (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) followed 24 hours later by a 30-minute infusion of carboplatin (dosed to an area under the concentration-time curve of 6) in patients with stage IIIA, IIIB, or IV non-small cell lung cancer. Patients received chemotherapy and were monitored for toxicity, response, quality of life, and survival. Paclitaxel and carboplatin pharmacokinetics were also determined with the first cycle of chemotherapy. Eleven men have been treated to date. Eight were white and three black, with a median age of 65 years. All patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The regimen was well tolerated, with no deaths or grade 4 toxicities noted. The most common grade 3 toxicity was neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and parasthesias (observed in <10% of cycles). The overall response rate was 57% (14% complete and 43% partial responses). Quality of life improved in most patients. Physical and emotional well-being improved in 57%, functional well-being in 43%, and social/family well-being in 14% of patients. Pharmacokinetic data are being analyzed by limited sampling technique to predict the paclitaxel area under the concentration-time curve. This unique schedule of paclitaxel and carboplatin is well tolerated and active, and is associated with improvements in various aspects of quality of life.

  8. Controlled release strategy of paclitaxel by conjugating to matrix metalloproteinases-2 sensitive peptide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Changjiang; Yi, Xiulin; Kong, Dexin; Chen, Ligong; Min, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Peptide drug conjugates offer a novel strategy to achieve controlled drug release. This approach avoids the clinical obstacles of non-specific toxicity and overall drug resistance of conventional cytotoxic agents, such as paclitaxel. MMP2 plays important functions in tumour proliferation and metastasis. Herein, we conjugated the paclitaxel with a hexapeptide which is specific recognized by MMP2 protein. The conjugate is dissociated upon the MMP2 specific proteolysis at COOH terminal of hexapeptide, PVGLIG. The results clearly indicated that the PVGLIG-paclitaxel conjugate significantly enhanced the tumor specificity against HT-1080 and U87-MG tumour cells. Our finding suggested that the hexapeptide PVGLIG is capable to act as a controlled and sustained drug carrier of paclitaxel for the treatment against tumour proliferation and metastasis with high MMP2 expression. PMID:27447567

  9. Icariin, a flavonoid with anti-cancer effects, alleviated paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in a SIRT1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yulong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Liang; Duan, Shunyuan; Tang, Jing; Xu, Wei; Li, Aiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Background One of the most common side effects of paclitaxel was dosage-dependently painful neuropathy. Various reports indicated that spinal neuroinflammation was involved in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. This study investigated the effect of icariin on paclitaxel-induced neuroinflammation and peripheral neuropathy in rats. Methods Two parts were included in this study. In part one, the effect of icariin on paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain was investigated. Mechanical thresholds were measured as primary outcomes. Production of proinflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 β, and interleukin-6), activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB(p65)) signal, and activation of astrocytes were detected as secondary outcomes. Spinal Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression, H4 acetylation, and NAD + content were measured to investigate the effect of icariin on spinal SIRT1 signal pathway. In part two, the role of SIRT1 signal on icariin-induced effect in rats was investigated, and EX527, a SIRT1 inhibitor, was employed. Results The results showed paclitaxel treatment induced significant decrease in mechanical thresholds. Paclitaxel treatment also induced NF-κB(p65) activation and upregulation of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). Paclitaxel also induced astrocyte activation in the spinal cord. However, 100 mg/kg icariin treatment significantly alleviated paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia and spinal neuroinflammation. Furthermore, icariin treatment dosage-dependently reversed paclitaxel-induced SIRT1 downregulation and H4 acetylation. EX527, a selective SIRT1 inhibitor, completely reversed icariin-induced anti-neuroinflammation and anti-allodynia effects in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain rats. Conclusions This meant that spinal SIRT1 activation was involved in icariin-induced effects in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain rats. Icariin could be a potential agent for the treatment of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain.

  10. A phase I study of daily afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family blocker, in combination with weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Suder, A; Ang, J E; Kyle, F; Harris, D; Rudman, S; Kristeleit, R; Solca, F; Uttenreuther-Fischer, M; Pemberton, K; Pelling, K; Schnell, D; de Bono, J; Spicer, J

    2015-11-01

    This phase I study evaluated afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family blocker, plus paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours likely to express human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1/EGFR) or HER2. Oral afatinib was combined with intravenous paclitaxel (80mg/m(2); days 1, 8 and 15 every four weeks) starting at 20mg once daily and escalated to 40 and 50mg in successive cohorts of ⩾3 patients. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of afatinib combined with paclitaxel. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity. Sixteen patients were treated. Dose-limiting toxicities with afatinib 50mg were fatigue and mucositis. The MTD was determined as afatinib 40mg with paclitaxel 80mg/m(2), which proved tolerable with repeated dosing. Frequent adverse events (AEs) included diarrhoea (94%), fatigue (81%), rash/acne (81%), decreased appetite (69%) and inflammation of mucosal membranes (69%); no grade 4 treatment-related AEs were observed. Five (31%) confirmed partial responses were observed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (n=3), oesophageal cancer and cholangiocarcinoma; eight (50%) patients remained on study for ⩾6months. Pharmacokinetic parameters of afatinib and paclitaxel were similar for single administration or in combination. The MTD and recommended phase II dose of once-daily afatinib combined with paclitaxel 80mg/m(2) (days 1, 8 and 15 every four weeks) was 40mg. AEs at or below this dose were generally manageable with repeated dosing. No pharmacokinetic interactions were observed. This combination demonstrated promising antitumour activity. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00809133. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis suppresses tumour growth in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. Jin; Li, Bing; Winer, Jane; Armanini, Mark; Gillett, Nancy; Phillips, Heidi S.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    1993-04-01

    THE development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis, wound healing and corpus luteum formation1,2. Blood vessel neoformation is also important in the pathogenesis of many disorders1-5, particularly rapid growth and metastasis of solid tumours3-5. There are several potential mediators of tumour angiogenesis, including basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors, tumour necrosis factor-α and transforming factors-α and -β 1,2. But it is unclear whether any of these agents actually mediates angiogenesis and tumour growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and an angiogenesis inducer released by a variety of tumour cells and expressed in human tumours in situ. To test whether VEGF may be a tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo, we injected human rhabdomyosar-coma, glioblastoma multiforme or leiomyosarcoma cell lines into nude mice. We report here that treatment with a monoclonal antibody specific for VEGF inhibited the growth of the tumours, but had no effect on the growth rate of the tumour cells In vitro. The density of vessels was decreased in the antibody-treated tumours. These findings demonstrate that inhibition of the action of an angiogenic factor spontaneously produced by tumour cells may suppress tumour growth in vivo.

  12. Paclitaxel Plasma Concentration after the First Infusion Predicts Treatment-Limiting Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Kidwell, Kelley M; Vangipuram, Kiran; Li, Feng; Pai, Manjunath P; Burness, Monika; Griggs, Jennifer J; Schott, Anne F; Van Poznak, Catherine; Hayes, Daniel F; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Henry, N Lynn

    2018-04-27

    Purpose: Paclitaxel exposure, specifically the maximum concentration ( C max ) and amount of time the concentration remains above 0.05 μmol/L ( T c >0.05 ), has been associated with the occurrence of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. The objective of this study was to validate the relationship between paclitaxel exposure and peripheral neuropathy. Experimental Design: Patients with breast cancer receiving paclitaxel 80 mg/m 2 × 12 weekly doses were enrolled in an observational clinical study (NCT02338115). Paclitaxel plasma concentration was measured at the end of and 16-26 hours after the first infusion to estimate C max and T c >0.05 Patient-reported peripheral neuropathy was collected via CIPN20 at each dose, and an 8-item sensory subscale (CIPN8) was used in the primary analysis to test for an association with T c >0.05 Secondary analyses were conducted using C max as an alternative exposure parameter and testing each parameter with a secondary endpoint of the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy-induced treatment disruption. Results: In 60 subjects included in the analysis, the increase in CIPN8 during treatment was associated with baseline CIPN8, cumulative dose, and relative dose intensity ( P < 0.05), but neither T c >0.05 ( P = 0.27) nor C max ( P = 0.99). In analyses of the secondary endpoint, cumulative dose (OR = 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-1.80; P = 0.0008) and T c >0.05 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.06-3.01; P = 0.029) or C max (OR = 2.74; 95% CI, 1.45-5.20; P = 0.002) were associated with peripheral neuropathy-induced treatment disruption. Conclusions: Paclitaxel exposure is predictive of the occurrence of treatment-limiting peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving weekly paclitaxel for breast cancer. Studies are warranted to determine whether exposure-guided dosing enhances treatment effectiveness and/or prevents peripheral neuropathy in these patients. Clin Cancer Res; 1-9. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer

  13. Growth of antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Quesada, A.; Mouget, J.L.; Vincent, W.F.

    A mat-forming cyanobacterium (Phormidium murayi West and West) isolated from an ice-shelf pond in Antarctica was grown under white light combined with a range of UVA and UVB irradiance. The 4-day growth rate decreased under increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with a ninefold greater response to UVB relative to UVA. In vivo absorbance spectra showed that UVA and to a greater extent UVB caused a decrease in phycocyanin/chlorophyll a and an increase in carotenoids/chlorophyll a. The phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio was closely and positively correlated to the UVB-inhibited growth rate. Under fixed spectral gradients of UV radiation, the growth inhibition effect wasmore » dominated by UVB. However, at specific UVB irradiances the inhibition of growth depended on the ratio of UVB to UVA, and growth rates increased linearly with increasing UVA. These results are consistent with the view that UVB inhibition represents the balance between damage and repair processes that are each controlled by separate wavebands. They also underscore the need to consider UV spectral balance in laboratory and field assays of UVB toxicity. 49 refs., 6 figs.« less

  14. Is a reduction in radiation lung volume and dose necessary with paclitaxel chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Taghian, Alphonse G; Assaad, Sherif I; Niemierko, Andrzej; Floyd, Scott R; Powell, Simon N

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate and quantify the effect of irradiated lung volume, radiation dose, and paclitaxel chemotherapy on the development of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in breast cancer patients with positive lymph nodes. We previously reported the incidence of RP among 41 patients with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) and adjuvant paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy. We recorded the central lung distance, a measure of the extent of lung included in the RT volume, in these patients. We used this measure and the historical and observed rates of RP in our series to model the lung tolerance to RT in patients receiving chemotherapy (CHT) both with and without paclitaxel. To evaluate the risk factors for the development of RP, we performed a case-control study comparing paclitaxel-treated patients who developed RP with those who did not, and a second case-control study comparing patients receiving paclitaxel in addition to standard CHT/RT (n = 41) and controls receiving standard CHT/RT alone (n = 192). The actuarial rate of RP in the paclitaxel-treated group was 15.4% compared with 0.9% among breast cancer patients treated with RT and non-paclitaxel-containing CHT. Our mathematical model found that the effective lung tolerance for patients treated with paclitaxel was reduced by approximately 24%. No statistically significant difference was found with regard to the dose delivered to specific radiation fields, dose per fraction, central lung distance, or percentage of lung irradiated in the case-control study of paclitaxel-treated patients who developed RP compared with those who did not. In the comparison of 41 patients receiving RT and CHT with paclitaxel and 192 matched controls receiving RT and CHT without paclitaxel, the only significant differences identified were the more frequent use of a supraclavicular radiation field and a decrease in the RT lung dose among the paclitaxel-treated patients. This finding indicates that the major factor associated with development

  15. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2014-11-01

    Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ling-Pin; Li, Yan; Zou, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Chi; Lei, Wei; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Shi-An

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a deadly disorder is associated with excessive growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial (HPAECs) and smooth muscle (HPASMCs) cells. Current therapies primarily aim at promoting vasodilation, which only ameliorates clinical symptoms without a cure. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, and mediates many cellular function including cell growth. However, the roles of ITE in human lung endothelial cells remain elusive. Herein, we tested a hypothesis that ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells via AhR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize AhR expression in human lung tissues. The crystal violet method and MTT assay were used to determine ITE's effects on growth of HPAECs. The AhR activation in HPAECs was confirmed using Western blotting and RT-qPCR. The role of AhR in ITE-affected proliferation of HPAECs was assessed using siRNA knockdown method followed by the crystal violet method. Immunohistochemistry revealed that AhR was present in human lung tissues, primarily in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of pulmonary veins and arteries, as well as in bronchial and alveolar sac epithelia. We also found that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation of HPAECs with a maximum inhibition of 83% at 20 µM after 6 days of treatment. ITE rapidly decreased AhR protein levels, while it increased mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP), family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1) and B1 (CYP1B1), indicating activation of the AhR/CYP1A1 and AhR/CYP1B1 pathways in HPAECs. The AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression, whereas it did not significantly alter ITE-inhibited growth of HPAECs. ITE suppresses growth of HPAECs independent of AhR, suggesting that ITE may play an important role in preventing excessive growth of lung endothelial cells.

  17. MutY-Homolog (MYH) inhibition reduces pancreatic cancer cell growth and increases chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sharbeen, George; Youkhana, Janet; Mawson, Amanda; McCarroll, Joshua; Nunez, Andrea; Biankin, Andrew; Johns, Amber; Goldstein, David; Phillips, Phoebe

    2017-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PC) have a poor prognosis due to metastases and chemoresistance. PC is characterized by extensive fibrosis, which creates a hypoxic microenvironment, and leads to increased chemoresistance and intracellular oxidative stress. Thus, proteins that protect against oxidative stress are potential therapeutic targets for PC. A key protein that maintains genomic integrity against oxidative damage is MutY-Homolog (MYH). No prior studies have investigated the function of MYH in PC cells. Using siRNA, we showed that knockdown of MYH in PC cells 1) reduced PC cell proliferation and increased apoptosis; 2) further decreased PC cell growth in the presence of oxidative stress and chemotherapy agents (gemcitabine, paclitaxel and vincristine); 3) reduced PC cell metastatic potential; and 4) decreased PC tumor growth in a subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. The results from this study suggest MYH may be a novel therapeutic target for PC that could potentially improve patient outcome by reducing PC cell survival, increasing the efficacy of existing drugs and reducing metastatic spread. PMID:27999205

  18. MutY-Homolog (MYH) inhibition reduces pancreatic cancer cell growth and increases chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sharbeen, George; Youkhana, Janet; Mawson, Amanda; McCarroll, Joshua; Nunez, Andrea; Biankin, Andrew; Johns, Amber; Goldstein, David; Phillips, Phoebe

    2017-02-07

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PC) have a poor prognosis due to metastases and chemoresistance. PC is characterized by extensive fibrosis, which creates a hypoxic microenvironment, and leads to increased chemoresistance and intracellular oxidative stress. Thus, proteins that protect against oxidative stress are potential therapeutic targets for PC. A key protein that maintains genomic integrity against oxidative damage is MutY-Homolog (MYH). No prior studies have investigated the function of MYH in PC cells. Using siRNA, we showed that knockdown of MYH in PC cells 1) reduced PC cell proliferation and increased apoptosis; 2) further decreased PC cell growth in the presence of oxidative stress and chemotherapy agents (gemcitabine, paclitaxel and vincristine); 3) reduced PC cell metastatic potential; and 4) decreased PC tumor growth in a subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. The results from this study suggest MYH may be a novel therapeutic target for PC that could potentially improve patient outcome by reducing PC cell survival, increasing the efficacy of existing drugs and reducing metastatic spread.

  19. UV-B Inhibits Leaf Growth through Changes in Growth Regulating Factors and Gibberellin Levels1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fina, Julieta; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Prinsen, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation affects leaf growth in a wide range of species. In this work, we demonstrate that UV-B levels present in solar radiation inhibit maize (Zea mays) leaf growth without causing any other visible stress symptoms, including the accumulation of DNA damage. We conducted kinematic analyses of cell division and expansion to understand the impact of UV-B radiation on these cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that the decrease in leaf growth in UV-B-irradiated leaves is a consequence of a reduction in cell production and a shortened growth zone (GZ). To determine the molecular pathways involved in UV-B inhibition of leaf growth, we performed RNA sequencing on isolated GZ tissues of control and UV-B-exposed plants. Our results show a link between the observed leaf growth inhibition and the expression of specific cell cycle and developmental genes, including growth-regulating factors (GRFs) and transcripts for proteins participating in different hormone pathways. Interestingly, the decrease in the GZ size correlates with a decrease in the concentration of GA19, the immediate precursor of the active gibberellin, GA1, by UV-B in this zone, which is regulated, at least in part, by the expression of GRF1 and possibly other transcription factors of the GRF family. PMID:28400494

  20. [Effect of Radix euphorbiae pekinensis extract on bioavailability of paclitaxel after their oral co-administration].

    PubMed

    Li, Minghua; Peng, Li; Yang, Fuheng; Liu, Sijia; Wang, Shengqi

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of Radix euphorbiae pekinensis extract on the permeability and bioavailability of paclitaxel co-administered orally. Based on Ussing Chamber and in vivo experiment, the permeability and bioavailability of paclitaxel were evaluated after oral co-administration with radix euphorbiae pekinensis in rats. The contents of paclitaxel in the permeates and the blood samples were determined using HPLC and LC-MS/MS method, respectively. In Radix euphorbiae pekinensis co-administration group, the Papp of the mucosal-to-serosal (M-S) transport or serosal-to-mucosal transport (S-M) of paclitaxel in the jejunum or ileum segment differed significantly from those in verapamil co-administration group and blank control group (P<0.05), but the Papp of S-M transport in the colon showed no significant difference from that in the blank control group. In the blank group, the average absolute bioavailability (AB%) of orally administered paclitaxel was only 2.81%, compared to that of 7.63% in radix euphorbiae pekinensis group. The average AB% in verapamil group was about 1.5 times that of the blank group. Co-administration of Radix euphorbiae pekinensis extract can increase the bioavailability of orally administered paclitaxel.

  1. Growth regulators in connective tissue. Systemic administration of an aortic extract inhibits tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, R.; Schumacher, B.; Meineke, C.; Matijevitch, B.; Kuettner, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    A low-molecular-weight fraction prepared from extracts of bovine aorta inhibits the growth of a transplantable mammary tumor and a fibrosarcoma in mice when injected systemically. It also inhibits the growth of the fibrosarcoma in cell culture. The effect on the fibrosarcoma is much more marked than on the mammary tumor. Since the extract is more effective against the fibrosarcoma and is known to inhibit the growth of endothelial cells, it appears that the enhanced effect on this tumor is due to its activity on the endothelial cells of the host and the tumor cells themselves. The material injected is enriched in an antiproteinase we have previously isolated, which has anticollagneolytic activity and is presumed to be the effector molecule. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:645813

  2. PLGA nanoparticles codeliver paclitaxel and Stat3 siRNA to overcome cellular resistance in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen-Pin; Cheng, Fong-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Su, Wu-Chou

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effective cancer chemotherapy remains an important issue in cancer treatment, and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) activation leads to cellular resistance of anticancer agents. Polymers are ideal vectors to carry both chemotherapeutics and small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) to enhance antitumor efficacy. In this paper, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel and Stat3 siRNA were successfully synthesized, and their applications in cancer cells were investigated. Methods: Firstly, paclitaxel was enclosed by PLGA nanoparticles through solvent evaporation. They were then coated with cationic polyethylenimine polymer (PLGA-PEI-TAX), enabling it to carry Stat3 siRNA on its surface through electrostatic interactions (PLGA-PEI-TAX-S3SI). The size, zeta potential, deliver efficacy, and release profile of the PLGA nanocomplexes were characterized in vitro. The cellular uptake, intracellular nanoparticle trajectory, and subsequent cellular events were evaluated after treatment with various PLGA nanocomplexes in human lung cancer A549 cells and A549-derived paclitaxel-resistant A549/T12 cell lines with α-tubulin mutation. Results: A549 and A549/T12 cells contain constitutively activated Stat3, and silencing Stat3 by siRNA made both cancer cells more sensitive to paclitaxel. Therefore, PLGA-PEI-TAX-S3SI was synthesized to test its therapeutic role in A549 and A549/T12 cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed the size of PLGA-PEI-TAX-S3SI to be around 250 nm. PLGA-PEI nanoparticles were nontoxic. PLGA-PEI-TAX was taken up by A549 and A549/T12 cells more than free paclitaxel, and they induced more condensed microtubule bundles and had higher cytotoxicity in these cancer cells. Moreover, the yellowish fluorescence observed in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells indicates that the PLGA-PEI nanoparticles were still simultaneously delivering Oregon Green paclitaxel and cyanine-5-labeled Stat3 siRNA 3

  3. Participation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in paclitaxel-induced acute visceral and peripheral nociception in rodents.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Rigo, Flavia Karine; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Guerra, Gustavo Petri; Silva, Cássia Regina; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Ferreira, Juliano; Trevisan, Gabriela

    2018-06-05

    The clinical use of paclitaxel as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by the severe acute and chronic hypersensitivity caused when it is administered via intraperitoneal or intravenous routes. Thus far, evidence has suggested that transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has a key role in the chronic neuropathy induced by paclitaxel. Despite this, the role of TRPV1 in paclitaxel -related acute nociception, especially the development of visceral nociception, has not been evaluated. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the participation of TRPV1 in a model of acute nociception induced by paclitaxel in rats and mice. A single intraperitoneal (i.p.) paclitaxel administration (1 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an immediate visceral nociception response 1 h after administration, caused mechanical and heat hypersensitivity, and diminished burrowing behaviour 24 h after administration. These nociceptive responses were reduced by SB-366791 treatment (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a TRPV1 antagonist). In addition, TRPV1-positive sensory fibre ablation (using resiniferatoxin, 200 µg/kg, s.c.) reduced visceral nociception and mechanical or heat hypersensitivity caused by paclitaxel injection. Similarly, TRPV1 deficient mice showed a pronounced reduction in mechanical allodynia to paclitaxel acute injection and did not develop heat hypersensitivity. Moreover, 24 h after its injection, paclitaxel induced chemical hypersensitivity to capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist, 0.01 nmol/site) and increased TRPV1 immunoreactivity in the dorsal root ganglion and sciatic nerve. In conclusion, TRPV1 is involved in mechanical and heat hypersensitivity and spontaneous-pain behaviour induced 24 h after a single paclitaxel injection. This receptor is also involved in visceral nociception induced immediately after paclitaxel administration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Loss of FBXW7 and accumulation of MCL1 and PLK1 promote paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gasca, Jessica; Flores, Maria Luz; Giráldez, Servando; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Tortolero, María; Romero, Francisco; Japón, Miguel A; Sáez, Carmen

    2016-08-16

    FBXW7 is a component of SCF (complex of SKP1, CUL1 and F-box-protein)-type ubiquitin ligases that targets several oncoproteins for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. FBXW7 regulates cellular apoptosis by targeting MCL1 for ubiquitination. Recently, we identified PLK1 as a new substrate of FBXW7 modulating the intra-S-phase DNA-damage checkpoint. Taxanes are frequently used in breast cancer treatments, but the acquisition of resistance makes these treatments ineffective. We investigated the role of FBXW7 and their substrates MCL1 and PLK1 in regulating the apoptotic response to paclitaxel treatment in breast cancer cells and their expression in breast cancer tissues. Paclitaxel-sensitive MDA-MB-468 and a paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-468R subclone were used to study the role of FBXW7 and substrates in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Forced expression of FBXW7 or downregulation of MCL1 or PLK1 restored sensitivity to paclitaxel in MDA-MB-468R cells. By contrary, FBXW7-silenced MDA-MB-468 cells became resistant to paclitaxel. The expression of FBXW7 and substrates were studied in 296 invasive carcinomas by immunohistochemistry and disease-free survival was analyzed in a subset of patients treated with paclitaxel. In breast cancer tissues, loss of FBXW7 correlated with adverse prognosis markers and loss of FBXW7 and MCL1 or PLK1 accumulation were associated with diminished disease-free survival in paclitaxel-treated patients. We conclude that FBXW7 regulates the response to paclitaxel by targeting MCL1 and PLK1 in breast cancer cells and thus targeting these substrates may be a valuable adjunct for paclitaxel treatment. Also, FBXW7, MCL1 and PLK1 may be relevant predictive markers of tumor progression and response to paclitaxel treatment.

  5. Loss of FBXW7 and accumulation of MCL1 and PLK1 promote paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gasca, Jessica; Flores, Maria Luz; Giráldez, Servando; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Tortolero, María; Romero, Francisco; Japón, Miguel A.; Sáez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    FBXW7 is a component of SCF (complex of SKP1, CUL1 and F-box-protein)-type ubiquitin ligases that targets several oncoproteins for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. FBXW7 regulates cellular apoptosis by targeting MCL1 for ubiquitination. Recently, we identified PLK1 as a new substrate of FBXW7 modulating the intra-S-phase DNA-damage checkpoint. Taxanes are frequently used in breast cancer treatments, but the acquisition of resistance makes these treatments ineffective. We investigated the role of FBXW7 and their substrates MCL1 and PLK1 in regulating the apoptotic response to paclitaxel treatment in breast cancer cells and their expression in breast cancer tissues. Paclitaxel-sensitive MDA-MB-468 and a paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-468R subclone were used to study the role of FBXW7 and substrates in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Forced expression of FBXW7 or downregulation of MCL1 or PLK1 restored sensitivity to paclitaxel in MDA-MB-468R cells. By contrary, FBXW7-silenced MDA-MB-468 cells became resistant to paclitaxel. The expression of FBXW7 and substrates were studied in 296 invasive carcinomas by immunohistochemistry and disease-free survival was analyzed in a subset of patients treated with paclitaxel. In breast cancer tissues, loss of FBXW7 correlated with adverse prognosis markers and loss of FBXW7 and MCL1 or PLK1 accumulation were associated with diminished disease-free survival in paclitaxel-treated patients. We conclude that FBXW7 regulates the response to paclitaxel by targeting MCL1 and PLK1 in breast cancer cells and thus targeting these substrates may be a valuable adjunct for paclitaxel treatment. Also, FBXW7, MCL1 and PLK1 may be relevant predictive markers of tumor progression and response to paclitaxel treatment. PMID:27409838

  6. Platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation in heparinized whole blood.

    PubMed

    Selheim, F; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    1999-08-15

    We previously have demonstrated that human platelets have functionally active platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptors. Studies with gel-filtered platelets showed that an autocrine inhibition pathway is transduced through this tyrosine kinase receptor during platelet activation. The physiological significance of this inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor on gel-filtered platelets activation is, however, not known. In the present study, we investigated whether platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation under more physiological conditions in heparinized whole blood, which represents a more physiological condition than gel-filtered platelets. Using flow cytometric assays, we demonstrate here that platelet-derived growth factor inhibits thrombin-, thrombin receptor agonist peptide SFLLRN-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shedding of platelet-derived microparticles from the platelet plasma membrane during platelet aggregation in stirred heparinized whole blood. The inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor was dose dependent. However, under nonaggregating conditions (no stirring), we could not demonstrate any significant effect of platelet-derived growth factor on thrombin- and thrombin receptor agonist peptide-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin. Our results demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor appears to be a true antithrombotic agent only under aggregating conditions in heparinized whole blood.

  7. Inter-relationships of paclitaxel disposition, infusion duration and cremophor EL kinetics in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    van Zuylen, L; Gianni, L; Verweij, J; Mross, K; Brouwer, E; Loos, W J; Sparreboom, A

    2000-06-01

    Cremophor EL (CrEL) is a castor oil surfactant used as a vehicle for formulation of a variety of poorly water-soluble agents, including paclitaxel. Recently, we found that CrEL can influence the in vitro blood distribution of paclitaxel by reducing the free drug fraction, thereby altering drug accumulation in erythrocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical pharmacokinetics of CrEL, and to examine inter-relationships of paclitaxel disposition, infusion duration and CrEL kinetics. The CrEL plasma clearance, studied in 17 patients for a total of 28 courses, was time dependent and increased significantly with prolongation of the infusion duration from 1 to 3 to 24 h (p<0.03). An indirect response model, applied based on use of a Hill function for CrEL concentration-dependent alteration of in vivo blood distribution of paclitaxel, was used to fit experimental data of the 3 h infusion (r2=0.733; p=0.00001). Simulations for 1 and 24 h infusions using predicted parameters and CrEL kinetic data revealed that both short and prolonged administration schedules induce a low relative net change in paclitaxel blood distribution. Our pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model demonstrates that CrEL causes disproportional accumulation of paclitaxel in plasma in a 3 h schedule, but is unlikely to affect drug pharmacokinetics in this manner with alternative infusion durations.

  8. Phase II and pharmacological study of oral paclitaxel (Paxoral) plus ciclosporin in anthracycline-pretreated metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Helgason, H H; Kruijtzer, C M F; Huitema, A D R; Marcus, S G; ten Bokkel Huinink, W W; Schot, M E; Schornagel, J H; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M

    2006-10-09

    Paclitaxel is an important chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer. Paclitaxel has high affinity for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (drug efflux pump) in the gastrointestinal tract causing low and variable oral bioavailability. Previously, we demonstrated that oral paclitaxel plus the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporin (CsA) is safe and results in adequate exposure to paclitaxel. This study evaluates the activity, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel combined with CsA in breast cancer patients. Patients with measurable metastatic breast cancer were given oral paclitaxel 90 mg m-2 combined with CsA 10 mg kg-1 (30 min prior to each paclitaxel administration) twice on one day, each week. Twenty-nine patients with a median age of 50 years were entered. All patients had received prior treatments, 25 had received prior anthracycline-containing chemotherapy and 19 had three or more metastatic sites. Total number of weekly administrations was 442 (median: 15/patient) and dose intensity of 97 mg m-2 week-1. Most patients needed treatment delay and 17 patients needed dose reductions. In intention to treat analysis, the overall response rate was 52%, the median time to progression was 6.5 months and overall survival was 16 months. The pharmacokinetics revealed moderate inter- and low intrapatient variability. Weekly oral paclitaxel, combined with CsA, is active in patients with advanced breast cancer.

  9. New simulation model of multicomponent crystal growth and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wathen, Brent; Kuiper, Michael; Walker, Virginia; Jia, Zongchao

    2004-04-02

    We review a novel computational model for the study of crystal structures both on their own and in conjunction with inhibitor molecules. The model advances existing Monte Carlo (MC) simulation techniques by extending them from modeling 3D crystal surface patches to modeling entire 3D crystals, and by including the use of "complex" multicomponent molecules within the simulations. These advances makes it possible to incorporate the 3D shape and non-uniform surface properties of inhibitors into simulations, and to study what effect these inhibitor properties have on the growth of whole crystals containing up to tens of millions of molecules. The application of this extended MC model to the study of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and their effects on ice formation is reported, including the success of the technique in achieving AFP-induced ice-growth inhibition with concurrent changes to ice morphology that mimic experimental results. Simulations of ice-growth inhibition suggest that the degree of inhibition afforded by an AFP is a function of its ice-binding position relative to the underlying anisotropic growth pattern of ice. This extended MC technique is applicable to other crystal and crystal-inhibitor systems, including more complex crystal systems such as clathrates.

  10. Risk factors for the development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jetter; Raizer, Jeffrey; Hodges, James S; Gradishar, William; Allen, Jeffrey A

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel. We prospectively evaluated demographic and laboratory data in a cohort of 61 woman with breast cancer prior to paclitaxel exposure to explore factors that predispose to neuropathy development. Neuropathy was graded based on the total neuropathy score reduced version (rTNS) at baseline and at 4 months after initiation of chemotherapy. A multivariate analysis identified predictors with the strongest association with a change in rTNS. Serum albumin (P = .002), paclitaxel dose (P = .001), and body surface area (P = .006) were statistically significantly associated with a positive rTNS change (worsening neuropathy). These results suggest that poor nutritional status and obesity increase the risk of paclitaxel induced neuropathy, and that screening for these factors prior to chemotherapy exposure may improve early neuropathy detection or decrease risk with dietary modifications. © 2018 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  11. Studies on paclitaxel-loaded glyceryl monostearate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vikram Subraya; Rajyaguru, Tushar Himmatlal; Gude, Rajiv Phondu; Murthy, Rayasa S Ramchandra

    2009-09-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of Paclitaxel were prepared by modified Hot homogenization method using Glyceryl monostearate (GMS). The SLNs were characterized for its physicochemical characteristics such as mean particle size, percentage entrapment efficiency and zeta potential, which were found to be 226 nm, 92.43% and -29.4 mV, respectively. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies showed that prepared SLNs were of spherical shape. The drug retarding efficiency of the lipid (GMS) was better in pH 7.4 compared to pH 3.5. The release profile showed a tendency to follow Higuchi diffusion pattern at pH 7.4 and Peppas-Korsenmeyer model at pH 3.5. Chemosensitivity assay carried out using B16F10 cell lines showed that anti-proliferative activity of Paclitaxel was not hindered due to encapsulation.

  12. Blockade of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in chemoresistant ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Momeny, Majid; Yousefi, Hassan; Eyvani, Haniyeh; Moghaddaskho, Farima; Salehi, Ali; Esmaeili, Fatemeh; Alishahi, Zivar; Barghi, Farinaz; Vaezijoze, Somaye; Shamsaiegahkani, Sahar; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Sankanian, Ghazaleh; Sabourinejad, Zahra; Hamzehlou, Sepideh; Bashash, Davood; Aboutorabi, Elaheh S; Ghaffari, Parisa; Dehpour, Ahmad R; Tavangar, Seyyed M; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2018-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has exhibited marginal improvement in survival rate, despite advances in surgical debulking and chemotherapy regimens. Although the majority of EOC patients achieve a clinical remission after induction therapy, over 80% relapse and succumb to chemoresistant disease. In this regard, it is of paramount importance to elucidate molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways which promote therapy resistance in EOC in order to devise novel and more effective treatment strategies. In this study, we showed that activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is significantly higher in therapy-resistant EOC cells compared to chemosensitive counterparts, which was positively associated with resistance to cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel and erlotinib. Bay 11-7082, a highly selective NF-κB inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation, clonogenicity and anoikis resistance in the therapy-resistant EOC cells and induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, Bay 11-7082 decreased the expression of pro-survival, inflammatory and metastatic genes and synergistically increased anti-proliferative efficacy of cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel and erlotinib. Altogether, these findings suggest that NF-κB is an attractive therapeutic target in EOC to be exploited in translational oncology and Bay 11-7082 is a potential anti-cancer drug to overcome chemoresistance and inhibit proliferation of the EOC cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence and risk of peripheral neuropathy with nab-paclitaxel in patients with cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, L; Bu, Z; Ye, X; Zhou, Y; Zhao, Q

    2017-09-01

    Nab-paclitaxel, a Cremophor EL-free formulation of paclitaxel, is used to treat various malignancies. Peripheral neuropathy is one of its major toxicities, although the overall incidence remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the incidence of peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients treated with nab-paclitaxel and to compare the relative risk (RR) with conventional taxanes. The electronic databases were searched for relevant clinical trials. Eligible studies included phase II and III prospective clinical trials of cancer patients treated with nab-paclitaxel with toxicity profile on peripheral neuropathy. Statistical analyses were done to calculate summary incidences, RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using fixed-effects or random-effects models based on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nineteen trials were selected for the meta-analysis, yielding a total of 2878 cancer patients. The overall incidences of peripheral neuropathy (all-grade) was 51.0% (95% CI: 45.1-57.6%), and that of high-grade peripheral neuropathy was 12.4% (9.8-15.7%). The RRs of peripheral neuropathy of nab-paclitaxel compared to taxanes were not increased for all-grade and high-grade peripheral neuropathy. Nab-paclitaxel is associated with an increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy. Future clinical studies are still needed to investigate the risk reduction and possible use of nab-paclitaxel. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Delayed seizure associated with paclitaxel-Cremophor el in a patient with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracey L; Kossoff, Ellen

    2009-08-01

    Paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizer, is an effective agent for treating cancer of the breast, ovary, head and neck, and lung. Because paclitaxel is insoluble in water, it is formulated with the micelle-forming Cremophor EL. Neurologic toxicity is well described with both the drug and this carrier, with most toxicities manifesting as peripheral neuropathy, motor neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and myopathy. Toxic effects on the central nervous system, such as seizures or encephalopathy, have been rarely reported; however, the seizures reported were closely related to the time of infusion. We describe a 41-year-old woman with no history of seizures who was treated with paclitaxel for breast cancer. Four days after the drug was infused, she developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure that could not be attributed to other causes. The patient was treated with phenytoin and was able to complete her adjuvant chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel without further events. Her condition was neurologically stable without phenytoin for the next 6 months. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a possible association (score of 3) between the delayed seizure and paclitaxel or its solvent, Cremophor EL. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for seizure activity in patients who receive paclitaxel formulated with Cremophor EL.

  15. [Inhibition effect of 6-gingerol on hair growth].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Jiang, Jin-Dou; Li, Ze-Hua; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo. Firstly, Hair follicles were co-cultured with 3 different concentration of 6-gingerol for 5 days and hair elongation in three groups was measured. Secondly, The proliferative effect of 6-gingerol on DPCs was measured using MTT assay. Thirdly, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in DPCs were measured using Western blotting. In vivo study, the influence of 6-gingerol on hair growth in C57BL/6 rats was measured through topical application of 6-gingerol on the dorsal skin of each animal. The length of hair shaft in 20 microg/ml 6-Gingerol group (0.50 +/- 0.08 mm) is less than 0 microg/ml (0.66 +/- 0.19) mm and 10 microg/ml (0.64 +/- 0.03) mm 6-Gingerol group (P < 0.05). In cell culture, compared to 0 microg/ml and 5 microg/ml 6-Gingerol, 10 microg/ml 6-Gingerol can significantly inhibited the proliferation of DPCs (P < 0.05). Along with the growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased obviously. In vivo study, the hair length and density decreased a lot after using 1 mg/ml 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol can suppress human hair shaft elongation because it has pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs via increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. It might inhibit hair growth by prolonging the telogen stage in vivo.

  16. Hydroxyapatite Growth Inhibition Effect of Pellicle Statherin Peptides.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Karttunen, M; Jalkanen, J; Mussi, M C M; Liao, Y; Grohe, B; Lagugné-Labarthet, F; Siqueira, W L

    2015-08-01

    In our recent studies, we have shown that in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle is a sophisticated biological structure containing a significant portion of naturally occurring salivary peptides. From a functional aspect, the identification of peptides in the acquired enamel pellicle is of interest because many salivary proteins exhibit functional domains that maintain the activities of the native protein. Among the in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle peptides that have been newly identified, 5 peptides are derived from statherin. Here, we assessed the ability of these statherin pellicle peptides to inhibit hydroxyapatite crystal growth. In addition, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. A microplate colorimetric assay was used to quantify hydroxyapatite growth. Statherin protein, 5 statherin-derived peptides, and a peptide lacking phosphate at residues 2 and 3 were analyzed. Statherin peptide phosphorylated on residues 2 and 3 indicated a significant inhibitory effect when compared with the 5 other peptides (P < 0.05). MD simulations showed a strong affinity and fast adsorption to hydroxyapatite for phosphopeptides, whereas unphosphorylated peptides interacted weakly with the hydroxyapatite. Our data suggest that the presence of a covalently linked phosphate group (at residues 2 and 3) in statherin peptides modulates the effect of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. This study provides a mechanism to account for the composition and function of acquired enamel pellicle statherin peptides that will contribute as a base for the development of biologically stable and functional synthetic peptides for therapeutic use against dental caries and/or periodontal disease. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  17. Role of Complement in a Rat Model of Paclitaxel-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jijun; Zhang, Lingjun; Xie, Mian; Li, Yan; Huang, Ping; Saunders, Thomas L; Fox, David A; Rosenquist, Richard; Lin, Feng

    2018-06-15

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a painful and debilitating side effect of cancer chemotherapy with an unclear pathogenesis. Consequently, the available therapies for this neuropathic pain syndrome are inadequate, leading to a significantly reduced quality of life in many patients. Complement, a key component of the innate immune system, has been associated with neuroinflammation, a potentially important trigger of some types of neuropathic pain. However, the role of complement in CIPN remains unclear. To address this issue, we developed a C3 knockout (KO) rat model and induced CIPN in these KO rats and wild-type littermates via the i.p. administration of paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent associated with CIPN. We then compared the severity of mechanical allodynia, complement activation, and intradermal nerve fiber loss between the groups. We found that 1) i.p. paclitaxel administration activated complement in wild-type rats, 2) paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia was significantly reduced in C3 KO rats, and 3) the paclitaxel-induced loss of intradermal nerve fibers was markedly attenuated in C3 KO rats. In in vitro studies, we found that paclitaxel-treated rat neuronal cells activated complement, leading to cellular injury. Our findings demonstrate a previously unknown but pivotal role of complement in CIPN and suggest that complement may be a new target for the development of novel therapeutics to manage this painful disease. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Cytostatic inhibition of endothelial cell growth by the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 (AGM-1470).

    PubMed Central

    Kusaka, M.; Sudo, K.; Matsutani, E.; Kozai, Y.; Marui, S.; Fujita, T.; Ingber, D.; Folkman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, we reported the anti-angiogenic action along with anti-tumour activity of TNP-470 (AGM-1470). In this study, the effect of TNP-470 on the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells was examined. TNP-470 inhibited the growth of HUVE cells in a biphasic manner. The inhibition was cytostatic in the first phase (complete inhibition at 300 pg ml-1 to 3 micrograms ml-1 with an IC50 of 15 pg ml-1) and cytotoxic in the second phase (> or = 30 micrograms ml-1). The cytostatic inhibition of HUVE cell growth by TNP-470 was durable after washing out TNP-470 in culture. Incorporation of thymidine but not uridine and leucine by HUVE cells was inhibited in the first phase, while that of all three compounds was inhibited in the second phase. Human and rat endothelial cells among various types of cells were the most sensitive to the cytostatic inhibition, while differences in the cytotoxic inhibition were minimal. These results suggest that TNP-470 exerts its specific anti-angiogenic action by inhibiting cytostatically growth of endothelial cells in a relatively specific manner. PMID:8297716

  19. Paclitaxel Drug-eluting Tracheal Stent Could Reduce Granulation Tissue Formation in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Juan; Pei, Ying-Hua; Qiu, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Yu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently available silicone and metallic stents for tracheal stenosis are associated with many problems. Granulation proliferation is one of the main complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel drug-eluting tracheal stent in reducing granulation tissue formation in a canine model, as well as the pharmacokinetic features and safety profiles of the coated drug. Methods: Eight beagles were randomly divided into a control group (bare-metal stent group, n = 4) and an experimental group (paclitaxel-eluting stent group, n = 4). The observation period was 5 months. One beagle in both groups was sacrificed at the end of the 1st and 3rd months, respectively. The last two beagles in both groups were sacrificed at the end of 5th month. The proliferation of granulation tissue and changes in tracheal mucosa were compared between the two groups. Blood routine and liver and kidney function were monitored to evaluate the safety of the paclitaxel-eluting stent. The elution method and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to characterize the rate of in vivo release of paclitaxel from the stent. Results: Compared with the control group, the proliferation of granulation tissue in the experimental group was significantly reduced. The drug release of paclitaxel-eluting stent was the fastest in the 1st month after implantation (up to 70.9%). Then, the release slowed down gradually. By the 5th month, the release reached up to 98.5%. During the observation period, a high concentration of the drug in the trachea (in the stented and adjacent unstented areas) and lung tissue was not noted, and the blood test showed no side effect. Conclusions: The paclitaxel-eluting stent could safely reduce the granulation tissue formation after stent implantation in vivo, suggesting that the paclitaxel-eluting tracheal stent might be considered for potential use in humans in the future. PMID:27824004

  20. Cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic paclitaxel solubilized and permeation-enhanced by natural product nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Fang; Koh, Gar Yee; Dong, Xin; Hollingsworth, Javoris; Zhang, Jian; Russo, Paul S.; Yang, Peiying; Stout, Rhett W.

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most potent intravenous chemotherapeutic agents to date, yet an oral formulation has been problematic due to its low solubility and permeability. Using the recently discovered solubilizing properties of rubusoside (RUB), we investigated this unique PTX-RUB formulation. Paclitaxel was solubilized by RUB in water to levels of 1.6 to 6.3 mg/mL at 10 to 40% weight/volume. These, nanomicellar, PTX-RUB complexes were dried to a powder which was subsequently reconstituted in physiologic solutions. After 2.5 hrs in gastric fluid 85 to 99% of PTX-RUB remained soluble, while 79 to 96% remained soluble in intestinal fluid. The solubilization of PTX was mechanized by the formation of water-soluble spherical nanomicelles between PTX and RUB with an average diameter of 6.6 nm. Compared with Taxol®, PTX-RUB nanoparticles were nearly four times more permeable in Caco-2 cell monocultures. In a side-by-side comparison with DMSO-solubilized PTX, PTX-RUB maintained the same level of cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4 nM to 20 nM. Additionally, tubular formation and migration of HUVECs were inhibited at levels as low as 5 nM. These chemical and biological properties demonstrated by the PTX-RUB nanoparticles may improve oral bioavailability and enable further pharmacokinetic, toxicologic, and efficacy investigations. PMID:25243454

  1. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs learning while sparing source memory and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexandra E; Slivicki, Richard A; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of these therapies is undermined by their adverse side-effect profiles such as cognitive deficits that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cognitive side effects occur across a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, and processing speed. Such impairments are exacerbated under cognitive challenges and a subgroup of patients experience long-term impairments. Episodic memory in rats can be examined using a source memory task. In the current study, rats received paclitaxel, a taxane-derived chemotherapeutic agent, and learning and memory functioning was examined using the source memory task. Treatment with paclitaxel did not impair spatial and episodic memory, and paclitaxel treated rats were not more susceptible to cognitive challenges. Under conditions in which memory was not impaired, paclitaxel treatment impaired learning of new rules, documenting a decreased sensitivity to changes in experimental contingencies. These findings provide new information on the nature of cancer chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments, particularly regarding the incongruent vulnerability of episodic memory and new learning following treatment with paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibits human gastric cancer tumor growth in nude mice via the inhibition of glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Xian, Shu-Lin; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2015-02-01

    Tumor cells primarily depend upon glycolysis in order to gain energy. Therefore, the inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. Our previous study demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro . However, the ability of 3-BrPA to suppress tumor growth in vivo, and its underlying mechanism, have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA in an animal model of gastric cancer. It was identified that 3-BrPA exhibited strong inhibitory effects upon xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, the antitumor function of 3-BrPA exhibited a dose-effect association, which was similar to that of the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil. Furthermore, 3-BrPA exhibited low toxicity in the blood, liver and kidneys of the nude mice. The present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA is achieved through the inhibition of hexokinase activity, which leads to the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein expression and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. These data suggest that 3-BrPA may be a novel therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  3. Two genetically separable phases of growth inhibition induced by blue light in Arabidopsis seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, B. M.; Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    High fluence-rate blue light (BL) rapidly inhibits hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis, as in other species, after a lag time of 30 s. This growth inhibition is always preceded by the activation of anion channels. The membrane depolarization that results from the activation of anion channels by BL was only 30% of the wild-type magnitude in hy4, a mutant lacking the HY4 BL receptor. High-resolution measurements of growth made with a computer-linked displacement transducer or digitized images revealed that BL caused a rapid inhibition of growth in wild-type and hy4 seedlings. This inhibition persisted in wild-type seedlings during more than 40 h of continuous BL. By contrast, hy4 escaped from the initial inhibition after approximately 1 h of BL and grew faster than wild type for approximately 30 h. Wild-type seedlings treated with 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, a potent blocker of the BL-activated anion channel, displayed rapid growth inhibition, but, similar to hy4, these seedlings escaped from inhibition after approximately 1 h of BL and phenocopied the mutant for at least 2.5 h. The effects of 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid and the HY4 mutation were not additive. Taken together, the results indicate that BL acts through HY4 to activate anion channels at the plasma membrane, causing growth inhibition that begins after approximately 1 h. Neither HY4 nor anion channels appear to participate greatly in the initial phase of inhibition.

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of paclitaxel-mimics possessing only the oxetane D-ring and side chain structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing-Xiu; Gao, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Xing; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Two spiro paclitaxel-mimics consisting only of an oxetane D-ring and a C-13 side chain were designed and synthesized on the basis of analysis of structure-activity relationships (SAR) of paclitaxel. In vitro microtubule-stabilizing and antiproliferative assays indicated a moderate weaker activity of the mimics than paclitaxel, but which still represented the first example of simplified paclitaxel analogues with significant anti-tumor biological activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Constitutive Androstane Receptor Ligands Modulate the Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Paclitaxel in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fukumasu, Heidge; Rochetti, Arina L.; Pires, Pedro R. L.; Silva, Edson R.; Mesquita, Ligia G.; Strefezzi, Ricardo F.; De Carvalho, Daniel D.; Dagli, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung tumors are the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and paclitaxel has proven to be useful for patients with lung cancer, however, acquired resistance is a major problem. To overcome this problem, one promising option is the use of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) ligands in combination with chemotherapeutics against cancer cells. Therefore, we wish to elucidate the effects of CAR ligands on the antineoplastic efficacy of paclitaxel in lung cancer cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results from cell viability assays exposing CAR agonist or inverse-agonist to mouse and human lung cancer cells modulated the antineoplastic effect of paclitaxel. The CAR agonists increased the effect of Paclitaxel in 6 of 7 lung cancer cell lines, whereas the inverse-agonist had no effect on paclitaxel cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the mCAR agonist TCPOBOP enhanced the expression of two tumor suppressor genes, namely WT1 and MGMT, which were additively enhanced in cells treated with CAR agonist in combination with paclitaxel. Also, in silico analysis showed that both paclitaxel and CAR agonist TCPOBOP docked into the mCAR structure but not the inverse agonist androstenol. Paclitaxel per se increases the expression of CAR in cancer cells. At last, we analyzed the expression of CAR in two public independent studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). CAR is expressed in variable levels in NSCLC samples and no association with overall survival was noted. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results demonstrated that CAR agonists modulate the antineoplastic efficacy of paclitaxel in mouse and human cancer cell lines. This effect was probably related by the enhanced expression of two tumor suppressor genes, viz. WT1 and MGMT. Most of NSCLC cases present CAR gene expression turning it possible to speculate the use of CAR modulation by ligands along with Paclitaxel in NSCLC therapy. PMID:24959746

  6. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2007-12-26

    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  7. Randomized Phase II Study of Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With Either Linifanib or Placebo for Advanced Nonsquamous Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Shtivelband, Mikhail; Soo, Ross A.; Barrios, Carlos H.; Makhson, Anatoly; Segalla, José G.M.; Pittman, Kenneth B.; Kolman, Petr; Pereira, Jose R.; Srkalovic, Gordan; Belani, Chandra P.; Axelrod, Rita; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Qin, Qin; Qian, Jiang; McKeegan, Evelyn M.; Devanarayan, Viswanath; McKee, Mark D.; Ricker, Justin L.; Carlson, Dawn M.; Gorbunova, Vera A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Linifanib, a potent, selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, has single-agent activity in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated linifanib with carboplatin and paclitaxel as first-line therapy of advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Patients and Methods Patients with stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC were randomly assigned to 3-week cycles of carboplatin (area under the curve 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) with daily placebo (arm A), linifanib 7.5 mg (arm B), or linifanib 12.5 mg (arm C). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary efficacy end points included overall survival (OS) and objective response rate. Results One hundred thirty-eight patients were randomly assigned (median age, 61 years; 57% men; 84% smokers). Median PFS times were 5.4 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 5.7 months) in arm A (n = 47), 8.3 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 10.8 months) in arm B (n = 44), and 7.3 months (95% CI, 4.6 to 10.8 months) in arm C (n = 47). Hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS were 0.51 for arm B versus A (P = .022) and 0.64 for arm C versus A (P = .118). Median OS times were 11.3, 11.4, and 13.0 months in arms A, B, and C, respectively. HRs for OS were 1.08 for arm B versus A (P = .779) and 0.88 for arm C versus A (P = .650). Both linifanib doses were associated with increased toxicity, including a higher incidence of adverse events known to be associated with VEGF/PDGF inhibition. Baseline plasma carcinoembryonic antigen/cytokeratin 19 fragments biomarker signature was associated with PFS improvement and a trend toward OS improvement with linifanib 12.5 mg. Conclusion Addition of linifanib to chemotherapy significantly improved PFS (arm B), with a modest trend for survival benefit (arm C) and increased toxicity reflective of known VEGF/PDGF inhibitory effects. PMID:25559798

  8. Improved anti-tumor activity and safety profile of a paclitaxel-loaded glycyrrhetinic acid-graft-hyaluronic acid conjugate as a synergistically targeted drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jian-Ping; Yao, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to develop and evaluate glycyrrhetinic acid-graft-hyaluronic acid (HGA) conjugate for intravenous paclitaxel (PTX) delivery. Lyophilized PTX-loaded self-assembled HGA nanoparticles (PTX/HGAs) were prepared and characterized by dynamic light scattering measurements. Hemolysis test, intravenous irritation assessment, and in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic studies were carried out. B16F10 and HepG2 cells were used in the cell apoptosis analysis. The mouse MDA-MB-231 xenograft model was used for the evaluation of in vivo anticancer activity of the drugs, by the analysis of tumor growth and side effects on other tissues. PTX/HGAs showed high stability and good biocompability. Compared with PTX plus GA plus HA solution, PTX/HGAs displayed obvious superiority in inducing the apoptosis of the cancer cells. Following systemic administration, PTX/HGAs efficiently suppressed tumor growth, with mean tumor inhibition ratio (TIR) being 65.08%, which was significantly higher than that of PTX plus GA plus HA treatment. In conclusion, PTX/HGAs demonstrated inhibitory effects tumor growth without unwanted side effects, suggesting that HGA conjugates hold a great potential as a delivery carrier for cancer chemotherapeutics to improve therapeutic efficacy and minimize adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Synergistic Drug Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth in Murine Macrophages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    important application of metabolic network modeling is the ability to quantitatively model metabolic enzyme inhibition and predict bacterial growth...describe the extensions of this framework to model drug- induced growth inhibition of M. tuberculosis in macrophages.39 Mathematical framework Fig. 1 shows...starting point, we used the previously developed iNJ661v model to represent the metabolic Fig. 1 Mathematical framework: a set of coupled models used to

  10. Randomized study of sequential cisplatin-topotecan/carboplatin-paclitaxel versus carboplatin-paclitaxel: effects on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori; Brundage, Michael; Hoskins, Paul; Vergote, Ignace; Cervantes, Andres; Casado, Herraez A; Poveda, A; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth; Tu, Dongsheng

    2016-03-01

    A recent phase III trial compared the efficacy of cisplatin-topotecan (a topoisomerase I inhibitor) followed by carboplatin-paclitaxel (Arm 1) versus paclitaxel-carboplatin (Arm 2) in women with newly diagnosed stage IIB or greater ovarian cancer. There was a significantly lower response rate in the experimental arm compared to standard treatment, and less likelihood of normalized CA125 within the first 3 months. At 43 months follow-up, there were no significant group differences in progression-free survival. There were also significantly more side effects in the experimental arm. The current study examined quality of life (QoL) endpoints using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the ovarian cancer module, QLQ-OV28, administered prior to randomization, at day 1 of treatment cycles 3, 5, and 7, at completion of the last cycle, and at 3 and 6 months following completion of chemotherapy. Global QoL, physical symptoms, fatigue, and role, emotional, cognitive and social function (all from the EORTC QLQ-C30) significantly improved in both treatment arms, with no significant between-arm differences. Between-group differences in pain, insomnia, and peripheral neuropathy reported while on treatment did not differ at follow-up. Nausea and vomiting improved more with standard treatment both during and after treatment. Body image significantly differed between the groups only at cycle 5 (more deterioration in Arm 2) but group differences disappeared at follow-up. A stratified analysis of global QoL by debulking surgery status found no greater effect indicating that overall improvements in QoL were unrelated to surgical recovery. There was no significant QoL advantage of cisplatin-topotecan. This finding, combined with no progression-free survival conferred by this combination, reaffirms carboplatin-paclitaxel as the standard of care for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer.

  11. The battle of "nano" paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Sofias, Alexandros Marios; Dunne, Michael; Storm, Gert; Allen, Christine

    2017-12-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the three most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, together with doxorubicin and cisplatin, and is first or second line treatment for several types of cancers. In 2000, Taxol, the conventional formulation of PTX, became the best-selling cancer drug of all time with annual sales of 1.6 billion. In 2005, the introduction of the albumin-based formulation of PTX, known as Abraxane, ended Taxol's monopoly of the PTX market. Abraxane's ability to push the Taxol innovator and generic formulations aside attracted fierce competition amongst competitors worldwide to develop their own unique, new and improved formulation of PTX. At this time there are at least 18 companies focused on pre-clinical and/or clinical development of nano-formulations of PTX. These pharmaceutical companies are investing substantial capital to capture a share of the lucrative global PTX market. It is hoped that any formulation that dominates the market will result in tangible benefits to patients in terms of both survival and quality of life. Given all of this activity, here we address the question: Who is going to win the battle of "nano" paclitaxel? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synergistic effects of the sesquiterpene lactone, EPD, with cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    van Haaften, Caroline; Boot, Arnoud; Corver, Willem E; van Eendenburg, Jaap D H; Trimbos, Baptist J M Z; van Wezel, Tom

    2015-04-25

    Ovarian cancer remains still the leading cause of death of gynecological malignancy, in spite of first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel. Although initial response is favorably, relapses are common and prognosis for women with advanced disease stays poor. Therefore efficacious approaches are needed. Previously, an anti-cancer agent, EPD exhibited potent cytotoxic effects towards ovarian cancer and not towards normal cells. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis studies were performed with EPD, in combination with cisplatin and/or paclitaxel, using the ovarian carcinoma cell lines: SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3, JC, JC-pl and normal fibroblasts. Cell viability was measured using Presto Blue and cell cycle analysis using a flow cytometer. Apoptosis was measured in JC and JC-pl , using the caspase 3 assay kit. In JC-pl, SK-OV-3 and JC, synergistic interactions between either EPD and cisplatin or EPD and paclitaxel were observed. For the first time the effects of EPD on the cell cycle of ovarian cancer cells and normal cells was studied. EPD and combinations of EPD with cisplatin and/ or paclitaxel showed cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The combination of EPD and cisplatin showed a significant synergistic effect in cell line JC-pl, while EPD with paclitaxel showed synergistic interaction in JC. Additionally, synergistic drug combinations showed increased apoptosis. Our results showed a synergistic effect of EPD and cisplatin in an ovarian drug resistant cell line as well as a synergistic effect of EPD and paclitaxel in two other ovarian cell lines. These results might enhance clinical efficacy, compared to the existing regimen of paclitaxel and cisplatin.

  13. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation of neutropenia during phase I development of liposome-entrapped paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Gerald J; Grasela, Thaddeus H; Sherman, Jeffrey W; Dul, Jeanne L; Grahn, Amy; Lecomte, Diane; Fiedler-Kelly, Jill; Damjanov, Nevena; Fishman, Mayer; Kane, Michael P; Rubin, Eric H; Tan, Antoinette R

    2008-09-15

    To evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and pharmacokinetics of liposome-entrapped paclitaxel easy-to-use (LEP-ETU) and to characterize the relationship between LEP-ETU concentrations and the time course of neutropenia in cancer patients. LEP-ETU was administered to 88 patients and 63 were evaluable for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis following 1.5- and 3-h infusions every 3 weeks (q3w; dose range, 135-375 mg/m(2)). MTD was identified using a 3 + 3, up-and-down dose-finding algorithm. PK/PD modeling was done to describe the temporal relationship between paclitaxel concentrations and neutrophil count. Simulations assessed the influence of dose and schedule on neutropenia severity to help guide dose selection. The MTD of LEP-ETU was identified as 325 mg/m(2). DLTs occurring at 375 mg/m(2) consisted of febrile neutropenia and neuropathy. The C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of LEP-ETU were less than proportional with increasing dose. The PK/PD model showed that LEP-ETU inhibition of neutrophil proliferation was 9.1% per 10 mug/mL of total paclitaxel concentration. The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia increased from 33% to 42% across the dose range of 275 to 325 mg/m(2) q3w. For a dose of 110 mg/m(2) given weekly, grade 4 neutropenia was estimated to be 16% compared with 42% for the same total dose administered q3w. LEP-ETU can be administered safely at higher doses than Taxol. Modeling and simulation studies predict that 325 mg/m(2) LEP-ETU q3w provides acceptable neutropenic events relative to those observed at 175 mg/m(2) Taxol q3w. A 275 mg/m(2) dose may offer an improved therapeutic index.

  14. SPARC Regulates Transforming Growth Factor Beta Induced (TGFBI) Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Paclitaxel Response in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, David A; Andrews, Melissa R; Brenton, James D

    2016-01-01

    TGFBI has been shown to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel via an integrin receptor-mediated mechanism that modulates microtubule stability. Herein, we determine that TGFBI localizes within organized fibrillar structures in mesothelial-derived ECM. We determined that suppression of SPARC expression by shRNA decreased the deposition of TGFBI in mesothelial-derived ECM, without affecting its overall protein expression or secretion. Conversely, overexpression of SPARC increased TGFBI deposition. A SPARC-YFP fusion construct expressed by the Met5a cell line co-localized with TGFBI in the cell-derived ECM. Interestingly, in vitro produced SPARC was capable of precipitating TGFBI from cell lysates dependent on an intact SPARC carboxy-terminus with in vitro binding assays verifying a direct interaction. The last 37 amino acids of SPARC were shown to be required for the TGFBI interaction while expression of a SPARC-YFP construct lacking this region (aa 1-256) did not interact and co-localize with TGFBI in the ECM. Furthermore, ovarian cancer cells have a reduced motility and decreased response to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel when plated on ECM derived from mesothelial cells lacking SPARC compared to control mesothelial-derived ECM. In conclusion, SPARC regulates the fibrillar ECM deposition of TGFBI through a novel interaction, subsequently influencing cancer cell behavior.

  15. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling inhibits prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Yu, Wendong; Gavine, Paul; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Extensive correlative studies in human prostate cancer as well as studies in vitro and in mouse models indicate that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we used a probe compound for an FGFR inhibitor, which potently inhibits FGFR-1-3 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting FGFR signaling from all four FGFRs will have in vitro activities consistent with inhibition of tumor progression and will inhibit tumor progression in vivo. Effects of AZ8010 on FGFR signaling and invasion were analyzed using immortalized normal prostate epithelial (PNT1a) cells and PNT1a overexpressing FGFR-1 or FGFR-4. The effect of AZ8010 on invasion and proliferation in vitro was also evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, the impact of AZ8010 on tumor progression in vivo was evaluated using a VCaP xenograft model. AZ8010 completely inhibits FGFR-1 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4 signaling at 100 nmol/L, which is an achievable in vivo concentration. This results in marked inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and invasion in PNT1a cells expressing FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 and all prostate cancer cell lines tested. Treatment in vivo completely inhibited VCaP tumor growth and significantly inhibited angiogenesis and proliferation and increased cell death in treated tumors. This was associated with marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in treated tumors. Targeting FGFR signaling is a promising new approach to treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  16. Differential chlorate inhibition of Chaetomium globosum germination, hyphal growth, and perithecia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Biles, Charles L; Wright, Desiree; Fuego, Marianni; Guinn, Angela; Cluck, Terry; Young, Jennifer; Martin, Markie; Biles, Josiah; Poudyal, Shubhra

    2012-12-01

    Chaetomium globosum Kunze:Fr is a dermatophytic, dematiaceous fungus that is ubiquitous in soils, grows readily on cellulolytic materials, and is commonly found on water-damaged building materials. Chlorate affects nitrogen metabolism in fungi and is used to study compatibility among anamorphic fungi by inducing nit mutants. The effect of chlorate toxicity on C. globosum was investigated by amending a modified malt extract agar (MEA), oat agar, and carboxymethyl cellulose agar (CMC) with various levels of potassium chlorate (KClO(3)). C. globosum perithecia production was almost completely inhibited (90-100 %) at low levels of KClO(3) (0.1 mM) in amended MEA. Inhibition of perithecia production was also observed on oat agar and CMC at 1 and 10 mM, respectively. However, hyphal growth in MEA was only inhibited 20 % by 0.1-100 mM KClO(3) concentrations. Hyphal growth was never completely inhibited at the highest levels tested (200 mM). Higher levels of KClO(3) were needed on gypsum board to inhibit perithecia synthesis. In additional experiments, KClO(3) did not inhibit C. globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum expansum, and airborne fungal spore germination. The various fungal spores were not inhibited by KClO(3) at 1-100 mM levels. These results suggest that C. globosum perithecia synthesis is more sensitive to chlorate toxicity than are hyphal growth and spore germination. This research provides basic information that furthers our understanding about perithecia formation and may help in developing control methods for fungal growth on building materials.

  17. A comparative study of ethylene growth response kinetics in eudicots and monocots reveals a role for gibberellin in growth inhibition and recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonyup; Wilson, Rebecca L; Case, J Brett; Binder, Brad M

    2012-11-01

    Time-lapse imaging of dark-grown Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls has revealed new aspects about ethylene signaling. This study expands upon these results by examining ethylene growth response kinetics of seedlings of several plant species. Although the response kinetics varied between the eudicots studied, all had prolonged growth inhibition for as long as ethylene was present. In contrast, with continued application of ethylene, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedlings had a rapid and transient growth inhibition response, rice (Oryza sativa 'Nipponbare') seedlings had a slow onset of growth stimulation, and barley (Hordeum vulgare) had a transient growth inhibition response followed, after a delay, by a prolonged inhibition response. Growth stimulation in rice correlated with a decrease in the levels of rice ETHYLENE INSENSTIVE3-LIKE2 (OsEIL2) and an increase in rice F-BOX DOMAIN AND LRR CONTAINING PROTEIN7 transcripts. The gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol caused millet seedlings to have a prolonged growth inhibition response when ethylene was applied. A transient ethylene growth inhibition response has previously been reported for Arabidopsis ethylene insensitive3-1 (ein3-1) eil1-1 double mutants. Paclobutrazol caused these mutants to have a prolonged response to ethylene, whereas constitutive GA signaling in this background eliminated ethylene responses. Sensitivity to paclobutrazol inversely correlated with the levels of EIN3 in Arabidopsis. Wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings treated with paclobutrazol and mutants deficient in GA levels or signaling had a delayed growth recovery after ethylene removal. It is interesting to note that ethylene caused alterations in gene expression that are predicted to increase GA levels in the ein3-1 eil1-1 seedlings. These results indicate that ethylene affects GA levels leading to modulation of ethylene growth inhibition kinetics.

  18. PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell growth inhibited by cucurmosin alone and in combination with an epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted drug.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congfei; Yang, Aiqin; Zhang, Baoming; Yin, Qiang; Huang, Heguang; Chen, Minghuang; Xie, Jieming

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the inhibition of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell growth by cucurmosin (CUS) and its possible mechanism. We observed the inhibition of PANC-1 cell growth by sulforhodamine B and colony-forming experiments in vitro and established nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse subcutaneous tumor models in vivo. We used Western blot to analyze protein levels related to apoptosis and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways after drug intervention, whereas the messenger RNA expression of EGFR was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Sulforhodamine B and colony-forming experiments indicated that CUS inhibited PANC-1 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A stronger inhibitory effect was observed when CUS was combined with gefitinib. The subcutaneous tumor growth was also inhibited. Western blot showed that all the examined proteins decreased, except for 4E-BP1 and the active fragments of caspase 3 and caspase 9 increased. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression did not change significantly in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cucurmosin can strongly inhibit the growth of PANC-1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Cucurmosin can down-regulate EGFR protein expression, but not at the messenger RNA level. Cucurmosin can also inhibit the ras/raf and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt downstream signaling pathways and enhance the sensitivity of the EGFR-targeted drug gefitinib.

  19. Nab-paclitaxel-associated photosensitivity: report in a woman with non-small cell lung cancer and review of taxane-related photodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Bryce D; Cohen, Philip R

    2015-04-01

    Taxanes [paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane, Celgene Corp, USA), and docetaxel]-used in the treatment of lung, breast, and head and neck cancers-have been associated with cutaneous adverse effects, including photodermatoses. We describe a woman with non-small cell lung cancer who developed a photodistributed dermatitis associated with her nab-paclitaxel therapy and review photodermatoses in patients receiving taxanes. The features of a woman with a nab-paclitaxel-associated photodistributed dermatitis are presented and the literature on nab-paclitaxel-associated photosensitivity is reviewed. Our patient developed nab-paclitaxel-associated photodistributed dermatitis on the sun-exposed surfaces of her upper extremities, which was exacerbated with each course of nab-paclitaxel. Biopsies revealed an interface dermatitis and laboratory studies were negative for lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. Her condition improved following topical corticosteroid cream application and strict avoidance of sunlight. Chemotherapy can be associated with adverse mucocutaneous events, including dermatoses on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Paclitaxel and nab-paclitaxel have both been associated with photodermatoses, including dermatitis, erythema multiforme, onycholysis, and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Strict avoidance of sun exposure, topical or oral corticosteroids, and/or discontinuation of the drug results in improvement with progressive resolution of symptoms and skin lesions. Development of photodermatoses is not an absolute contraindication to continuing chemotherapy, provided that the cutaneous condition resolves with dermatosis-directed treatment and the patient avoids sun exposure.

  20. Calcium influences sensitivity to growth inhibition induced by a cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, N. A.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While studies concerning mitogenic factors have been an important area of research for many years, much less is understood about the mechanisms of action of cell surface growth inhibitors. We have purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) which can reversibly inhibit the proliferation of diverse cell types. The studies discussed in this article show that three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibit sixty-fold greater sensitivity than other fibroblasts and epithelial-like cells to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. Growth inhibition induced by CeReS-18 treatment is a reversible process, and the three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibited either single or multiple cell cycle arrest points, although a predominantly G0/G1 cell cycle arrest point was exhibited in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The sensitivity of the mouse keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition was not affected by the degree of tumorigenic progression in the cell lines and was not due to differences in CeReS-18 binding affinity or number of cell surface receptors per cell. However, the sensitivity of both murine fibroblasts and keratinocytes could be altered by changing the extracellular calcium concentration, such that increased extracellular calcium concentrations resulted in decreased sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced proliferation inhibition. Thus the increased sensitivity of the murine keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18 could be ascribed to the low calcium concentration used in their propagation. Studies are currently under way investigating the role of calcium in CeReS-18-induced growth arrest. The CeReS-18 may serve as a very useful tool to study negative growth control and the signal transduction events associated with cell cycling.

  1. Role of calcium in growth inhibition induced by a novel cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, N. A.; Westhoff, B. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Our laboratory has purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells. Evidence presented here demonstrates that sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition in BALB-c 3T3 cells is influenced by calcium, such that a decrease in the calcium concentration in the growth medium results in an increase in sensitivity to CeReS-18. Calcium did not alter CeReS-18 binding to its cell surface receptor and CeReS-18 does not bind calcium directly. Addition of calcium, but not magnesium, to CeReS-18-inhibited 3T3 cells results in reentry into the cell cycle. A greater than 3-hour exposure to increased calcium is required for escape from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. The calcium ionophore ionomycin could partially mimic the effect of increasing extracellular calcium, but thapsigargin was ineffective in inducing escape from growth inhibition. Increasing extracellular calcium 10-fold resulted in an approximately 7-fold increase in total cell-associated 45Ca+2, while free intracellular calcium only increased approximately 30%. However, addition of CeReS-18 did not affect total cell-associated calcium or the increase in total cell-associated calcium observed with an increase in extracellular calcium. Serum addition induced mobilization of intracellular calcium and influx across the plasma membrane in 3T3 cells, and pretreatment of 3T3 cells with CeReS-18 appeared to inhibit these calcium mobilization events. These results suggest that a calcium-sensitive step exists in the recovery from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. CeReS-18 may inhibit cell proliferation through a novel mechanism involving altering the intracellular calcium mobilization/regulation necessary for cell cycle progression.

  2. Polymeric nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of paclitaxel in lung and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann Veronica

    Nanoparticles are useful for addressing many of the difficulties encountered when administering therapeutic compounds. Nanoparticles are able to increase the solubility of hydrophobic drugs, improve pharmacokinetics through sustained release, alter biodistribution, protect sensitive drugs from low pH environments or enzymatic alteration, and, in some cases, provide targeting of the drug to the desired tissues. The use of functional nanocarriers can also provide controlled intracellular delivery of a drug. To this end, we have developed functional pH-responsive expansile nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of paclitaxel. The pH-responsiveness of these nanoparticles occurs due to a hydrophobic to hydrophilic transition of the polymer occurring under mildly acidic conditions. These polymeric nanoparticles were systematically evaluated for the delivery of paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo to improve local therapy for lung and breast cancers. Nanoparticles were synthesized using a miniemulsion polymerization process and were subsequently characterized and found to swell when exposed to acidic environments. Paclitaxel was successfully encapsulated within the nanoparticles, and the particles exhibited drug release at pH 5 but not at pH 7.4. In addition, the uptake of nanoparticles was observed using flow cytometry, and the anticancer efficacy of the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles was measured using cancer cell lines in vitro. The potency of the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles was close to that of free drug, demonstrating that the drug was effectively delivered by the particles and that the particles could act as an intracellular drug depot. Following in vitro characterization, murine in vivo studies demonstrated the ability of the paclitaxel-loaded responsive nanoparticles to delay recurrence of lung cancer and to prevent establishment of breast cancer in the mammary fat pads with higher efficacy than paclitaxel alone. In addition, the ability of nanoparticles to

  3. Subgroup analysis of East Asians in RAINBOW: A phase 3 trial of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel for advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Muro, Kei; Oh, Sang Cheul; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Lee, Keun-Wook; Yen, Chia-Jui; Chao, Yee; Cho, Jae Yong; Cheng, Rebecca; Carlesi, Roberto; Chandrawansa, Kumari; Orlando, Mauro; Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    East Asia has higher gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates than other regions. We present a subgroup analysis of East Asians in the positive study RAINBOW. Patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma previously treated with platinum and fluoropyrimidine received ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo on days 1 and 15 plus paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Of 665 intention-to-treat patients, 223 were East Asian. Median overall survival was 12.1 months for ramucirumab plus paclitaxel and 10.5 months for placebo plus paclitaxel (hazard ratio: 0.986, 95% confidence interval: 0.727-1.337, P = 0.929). Median progression-free survival was 5.5 months for ramucirumab plus paclitaxel and 2.8 months for placebo plus paclitaxel (hazard ratio: 0.628, 95% confidence interval: 0.473-0.834, P = 0.001). Objective response rates were 34% for ramucirumab plus paclitaxel and 20% for placebo plus paclitaxel. Grade ≥ 3 neutropenia (60% vs 28%) and leukopenia (34% vs 13%) were higher for ramucirumab plus paclitaxel. The rate of febrile neutropenia was low (4% vs 4%). Special interest adverse events included any grade bleeding/hemorrhage (55% vs 25%), proteinuria (27% vs 7%), and hypertension (22% vs 2%). Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel significantly improves progression-free survival and response rate, with prolonged median overall survival and an acceptable safety profile in East Asians with advanced gastric cancer. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. [The advance in synthetic biology: towards a microbe-derived paclitaxel intermediates].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Yan; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Shu-Qiong; Guo, Lei; Kong, Jian-Qiang; Cheng, Ke-Di

    2013-02-01

    The synthetic biology matures to promote the heterologous biosynthesis of the well-known drug paclitaxel that is one of the most important and active chemotherapeutic agents for the first-line clinical treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the construction and regulation of the biosynthetic pathway of paclitaxel intermediates in both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, the review also features the early efforts to design and overproduce taxadiene and the bottleneck of scale fermentation for producing the intermediates.

  5. A novel taspine analog, HMQ1611, inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    LU, WEN; DAI, BINGLING; MA, WEINA; ZHANG, YANMIN

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the antitumor activity of HMQ1611, a novel synthetic taspine derivative, in vivo and evaluated associated potential antiangiogenesis mechanisms. The proliferation of A549 cells was examined by WST-1 assay in vitro. Tube formation and lung tissue vessel models were used to observe the antiangiogenic activity of HMQ1611. In addition, vascular enodthelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and KDR kinase activities were measured by ELISA and the HTRF®KinEASE™-TK assay. In vivo, the antitumor activity was assessed by implantation of A549 cells in athymic mice. The results showed that HMQ1611 inhibited A549 cell proliferation and VEGF secretion, while it significantly inhibited tube formation and tissue vascularization. Furthermore, HMQ1611 inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that HMQ1611 has latent properties for the inhibition of angiogenesis which are involved in its antitumor activity. PMID:23162661

  6. A novel taspine analog, HMQ1611, inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Dai, Bingling; Ma, Weina; Zhang, Yanmin

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the antitumor activity of HMQ1611, a novel synthetic taspine derivative, in vivo and evaluated associated potential antiangiogenesis mechanisms. The proliferation of A549 cells was examined by WST-1 assay in vitro. Tube formation and lung tissue vessel models were used to observe the antiangiogenic activity of HMQ1611. In addition, vascular enodthelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and KDR kinase activities were measured by ELISA and the HTRF(®)KinEASE(™)-TK assay. In vivo, the antitumor activity was assessed by implantation of A549 cells in athymic mice. The results showed that HMQ1611 inhibited A549 cell proliferation and VEGF secretion, while it significantly inhibited tube formation and tissue vascularization. Furthermore, HMQ1611 inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that HMQ1611 has latent properties for the inhibition of angiogenesis which are involved in its antitumor activity.

  7. Flavonoids apigenin and quercetin inhibit melanoma growth and metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Caltagirone, S; Rossi, C; Poggi, A; Ranelletti, F O; Natali, P G; Brunetti, M; Aiello, F B; Piantelli, M

    2000-08-15

    Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, which display a variety of biological activities, including chemoprevention and tumor growth inhibition. Our aim was to investigate the effects of several polyphenols on the growth and metastatic potential of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of quercetin, apigenin, (-)-epigallocathechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, and the anti-estrogen tamoxifen, at the time of i.m. injection of B16-BL6 cells into syngeneic mice, resulted in a significant, dose-dependent delay of tumor growth, without toxicity. The relative descending order of potency was EGCG > apigenin = quercetin = tamoxifen > resveratrol > control. Furthermore, polyphenols significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of a non-toxic dose of cisplatin. When tested for the ability to inhibit lung colonization, quercetin, apigenin, and tamoxifen (but not EGCG or resveratrol) significantly decreased the number of B16-BL6 colonies in the lungs in a dose-dependent manner, with quercetin and apigenin being more effective than tamoxifen. Interestingly, quercetin, apigenin, and tamoxifen (but not EGCG or resveratrol) significantly decreased the invasion of B16-BL6 cells in vitro, with quercetin and apigenin being more effective than tamoxifen. This suggests that anti-invasive activity is one of the mechanisms underlying inhibition of lung colonization by quercetin and apigenin. In conclusion, quercetin and apigenin inhibit melanoma growth and invasive and metastatic potential; therefore, they may constitute a valuable tool in the combination therapy of metastatic melanoma. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. D-Tagatose inhibits the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Hasibul, Khaleque; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Ogawa, Takaaki; Waki, Junpei; Tada, Ayano; Yoneda, Saori; Tokuda, Masaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is an important global health concern and Streptococcus mutans has been established as a major cariogenic bacterial species. Reports indicate that a rare sugar, D-tagatose, is not easily catabolized by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans GS-5 were examined. Monitoring S. mutans growth over a 24 h period revealed that D-tagatose prolonged the lag phase without interfering with the final cell yield. This growth retardation was also observed in the presence of 1% sucrose, although it was abolished by the addition of D-fructose. S. mutans biofilm formation was significantly inhibited by growth in sucrose media supplemented with 1 and 4% D-tagatose compared with that in a culture containing sucrose alone, while S. mutans formed granular biofilms in the presence of this rare sugar. The inhibitory effect of D-tagatose on S. mutans biofilm formation was significantly more evident than that of xylitol. Growth in sucrose media supplemented with D-tagatose significantly decreased the expression of glucosyltransferase, exo-β-fructosidase and D-fructose-specific phosphotransferase genes but not the expression of fructosyltransferase compared with the culture containing sucrose only. The activity of cell-associated glucosyltransferase in S. mutans was inhibited by 4% D-tagatose. These results indicate that D-tagatose reduces water-insoluble glucan production from sucrose by inhibiting glucosyltransferase activities, which limits access to the free D-fructose released during this process and retards the growth of S. mutans. Therefore, foods and oral care products containing D-tagatose are anticipated to reduce the risk of caries by inhibiting S. mutans biofilm formation. PMID:29115611

  9. A new diatom growth inhibition assay using the XTT colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weina; Akagi, Takuya; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Takimoto, Ayaka; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Marine biofouling, which leads to significant operational stress and economic damage on marine infrastructures, is a major problem in marine related industries. Currently, the most common way to avoid marine biofouling involves the use of biocidal products in surface coatings. However, the need for environmentally friendly antibiofouling compounds has increased rapidly with the recent global prohibition of harmful antifoulants, such as tributyltin (TBT). In particular, periphytic diatoms have been shown to contribute significantly to biofilms, which play an important role in biofouling. Therefore, inhibiting the proliferation of fouling diatoms is a very important step in the prevention of marine biofouling. In this study, we developed a new, rapid, accurate, and convenient growth inhibition assay using the XTT colorimetric method to prevent the growth of the fouling periphytic diatom, Nitzschia amabilis Hidek. Suzuki (replaced synonym, Nitzschia laevis Hustedt). The feasibility of this method was verified by determining the growth inhibition activities of two standard photosynthetic inhibitors, DCMU and CuSO4. However, neither inhibitor had any cytotoxic activities at the range of concentrations tested. Moreover, this method was applied by screening and purification of herbicidic but non-cytotoxic compounds from cyanobacteria extracts. Our results demonstrate the utility of this newly established growth inhibition assay for the identification of marine anti-biofouling compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nano albumin bound-paclitaxel in pancreatic cancer: Current evidences and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Guido; Pancione, Massimo; Olivieri, Nunzio; Parcesepe, Pietro; Velocci, Marianna; Di Raimo, Tania; Coppola, Luigi; Toffoli, Giuseppe; D’Andrea, Mario Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is an aggressive and chemoresistant disease, representing the fourth cause of cancer related deaths in western countries. Majority of patients have unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease at time of diagnosis and the 5-year survival rate in these conditions is extremely low. For more than a decade gemcitabine has been the cornerstone of metastatic PDAC treatment, although survival benefit was very poor. PDAC cells are surrounded by an intense desmoplastic reaction that may create a barrier to the drugs penetration within the tumor. Recently PDAC stroma has been addressed as a potential therapeutic target. Nano albumin bound (Nab)-paclitaxel is an innovative molecule depleting tumor stroma, through interaction between albumin and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine. Addition of nab-paclitaxel to gemcitabine has showed activity and efficacy in metastatic PDAC first-line treatment improving survival and overall response rate vs gemcitabine alone in the MPACT phase III study. This combination represents one of the standards of care in advanced PDAC therapy and is suitable to a broader spectrum of patients compared to other schedules. Nab-paclitaxel is under investigation as a backbone of chemotherapy in novel combinations with target agents or immunotherapy in locally advanced or metastatic PDAC. In this article, we provide an updated and critical overview about the role of nab-paclitaxel in PDAC treatment based on the latest advances in preclinical and clinical research. Furthermore, we focus on the use of nab-paclitaxel within the context of metastatic PDAC treatment landscape and we discuss about future implications in the light of current clinical ongoing trials. PMID:28932079

  11. Gymnemic Acids Inhibit Hyphal Growth and Virulence in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Vediyappan, Govindsamy; Dumontet, Vincent; Pelissier, Franck; d’Enfert, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic and polymorphic fungal pathogen that causes mucosal, disseminated and invasive infections in humans. Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. Nontoxic small molecules that inhibit C. albicans yeast-to-hypha conversion and hyphal growth could represent a valuable source for understanding pathogenic fungal morphogenesis, identifying drug targets and serving as templates for the development of novel antifungal agents. Here, we have identified the triterpenoid saponin family of gymnemic acids (GAs) as inhibitor of C. albicans morphogenesis. GAs were isolated and purified from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, the Ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. Purified GAs had no effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans yeast cells but inhibited its yeast-to-hypha conversion under several hypha-inducing conditions, including the presence of serum. Moreover, GAs promoted the conversion of C. albicans hyphae into yeast cells under hypha inducing conditions. They also inhibited conidial germination and hyphal growth of Aspergillus sp. Finally, GAs inhibited the formation of invasive hyphae from C. albicans-infected Caenorhabditis elegans worms and rescued them from killing by C. albicans. Hence, GAs could be useful for various antifungal applications due to their traditional use in herbal medicine. PMID:24040201

  12. Platelet-derived growth factor-receptor alpha strongly inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Debora; Aguzzi, Maria Simona; Toietta, Gabriele; Facchiano, Angelo M; Facchiano, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Martelli, Fabio; Truffa, Silvia; Cesareo, Eleonora; Ribatti, Domenico; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

    2009-08-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; it is highly metastatic and responds poorly to current therapies. The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs) is reported to be reduced in metastatic melanoma compared with benign nevi or normal skin; we then hypothesized that PDGF-Ralpha may control growth of melanoma cells. We show here that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha respond to serum with a significantly lower proliferation compared with that of controls. Apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, pRb dephosphorylation, and DNA synthesis inhibition were also observed in cells overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha. Proliferation was rescued by PDGF-Ralpha inhibitors, allowing to exclude nonspecific toxic effects and indicating that PDGF-Ralpha mediates autocrine antiproliferation signals in melanoma cells. Accordingly, PDGF-Ralpha was found to mediate staurosporine cytotoxicity. A protein array-based analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway revealed that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha show a strong reduction of c-Jun phosphorylated in serine 63 and of protein phosphatase 2A/Balpha and a marked increase of p38gamma, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3, and signal regulatory protein alpha1 protein expression. In a mouse model of primary melanoma growth, infection with the Ad-vector overexpressing PDGF-Ralpha reached a significant 70% inhibition of primary melanoma growth (P < .001) and a similar inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. All together, these data demonstrate that PDGF-Ralpha strongly impairs melanoma growth likely through autocrine mechanisms and indicate a novel endogenous mechanism involved in melanoma control.

  13. miR-124 suppresses glioblastoma growth and potentiates chemosensitivity by inhibiting AURKA

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Wanchen; Guo, Beisong; Zhou, Haichun

    Glioblastoma (GBM) accounts for about half of all malignant brain cancers. Although the treatment strategies for glioblastoma develop rapidly, a considerable number of patients could not benefit from temozolomide (TMZ)-based chemotherapy. Here, we revealed a miR-124-AURKA axis that regulated glioblastoma growth and chemosensitivity. Mechanistically, AURKA was up-regulated in glioblastoma tissues and associated with poor overall survival. While overexpression of AURKA enhanced tumor growth, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of AURKA led to growth-inhibitory and chemopotentiating effects in glioblastoma. AURKA was further identified as a target of miR-124. Furthermore, our data showed that miR-124 down-regulated AURKA expression and subsequently suppressed cell growth.more » Re-expression of AURKA significantly rescued miR124-mediated proliferation repression and chemosensitivity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that miR-124 inhibited glioblastoma growth and potentiated chemosensitivity by targeting AURKA, which may represent promising targets and rational therapeutic options for glioblastoma. - Highlights: • AURKA was overexpressed and associated with poor OS in GBM. • Targeting AURKA inhibits GBM growth in vitro and in vivo. • AURKA was further identified as a target of miR-124. • Re-expression of AURKA rescued miR-124-mediated growth suppression.« less

  14. BMS-247550: a novel epothilone analog with a mode of action similar to paclitaxel but possessing superior antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lee, F Y; Borzilleri, R; Fairchild, C R; Kim, S H; Long, B H; Reventos-Suarez, C; Vite, G D; Rose, W C; Kramer, R A

    2001-05-01

    BMS-247550, a novel epothilone derivative, is being developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) as an anticancer agent for the treatment of patients with malignant tumors. BMS-247550 is a semisynthetic analogue of the natural product epothilone B and has a mode of action analogous to that of paclitaxel (i.e., microtubule stabilization). In vitro, it is twice as potent as paclitaxel in inducing tubulin polymerization. Like paclitaxel, BMS-247550 is a highly potent cytotoxic agent capable of killing cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Importantly, BMS-247550 retains its antineoplastic activity against human cancers that are naturally insensitive to paclitaxel or that have developed resistance to paclitaxel, both in vitro and in vivo. Tumors for which BMS-247550 demonstrated significant antitumor activity encompass both paclitaxel-sensitive and -refractory categories, i.e., (a) paclitaxel-resistant: HCT116/VM46 colorectal (multidrug resistant), Pat-21 breast and Pat-7 ovarian carcinoma (clinical isolates; mechanisms of resistance not fully known), and A2780Tax ovarian carcinoma (tubulin mutation); (b) paclitaxel-insensitive: Pat-26 human pancreatic carcinoma (clinical isolate) and M5076 murine fibrosarcoma; and (c) paclitaxel sensitive: A2780 ovarian, LS174T, and HCT116 human colon carcinoma. In addition, BMS-247550 is p.o. efficacious against preclinical human tumor xenografts grown in immunocompromised mice or rats. Schedule optimization studies indicate that BMS-247550 is efficacious when administered frequently (every 2 days x 5) or intermittently (every 4 days x 3 or every 8 days x 2). These efficacy data demonstrate that BMS-247550 has the potential to surpass Taxol in both clinical efficacy and ease of use (i.e., less frequent treatment schedule and/or oral administration).

  15. Inhibition by somatostatin (growth-hormone release-inhibiting hormone, GH-RIH) of gastric acid and pepsin and G-cell release of gastrin.

    PubMed Central

    Barros D'sa, A A; Bloom, S R; Baron, J H

    1978-01-01

    Somatostatin (cyclic growth-hormone release-inhibiting hormone--GH-RIH) was infused into dogs with gastric fistulae. Somatostatin inhibited gastric acid response to four gastric stimulants--insulin, food, histamine, and pentagastrin. Histamine- and pentagastrin-stimulated pepsins were inhibited similarly to inhibition of acid. Somatostatin inhibited the gastrin response to insulin and food. PMID:348581

  16. Bestatin Inhibits Cell Growth, Cell Division, and Spore Cell Differentiation in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Poloz, Yekaterina; Catalano, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Bestatin methyl ester (BME) is an inhibitor of Zn2+-binding aminopeptidases that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. We have used Dictyostelium as a model organism to study the effects of BME. Only two Zn2+-binding aminopeptidases have been identified in Dictyostelium to date, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase A and B (PsaA and PsaB). PSA from other organisms is known to regulate cell division and differentiation. Here we show that PsaA is differentially expressed throughout growth and development of Dictyostelium, and its expression is regulated by developmental morphogens. We present evidence that BME specifically interacts with PsaA and inhibits its aminopeptidase activity. Treatment of cells with BME inhibited the rate of cell growth and the frequency of cell division in growing cells and inhibited spore cell differentiation during late development. Overexpression of PsaA-GFP (where GFP is green fluorescent protein) also inhibited spore cell differentiation but did not affect growth. Using chimeras, we have identified that nuclear versus cytoplasmic localization of PsaA affects the choice between stalk or spore cell differentiation pathway. Cells that overexpressed PsaA-GFP (primarily nuclear) differentiated into stalk cells, while cells that overexpressed PsaAΔNLS2-GFP (cytoplasmic) differentiated into spores. In conclusion, we have identified that BME inhibits cell growth, division, and differentiation in Dictyostelium likely through inhibition of PsaA. PMID:22345351

  17. Crystal growth and molecular modeling studies of inhibition of struvite by phosphocitrate.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, A; Sallis, J D; Stevens, E D; Smith, M; Sikes, C S

    1997-09-01

    The inhibition by phosphocitrate of struvite crystal formation and growth has been examined in the present study. Crystal growth in a gel matrix was controlled by phosphocitrate in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of inhibition were followed using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and single crystal X-ray analysis. The presence of phosphocitrate induced very strong, crystal face specific inhibition of struvite, leading to total cessation of crystal growth when sufficient concentration of the inhibitor was made available. Crystal growth studies and results from molecular modeling indicated strong affinity of phosphocitrate to (101) faces of struvite. This in turn led to an alteration in the expression of these faces and the development of a characteristic arrowhead struvite morphology. Similar changes were not observed in the presence of identical concentrations of citrate, acetohydroxamic acid, and N-sulfo-2 amino tricarballylate (an analog of phosphocitrate), emphasizing the unique interaction of phosphocitrate with the struvite crystal lattice.

  18. SPARC Regulates Transforming Growth Factor Beta Induced (TGFBI) Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Paclitaxel Response in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Melissa R.; Brenton, James D.

    2016-01-01

    TGFBI has been shown to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel via an integrin receptor-mediated mechanism that modulates microtubule stability. Herein, we determine that TGFBI localizes within organized fibrillar structures in mesothelial-derived ECM. We determined that suppression of SPARC expression by shRNA decreased the deposition of TGFBI in mesothelial-derived ECM, without affecting its overall protein expression or secretion. Conversely, overexpression of SPARC increased TGFBI deposition. A SPARC-YFP fusion construct expressed by the Met5a cell line co-localized with TGFBI in the cell-derived ECM. Interestingly, in vitro produced SPARC was capable of precipitating TGFBI from cell lysates dependent on an intact SPARC carboxy-terminus with in vitro binding assays verifying a direct interaction. The last 37 amino acids of SPARC were shown to be required for the TGFBI interaction while expression of a SPARC-YFP construct lacking this region (aa 1–256) did not interact and co-localize with TGFBI in the ECM. Furthermore, ovarian cancer cells have a reduced motility and decreased response to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel when plated on ECM derived from mesothelial cells lacking SPARC compared to control mesothelial-derived ECM. In conclusion, SPARC regulates the fibrillar ECM deposition of TGFBI through a novel interaction, subsequently influencing cancer cell behavior. PMID:27622658

  19. A phase I and pharmacologic study of sequences of the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (PS-341, Velcade), in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cynthia; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Alberts, Steven R; Croghan, Gary A; Jatoi, Aminah; Reid, Joel M; Hanson, Lorelei J; Bruzek, Laura; Tan, Angelina D; Pitot, Henry C; Erlichman, Charles; Wright, John J; Adjei, Alex A

    2007-02-01

    Bortezomib, a selective inhibitor of the 20S proteasome with activity in a variety of cancers, exhibits sequence-dependent synergistic cytotoxicity with taxanes and platinum agents. Two different treatment schedules of bortezomib in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin were tested in this phase I study to evaluate the effects of scheduling on toxicities, pharmacodynamics and clinical activity. Patients with advanced malignancies were alternately assigned to receive (schedule A) paclitaxel and carboplatin (IV d1) followed by bortezomib (IV d2, d5, d8) or (schedule B) bortezomib (IV d1, d4, d8) followed by paclitaxel and carboplatin (IV d2) on a 21-day cycle. Fifty-three patients (A 25, B 28) were treated with a median of 3 cycles (range 1-8) for schedule A and 3.5 cycles (range 1-10) for schedule B. Grade 3 or higher treatment related hematologic adverse events in all cycles of treatment included neutropenia (A 52%, B 50%), anemia (A 12%, B 7.1%) and thrombocytopenia (A 16%, B 17.9%). Non-hematologic treatment related adverse events were fairly mild (primarily grades 1 and 2). The maximum tolerated dose and the recommended doses for future phase II trials are bortezomib 1.2 mg/m2, paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 6 for schedule A and bortezomib 1.2 mg/m2, paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 6 for schedule B. Six (21.4%) partial responses (PR) were seen with schedule B. In contrast, only 1 (4%) PR was achieved with schedule A. Similar proteasome inhibition was achieved at MTD for both schedules. Administration of sequential bortezomib followed by chemotherapy (schedule B) was well tolerated and associated with an encouraging number of objective responses in this small group of patients. Further studies with this administration schedule are warranted.

  20. Ultrasound-mediated interferon {beta} gene transfection inhibits growth of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Kazuki; Department of Anatomy, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180; Feril, Loreto B., E-mail: ferilism@yahoo.com

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Successful ultrasound-mediated transfection of melanoma (C32) cells with IFN-{beta} genes both in vitro and in vivo. {yields} Ultrasound-mediated IFN-{beta} transfection inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro. {yields} Ultrasound-mediated IFN-{beta} transfection inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of ultrasound-mediated transfection (sonotransfection) of interferon {beta} (IFN-{beta}) gene on melanoma (C32) both in vitro and in vivo. C32 cells were sonotransfected with IFN-{beta} in vitro. Subcutaneous C32 tumors in mice were sonicated weekly immediately after intra-tumor injection with IFN-{beta} genes mixed with microbubbles. Successful sonotransfection with IFN-{beta} gene in vitro was confirmed by ELISA,more » which resulted in C32 growth inhibition. In vivo, the growth ratio of tumors transfected with IFN-{beta} gene was significantly lower than the other experimental groups. These results may lead to a new method of treatment against melanoma and other hard-to-treat cancers.« less

  1. Osteoclast inhibition impairs chondrosarcoma growth and bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Otero, Jesse E; Stevens, Jeff W; Malandra, Allison E; Fredericks, Douglas C; Odgren, Paul R; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Morcuende, Jose

    2014-12-01

    Because Chondrosarcoma is resistant to available chemotherapy and radiation regimens, wide resection is the mainstay in treatment, which frequently results in high morbidity and which may not prevent local recurrence. There is a clear need for improved adjuvant treatment of this malignancy. We have observed the presence of osteoclasts in the microenvironment of chondrosarcoma in human pathological specimens. We utilized the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma (SRC) model to test the hypothesis that osteoclasts affect chondrosarcoma pathogenesis. We implanted SRC tumors in tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats and analyzed bone histologically and radiographically for bone destruction and tumor growth. At three weeks, tumors invaded local bone causing cortical disruption and trabecular resorption. Bone destruction was accompanied by increased osteoclast number and resorbed bone surface. Treatment of rats with the zoledronic acid prevented cortical destruction, inhibited trabecular resorption, and resulted in decreased tumor volume in bone. To confirm that inhibition of osteoclasts per se, and not off-target effects of drug, was responsible for the prevention of tumor growth and bone destruction, we implanted SRC into osteopetrotic rat tibia. SRC-induced bone destruction and tumor growth were impaired in osteopetrotic bone compared with control bone. The results from our animal model demonstrate that osteoclasts contribute to chondrosarcoma-mediated bone destruction and tumor growth and may represent a therapeutic target in particular chondrosarcoma patients. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Genistein exposure inhibits growth and alters steroidogenesis in adult mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Shreya, E-mail: Shreya.patel214@gmail.com; Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: Jackye.peretz@gmail.com; Pan, Yuan-Xiang, E-mail: yxpan@illinois.edu

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 micemore » were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) for 18–96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36 μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96 h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18 h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Genistein exposure alters expression of cell cycle regulators. • Genistein exposure alters sex steroid hormones. • Genistein exposure alters expression of steroidogenic enzymes.

  3. Nerve growth factor alters microtubule targeting agent-induced neurotransmitter release but not MTA-induced neurite retraction in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Sherry K; Gracias, Neilia G; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of anticancer treatment with the microtubule-targeted agents (MTAs), paclitaxel and epothilone B (EpoB); however, the mechanisms by which the MTAs alter neuronal function and morphology are unknown. We previously demonstrated that paclitaxel alters neuronal sensitivity, in vitro, in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). Evidence in the literature suggests that NGF may modulate the neurotoxic effects of paclitaxel. Here, we examine whether NGF modulates changes in neuronal sensitivity and morphology induced by paclitaxel and EpoB. Neuronal sensitivity was assessed using the stimulated release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whereas morphology of established neurites was evaluated using a high content screening system. Dorsal root ganglion cultures, maintained in the absence or presence of NGF, were treated from day 7 to day 12 in culture with paclitaxel (300nM) or EpoB (30nM). Following treatment, the release of CGRP was stimulated using capsaicin or high extracellular potassium. In the presence of NGF, EpoB mimicked the effects of paclitaxel: capsaicin-stimulated release was attenuated, potassium-stimulated release was slightly enhanced and the total peptide content was unchanged. In the absence of NGF, both paclitaxel and EpoB decreased capsaicin- and potassium-stimulated release and the total peptide content, suggesting that NGF may reverse MTA-induced hyposensitivity. Paclitaxel and EpoB both decreased neurite length and branching, and this attenuation was unaffected by NGF in the growth media. These differential effects of NGF on neuronal sensitivity and morphology suggest that neurite retraction is not a causative factor to alter neuronal sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of paclitaxel with PEGylated lipidic nanocapsules in presence of curcumin and poloxamer: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohammed; Akhter, Sohail; Mallick, Neha; Mohapatra, Sharmistha; Zafar, Sobiya; Rizvi, M Moshahid A; Ali, Asgar; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2016-11-01

    Cancer chemotherapeutic drug containing PEGylated lipidic nanocapsules (D-LNCs) were formulated by the controlled addition of organic phase (combined solution of paclitaxel and curcumin in a mixture of oleic acid and MPEG 2000 -DSPE (90:2.5 molar ratio) in acetone) to the aqueous phase (consist of Poloxamer 407 as emulsifying agents and glycerol as a co-solvent) at a temperature of 55-60°C followed by evaporation of organic solvent. The obtained pre-colloidal dispersion of D-LNCs was processed through high pressure homogenization to get more uniformly and nano-sized particles. Effect of concentration of emulsifying agent and process variables of high pressure homogenization (pressure and number of cycles) on average particle size and entrapment efficiency was further investigated by constructing Box-Behnken experimental design to achieve the optimum manufacturing process. D-LNCs were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In vitro release studies showed a sustained release pattern of drug from the PEGylated D-LNCs, whereas in vivo pharmacokinetic studies after a single-dose intravenous (i.v.) administration of paclitaxel (15mg/kg) in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing female Swiss albino mice showed a prolonged circulation time and slower elimination of paclitaxel from D-LNCs as compared with marketed formulation (Paclitec ® ). From the plasma concentration vs. time profile, i.v. bioavailability (AUC 0-∞ ) of paclitaxel from D-LNCs was found to be increased approximately 2.91-fold (P<0.001) as compared to Paclitec ® . In vitro cell viability assay against MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cell lines, in vivo biodistribution studies and tumor inhibition study in EAT-bearing mice, all together prove its significantly improved potency towards cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Curcumin improves the paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of HPV-positive human cervical cancer cells via the NF-κB-p53-caspase-3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yu-Ping; Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Tian, Rong; Li, Dong-Guang; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Paclitaxel, isolated from Taxus brevifolia , is considered to be an efficacious agent against a wide spectrum of human cancers, including human cervical cancer. However, dose-limiting toxicity and high cost limit its clinical application. Curcumin, a nontoxic food additive, has been reported to improve paclitaxel chemotherapy in mouse models of cervical cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, two human cervical cancer cell lines, CaSki [human papilloma virus (HPV)16-positive] and HeLa (HPV18-positive), were selected in which to investigate the effect of curcumin on the anticancer action of paclitaxel and further clarify the mechanisms. Flow cytometry and MTT analysis demonstrated that curcumin significantly promoted paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in the two cervical cell lines compared with that observed with paclitaxel alone (P<0.05). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that the decline of HPV E6 and E7 gene expression induced by paclitaxel was also assisted by curcumin. The expression levels of p53 protein and cleaved caspase-3 were increased significantly in the curcumin plus paclitaxel-treated HeLa and CaSki cells compared with those in the cells treated with paclitaxel alone (P<0.01). Significant reductions in the levels of phosphorylation of IκBα and the p65-NF-κB subunit in CaSki cells treated with curcumin and paclitaxel were observed compared with those in cells treated with paclitaxel alone (P<0.05). This suggests that the combined effect of curcumin and paclitaxel was associated with the NF-κB-p53-caspase-3 pathway. In conclusion, curcumin has the ability to improve the paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of HPV-positive human cervical cancer cell lines via the NF-κB-p53-caspase-3 pathway. Curcumin in combination with paclitaxel may provide a superior therapeutic effect on human cervical cancer.

  6. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  7. Paclitaxel and carboplatin in early phase studies: Roswell Park Cancer Institute experience in the subset of patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Creaven, P J; Raghavan, D; Pendyala, L; Loewen, G; Kindler, H L; Berghorn, E J

    1997-08-01

    The combination of paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) given by 3-hour infusion followed by carboplatin infused over 30 minutes has been evaluated in a series of phase I studies and is currently being explored in a phase II study in patients with limited- and extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. Pharmacokinetic measurements were performed at all dose levels in the phase I studies, in which the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in previously treated patients enabled more than twice the dose of paclitaxel to be given with low to moderate doses of carboplatin (dosed to a target area under the concentration-time curve of 4.0 mg x min x mL[-1]). Treatment-naive patients tolerated high paclitaxel doses (270 mg/m2) with carboplatin (dosed to a target area under the curve of 4.5 mg x min x mL[-1]) without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support. Twenty-three patients (including previously treated and untreated) with non-small cell lung cancer were entered at a variety of paclitaxel doses in the phase I studies. At 100 to 205 mg/m2 paclitaxel, none of nine treated patients responded; at 230 to 290 mg/m2, four (29%) of 14 responded. In the phase II study of paclitaxel 250 mg/m2 in previously untreated patients with small cell lung cancer, two of five evaluable patients with extensive-stage disease have shown a partial response. In a preliminary analysis of the pharmacodynamics of paclitaxel in relation to neurotoxicity (dose limiting in two of three phase I studies), neurotoxicity correlated with the total dose of paclitaxel, the area under the curve, and the peak paclitaxel concentration, but not with the length of time plasma paclitaxel levels remained above 0.05 micromol/L. These correlations were not strong, however, and analysis of these data is ongoing.

  8. Directional Atherectomy Followed by a Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon to Inhibit Restenosis and Maintain Vessel Patency

    PubMed Central

    Langhoff, Ralf; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J.; Jaff, Michael R.; Blessing, Erwin; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice; Krzanowski, Marek; Peeters, Patrick; Scheinert, Dierk; Torsello, Giovanni; Sixt, Sebastian; Tepe, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Background— Studies assessing drug-coated balloons (DCB) for the treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease are encouraging. However, challenging lesions, such as severely calcified, remain difficult to treat with DCB alone. Vessel preparation with directional atherectomy (DA) potentially improves outcomes of DCB. Methods and Results— DEFINITIVE AR study (Directional Atherectomy Followed by a Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon to Inhibit Restenosis and Maintain Vessel Patency—A Pilot Study of Anti-Restenosis Treatment) was a multicenter randomized trial designed to estimate the effect of DA before DCB to facilitate the development of future end point-driven randomized studies. One hundred two patients with claudication or rest pain were randomly assigned 1:1 to DA+DCB (n=48) or DCB alone (n=54), and 19 additional patients with severely calcified lesions were treated with DA+DCB. Mean lesion length was 11.2±4.0 cm for DA+DCB and 9.7±4.1 cm for DCB (P=0.05). Predilation rate was 16.7% for DA+DCB versus 74.1% for DCB; postdilation rate was 6.3% for DA+DCB versus 33.3% for DCB. Technical success was superior for DA+DCB (89.6% versus 64.2%; P=0.004). Overall bail-out stenting rate was 3.7%, and rate of flow-limiting dissections was 19% for DCB and 2% for DA+DCB (P=0.01). One-year primary outcome of angiographic percent diameter stenosis was 33.6±17.7% for DA+DCB versus 36.4±17.6% for DCB (P=0.48), and clinically driven target lesion revascularization was 7.3% for DA+DCB and 8.0% for DCB (P=0.90). Duplex ultrasound patency was 84.6% for DA+DCB, 81.3% for DCB (P=0.78), and 68.8% for calcified lesions. Freedom from major adverse events at 1 year was 89.3% for DA+DCB and 90.0% for DCB (P=0.86). Conclusions— DA+DCB treatment was effective and safe, but the study was not powered to show significant differences between the 2 methods of revascularization in 1-year follow-up. An adequately powered randomized trial is warranted. Clinical Trial Registration— http

  9. Inhibition of growth of excised tomato roots by 2-diethylaminoethanol.

    PubMed

    BOLL, W G

    1959-02-06

    Approximately 40 microM 2-diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) caused 50-percent inhibition of growth of the main axis. Inhibition was relieved by 2-dimethylaminoethanol and choline but not by ethanolamine. A marked morphogenetic effect of DEAE is attributed to differences in sensitivity of main and lateral meristems and to an effect upon the postulated hormonal system controlling apical dominance.

  10. Paclitaxel Causes Electrophysiological Changes in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex via Modulation of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid-ergic System.

    PubMed

    Nashawi, Houda; Masocha, Willias; Edafiogho, Ivan O; Kombian, Samuel B

    The aim of this study was to elucidate any electrophysiological changes that may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain during treatment with the anticancer drug paclitaxel, particularly in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. One hundred and eight Sprague-Dawley rats were used (untreated control: 43; vehicle-treated: 21, and paclitaxel-treated: 44). Paclitaxel (8 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally on 2 alternate days to induce mechanical allodynia. The rats were sacrificed 7 days after treatment to obtain slices of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region involved in the central processing of pain. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in layer II/III of ACC slices, and stimulus-response curves were constructed. The observed effects were pharmacologically characterized by bath application of GABA and appropriate drugs to the slices. The paclitaxel-treated rats developed mechanical allodynia (i.e. reduced withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli). Slices from paclitaxel-treated rats produced a significantly higher maximal response (Emax) than those from untreated rats (p < 0.001). Bath application of GABA (0.4 µM) reversed this effect and returned the excitability to a level similar to control. Pretreatment of the slices with the GABAB receptor blocker CGP 55845 (50 µM) increased Emax in slices from untreated rats (p < 0.01) but not from paclitaxel-treated rats. In this study, there was a GABA deficit in paclitaxel-treated rats compared to untreated ones. Such a deficit could contribute to the pathophysiology of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP). Thus, the GABAergic system might be a potential therapeutic target for managing PINP. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Paclitaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gill, P S; Tulpule, A; Espina, B M; Cabriales, S; Bresnahan, J; Ilaw, M; Louie, S; Gustafson, N F; Brown, M A; Orcutt, C; Winograd, B; Scadden, D T

    1999-06-01

    Liposomal anthracyclines are the present standard treatment for advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). No effective therapies have been defined for use after treatment failure of these agents. A phase II trial was thus conducted with paclitaxel in patients with advanced KS to assess safety and antitumor activity. A regimen of paclitaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m(2) was given every 2 weeks to patients with advanced AIDS-related KS. Patients were treated until complete remission, disease progression, or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Fifty-six patients with advanced AIDS-related KS were accrued. Tumor-associated edema was present in 70% of patients and visceral involvement in 45%. Forty patients (71%) had received prior systemic therapy; 31 of these were resistant to an anthracycline. The median entry CD4(+) lymphocyte count was 20 cells/mm(3) (range, 0 to 358). A median of 10 cycles (range, 1 to 54+) of paclitaxel was administered. Fifty-nine percent of patients showed complete (n = 1) or partial response (n = 32) to paclitaxel. The median duration of response was 10.4 months (range, 2.8 to 26.7+ months) and the median survival was 15.4 months. The main side effects of therapy were grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in 61% of patients and mild-to-moderate alopecia in 87%. Paclitaxel at 100 mg/m(2) given every 2 weeks is active and well tolerated in the treatment of advanced and previously treated AIDS-related KS. The median duration of response is among the longest observed for any regimen or single agent reported for AIDS-related KS. Paclitaxel at this dosage and schedule is a treatment option for patients with advanced AIDS-related KS, including those who have experienced treatment failure of prior systemic therapy.

  12. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Lambrechts, Mark J; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Yin, Rutie; Xi, Mingrong; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that is reversibly converted from serine intracellularly by serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are analogs to glycine, thus they may inhibit serine hydroxymethyltransferase to decrease intracellular glycine synthesis. In this study, we found that glyphosate and AMPA inhibited cell growth in eight human cancer cell lines but not in two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines. AMPA arrested C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cells in the G1/G0 phase and inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. AMPA also promoted apoptosis in C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cell lines. AMPA upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels as well as procaspase 9 protein levels in C4-2B cells, whereas it downregulated cyclin D3 protein levels. AMPA also activated caspase 3 and induced cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase. This study provides the first evidence that glyphosate and AMPA can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells, suggesting that they have potentials to be developed into a new anticancer therapy.

  13. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingli; Lambrechts, Mark J; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Yin, Rutie; Xi, Mingrong; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that is reversibly converted from serine intracellularly by serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are analogs to glycine, thus they may inhibit serine hydroxymethyltransferase to decrease intracellular glycine synthesis. In this study, we found that glyphosate and AMPA inhibited cell growth in eight human cancer cell lines but not in two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines. AMPA arrested C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cells in the G1/G0 phase and inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. AMPA also promoted apoptosis in C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cell lines. AMPA upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels as well as procaspase 9 protein levels in C4-2B cells, whereas it downregulated cyclin D3 protein levels. AMPA also activated caspase 3 and induced cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase. This study provides the first evidence that glyphosate and AMPA can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells, suggesting that they have potentials to be developed into a new anticancer therapy. PMID:23983455

  14. Inhibitory action of lansoprazole and its analogs against Helicobacter pylori: inhibition of growth is not related to inhibition of urease.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, K; Takagi, E; Tsuda, M; Nakazawa, T; Satoh, H; Nakao, M; Okamura, H; Tamura, T

    1995-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitors omeprazole and lansoprazole and its acid-activated derivative AG-2000, which are potent and specific inhibitors of urease of Helicobacter pylori (K. Nagata, H. Satoh, T. Iwahi, T. Shimoyama, and T. Tamura, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:769-774, 1993), inhibited the growth of H. pylori. The growth was inhibited not only in urease-positive clinical isolates but also in their urease-negative derivatives which had no urease polypeptides. AG-1789, a derivative of lansoprazole with no inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease, also inhibited the growth of both strains even more strongly than the urease inhibitors lansoprazole and AG-2000. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of omeprazole and lansoprazole was not affected by glutathione or dithiothreitol, which completely abolished the inhibitory activity of lansoprazole against H. pylori urease. These results indicated that the inhibitory action of these compounds against the growth of H. pylori was independent from the inhibitory action against urease. PMID:7726537

  15. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehiclemore » control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators

  16. Absorption mechanism of DHP107, an oral paclitaxel formulation that forms a hydrated lipidic sponge phase

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yura; Chung, Hye Jin; Hong, Jung Wan; Yun, Cheol-Won; Chung, Hesson

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a most widely used anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability, thus it is currently administered via intravenous infusion. DHP107 is a lipid-based paclitaxel formulation that can be administered as an oral solution. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of paclitaxel absorption after oral administration of DHP107 in mice and rats by changing the dosing interval, and evaluated the influence of bile excretion. DHP107 was orally administered to mice at various dosing intervals (2, 4, 8, 12, 24 h) to examine how residual DHP107 affected paclitaxel absorption during subsequent administration. Studies with small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) showed that DHP107 formed a lipidic sponge phase after hydration. The AUC values after the second dose were smaller than those after the first dose, which was correlated to the induction of expression of P-gp and CYP in the livers and small intestines from 2 h to 7 d after the first dose. The smaller AUC value observed after the second dose was also attributed to the intestinal adhesion of residual formulation. The adhered DHP107 may have been removed by ingested food, thus resulting in a higher AUC. In ex vivo and in vivo mucoadhesion studies, the formulation adhered to the villi for up to 24 h, and the amount of DHP107 that adhered was approximately half that of monoolein. The paclitaxel absorption after administration of DHP107 was not affected by bile in the cholecystectomy mice. The dosing interval and food intake affect the oral absorption of paclitaxel from DHP107, which forms a mucoadhesive sponge phase after hydration. Bile excretion does not affect the absorption of paclitaxel from DHP107 in vivo. PMID:27867185

  17. Absorption mechanism of DHP107, an oral paclitaxel formulation that forms a hydrated lipidic sponge phase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yura; Chung, Hye Jin; Hong, Jung Wan; Yun, Cheol-Won; Chung, Hesson

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a most widely used anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability, thus it is currently administered via intravenous infusion. DHP107 is a lipid-based paclitaxel formulation that can be administered as an oral solution. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of paclitaxel absorption after oral administration of DHP107 in mice and rats by changing the dosing interval, and evaluated the influence of bile excretion. DHP107 was orally administered to mice at various dosing intervals (2, 4, 8, 12, 24 h) to examine how residual DHP107 affected paclitaxel absorption during subsequent administration. Studies with small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) showed that DHP107 formed a lipidic sponge phase after hydration. The AUC values after the second dose were smaller than those after the first dose, which was correlated to the induction of expression of P-gp and CYP in the livers and small intestines from 2 h to 7 d after the first dose. The smaller AUC value observed after the second dose was also attributed to the intestinal adhesion of residual formulation. The adhered DHP107 may have been removed by ingested food, thus resulting in a higher AUC. In ex vivo and in vivo mucoadhesion studies, the formulation adhered to the villi for up to 24 h, and the amount of DHP107 that adhered was approximately half that of monoolein. The paclitaxel absorption after administration of DHP107 was not affected by bile in the cholecystectomy mice. The dosing interval and food intake affect the oral absorption of paclitaxel from DHP107, which forms a mucoadhesive sponge phase after hydration. Bile excretion does not affect the absorption of paclitaxel from DHP107 in vivo.

  18. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  19. Testosterone inhibits the growth of prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Weitao; Soni, Vikram; Soni, Samit; Khera, Mohit

    2017-09-07

    Traditional beliefs of androgen's stimulating effects on the growth of prostate cancer (PCa) have been challenged in recent years. Our previous in vitro study indicated that physiological normal levels of androgens inhibited the proliferation of PCa cells. In this in vivo study, the ability of testosterone (T) to inhibit PCa growth was assessed by testing the tumor incidence rate and tumor growth rate of PCa xenografts on nude mice. Different serum testosterone levels were manipulated in male nude/nude athymic mice by orchiectomy or inserting different dosages of T pellets subcutaneously. PCa cells were injected subcutaneously to nude mice and tumor incidence rate and tumor growth rate of PCa xenografts were tested. The data demonstrated that low levels of serum T resulted in the highest PCa incidence rate (50%). This PCa incidence rate in mice with low T levels was significantly higher than that in mice treated with higher doses of T (24%, P < 0.01) and mice that underwent orchiectomy (8%, P < 0.001). Mice that had low serum T levels had the shortest tumor volume doubling time (112 h). This doubling time was significantly shorter than that in the high dose 5 mg T arm (158 h, P < 0.001) and in the orchiectomy arm (468 h, P < 0.001). These results indicated that low T levels are optimal for PCa cell growth. Castrate T levels, as seen after orchiectomy, are not sufficient to support PCa cell growth. Higher levels of serum T inhibited PCa cell growth.

  20. Citrate-Coated Silver Nanoparticles Growth-Independently Inhibit Aflatoxin Synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Chandrani; Gummadidala, Phani M; Afshinnia, Kamelia; Merrifield, Ruth C; Baalousha, Mohammed; Lead, Jamie R; Chanda, Anindya

    2017-07-18

    Manufactured silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have long been used as antimicrobials. However, little is known about how these NPs affect fungal cell functions. While multiple previous studies reveal that Ag NPs inhibit secondary metabolite syntheses in several mycotoxin producing filamentous fungi, these effects are associated with growth repression and hence need sublethal to lethal NP doses, which besides stopping fungal growth, can potentially accumulate in the environment. Here we demonstrate that citrate-coated Ag NPs of size 20 nm, when applied at a selected nonlethal dose, can result in a >2 fold inhibition of biosynthesis of the carcinogenic mycotoxin and secondary metabolite, aflatoxin B 1 in the filamentous fungus and an important plant pathogen, Aspergillus parasiticus, without inhibiting fungal growth. We also show that the observed inhibition was not due to Ag ions, but was specifically associated with the mycelial uptake of Ag NPs. The NP exposure resulted in a significant decrease in transcript levels of five aflatoxin genes and at least two key global regulators of secondary metabolism, laeA and veA, with a concomitant reduction of total reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, the depletion of Ag NPs in the growth medium allowed the fungus to regain completely its ability of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Our results therefore demonstrate the feasibility of Ag NPs to inhibit fungal secondary metabolism at nonlethal concentrations, hence providing a novel starting point for discovery of custom designed engineered nanoparticles that can efficiently prevent mycotoxins with minimal risk to health and environment.

  1. Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel in biodegradable self-assembled core-shell poly(lactide-co-glycolide ethylene oxide fumarate) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    He, Xuezhong; Ma, Junyu; Mercado, Angel E; Xu, Weijie; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2008-07-01

    Biodegradable core-shell polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic shell, are developed for surfactant-free encapsulation and delivery of Paclitaxel to tumor cells. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide fumarate) (PLGF) and Poly (lactide-fumarate) (PLAF) were synthesized by condensation polymerization of ultra-low molecular weight poly(L: -lactide-co-glycolide) (ULMW PLGA) with fumaryl chloride (FuCl). Similarly, poly(lactide-co-ethylene oxide fumarate) (PLEOF) macromer was synthesized by reacting ultra-low molecular weight poly(L: -lactide) (ULMW PLA) and PEG with FuCl. The blend PLGF/PLEOF and PLAF/PLEOF macromers were self-assembled into NPs by dialysis. The NPs were characterized with respect to particle size distribution, morphology, and loading efficiency. The physical state and miscibility of Paclitaxel in NPs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Tumor cell uptake and cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel loaded NPs were measured by incubation with HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. The distribution of NPs in vivo was assessed with Apc(Min/+)mouse using infrared imaging. PLEOF macromer, due to its amphiphilic nature, acted as a surface active agent in the process of self-assembly which produced core-shell NPs with PLGF/PLAF and PLEOF macromers as the core and shell, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 70 to 56% and it was independent of the macromer but decreased with increasing concentration of Paclitaxel. Most of the PLGF and PLAF NPs degraded in 15 and 28 days, respectively, which demonstrated that the release was dominated by hydrolytic degradation and erosion of the matrix. As the concentration of Paclitaxel was increased from 0 to 10, and 40 mug/ml, the viability of HCT116 cells incubated with free Paclitaxel decreased from 100 to 65 and 40%, respectively, while those encapsulated in PLGF/PLEOF NPs decreased from 93 to 54 and 28%. Groups with Paclitaxel loaded NPs had higher cytotoxicity compared to

  2. Paclitaxel sensitivity in relation to ABCB1 expression, efflux and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Healey, Sue; Henderson, Michelle; Wong, Mark; Emmanuel, Catherine; Galletta, Laura; Johnatty, Sharon E; Bowtell, David; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray; Harnett, Paul; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Balleine, Rosemary L; deFazio, Anna

    2014-05-09

    ABCB1 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B1) mediates cellular elimination of many chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel, which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. A significant association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1 and progression-free survival has been reported in patients with ovarian cancer. Variable paclitaxel clearance due to genotype specific differences in ABCB1 activity in cancer cells and/or normal tissues may underlie the association. Using cell-based models, we evaluated the correlations between ABCB1 expression, polymorphisms, transporter activity and paclitaxel sensitivity in ovarian cancer (n = 10) and lymphoblastoid (n = 19) cell lines. Close associations between ABCB1 expression, transporter function and paclitaxel sensitivity were found in lymphoblastoid cell lines, although we could not demonstrate an association with common SNPs. In ovarian cancer cell lines, ABCB1 expression was low and the association between expression and function was lost. These results suggest that ABCB1 related survival difference in ovarian cancer patients is more likely to be due to differential whole body paclitaxel clearance mediated by normal cells rather than a direct effect on cancer cells.

  3. Paclitaxel-induced painful neuropathy is associated with changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, glycolysis, and an energy deficit in dorsal root ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Duggett, Natalie A.; Griffiths, Lisa A.; Flatters, Sarah J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Painful neuropathy is the major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel chemotherapy. Mitochondrial dysfunction and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) deficit have previously been shown in peripheral nerves of paclitaxel-treated rats, but the effects of paclitaxel in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) have not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the bioenergetic status of DRG neurons following paclitaxel exposure in vitro and in vivo. Utilising isolated DRG neurons, we measured respiratory function under basal conditions and at maximal capacity, glycolytic function, and Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/ATP levels at 3 key behavioural timepoints; prior to pain onset (day 7), peak pain severity and pain resolution. At day 7, maximal respiration and spare reserve capacity were significantly decreased in DRG neurons from paclitaxel-treated rats. This was accompanied by decreased basal ATP levels and unaltered ADP levels. At peak pain severity, respiratory function was unaltered, yet glycolytic function was significantly increased. Reduced ATP and unaltered ADP levels were also observed at the peak pain timepoint. All these effects in DRG neurons had dissipated by the pain resolution timepoint. None of these paclitaxel-evoked changes could be replicated from in vitro paclitaxel exposure to naive DRG neurons, demonstrating the impact of in vivo exposure and the importance of in vivo models. These data demonstrate the nature of mitochondrial dysfunction evoked by in vivo paclitaxel in the DRG for the first time. Furthermore, we have identified paclitaxel-evoked changes in the bioenergetics of DRG neurons, which result in a persistent energy deficit that is causal to the development and maintenance of paclitaxel-induced pain. PMID:28541258

  4. Growth of Streptomyces Hygroscopicus in Rotating-Wall Bioreactor Under Simulated Microgravity Inhibits Rapamycin Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Demain, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus under conditions of simulated microgravity in a rotating-wall bioreactor resulted in a pellet form of growth, lowered dry cell weight, and inhibition of rapamycin production. With the addition of Teflon beads to the bioreactor, growth became much less pelleted, dry cell weight increased but rapamycin production was still markedly inhibited. Growth under simulated microgravity favored extracellular production of rapamycin in contrast to a greater percentage of cell-bound rapamycin observed under normal gravity conditions.

  5. Growth of Steptomyces hygroscopicus in rotating-wall bioreactor under simulated microgravity inhibits rapamycin production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Demain, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus under conditions of simulated microgravity in a rotating-wall bioreactor resulted in a pellet form of growth, lowered dry cell weight, and inhibition of rapamycin production. With the addition of Teflon beads to the bioreactor, growth became much less pelleted, dry cell weight increased but rapamycin production was still markedly inhibited. Growth under simulated microgravity favored extracellular production of rapamycin, in contrast to a greater percentage of cell-bound rapamycin observed under normal gravity conditions.

  6. A randomized adaptive phase II/III study of buparlisib, a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, combined with paclitaxel for the treatment of HER2- advanced breast cancer (BELLE-4).

    PubMed

    Martín, M; Chan, A; Dirix, L; O'Shaughnessy, J; Hegg, R; Manikhas, A; Shtivelband, M; Krivorotko, P; Batista López, N; Campone, M; Ruiz Borrego, M; Khan, Q J; Beck, J T; Ramos Vázquez, M; Urban, P; Goteti, S; Di Tomaso, E; Massacesi, C; Delaloge, S

    2017-02-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation in preclinical models of breast cancer is associated with tumor growth and resistance to anticancer therapies, including paclitaxel. Effects of the pan-Class I PI3K inhibitor buparlisib (BKM120) appear synergistic with paclitaxel in preclinical and clinical models. BELLE-4 was a 1:1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive phase II/III study investigating the combination of buparlisib or placebo with paclitaxel in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer with no prior chemotherapy for advanced disease. Patients were stratified by PI3K pathway activation and hormone receptor status. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the full and PI3K pathway-activated populations. An adaptive interim analysis was planned following the phase II part of the study, after ≥125 PFS events had occurred in the full population, to decide whether the study would enter phase III (in the full or PI3K pathway-activated population) or be stopped for futility. As of August 2014, 416 patients were randomized to receive buparlisib (207) or placebo (209) with paclitaxel. At adaptive interim analysis, there was no improvement in PFS with buparlisib versus placebo in the full (median PFS 8.0 versus 9.2 months, hazard ratio [HR] 1.18), or PI3K pathway-activated population (median PFS 9.1 versus 9.2 months, HR 1.17). The study met protocol-specified criteria for futility in both populations, and phase III was not initiated. Median duration of study treatment exposure was 3.5 months in the buparlisib arm versus 4.6 months in the placebo arm. The most frequent adverse events with buparlisib plus paclitaxel (≥40% of patients) were diarrhea, alopecia, rash, nausea, and hyperglycemia. Addition of buparlisib to paclitaxel did not improve PFS in the full or PI3K pathway-activated study population. Consequently, the trial was stopped for futility

  7. Initial paclitaxel improves outcome compared with CMFP combination chemotherapy as front-line therapy in untreated metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J F; Dewar, J; Toner, G C; Smith, J; Tattersall, M H; Olver, I N; Ackland, S; Kennedy, I; Goldstein, D; Gurney, H; Walpole, E; Levi, J; Stephenson, J; Canetta, R

    1999-08-01

    To determine the place of single-agent paclitaxel compared with nonanthracycline combination chemotherapy as front-line therapy in metastatic breast cancer. Patients with previously untreated metastatic breast cancer were randomized to receive either paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) intravenously (IV) over 3 hours for eight cycles (24 weeks) or standard cyclophosphamide 100 mg/m(2)/d orally on days 1 to 14, methotrexate 40 mg/m(2) IV on days 1 and 8, fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2) IV on days 1 and 8, and prednisone 40 mg/m(2)/d orally on days 1 to 14 (CMFP) for six cycles (24 weeks) with epirubicin recommended as second-line therapy. A total of 209 eligible patients were randomized with a median survival duration of 17.3 months for paclitaxel and 13.9 months for CMFP. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received paclitaxel survived significantly longer than those who received CMFP (P =.025). Paclitaxel produced significantly less severe leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis, documented infections (all P <.001), nausea or vomiting (P =.003), and fever without documented infection (P =.007), and less hospitalization for febrile neutropenia than did CMFP (P =.001). Alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, and myalgia or arthralgia were more severe with paclitaxel (all P <.0001). Overall, quality of life was similar for both treatments (P > = .07). Initial paclitaxel was associated with significantly less myelosuppression and fewer infections, with longer survival and similar quality of life and control of metastatic breast cancer compared with CMFP.

  8. Gellan sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Frances Cagayat; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Ishiwa, Akiko; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Fundador, Noreen Grace V.; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Fumi; Gong, Haiyan; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Iwata, Tadahisa; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we assessed the sulfated derivative of the microbial polysaccharide gellan gum and derivatives of λ and κ-carrageenans for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by means of flow cytometry after a 96-h exposure to the inhibitors and invasion inhibition was assessed by counting ring parasites after a 20-h exposure to them. Gellan sulfate strongly inhibited invasion and modestly inhibited growth for both P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2; both inhibitory effects exceeded those achieved with native gellan gum. The hydrolyzed λ-carrageenan and oversulfated κ-carrageenan were less inhibitory than their native forms. In vitro cytotoxicity and anticoagulation assays performed to determine the suitability of the modified polysaccharides for in vivo studies showed that our synthesized gellan sulfate had low cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity. PMID:24740150

  9. Paclitaxel-carboplatin induced radiation recall colitis.

    PubMed

    Kundak, Isil; Oztop, Ilhan; Soyturk, Mujde; Ozcan, Mehmet Ali; Yilmaz, Ugur; Meydan, Nezih; Gorken, Ilknur Bilkay; Kupelioglu, Ali; Alakavuklar, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Some chemotherapeutic agents can "recall" the irradiated volumes by skin or pulmonary reactions in cancer patients who previously received radiation therapy. We report a recall colitis following the administration of paclitaxel-containing regimen in a patient who had been irradiated for a carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A 63-year-old woman underwent a Wertheim operation because of uterine cervix carcinoma. After 8 years of follow-up, a local recurrence was observed and she received curative external radiotherapy (45 Gy) to the pelvis. No significant adverse events were observed during the radiotherapy. Approximately one year later, she was hospitalized because of metastatic disease with multiple pulmonary nodules, and a chemotherapy regimen consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin was administered. The day after the administration of chemotherapy the patient had diarrhea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of the biopsy taken from rectal hyperemic lesions showed a radiation colitis. The symptoms reappeared after the administration of each course of chemotherapy and continued until the death of the patient despite the interruption of the chemotherapy. In conclusion, the probability of recall phenomena should be kept in mind in patients who received previously with pelvic radiotherapy and treated later with cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  10. In vivo inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and growth in tobacco ovary tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    Post fertilization growth of tobacco ovary tissues treated with inhibitors of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis was examined in relation to endogenous PA titers and the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17). DL-alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), specific, irreversible ("suicide") inhibitors of ODC and ADC in vitro, were used to modulate PA biosynthesis in excised flowers. ODC represented >99% of the total decarboxylase activity in tobacco ovaries. In vivo inhibition of ODC with DFMO resulted in a significant decrease in PA titers, ovary fresh weight and protein content. Simultaneous inhibition of both decarboxylases by DFMO and DFMA produced only a marginally greater depression in growth and PA titers, indicating that ODC activity is rate-limiting for PA biosynthesis in these tissues. Paradoxically, DFMA alone inhibited PA biosynthesis, not as a result of a specific inhibition of ADC, but primarily through the inactivation of ODC. In vivo inhibition of ODC by DFMA appears to result from arginase-mediated hydrolysis of this inhibitor to urea and DFMO, the suicide substrate for ODC. Putrescine conjugates in tobacco appear to function as a storage form of this amine which, upon hydrolysis, may contribute to Put homeostasis during growth.

  11. Paclitaxel-loaded KMnF3 nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao-xia; Wan, Hong-ping; Zhang, Jin-sheng; Tang, Qun

    2014-11-01

    Biocompatible nanoparticles (NPs) responding to the light, thermal, or magnetic excitation are attracting more attention for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Design of an effective multifunctional complex based on those NPs is a key issue to be addressed, for example, integration of anti-tumor agents with nanoprobes has been considered as one of the successful strategies for combined cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we develop paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PEGylation KMnF3 NP, with the size ranged from 18 to 23 nm, as MRI contrast agents for cancer imaging and drug delivery for chemotherapy. Preliminary cell tests demonstrated that PTX@PEG-KMnF3 NP is highly biocompatible. The NP has high loading capacity of PTX (0.7 mg PTX/mg Mn ions), enhanced solubility of PTX (0.16 mg PTX/ml vs 0.02 mg PTX/ml), and high releasing ratio (90 %) in the weak acid solution. As it was applied for in vivo imaging and therapy, the NP enhanced contrast of tumor's MR images and PTX's anti-tumor effect profoundly. The signal noise ratio of the cancer image increased 170 % as comparison to pre-injection with the injection dose of 1.15 mg Mn/kg. The drug delivery's efficacy was also substantially improved, as the tumor growth inhibition effects reached 50 %, meanwhile only 30 % for pristine PTX. Our studies suggest that PTX-loaded KMnF3 NP might be useful as MR image-guided drug delivery for tumor treatment.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-1 attenuates apoptosis and protects neurochemical phenotypes of dorsal root ganglion neurons with paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Bai, Xue; Bi, Yanwen; Liu, Guixiang; Li, Hao; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Huaxiang

    2017-02-01

    Paclitaxel (PT)-induced neurotoxicity is a significant problem associated with successful treatment of cancers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor and plays an important role in promoting axonal growth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Whether IGF-1 has protective effects on neurite growth, cell viability, neuronal apoptosis and neuronal phenotypes in DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity is still unclear. In this study, primary cultured rat DRG neurons were used to assess the effects of IGF-1 on DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that PT exposure caused neurite retraction in a dose-dependent manner. PT exposure caused a decrease of cell viability and an increase in the ratio of apoptotic cells which could be reversed by IGF-1. The percentage of calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive (CGRP-IR) neurons and neurofilament (NF)-200-IR neurons, mRNA, and protein levels of CGRP and NF-200 decreased significantly after treatment with PT. IGF-1 administration had protective effects on CGRP-IR neurons, but not on NF-200-IR neurons. Either extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor LY294002 blocked the effect of IGF-1. The results imply that IGF-1 may attenuate apoptosis to improve neuronal cell viability and promote neurite growth of DRG neurons with PT-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, these results support an important neuroprotective role of exogenous IGF-1 on distinct subpopulations of DRG neurons which is responsible for skin sensation. The effects of IGF-1 might be through ERK1/2 or PI3 K/Akt signaling pathways. These findings provide experimental evidence for IGF-1 administration to alleviate neurotoxicity of distinct subpopulations of DRG neurons induced by PT.

  13. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs.

    PubMed

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. A cultivar (Allium cepa 'Copra') with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 degrees C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO(2) and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO(2) production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy.

  14. Release Kinetics of Paclitaxel and Cisplatin from Two and Three Layered Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    England, Christopher G.; Miller, M. Clarke; Kuttan, Ashani; Trent, John O.; Frieboes, Hermann B.

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve stable drug release while avoiding adverse effects in cancer treatment. We study cisplatin and paclitaxel release from gold cores functionalized with hexadecanethiol (TL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) to form two-layer nanoparticles, or TL, PC, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) to form three-layer nanoparticles. Drug release was monitored for 14 days to assess long term effects of the core surface modifications on release kinetics. Release profiles were fitted to previously developed kinetic models to differentiate possible release mechanisms. The hydrophilic drug (cisplatin) showed an initial (5-hr.) burst, followed by a steady release over 14 days. The hydrophobic drug (paclitaxel) showed a steady release over the same time period. Two layer nanoparticles released 64.0 ± 2.5% of cisplatin and 22.3 ± 1.5% of paclitaxel, while three layer nanoparticles released the entire encapsulated drug. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model best described each release scenario, while the simplified Higuchi model also adequately described paclitaxel release from the two layer formulation. We conclude that functionalization of gold nanoparticles with a combination of TL and PC may help to modulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug release kinetics, while the addition of HDL may enhance long term release of hydrophobic drug. PMID:25753197

  15. Imatinib mesylate inhibits platelet derived growth factor stimulated proliferation of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, Charlotta; Joutsiniemi, Saima; Lindstedt, Ken A.

    Synovial fibroblast is the key cell type in the growth of the pathological synovial tissue in arthritis. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen for synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibition of PDGF-receptor signalling by imatinib mesylate (1 {mu}M) completely abrogated the PDGF-stimulated proliferation and inhibited approximately 70% of serum-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. Similar extent of inhibition was observed when PDGF was neutralized with anti-PDGF antibodies, suggesting that imatinib mesylate does not inhibit pathways other than those mediated by PDGF-receptors. No signs of apoptosis were detected in synovial fibroblasts cultured inmore » the presence of imatinib. These results suggest that imatinib mesylate specifically inhibits PDGF-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts, and that inhibition of PDGF-receptors could represent a feasible target for novel antirheumatic therapies.« less

  16. A novel anticancer agent SNG1153 inhibits growth of lung cancer stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Hai; Han, Yuqing; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Congya; Ma, Junfeng; Lin, Qingcong; Wang, Zhaoyi; Meng, Kun; Fu, Xueqi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Lung cancer contains a small population of cancer cells with stem-like features known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are often more resistant to current therapeutic treatments. Thus, it is urgent to develop a novel agent that is able to inhibit CSCs growth. In this study, we examined the ability of SNG1153, a novel chemical agent to inhibit the growth of lung CSCs. We found that SNG1153 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in established lung cancer cells. We also found that SNG1153 inhibited the tumorsphere formation and decreased CD133-positive (lung CSC marker) cancer cells. SNG1153 was able to attenuate tumor formation in NOD/SCID (non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient) mice injected with lung tumorsphere cells. We further demonstrated that SNG1153 induced β-catenin phosphorylation and down-regulated β-catenin. Our results thus demonstrate that SNG1153 effectively inhibits the growth of lung CSCs and suggest that SNG1153 may be a novel therapeutic agent to treat human lung cancer. PMID:27281614

  17. Chloroquine synergizes with FTS to enhance cell growth inhibition and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Schmukler, Eran; Wolfson, Eya; Haklai, Roni; Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Kloog, Yoel; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    The Ras family of small GTPases transmits extracellular signals that regulate cell growth, differentiation, motility and death. Ras signaling is constitutively active in a large number of human cancers. Ras can also regulate autophagy by affecting several signaling pathways including the mTOR pathway. Autophagy is a process that regulates the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. It is important for normal growth control, but may be defective in diseases. Previously, we have shown that Ras inhibition by FTS induces autophagy, which partially protects cancer cells and may limit the use of FTS as an anti-cancer drug. Since FTS is a non toxic drug we hypothesized that FTS and chloroquine (an autophagy inhibitor) will synergize in cell growth inhibition and cell death. Thus, in the present study, we explored the mechanism of each individual drug and their combined action. Our results demonstrate that in HCT-116 and in Panc-1 cells, FTS induces autophagy, which can be inhibited by chloroquine. Furthermore, the combined treatment synergistically decreased the number of viable cells. Interestingly, the combined treatment enhanced apoptotic cell death as indicated by increased sub-G1 cell population, increased Hoechst staining, activation of caspase 3, decrease in survivin expression and release of cytochrome c. Thus, chloroquine treatment may promote FTS-mediated inhibition of tumor cell growth and may stimulate apoptotic cell death. PMID:24368422

  18. Weekly paclitaxel and concurrent pazopanib following doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant therapy for HER-negative locally advanced breast cancer: NSABP Foundation FB-6, a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Tan, A R; Johannes, H; Rastogi, P; Jacobs, S A; Robidoux, A; Flynn, P J; Thirlwell, M P; Fehrenbacher, L; Stella, P J; Goel, R; Julian, T B; Provencher, L; Bury, M J; Bhatt, K; Geyer, C E; Swain, S M; Mamounas, E P; Wolmark, N

    2015-01-01

    This multicenter single-arm phase II study evaluated the addition of pazopanib to concurrent weekly paclitaxel following doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant therapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Patients with HER2-negative stage III breast cancer were treated with doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) for four cycles every 3 weeks followed by weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days for four cycles concurrently with pazopanib 800 mg orally daily prior to surgery. Post-operatively, pazopanib was given daily for 6 months. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) in the breast and lymph nodes. Between July 2009 and March 2011, 101 patients with stage IIIA-C HER2-negative breast cancer were enrolled. The pCR rate in evaluable patients who initiated paclitaxel and pazopanib was 17 % (16/93). The pCR rate was 9 % (6/67) in hormone receptor-positive tumors and 38 % (10/26) in triple-negative tumors. Pre-operative pazopanib was completed in only 39 % of patients. The most frequent grade 3 and 4 adverse events during paclitaxel and pazopanib were neutropenia (27 %), diarrhea (5 %), ALT and AST elevations (each 5 %), and hypertension (5 %). Although the pCR rate of paclitaxel and pazopanib following AC chemotherapy given as neoadjuvant therapy in women with LABC met the pre-specified criteria for activity, there was substantial toxicity, which led to a high discontinuation rate of pazopanib. The combination does not appear to warrant further evaluation in the neoadjuvant setting for breast cancer.

  19. Arginine, glycine, aspartic acid peptide-modified paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposome for the treatment of lung cancer: in vitro/vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kanqiu; Shen, Mingjing; Xu, Weihua

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel arginine, glycine, aspartic acid peptide (RGD)-modified paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposomes were developed to evaluate their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Co-loaded liposomes were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The particles had spherical shapes under electron microscopy with sizes <130 nm. By comparison with the free drug, RGD-modified paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposomes and paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposomes have sustained-release properties in vitro. In vivo, there was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between the RGD-modified paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposomes and paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposomes. A strong green fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasmic region after incubation of RGD-modified paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposomes for 2 h. RGD-modified paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposomes showed a superior antiproliferative effect on A549 cells with a possible mechanism that suppressed the multidrug resistance phenomenon and exhibited a clear synergistic effect. The results indicate that RGD-modified paclitaxel and curcumin co-loaded liposomes had a better antitumor effect in vivo than the non-modified LPs. These results indicate that RGD-modified co-loaded liposomes are a promising candidate for antitumor drug delivery.

  20. Somatostatin Receptor-1 Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiaochi; Li, Wei; Li, Fei; Yang, Hui; Wang, Hao; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Fisher, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Functional somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are lost in human pancreatic cancer. Transfection of SSTR-1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro. We hypothesize that stable transfection of SSTR-1 may inhibit pancreatic cancer growth in vivo possibly through cell cycle arrest. In this study, we examined the expression of SSTR-1 mRNA in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens, and investigated the effect of SSTR-1 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and tumor growth in in a subcutaneous nude mouse model. We found that SSTR-1 mRNA was downregulated in the majority of pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. Transfection of SSTR-1 caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 growth phase, with a corresponding decline of cells in the S (mitotic) phase. The overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibited subcutaneous tumor size by 71% and 43% (n=5, p<0.05, t-test), and inhibited tumor weight by 69% and 47%, (n=5, p<0.05, t-test), in Panc-SSTR-1 and MIA-SSTR-1 groups, respectively, indicating the potent inhibitory effect of SSTR-1 on pancreatic cancer growth. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibits pancreatic cancer growth possibly through cell cycle arrest. This study suggests that gene therapy with SSTR-1 may be a potential adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:18823376

  1. Inhibition of Lung Cancer Growth in Mice by Dietary Mixed Tocopherols

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Joshua D.; Lu, Gang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Hu, Jennifer; Ju, Jihyeung; Yang, Chung S.

    2009-01-01

    Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants found in vegetable oils. Here, we examined the growth inhibitory effect of a γ-tocopherol-enriched tocopherol mixture (γTmT) against CL13 murine lung cancer cells grown in culture and as subcutaneous tumors in A/J mice. We found γTmT had no effect after 2 d and weakly inhibited the growth of CL13 in culture after 5 d (28% growth inhibition at 80 µM). Dietary treatment with 0.1% and 0.3% γTmT for 50 d inhibited the growth of CL13 tumors in A/J mice by 53.9 and 80.5%, respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed an increase in tumor necrosis compared to control tumors (80% and 240% increase by 0.1% and 0.3% γTmT, respectively). Dietary treatment with γTmT dose-dependently increased γ- (10.0 – 37.6-fold) and δ-tocopherol (8.9 – 26.7-fold) in the tumors of treated mice compared to controls. Dietary treatment with γTmT also increased plasma γ- (5.4 – 6.7-fold) and δ-tocopherol (5.5 – 7-fold). Whereas others have demonstrated the cancer preventive activity of γTmT against mammary and colon cancer, this is the first report of growth inhibitory activity against lung cancer. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying mechanisms for this anticancer activity, and to determine if such activity occurs in other models of cancer. PMID:19557822

  2. Gallium-Protoporphyrin IX Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth by Targeting Cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Sarah; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host. The adaptation of P. aeruginosa to heme iron acquisition in the CF lung makes heme utilization pathways a promising target for the development of new anti- Pseudomonas drugs. Gallium [Ga(III)] is an iron mimetic metal which inhibits P. aeruginosa growth by interfering with iron-dependent metabolism. The Ga(III) complex of the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX) showed enhanced antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, although no inhibitory effect has been reported on P. aeruginosa . Here, we demonstrate that GaPPIX is indeed capable of inhibiting the growth of clinical P. aeruginosa strains under iron-deplete conditions, as those encountered by bacteria during infection, and that GaPPIX inhibition is reversed by iron. Using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as model organism, we show that GaPPIX enters cells through both the heme-uptake systems has and phu , primarily via the PhuR receptor which plays a crucial role in P. aeruginosa adaptation to the CF lung. We also demonstrate that intracellular GaPPIX inhibits the aerobic growth of P. aeruginosa by targeting cytochromes, thus interfering with cellular respiration.

  3. Graphene oxide stabilized by PLA-PEG copolymers for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulou, A; Voulgari, E; Diamanti, E K; Gournis, D; Avgoustakis, K

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the application of water-dispersible poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) copolymers for the stabilization of graphene oxide (GO) aqueous dispersions and the feasibility of using the PLA-PEG stabilized GO as a delivery system for the potent anticancer agent paclitaxel. A modified Staudenmaier method was applied to synthesize graphene oxide (GO). Diblock PLA-PEG copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of dl-lactide in the presence of monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG). Probe sonication in the presence of PLA-PEG copolymers was applied in order to reduce the hydrodynamic diameter of GO to the nano-size range according to dynamic light scattering (DLS) and obtain nano-graphene oxide (NGO) composites with PLA-PEG. The composites were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and DLS. The colloidal stability of the composites was evaluated by recording the size of the composite particles with time and the resistance of composites to aggregation induced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. The composites were loaded with paclitaxel and the in vitro release profile was determined. The cytotoxicity of composites against A549 human lung cancer cells in culture was evaluated by flow cytometry. The uptake of FITC-labeled NGO/PLA-PEG by A549 cells was also estimated with flow cytometry and visualized with fluorescence microscopy. The average hydrodynamic diameter of NGO/PLA-PEG according to DLS ranged between 455 and 534 nm, depending on the molecular weight and proportion of PLA-PEG in the composites. NGO/PLA-PEG exhibited high colloidal stability on storage and in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (far exceeding physiological concentrations). Paclitaxel was effectively loaded in the composites and released by a highly sustained fashion. Drug release could be regulated by the molecular weight of the PLA-PEG copolymer and its proportion in the composite. The paclitaxel

  4. Development of chitosan graft pluronic®F127 copolymer nanoparticles containing DNA aptamer for paclitaxel delivery to treat breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thach Nguyen, Kim; Le, Duc Vinh; Do, Dinh Ho; Huan Le, Quang

    2016-06-01

    HER-2/ErbB2/Neu(HER-2), a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, is specifically overexpressed on the surface of breast cancer cells and serves a therapeutic target for breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to isolate DNA aptamer (Ap) that specifically bind to a HER-2 overexpressing SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell line, using SELEX strategy. We developed a novel multifunctional composite micelle with surface modification of Ap for targeted delivery of paclitaxel. This binary mixed system consisting of Ap modified pluronic®F127 and chitosan could enhance PTX loading capacity and increase micelle stability. Polymeric micelles had a spherical shape and were self-assemblies of block copolymers of approximately 86.22 ± 1.45 nm diameter. PTX could be loaded with high encapsulation efficiency (83.28 ± 0.13%) and loading capacity (9.12 ± 0.34%). The release profile were 29%-35% in the first 12 h and 85%-93% after 12 d at pH 7.5 of receiving media. The IC50 doses by MTT assay showed the greater activity of nanoparticles loaded paclitaxel over free paclitaxel and killed cells up to 95% after 6 h. These results demonstrated unique assembly with the capacity to function as an efficient detection and delivery vehicle in the biological living system.

  5. Paclitaxel-induced lung injury and its amelioration by parecoxib sodium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-jie; Zhong, Zhong-jian; Cao, Long-hui; Li, Hui-ting; Zhang, Tian-hua; Lin, Wen-qian

    2015-08-10

    To investigate the mechanism of paclitaxel-induced lung injury and its amelioration by parecoxib sodium. In this study, rats were randomly divided into: the control group (Con); the paclitaxel chemotherapy group (Pac); the paclitaxel+ parecoxib sodium intervention group (Pac + Pare); and the parecoxib sodium group (Pare). We observed changes in alveolar ventilation function, alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, lung tissue pathology and measured the levels of inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in lung tissue, the expression of tight junction proteins (Zo-1 and Claudin-4). Compared with the Con group, the lung tissue of the Pac group showed significantly increased expression of Cox-2 protein (p < 0.01), significant lung tissue inflammatory changes, significantly increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of Zo-1 and Claudin-4 proteins (p < 0.01), increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability (p < 0.01), and reduced ventilation function (p < 0.01). Notably, in Pac + Pare group, intraperitoneal injection of parecoxib sodium led to decreased Cox-2 and ICAM-1 levels and reduced inflammatory responses, the recovered expression of Zo-1 and Claudin-4, reduced level of indicators reflecting the high permeability state, and close-to-normal levels of ventilation function. Intervention by the Cox-2-specific inhibitor parecoxib sodium can block this damage.

  6. Paclitaxel-loaded polymeric microparticles: Quantitative relationships between in vitro drug release rate and in vivo pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Max; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, M. Guillaume; Au, Jessie L.-S.

    2013-01-01

    Intraperitoneal therapy (IP) has demonstrated survival advantages in patients with peritoneal cancers, but has not become a widely practiced standard-of-care in part due to local toxicity and sub-optimal drug delivery. Paclitaxel-loaded, polymeric microparticles were developed to overcome these limitations. The present study evaluated the effects of microparticle properties on paclitaxel release (extent and rate) and in vivo pharmacodynamics. In vitro paclitaxel release from microparticles with varying physical characteristics (i.e., particle size, copolymer viscosity and composition) was evaluated. A method was developed to simulate the dosing rate and cumulative dose released in the peritoneal cavity based on the in vitro release data. The relationship between the simulated drug delivery and treatment outcomes of seven microparticle compositions was studied in mice bearing IP human pancreatic tumors, and compared to that of the intravenous Cremophor micellar paclitaxel solution used off-label in previous IP studies. Paclitaxel release from polymeric microparticles in vitro was multi-phasic; release was greater and more rapid from microparticles with lower polymer viscosities and smaller diameters (e.g., viscosity of 0.17 vs. 0.67 dl/g and diameter of 5–6 vs. 50–60 μm). The simulated drug release in the peritoneal cavity linearly correlated with treatment efficacy in mice (r2>0.8, p<0.001). The smaller microparticles, which distribute more evenly in the peritoneal cavity compared to the large microparticles, showed greater dose efficiency. For single treatment, the microparticles demonstrated up to 2-times longer survival extension and 4-times higher dose efficiency, relative to the paclitaxel/Cremophor micellar solution. Upon repeated dosing, the paclitaxel/Cremophor micellar solution showed cumulative toxicity whereas the microparticle that yielded 2-times longer survival did not display cumulative toxicity. The efficacy of IP therapy depended on both

  7. Mechanisms of Chinese Red Yeast Rice Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    cou- pled with a model 490E Programmable Multiwavelength UV detector (Waters Corp., Milford, MA) with conditions as follows: column, Phenomenex...5.93 M MK, and this led to 47% and 77% inhibition of LNCaP and 62% and 65% inhibition of LNCaP-AR cell growth in 48 and 72 hours of treatments

  8. Nanoformulated water-soluble paclitaxel to enhance drug efficacy and reduce hemolysis side effect.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weiting; Chen, Jie; Patra, Prabir; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Wei, Lingxuan; Acker, Jason P; Kong, Beihua

    2017-07-01

    Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are the three top cancer treatment modalities. Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most widely used chemotherapy drugs. However, its clinical applications have been significantly limited due to: (i) serious hemolysis effect of currently available commercial paclitaxel formulations and (ii) its water insolubility. An easy way to deliver paclitaxel by a new nanocarrier system using pluronic copolymers of P123/F68 and Sorbitan monopalmitate (Span 40) was reported in our previous research article. The characterization of the formulation and analysis of drug release and cellular uptake were also presented. In this article, we reported discoveries of our follow-up in vivo antitumor and in vitro hemolytic study discoveries. The experimental results showed that the nanoformulated PTX achieved much better tumor suppression performance while reducing hemolysis side effects. This newly formulated drug can significantly improve patient outcomes in cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Drug resistance reversal in ovarian cancer cells of paclitaxel and borneol combination therapy mediated by PEG-PAMAM nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Liang; Wang, Di; Hu, Yichen; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Wei; Dai, Liping; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Jinming

    2017-09-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is frequently suffered from multidrug resistance (MDR), resulting in lower chemotherapeutic efficacy and even chemotherapy failure. To combine the P-glycolprotein (P-gp) inhibitor would be a useful strategy to overcome MDR. However, what is needed now is an efficient vehicle to deliver multiple drugs into tumor simultaneously. In this study, PTX and Borneol (BNL), a natural compound with P-gp inhibition effect confirmed in intestinal absorption, were co-loaded in the fabricated PEG-PAMAM nanoparticle (NPs) by a one-step nano-precipitation method with high drug loading efficiency, narrow size distribution and low hemolysis rate. Based on P-gp inhibition activity of BNL, confirmed by drug efflux test and molecular docking model, the combination of PTX and BNL could improve intracellular concentration of PTX in A2780/PTX cells. Furthermore, compared to both free PTX and PTX+BNL, PB/NPs and P/NPs plus BNL exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in A2780/PTX cells, as well as the decreased MMP and enhanced apoptosis rate. More importantly, although PB/NPs and P/NPs+B showed similar tumor accumulation in tumor-bearing mice, PB/NPs could significantly decrease tumor growth of A2780/PTX tumor-bearing mice, in comparison to P/NPs+B. These results indicated the advantage of PTX and BNL co-delivery NPs for MDR reversal. These findings demonstrate that the co-delivery nano-sized system comprised by PEG-PAMAM polymer with PTX and BNL co-loaded would be a promising candidate for MDR treatment.

  10. Drug resistance reversal in ovarian cancer cells of paclitaxel and borneol combination therapy mediated by PEG-PAMAM nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Liang; Wang, Di; Hu, Yichen; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Wei; Dai, Liping; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is frequently suffered from multidrug resistance (MDR), resulting in lower chemotherapeutic efficacy and even chemotherapy failure. To combine the P-glycolprotein (P-gp) inhibitor would be a useful strategy to overcome MDR. However, what is needed now is an efficient vehicle to deliver multiple drugs into tumor simultaneously. In this study, PTX and Borneol (BNL), a natural compound with P-gp inhibition effect confirmed in intestinal absorption, were co-loaded in the fabricated PEG-PAMAM nanoparticle (NPs) by a one-step nano-precipitation method with high drug loading efficiency, narrow size distribution and low hemolysis rate. Based on P-gp inhibition activity of BNL, confirmed by drug efflux test and molecular docking model, the combination of PTX and BNL could improve intracellular concentration of PTX in A2780/PTX cells. Furthermore, compared to both free PTX and PTX+BNL, PB/NPs and P/NPs plus BNL exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in A2780/PTX cells, as well as the decreased MMP and enhanced apoptosis rate. More importantly, although PB/NPs and P/NPs+B showed similar tumor accumulation in tumor-bearing mice, PB/NPs could significantly decrease tumor growth of A2780/PTX tumor-bearing mice, in comparison to P/NPs+B. These results indicated the advantage of PTX and BNL co-delivery NPs for MDR reversal. These findings demonstrate that the co-delivery nano-sized system comprised by PEG-PAMAM polymer with PTX and BNL co-loaded would be a promising candidate for MDR treatment. PMID:28947984

  11. A Comparative Study of Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics in Eudicots and Monocots Reveals a Role for Gibberellin in Growth Inhibition and Recovery1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonyup; Wilson, Rebecca L.; Case, J. Brett; Binder, Brad M.

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging of dark-grown Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls has revealed new aspects about ethylene signaling. This study expands upon these results by examining ethylene growth response kinetics of seedlings of several plant species. Although the response kinetics varied between the eudicots studied, all had prolonged growth inhibition for as long as ethylene was present. In contrast, with continued application of ethylene, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedlings had a rapid and transient growth inhibition response, rice (Oryza sativa ‘Nipponbare’) seedlings had a slow onset of growth stimulation, and barley (Hordeum vulgare) had a transient growth inhibition response followed, after a delay, by a prolonged inhibition response. Growth stimulation in rice correlated with a decrease in the levels of rice ETHYLENE INSENSTIVE3-LIKE2 (OsEIL2) and an increase in rice F-BOX DOMAIN AND LRR CONTAINING PROTEIN7 transcripts. The gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol caused millet seedlings to have a prolonged growth inhibition response when ethylene was applied. A transient ethylene growth inhibition response has previously been reported for Arabidopsis ethylene insensitive3-1 (ein3-1) eil1-1 double mutants. Paclobutrazol caused these mutants to have a prolonged response to ethylene, whereas constitutive GA signaling in this background eliminated ethylene responses. Sensitivity to paclobutrazol inversely correlated with the levels of EIN3 in Arabidopsis. Wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings treated with paclobutrazol and mutants deficient in GA levels or signaling had a delayed growth recovery after ethylene removal. It is interesting to note that ethylene caused alterations in gene expression that are predicted to increase GA levels in the ein3-1 eil1-1 seedlings. These results indicate that ethylene affects GA levels leading to modulation of ethylene growth inhibition kinetics. PMID:22977279

  12. Anti-cancer, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies of cremophor el free alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Subheet K; Utreja, Puneet; Tiwary, Ashok K; Mahajan, Mohit; Kumar, Nikhil; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to determine the in vivo potential of previously developed and optimized Cremophor EL free paclitaxel (CF-PTX) formulation consisting of soya phosphatidylcholine and biosurfactant sodium deoxycholate. CF-PTX was found to have drug loading of 6 mg/ml similar to Cremophor EL based marketed paclitaxel formulation. In the present study, intracellular uptake, repeated dose 28 days sub-acute toxicity, anti-cancer activity, biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted to determine in vivo performance of CF-PTX formulation in comparison to marketed paclitaxel formulation. Intracellular uptake of CF-PTX was studied using A549 cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting assay (FACS) and fluorescence microscopy. In vivo anti-cancer activity of CF-PTX was evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice followed by biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies. FACS investigation showed that fluorescence marker acridine orange (AO) solution showed only 19.8±1.1% intracellular uptake where as significantly higher uptake was observed in the case of AO loaded CF-PTX formulation (85.4±2.3%). The percentage reduction in tumor volume for CF-PTX (72.5±2.3%) in EAC bearing mice was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher than marketed formulation (58.6±2.8%) on 14th day of treatment. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies showed sustained plasma concentration of paclitaxel depicted by higher mean residence time (MRT; 18.2±1.8 h) and elimination half life (12.8±0.6 h) with CF-PTX formulation as compared to marketed formulation which showed 4.4±0.2 h MRT and 3.6±0.4 h half life. The results of the present study demonstrated better in vivo performance of CF-PTX and this formulation appears to be a promising carrier for sustained and targeted delivery of paclitaxel.

  13. Inhibition of B16-BL6 melanoma growth in mice by methionine-enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Murgo, A J

    1985-08-01

    The antitumor effect of methionine-enkephalin [( Met]enkephalin) was demonstrated in C57BL/6J mice inoculated with B16-BL6 melanoma cells. Local subcutaneous tumor growth was inhibited with a 50-micrograms dose daily for 7 or 14 days. The antitumor effect of [Met]enkephalin was inhibited by the administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Naloxone alone had no significant effect on tumor growth.

  14. Smad7 induces tumorigenicity by blocking TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sunil K; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Datta, Pran K

    2005-07-01

    Smad proteins play a key role in the intracellular signaling of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of extracellular polypeptides that initiate signaling to regulate a wide variety of biological processes. The inhibitory Smad, Smad7, has been shown to function as intracellular antagonists of TGF-beta family signaling and is upregulated in several cancers. To determine the effect of Smad7-mediated blockade of TGF-beta signaling, we have stably expressed Smad7 in a TGF-beta-sensitive, well-differentiated, and non-tumorigenic cell line, FET, that was derived from human colon adenocarcinoma. Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-induced transcriptional responses by blocking complex formation between Smad 2/3 and Smad4. While Smad7 has no effect on TGF-beta-induced activation of p38 MAPK and ERK, it blocks the phosphorylation of Akt by TGF-beta and enhances TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun. FET cells expressing Smad7 show anchorage-independent growth and enhance tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice. Smad7 blocks TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition by preventing TGF-beta-induced G1 arrest. Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of c-Myc, CDK4, and Cyclin D1, and suppresses the expression of p21(Cip1). As a result, Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of Rb phosphorylation. Furthermore, Smad7 inhibits the apoptosis of these cells. Together, Smad7 may increase the tumorigenicity of FET cells by blocking TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition and by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, this study provides a mechanism by which a portion of human colorectal tumors may become refractory to tumor-suppressive actions of TGF-beta that might result in increased tumorigenicity.

  15. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis of ovarian and breast cancer cell lines induced by OVS1 monoclonal antibody and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Moongkarndi, Primchanien; Kaslungka, Sineenart; Kosem, Nuttavut; Junnu, Sarawut; Jongsomboonkusol, Suna; Theptaranon, Yodsaward; Neungton, Neelobol

    2003-03-01

    OVS1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) produced against ovarian cancer is currently used to identify mucinous cystadenocarcinoma antigen as a tumor marker secreted in serum. The potential of OVS1 MAb in ovarian cancer treatment was studied by evaluating the induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis of SKOV3 ovarian cancer and BT549 breast cancer cell lines induced by OVS1. Paclitaxel, an antitumor drug, was used as positive control and applied as a combined drug together with OVS1 MAb. OVS1 MAb and paclitaxel were found by MTT assay to induce cytotoxicity against both cell lines. The ED50 of OVS1 MAb were 26.25 and 25.00 microg/ml and of paclitaxel were 21.88 and 9.20 nM against SKOV3 and BT549 cell lines, respectively. The quantitative amount of cells determined by fluorimetric assay was correlated to the results of the MTT assay. The combined application of OVS1 MAb and paclitaxel on these two cell lines resulted in a greater cytotoxicity than observed by either agent alone. OVS1 MAb and paclitaxel applied against both cell lines induced the morphological changes of apoptotic cell death at 24 hours visualized by two color fluorescence dyes, Ho33342 and propidium iodide. Combination of the two substances enhanced the rate of apoptosis compared to either OVS1 MAb or paclitaxel given alone. DNA fragmentation was detected in an agarose gel electrophoresis after treating cells with OVS1 MAb and paclitaxel at 24 hours. These findings on the induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis by OVS1 MAb on cancer cell lines have implications on the potential application of OVS1 MAb for clinical therapy.

  16. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  17. [Nab-Paclitaxel plus Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Patients with Metastatic or Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer - A Single Institution Experience].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yutaka; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Takuya; Akiyama, Yasuki; Kuwahara, Ryuichi; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Tomo; Oneda, Yasuo; Murakami, Kouhei; Naito, Atsushi; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Takeno, Atsushi; Kato, Takeshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Japan.Albumin -bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel)plus gemcitabine hydrochloride(GEM)combination chemotherapy provided significant improvements in the overall and progression-free survival in a phase III trial in Europe and America and a phase II trial in Japan.As a result, this combination therapy was approved for use in Japan. We evaluated the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel plus GEM with metastatic or recurrent pancreatic cancer.Between December 2014 and March 2016, 11 patients received nab-paclitaxel plus GEM as follows: nab-paclitaxel(125mg/m2 of body-surface area)followed by GEM(1,000mg/m2)on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks.The treatment was continued until disease progression, unacceptable adverse events, discontinuation as decided by the investigators, or patient refusal. The mean age was 65.6 years(range, 48-75 years), and 8 out of 11 patients were men.Ten patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group(ECOG)performance status(PS)of 0.Ten patients had metastatic disease.Only 4 patients had no prior therapy.The mean duration of treatment was 10.2 weeks(range, 2-41 weeks).The relative dose intensities of nab-paclitaxel and GEM were 90.6%(66.7-100%)and 87.5%(62.9-100%), respectively.The major Grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicities were leucopenia(54.5%), neutropenia(36.4%), anemia (27.3%), and thrombocytopenia(18.2%).The major grade 2 or 3 non-hematological toxicities were fatigue(45.6%), skin rash(27.3%), peripheral sensory neuropathy(9.1%), anorexia(9.1%), and stomatitis(9.1%).There were no treatmentrelated deaths.Interstitial lung disease was not observed.The 6 month progression-free and overall survival rate were 25.7% and 66.7%, respectively. The disease control rate was 90.9%(complete response, n=0; partial response, n=1; stable disease, n=9; progressive disease, n=1). Nab-paclitaxel plus GEM is well tolerated and associated with efficacy and improved survival outcomes.Nab -paclitaxel

  18. Growth inhibition of oral mutans streptococci and candida by commercial probiotic lactobacilli - an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Probiotic bacteria are suggested to play a role in the maintenance of oral health. Such health promoting bacteria are added to different commercial probiotic products. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a selection of lactobacilli strains, used in commercially available probiotic products, to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and C. albicans in vitro. Methods Eight probiotic lactobacilli strains were tested for growth inhibition on three reference strains and two clinical isolates of mutans streptococci as well as two reference strains and three clinical isolates of Candida albicans with an agar overlay method. Results At concentrations ranging from 109 to 105 CFU/ml, all lactobacilli strains inhibited the growth of the mutans streptococci completely with the exception of L. acidophilus La5 that executed only a slight inhibition of some strains at concentrations corresponding to 107 and 105 CFU/ml. At the lowest cell concentration (103 CFU/ml), only L. plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 931 displayed a total growth inhibition while a slight inhibition was seen for all five mutans streptococci strains by L. rhamnosus LB21, L. paracasei F19, L. reuteri PTA 5289 and L. reuteri ATCC 55730. All the tested lactobacilli strains reduced candida growth but the effect was generally weaker than for mutans streptococci. The two L. plantarum strains and L. reuteri ATCC 55730 displayed the strongest inhibition on Candida albicans. No significant differences were observed between the reference strains and the clinical isolates. Conclusion The selected probiotic strains showed a significant but somewhat varying ability to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and Candida albicans in vitro. PMID:20598145

  19. Growth inhibition of oral mutans streptococci and candida by commercial probiotic lactobacilli--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hasslöf, Pamela; Hedberg, Maria; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2010-07-02

    Probiotic bacteria are suggested to play a role in the maintenance of oral health. Such health promoting bacteria are added to different commercial probiotic products. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a selection of lactobacilli strains, used in commercially available probiotic products, to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and C. albicans in vitro. Eight probiotic lactobacilli strains were tested for growth inhibition on three reference strains and two clinical isolates of mutans streptococci as well as two reference strains and three clinical isolates of Candida albicans with an agar overlay method. At concentrations ranging from 109 to 105 CFU/ml, all lactobacilli strains inhibited the growth of the mutans streptococci completely with the exception of L. acidophilus La5 that executed only a slight inhibition of some strains at concentrations corresponding to 107 and 105 CFU/ml. At the lowest cell concentration (103 CFU/ml), only L. plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 931 displayed a total growth inhibition while a slight inhibition was seen for all five mutans streptococci strains by L. rhamnosus LB21, L. paracasei F19, L. reuteri PTA 5289 and L. reuteri ATCC 55730. All the tested lactobacilli strains reduced candida growth but the effect was generally weaker than for mutans streptococci. The two L. plantarum strains and L. reuteri ATCC 55730 displayed the strongest inhibition on Candida albicans. No significant differences were observed between the reference strains and the clinical isolates. The selected probiotic strains showed a significant but somewhat varying ability to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and Candida albicans in vitro.

  20. Biodistribution and Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Combination Lonidamine and Paclitaxel Delivery in an Orthotopic Animal Model of Multi-drug Resistant Breast Cancer Using EGFR-Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Milane, Lara; Duan, Zhen-feng; Amiji, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted polymer blend nanoparticles loaded with the anticancer drugs lonidamine and paclitaxel. Plasma, tumor, and tissue distribution profiles were quantified in an orthotopic animal model of multi-drug resistant (MDR) breast cancer and were compared to treatment with non-targeted nanoparticles and to treatment with drug solution. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(ethylene glycol)/EGFR targeting peptide (PLGA/PEG/EFGR peptide) construct was synthesized for incorporation in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) particles to achieve active EGFR targeting. An isocratic HPLC method was developed to quantify lonidamine and paclitaxel in mice plasma, tumors, and vital organs. The targeted nanoparticles demonstrated superior pharmacokinetic profile relative to drug solution and non-targeted nanoparticles, particularly for lonidamine delivery. The first target site of accumulation is the liver, followed by the kidneys, and then the tumor mass; maximal tumor accumulation occurs at 3 hours post-administration. Lonidamine/paclitaxel combination therapy administered via EGFR-targeted polymer blend nanocarriers may become a viable platform for the future treatment of MDR cancer. PMID:21220050

  1. Herbicide glufosinate inhibits yeast growth and extends longevity during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Beatriz; Picazo, Cecilia; Orozco, Helena; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2017-09-29

    Glufosinate ammonium (GA) is a widely used herbicide that inhibits glutamine synthetase. This inhibition leads to internal amino acid starvation which, in turn, causes the activation of different nutrient sensing pathways. GA also inhibits the enzyme of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in such a way that, although it is not used as a fungicide, it may alter yeast performance in industrial processes like winemaking. We describe herein how GA indeed inhibits the yeast growth of a wine strain during the fermentation of grape juice. In turn, GA extends longevity in a variety of growth media. The biochemical analysis indicates that GA partially inhibits the nutrient sensing TORC1 pathway, which may explain these phenotypes. The GCN2 kinase mutant is hypersensitive to GA. Hence the control of translation and amino acid biosynthesis is required to also deal with the damaging effects of this pesticide. A global metabolomics analysis under winemaking conditions indicated that an increase in amino acid and in polyamines occurred. In conclusion, GA affects many different biochemical processes during winemaking, which provides us with some insights into both the effect of this herbicide on yeast physiology and into the relevance of the metabolic step for connecting nitrogen and carbon metabolism.

  2. MicroRNA-375 inhibits colorectal cancer growth by targeting PIK3CA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yihui; Tang, Qingchao; Li, Mingqi

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • miR-375 is downregulated in colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues. • miR-375 inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth by targeting PIK3CA. • miR-375 inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth in xenograft nude mice model. - Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death from cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by triggering RNA degradation or interfering with translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is involved in human disease including cancer. Herein, we showed that miR-375 was frequently down-regulated in human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues when compared to normalmore » human colon tissues. PIK3CA was identified as a potential miR-375 target by bioinformatics. Overexpression of miR-375 in SW480 and HCT15 cells reduced PIK3CA protein expression. Subsequently, using reporter constructs, we showed that the PIK3CA untranslated region (3′-UTR) carries the directly binding site of miR-375. Additionally, miR-375 suppressed CRC cell proliferation and colony formation and led to cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, miR-375 overexpression resulted in inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. SiRNA-mediated silencing of PIK3CA blocked the inhibitory effect of miR-375 on CRC cell growth. Lastly, we found overexpressed miR-375 effectively repressed tumor growth in xenograft animal experiments. Taken together, we propose that overexpression of miR-375 may provide a selective growth inhibition for CRC cells by targeting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.« less

  3. Gallium-Protoporphyrin IX Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth by Targeting Cytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Sarah; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host. The adaptation of P. aeruginosa to heme iron acquisition in the CF lung makes heme utilization pathways a promising target for the development of new anti-Pseudomonas drugs. Gallium [Ga(III)] is an iron mimetic metal which inhibits P. aeruginosa growth by interfering with iron-dependent metabolism. The Ga(III) complex of the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX) showed enhanced antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, although no inhibitory effect has been reported on P. aeruginosa. Here, we demonstrate that GaPPIX is indeed capable of inhibiting the growth of clinical P. aeruginosa strains under iron-deplete conditions, as those encountered by bacteria during infection, and that GaPPIX inhibition is reversed by iron. Using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as model organism, we show that GaPPIX enters cells through both the heme-uptake systems has and phu, primarily via the PhuR receptor which plays a crucial role in P. aeruginosa adaptation to the CF lung. We also demonstrate that intracellular GaPPIX inhibits the aerobic growth of P. aeruginosa by targeting cytochromes, thus interfering with cellular respiration. PMID:28184354

  4. A randomized, controlled phase III trial of nab-Paclitaxel versus dacarbazine in chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hersh, E M; Del Vecchio, M; Brown, M P; Kefford, R; Loquai, C; Testori, A; Bhatia, S; Gutzmer, R; Conry, R; Haydon, A; Robert, C; Ernst, S; Homsi, J; Grob, J J; Kendra, K; Agarwala, S S; Li, M; Clawson, A; Brachmann, C; Karnoub, M; Elias, I; Renschler, M F; Hauschild, A

    2015-11-01

    The efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel versus dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma was evaluated in a phase III randomized, controlled trial. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with stage IV melanoma received nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks or dacarbazine 1000 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by independent radiologic review; the secondary end point was overall survival (OS). A total of 529 patients were randomized to nab-paclitaxel (n = 264) or dacarbazine (n = 265). Baseline characteristics were well balanced. The majority of patients were men (66%), had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status of 0 (71%), and had M1c stage disease (65%). The median PFS (primary end point) was 4.8 months with nab-paclitaxel and 2.5 months with dacarbazine [hazard ratio (HR), 0.792; 95.1% confidence interval (CI) 0.631-0.992; P = 0.044]. The median OS was 12.6 months with nab-paclitaxel and 10.5 months with dacarbazine (HR, 0.897; 95.1% CI 0.738-1.089; P = 0.271). Independently assessed overall response rate was 15% versus 11% (P = 0.239), and disease control rate (DCR) was 39% versus 27% (P = 0.004) for nab-paclitaxel versus dacarbazine, respectively. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events were neuropathy (nab-paclitaxel, 25% versus dacarbazine, 0%; P < 0.001), and neutropenia (nab-paclitaxel, 20% versus dacarbazine, 10%; P = 0.004). There was no correlation between secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) status and PFS in either treatment arm. nab-Paclitaxel significantly improved PFS and DCR compared with dacarbazine, with a manageable safety profile. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Induction of cytochrome P450 3A by paclitaxel in mice: pivotal role of the nuclear xenobiotic receptor, pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Nallani, Srikanth C; Goodwin, Bryan; Maglich, Jodi M; Buckley, Donna J; Buckley, Arthur R; Desai, Pankaj B

    2003-05-01

    Paclitaxel, a taxane anti-microtubule agent, is known to induce CYP3A in rat and human hepatocytes. Recent studies suggest that a member of the nuclear receptor family, pregnane X Receptor (PXR), is a key regulator of the expression of CYP3A in different species. We investigated the role of PXR activation, in vitro and in vivo, in mediating Cyp3a induction by paclitaxel. Pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), an antiglucocorticoid, was employed as a positive control for mouse PXR (mPXR) activation in vitro, and Cyp3a induction in vivo. In cell based reporter gene assays paclitaxel and PCN activated mPXR with an EC(50) of 5.6 and 0.27 microM, respectively. Employing PXR wild-type and transgenic mice lacking functional PXR (-/-), we evaluated the expression and activity of CYP3A following treatment with paclitaxel and PCN. Paclitaxel significantly induced CYP3A11 mRNA and immunoreactive CYP3A protein in PXR wild-type mice. Consistent with kinetics of CYP3A induction, the V(max) of testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation in microsomal fraction increased 15- and 30-fold in paclitaxel- and PCN-treated mice, respectively. The Cyp3a induction response was completely abolished in paclitaxel- and PCN-treated PXR-null mice. This suggests that paclitaxel-mediated CYP3A induction in vivo requires an intact PXR-signaling mechanism. Our study validates the use of PXR activation assays in screening newer taxanes for potential drug interactions that may be related to PXR-target gene induction.

  6. Short infusion of paclitaxel imbalances plasmatic lipid metabolism and correlates with cardiac markers of acute damage in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Binato, R; Correa, S; Victorino, V J; Dias-Alves, V; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, R; Simão, A N C; Barbosa, D S; Pizzatti, L; Abdelhay, E

    2017-09-01

    Although paclitaxel-based chemotherapy is widely used for treating breast cancer, paclitaxel therapy has been associated with several adverse effects. Such adverse effects have primarily been associated with long-term regimens, but some acute effects are being increasingly reported in the literature. In this context, the present study analyzed the systemic proteomic profiles of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the first cycle of short paclitaxel infusion (n = 30). Proteomic profiles thus obtained were compared with those of breast cancer patients without chemotherapy (n = 50), as well as with those of healthy controls (n = 40). Plasma samples were evaluated by label-free LC-MS to obtain systemic proteomic profiles. Putative dysregulated pathways were identified and validated by in silico analysis of proteomic profiles. Our results identified 188 proteins that were differentially expressed in patients who received a single short paclitaxel infusion when compared to patients who did not receive the infusion. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the cholesterol pathway may be dysregulated by paclitaxel in these patients. Validation analysis showed that paclitaxel treatment significantly reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and increased plasma hydroperoxide levels when compared to breast cancer patients without chemotherapy. Furthermore, augmented C-reactive protein and creatine kinase fraction MB were found to be significantly higher in paclitaxel-treated patients in comparison with healthy controls. Taken together, these data suggest that a single dose of short paclitaxel infusion is sufficient to trigger significant alterations in lipid metabolism, which puts breast cancer patients at risk for increased incidence of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Penfluridol suppresses glioblastoma tumor growth by Akt-mediated inhibition of GLI1

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Alok; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common brain tumor with poor survival rate. Our results show that penfluridol, an antipsychotic drug significantly reduced the survival of ten adult and pediatric glioblastoma cell lines with IC50 ranging 2–5 μM after 72 hours of treatment and induced apoptosis. Penfluridol treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and reduced the expression of GLI1, OCT4, Nanog and Sox2 in several glioblastoma cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibiting Akt with LY294002 and siRNA, or inhibiting GLI1 using GANT61, cyclopamine, siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in enhanced cell growth suppressive effects of penfluridol. On the other hand, overexpression of GLI1 significantly attenuated the effects of penfluridol. Our results further demonstrated that penfluridol treatment inhibited the growth of U87MG tumors by 65% and 72% in subcutaneous and intracranial in vivo glioblastoma tumor models respectively. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis of tumors revealed reduced pAkt (Ser 473), GLI1, OCT4 and increase in caspase-3 cleavage and TUNEL staining, confirming in vitro findings. Taken together, our results indicate that overall glioblastoma tumor growth suppression by penfluridol was associated with Akt-mediated inhibition of GLI1. PMID:28380428

  8. Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Lopez-Valdez, Rebecca; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Nandy, Sushmita; Boopalan, Thiyagarajan; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Increasing incidence and mortality indicates that there is still much lacking in detection and management of the disease. This is partly due to a lack of specific symptoms during early stages of the disease. Several growth factor receptors have been associated with pancreatic cancer. Here, we have investigated if an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be effective and efficient against pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. For that, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1R inhibition using small interfering RNA (siRNAs) on tumor growth and metastasis in HPAC and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We found that silencing IGF-1R inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis by blocking key signaling pathways such AKT/PI3K, MAPK, JAK/STAT and EMT. Silencing IGF-1R resulted in an anti-proliferative effect in PANC-1 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cell lines. Matrigel invasion, transwell migration and wound healing assays also revealed a role for IGF-1R in metastatic properties of pancreatic cancer. These results were further confirmed using Western blotting analysis of key intermediates involved in proliferation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion. In addition, soft agar assays showed that silencing IGF-1R also blocks the colony forming capabilities of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Western blots, as well as, flow cytometric analysis revealed the induction of apoptosis in IGF-1R silenced cells. Interestingly, silencing IGF-1R also suppressed the expression of insulin receptor β. All these effects together significantly control pancreatic cancer cell growth and metastasis. To conclude, our results demonstrate the significance of IGF-1R in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24809702

  9. Effects of artemisinin and its derivatives on growth inhibition and apoptosis of oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Woong; Tak, Jungae; Ryu, Ju-Kyoung; Jung, Mankil; Yook, Jong-In; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Cha, In-Ho

    2007-04-01

    Artemisinin is of special biological interest because of its outstanding antimalarial activity. Recently, it was reported that artemisinin has antitumor activity. Its derivatives, artesunate, arteether, and artemeter, also have antitumor activity against melanoma, breast, ovarian, prostate, CNS, and renal cancer cell lines. Recently, monomer, dimer, and trimer derivatives were synthesized from deoxoartemisinin, and the dimers and the trimers were found to have much more potent antitumor activity than the monomers. We evaluated the antitumor activity of artemisinin and its various derivatives (dihydroartemisinin, dihydroartemisinin 12-benzoate, 12-(2'-hydroxyethyl) deoxoartemisinin, 12-(2'-ethylthio) deoxoartemisinin dimer, deoxoartemisinin trimer) in comparison with paclitaxel (Taxol), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin in vitro. In this study, the deoxoartemisinin trimer had the most potent antitumor effect (IC(50) = 6.0 microM), even better than paclitaxel (IC(50) = 13.1 microM), on oral cancer cell line (YD-10B). In addition, it induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism. The deoxoartemisinin trimer was found to have greater antitumor effect on tumor cells than other commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs, such as 5-FU, cisplatin, and paclitaxel. Furthermore, the ability of artemisinin and its derivatives to induce apoptosis highlights their potential as chemotherapeutic agents, for many anticancer drugs achieve their antitumor effects by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Growth inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the immunosuppressant leflunomide is due to the inhibition of uracil uptake via Fur4p.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, H

    1998-10-01

    The immunosuppressant leflunomide inhibits cytokine-stimulated proliferation of lymphoid cells in vitro and also inhibits the growth of the eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of action of the drug, two yeast genes which suppress the anti-proliferative effect when present in multiple copies were cloned and designated MLF1 and MLF2 for multicopy suppressor of leflunomide sensitivity. DNA sequencing analysis revealed that the MLF1 gene is identical to the FUR4 gene, which encodes a uracil permease and functions to import uracil efficiently. The MLF2 was found to be identical to the URA3 gene. Excess exogenous uracil also overcomes the anti-proliferative effect of leflunomide on yeast cells. Uracil prototrophy also conferred resistance to leflunomide. Uracil uptake was inhibited by leflunomide. Thus, the growth inhibition by leflunomide seen in a S. cerevisiae ura3 auxotroph is due to the inhibition of the entry of exogenous uracil via the Fur4 uracil permease.

  11. Outcomes with the paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with acute coronary syndromes: analysis from the TAXUS-IV trial.

    PubMed

    Moses, Jeffrey W; Mehran, Roxana; Nikolsky, Eugenia; Lasala, John M; Corey, Woodrow; Albin, Glenn; Hirsch, Cary; Leon, Martin B; Russell, Mary E; Ellis, Stephen G; Stone, Gregg W

    2005-04-19

    We sought to investigate the outcomes of paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in patients with unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether the paclitaxel-eluting stent is safe and effective in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is unknown. In the TAXUS-IV trial, 1,314 patients with stable or unstable ischemic syndromes undergoing PCI were randomized to treatment with either the slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting TAXUS stent or a bare-metal EXPRESS stent (Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, Massachusetts). The results were stratified by the acuity of the presenting clinical syndrome. Acute coronary syndromes were present in 450 patients (34.2%), 237 of whom were assigned to paclitaxel-eluting stents and 213 to bare-metal stents. The baseline and procedural characteristics were well matched between the groups. Clinical outcomes at 30 days were similar with both stents. At one-year follow-up, patients with ACS assigned to the paclitaxel-eluting stent compared to the control stent had strikingly lower rates of target lesion revascularization (TLR) (3.9% vs. 16.0%, p < 0.0001) and major adverse cardiac events (11.1 vs. 21.7%, p = 0.002). By multivariate analysis, ACS was an independent predictor of in-stent restenosis in the cohort treated with bare-metal stents (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 3.92], p = 0.035), while among patients randomized to the paclitaxel-eluting stents, ACS was an independent predictor of freedom from restenosis (HR = 0.27 [95% CI 0.08 to 0.97], p = 0.04). The use of the paclitaxel-eluting TAXUS stent was safe in patients with unstable ischemic syndromes, and was associated with marked reduction of ischemia-driven TLR and adverse cardiac events at one year.

  12. Effects of paclitaxel on mechanical sensitivity and morphine reward in male and female C57Bl6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Neelakantan, Harshini; Ward, Sara Jane; Walker, Ellen Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that a paclitaxel treatment regimen sufficient to produce mechanical allodynia would alter sensitivities of male and female mice to the conditioned rewarding and reinforcing effects of morphine. Saline or paclitaxel were administered on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 in male and female C57Bl/6 mice to induce morphine-reversible mechanical allodynia as measured by the Von Frey filament test. Paclitaxel treatment did not change sensitivity to morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) relative to saline treatment in either male or female mice. Morphine produced peak self-administration under a fixed ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement for 0.03 mg/kg morphine per infusion in female mice and 0.1 mg/kg morphine per infusion in male mice. During the progressive ratio experiments, saline treatment in male mice decreased the number of morphine infusions for 12 days whereas the paclitaxel-treated male mice maintained responding for morphine similar to baseline levels during the same time period. However, paclitaxel did not have an overall effect on the reinforcing efficacy of morphine assessed over a limited dose range during the course of the repeated self-administration. These results suggest that the reward-related behavioral effects of morphine are overall not robustly altered by the presence of paclitaxel treatment under the current dosing regimen, with the exception of maintaining a small yet significant higher baseline than saline treatment during the development of allodynia in male mice. PMID:27929349

  13. Superior therapeutic efficacy of nab-paclitaxel over cremophor-based paclitaxel in locally advanced and metastatic models of human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rajeshkumar, N V; Yabuuchi, Shinichi; Pai, Shweta G; Tong, Zeen; Hou, Shihe; Bateman, Scott; Pierce, Daniel W; Heise, Carla; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Maitra, Anirban; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2016-08-09

    Albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel, nab-PTX) plus gemcitabine (GEM) combination has demonstrated efficient antitumour activity and statistically significant overall survival of patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) compared with GEM monotherapy. This regimen is currently approved as a standard of care treatment option for patients with metastatic PDAC. It is unclear whether cremophor-based PTX combined with GEM provide a similar level of therapeutic efficacy in PDAC. We comprehensively explored the antitumour efficacy, effect on metastatic dissemination, tumour stroma and survival advantage following GEM, PTX and nab-PTX as monotherapy or in combination with GEM in a locally advanced, and a highly metastatic orthotopic model of human PDAC. Nab-PTX treatment resulted in significantly higher paclitaxel tumour plasma ratio (1.98-fold), robust stromal depletion, antitumour efficacy (3.79-fold) and survival benefit compared with PTX treatment. PTX plus GEM treatment showed no survival gain over GEM monotherapy. However, nab-PTX in combination with GEM decreased primary tumour burden, metastatic dissemination and significantly increased median survival of animals compared with either agents alone. These therapeutic effects were accompanied by depletion of dense fibrotic tumour stroma and decreased proliferation of carcinoma cells. Notably, nab-PTX monotherapy was equivalent to nab-PTX plus GEM in providing survival advantage to mice in a highly aggressive metastatic PDAC model, indicating that nab-PTX could potentially stop the progression of late-stage pancreatic cancer. Our data confirmed that therapeutic efficacy of PTX and nab-PTX vary widely, and the contention that these agents elicit similar antitumour response was not supported. The addition of PTX to GEM showed no survival advantage, concluding that a clinical combination of PTX and GEM may unlikely to provide significant survival advantage over GEM monotherapy and may not be a

  14. An Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Phase II Study of Paclitaxel-Carboplatin Chemotherapy With Necitumumab Versus Paclitaxel-Carboplatin Alone in First-Line Treatment of Patients With Stage IV Squamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Spigel, David R; Luft, Alexander; Depenbrock, Henrik; Ramlau, Rodryg; Khalil, Mazen; Kim, Joo-Hang; Mayo, Carlos; Chao, Grace Yi; Obasaju, Coleman; Natale, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    The combination of necitumumab with gemcitabine-cisplatin significantly improved overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in the phase III SQUamous NSCLC treatment with the Inhibitor of EGF REceptor (SQUIRE) trial. Paclitaxel-carboplatin was selected as an alternative standard of care in the current phase II study. Patients were randomized (stratified according to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and sex) 2:1 to ≤ six 3-week cycles (Q3W) of paclitaxel and carboplatin with or without necitumumab. Chemotherapy was paclitaxel 200 mg/m 2 on day 1 Q3W and carboplatin area under the curve 6 on day 1 Q3W. Necitumumab 800 mg, on days 1 and 8, was continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) on the basis of Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1. One hundred sixty-seven patients were randomized to the necitumumab-containing arm (n = 110) or the chemotherapy-only arm (n = 57). The combination of necitumumab with chemotherapy resulted in an ORR of 48.9% versus 40.0%. Median progression-free survival and OS were 5.4 versus 5.6 months (hazard ratio [HR], 1.0) and 13.2 versus 11.2 months (HR, 0.83; P = .379) in each treatment arm, respectively. Disease control rate was 87.2% versus 84.0%. Grade ≥ 3 adverse events typically associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies showing a > 2% increase were hypomagnesemia (5.7% vs. 0) and rash (2.8% vs. 0). Any Grade thromboembolic events occurred in < 4% of patients in either arm. The results of our study support previously reported results that the combination of necitumumab with chemotherapy improves survival in patients with advanced squamous NSCLC and shows a safety profile consistent with that of EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Anthracycline-Based Regimens Combined With Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Operable Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoru; Iwamoto, Mitsuhiko; Kimura, Kosei; Matsunami, Nobuki; Morishima, Hirotaka; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Nomura, Takashi; Morimoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daigo; Tsubota, Yu; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-06-01

    We treated patients with operable human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer with neoadjuvant anthracycline regimens followed by nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel plus trastuzumab. Of the 44 patients, 49% achieved a pathologic complete response (pCR). The pCR rate was 36% and 71% in the patients with estrogen receptor-positive and -negative cancer, respectively. Neoadjuvant therapy using this combination appears to be effective and safe. Introduction: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab results in a 30% to 50% pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer and has been associated with improved therapeutic outcomes. Thus, the pCR rate can be useful in evaluating novel agents in this patient population. Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel (PTX) can reduce the toxicity of PTX while maintaining its efficacy. The present study evaluated the activity and safety of nab-PTX as a neoadjuvant treatment of HER2(+) breast cancer. We treated patients with stage I to IIIA breast cancer using neoadjuvant epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (EC) or 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks (q3w) for 4 cycles, followed by nab-PTX (260 mg/m(2)) plus trastuzumab q3w for 4 cycles. The primary endpoint was the pCR rate. The secondary endpoints included the clinical response rate, disease-free survival, pathologic response rate (defined as pCR or minimal residual invasive disease only in the breast), breast-conserving surgery rate, and safety. Forty-six patients were enrolled. One patient met the exclusion criteria because of the coexistence of another malignant disease; therefore, we evaluated 45 patients in the entire study. One patient experienced rapid disease progression during EC therapy, leaving 44 patients evaluable for nab-PTX treatment. Of the 45 patients, 49% achieved a pCR. The pCR rate was 36% and 71% in those with

  16. Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches in Production of Aqueous Nanocolloids of Low Soluble Drug Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Pattekari, P.; Zheng, Z.; Zhang, X.; Levchenko, T.; Torchilin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Nano-encapsulation of poorly soluble anticancer drug was developed with sonication assisted layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte coating (SLbL). We changed the strategy of LbL-encapsulation from making microcapsules with many layers in the walls for encasing highly soluble materials to using very thin polycation / polyanion coating on low soluble nanoparticles to provide their good colloidal stability. SLbL encapsulation of paclitaxel resulted in stable 100-200 nm diameter colloids with high electrical surface ξ-potential (of -45 mV) and drug content in the nanoparticles of 90 wt %. In the top-down approach, nanocolloids were prepared by rupturing powder of paclitaxel using ultrasonication and simultaneous sequential adsorption of oppositely charged biocompatible polyelectrolytes. In the bottom-up approach paclitaxel was dissolved in organic solvent (ethanol or acetone), and drug nucleation was initiated by gradual worsening the solution with the addition of aqueous polyelectrolyte assisted by ultrasonication. Paclitaxel release rates from such nanocapsules were controlled by assembling multilayer shells with variable thicknesses and are in the range of 10-20 hours. PMID:21442095

  17. Paclitaxel-induced lung injury and its amelioration by parecoxib sodium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-jie; Zhong, Zhong-jian; Cao, Long-hui; Li, Hui-ting; Zhang, Tian-hua; Lin, Wen-qian

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of paclitaxel-induced lung injury and its amelioration by parecoxib sodium. In this study, rats were randomly divided into: the control group (Con); the paclitaxel chemotherapy group (Pac); the paclitaxel+ parecoxib sodium intervention group (Pac + Pare); and the parecoxib sodium group (Pare). We observed changes in alveolar ventilation function, alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, lung tissue pathology and measured the levels of inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in lung tissue, the expression of tight junction proteins (Zo-1 and Claudin-4). Compared with the Con group, the lung tissue of the Pac group showed significantly increased expression of Cox-2 protein (p < 0.01), significant lung tissue inflammatory changes, significantly increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of Zo-1 and Claudin-4 proteins (p < 0.01), increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability (p < 0.01), and reduced ventilation function (p < 0.01). Notably, in Pac + Pare group, intraperitoneal injection of parecoxib sodium led to decreased Cox-2 and ICAM-1 levels and reduced inflammatory responses, the recovered expression of Zo-1 and Claudin-4, reduced level of indicators reflecting the high permeability state, and close-to-normal levels of ventilation function. Intervention by the Cox-2-specific inhibitor parecoxib sodium can block this damage. PMID:26256764

  18. Limonene inhibits Candida albicans growth by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Thakre, Archana; Zore, Gajanan; Kodgire, Santosh; Kazi, Rubina; Mulange, Shradha; Patil, Rajendra; Shelar, Amruta; Santhakumari, Bayitigeri; Kulkarni, Mahesh; Kharat, Kiran; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2018-07-01

    Anti-Candida potential of limonene was evaluated against planktonic growth, biofilm (adhesion, development and maturation) and morphogenesis of Candida albicans in this study. Limonene is a major constituent of citrus oil and most frequently used terpene in food and beverage industry due to its pleasant fragrance, nontoxic, and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) flavoring agent as well as treatment option in many gastrointestinal diseases.Limonene exhibited excellent anti-Candida activity and was equally effective against planktonic growth of C. albicans isolates differentially susceptible to FLC (N = 35). Limonene inhibited morphogenesis significantly at low concentration. However, it showed stage dependent activity against biofilm formation, that is, it was more effective against adhesion followed by development and maturation. Limonene also exhibited excellent synergy with FLC against planktonic and biofilm growth. SWATH-MS analysis led to identification of limonene responsive proteins that provided molecular insight of its anti-Candida activity. Proteomic analysis revealed upregulation of proteins involved in cell wall glucan synthesis (Kre6); oxidative stress (Rhr2, Adh7 and Ebp1); DNA damage stress (Mbf1 and Npl3); nucleolar stress (Rpl11, Rpl7, Rpl29, Rpl15) and down regulation of cytoskeleton organization (Crn1, Pin3, Cct8, Rbl2), and so forth, in response to limonene. Limonene mediated down regulation of Tps3 indicates activation of caspase (CaMca1) and induction of apoptosis in C. albicans. These results suggest that limonene inhibits C. albicans growth by cell wall/membrane damage induced oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage resulting into modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis through nucleolar stress and metacaspase dependent pathway.

  19. nab-paclitaxel potentiates gemcitabine activity by reducing cytidine deaminase levels in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Natalie; Bapiro, Tashinga E.; Lolkema, Martijn P.; Jodrell, Duncan I.; Tuveson, David A.

    2016-01-01

    nab-paclitaxel, an albumin-stabilized paclitaxel formulation, demonstrates clinical activity when administered in combination with gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). The limited availability of patient tissue and exquisite sensitivity of xenografts to chemotherapeutics have limited our ability to address the mechanistic basis of this treatment regimen. Here, we used a mouse model of PDA to show that the co-administration of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine uniquely demonstrates evidence of tumor regression. Combination treatment increases intratumoral gemcitabine levels due to a marked decrease in the primary gemcitabine metabolizing enzyme, cytidine deaminase (Cda). Correspondingly, paclitaxel reduced Cda protein levels in cultured cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated degradation, resulting in the increased stabilization of gemcitabine. Our findings support the concept that suboptimal intratumoral concentrations of gemcitabine represent a crucial mechanism of therapeutic resistance in PDA and highlight the advantages of genetically engineered mouse models in preclinical therapeutic trials. PMID:22585996

  20. Influence of Cremophor EL and genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel and its metabolites using a mechanism-based model.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Martin N; Gréen, Henrik; Litton, Jan-Eric; Friberg, Lena E

    2011-02-01

    The formulation vehicle Cremophor EL has previously been shown to affect paclitaxel kinetics, but it is not known whether it also affects the kinetics of paclitaxel metabolites. This information may be important for understanding paclitaxel metabolism in vivo and in the investigation of the role of genetic polymorphisms in the metabolizing enzymes CYP2C8 and CYP3A4/CYP3A5 and the ABCB1 transporter. In this study we used the population pharmacokinetic approach to explore the influence of predicted Cremophor EL concentrations on paclitaxel (Taxol) metabolites. In addition, correlations between genetic polymorphisms and enzyme activity with clearance of paclitaxel, its two primary metabolites, 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and p-3'-hydroxypaclitaxel, and its secondary metabolite, 6α-p-3'-dihydroxypaclitaxel were investigated. Model building was based on 1156 samples from a study with 33 women undergoing paclitaxel treatment for gynecological cancer. Total concentrations of paclitaxel were fitted to a model described previously. One-compartment models characterized unbound metabolite concentrations. Total concentrations of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and p-3'-hydroxypaclitaxel were strongly dependent on predicted Cremophor EL concentrations, but this association was not found for 6α-p-3'-dihydroxypaclitaxel. Clearance of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel (fraction metabolized) was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the ABCB1 allele G2677T/A. Individuals carrying the polymorphisms G/A (n = 3) or G/G (n = 5) showed a 30% increase, whereas individuals with polymorphism T/T (n = 8) showed a 27% decrease relative to those with the polymorphism G/T (n = 17). The correlation of G2677T/A with 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel has not been described previously but supports other findings of the ABCB1 transporter playing a part in paclitaxel metabolism.

  1. Stat3 inhibition activates tumor macrophages and abrogates glioma growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leying; Alizadeh, Darya; Van Handel, Michelle; Kortylewski, Marcin; Yu, Hua; Badie, Behnam

    2009-10-01

    As the main effector-cell population of the central nervous system, microglia (MG) are considered to play an important immunoregulatory function in a number of pathological conditions such as inflammation, trauma, degenerative disease, and brain tumors. Recent studies, however, have suggested that the anti-neoplastic function of MG may be suppressed in malignant brain tumors. Considering the proposed suppressive role of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) in antitumor immunity, we evaluated the role of Stat3 inhibition on MG and macrophage (MP) activation and tumor growth in a murine glioma model. N9 MG cells were exposed to GL261 glioma conditioned medium (GL261-CM) and evaluated for Stat3 activity and cytokine expression. Furthermore, the role of Stat3 inhibition on MG and MP activation was studied both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the effect of Stat3 inhibition on tumor growth was assessed in intracranial GL261 gliomas. GL261-CM increased Stat3 activity in N9 cells in vitro and resulted in overexpression of IL-10 and IL-6, and downregulation of IL1-beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Inhibition of Stat3 by CPA-7 or siRNA reversed glioma-induced cytokine expression profile in N9 cells. Furthermore, inactivation of Stat3 in intracranial GL261 tumors by siRNA resulted in MG/MP activation and tumor growth inhibition. Glioma-induced MG and MP suppression may be mediated thorough Stat3. Inhibition of Stat3 function in tumor MG/MP may result in their activation and can potentially be used as an adjunct immunotherapy approach for gliomas.

  2. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  3. Selenium nanoparticles inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phong A; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a key bacterium commonly found in numerous infections. S. aureus infections are difficult to treat due to their biofilm formation and documented antibiotic resistance. While selenium has been used for a wide range of applications including anticancer applications, the effects of selenium nanoparticles on microorganisms remain largely unknown to date. The objective of this in vitro study was thus to examine the growth of S. aureus in the presence of selenium nanoparticles. Results of this study provided the first evidence of strongly inhibited growth of S. aureus in the presence of selenium nanoparticles after 3, 4, and 5 hours at 7.8, 15.5, and 31 μg/mL. The percentage of live bacteria also decreased in the presence of selenium nanoparticles. Therefore, this study suggests that selenium nanoparticles may be used to effectively prevent and treat S. aureus infections and thus should be further studied for such applications. PMID:21845045

  4. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  5. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor signaling prevents muscle fiber growth during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sugg, Kristoffer B; Korn, Michael A; Sarver, Dylan C; Markworth, James F; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-03-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) mark fibroadipogenic progenitor cells/fibroblasts and pericytes in skeletal muscle, respectively. While the role that these cells play in muscle growth and development has been evaluated, it was not known whether the PDGF receptors activate signaling pathways that control transcriptional and functional changes during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate this, we inhibited PDGFR signaling in mice subjected to a synergist ablation muscle growth procedure, and performed analyses 3 and 10 days after induction of hypertrophy. The results from this study indicate that PDGF signaling is required for fiber hypertrophy, extracellular matrix production, and angiogenesis that occur during muscle growth. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Assessment of an RNA interference screen-derived mitotic and ceramide pathway metagene as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant paclitaxel for primary triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective analysis of five clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Juul, Nicolai; Szallasi, Zoltan; Eklund, Aron C; Li, Qiyuan; Burrell, Rebecca A; Gerlinger, Marco; Valero, Vicente; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Esteva, Francisco J; Symmans, W Fraser; Desmedt, Christine; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Sotiriou, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos; Swanton, Charles

    2010-04-01

    Addition of taxanes to preoperative chemotherapy in breast cancer increases the proportion of patients who have a pathological complete response (pCR). However, a substantial proportion of patients do not respond, and the prognosis is particularly poor for patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER)/progesterone-receptor (PR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; ERBB2)-negative (triple-negative) disease who do not achieve a pCR. Reliable identification of such patients is the first step in determining who might benefit from alternative treatment regimens in clinical trials. We previously identified genes involved in mitosis or ceramide metabolism that influenced sensitivity to paclitaxel, with an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in three cancer cell lines, including a triple-negative breast-cancer cell line. Here, we assess these genes as a predictor of pCR to paclitaxel combination chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer. We derived a paclitaxel response metagene based on mitotic and ceramide genes identified by functional genomics studies. We used area under the curve (AUC) analysis and multivariate logistic regression to retrospectively assess the metagene in six cohorts of patients with triple-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy; two cohorts treated with paclitaxel (n=27, 30) and four treated without paclitaxel (n=88, 28, 48, 39). The metagene was associated with pCR in paclitaxel-treated cohorts (AUC 0.79 [95% CI 0.53-0.93], 0.72 [0.48-0.90]) but not in non-paclitaxel treated cohorts (0.53 [0.31-0.77], 0.59 [0.22-0.82], 0.53 [0.36-0.71], 0.64 [0.43-0.81]). In multivariate logistic regression, the metagene was associated with pCR (OR 19.92, 2.62-151.57; p=0.0039) with paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy. The paclitaxel response metagene shows promise as a paclitaxel-specific predictor of pCR in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. The metagene is suitable for development into a reverse transcription-PCR assay, for which

  7. Impact of Paclitaxel Dose on Tissue Pharmacokinetics and Vascular Healing: A Comparative Drug-Coated Balloon Study in the Familial Hypercholesterolemic Swine Model of Superficial Femoral In-Stent Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Carlos A; Shibuya, Masahiko; Wessler, Jeffrey D; McGregor, Jenn; Tellez, Armando; Cheng, Yanping; Conditt, Gerard B; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to compare the effect of paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) concentration on tissue levels and vascular healing using 3 different PCB technologies (In.Pact Pacific = 3 μg/mm(2), Lutonix = 2 μg/mm(2) and Ranger = 2 μg/mm(2)) in the experimental setting. The optimal therapeutic dose for PCB use has not been determined yet. Paclitaxel tissue levels were measured up to 60 days following PCB inflation (Ranger and In.Pact Pacific) in the superficial femoral artery of healthy swine (18 swine, 36 vessels). The familial hypercholesterolemic swine model of superficial femoral artery in-stent restenosis (6 swine, 24 vessels) was used in the efficacy study. Two weeks following bare-metal stent implantation, each in-stent restenosis site was randomly treated with a PCB or an uncoated control balloon (Sterling). Quantitative vascular analysis and histology evaluation was performed 28 days following PCB treatment. All PCB technologies displayed comparable paclitaxel tissue levels 4 h following balloon inflation. At 28 days, all PCB had achieved therapeutic tissue levels; however, the In.Pact PCB resulted in higher tissue concentrations than did the other PCB groups at all time points. Neointimal inhibition by histology was decreased in all PCB groups compared with the control group, with a greater decrease in the In.Pact group. However, the neointima was more mature and contained less peri-strut fibrin deposits in both 2-μg/mm(2) PCB groups. Compared with the clinically established PCB dose, lower-dose PCB technologies achieve lower long-term tissue levels but comparable degrees of neointimal inhibition and fewer fibrin deposits. The impact of these findings in restenosis reduction and clinical outcomes needs to be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Paclitaxel and the dietary flavonoid fisetin: a synergistic combination that induces mitotic catastrophe and autophagic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wisniewska, Anna; Halas-Wisniewska, Marta; Tadrowski, Tadeusz; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The use of the dietary polyphenols as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach for overcoming the limitations of chemotherapy (e.g. drug resistance and cytotoxicity). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based flavonoid, fisetin, at physiologically attainable concentrations, could act synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel to produce growth inhibitory and/or pro-death effects on A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells, and if it does, what mechanisms might be involved. The drug-drug interactions were analyzed based on the combination index method of Chou and Talalay and the data from MTT assays. To provide some insights into the mechanism underlying the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel, selected morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were examined, including the morphology of cell nuclei and mitotic spindles, the pattern of LC3-II immunostaining, the formation of autophagic vacuoles at the electron and fluorescence microscopic level, the disruption of cell membrane asymmetry/integrity, cell cycle progression and the expression level of LC3-II, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA. Here, we reported the first experimental evidence for the existence of synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel in the in vitro model of non-small cell lung cancer. This synergism was, at least partially, ascribed to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. The switch from the cytoprotective autophagy to the autophagic cell death was also implicated in the mechanism of the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel in the A549 cells. In addition, we revealed that the synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel was cell line-specific as well as that fisetin synergizes with arsenic trioxide, but not with mitoxantrone and methotrexate in the A549 cells. Our results provide rationale for

  9. [Growth inhibition effect of immobilized pectinase on Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing-Qing; Peng, Qian; Lai, Yong-Hong; Ji, Kai-Yan; Han, Xiu-Lin

    2012-12-01

    To confirm the growth inhibition effect of immobilized pectinase on algae, co-cultivation method was used to investigate the effect of immobilized pectinase on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. After co-cultivation, the damage status of the algae was observed through electron microscope, and the effect of immobilized pectase on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the algae was also measured. The results showed that the algae and immobilized pectase co-cultivated solution etiolated distinctly on the third day and there was a significantly positive correlation between the extent of etiolation and the dosage as well as the treating time of the immobilized pectinase. Under electron microscope, plasmolysis was found in the slightly damaged cells, and the cell surface of these cells was rough, uneven and irregular; the severely damaged cells were collapsed or disintegrated completely. The algal yield and the chlorophyll a content decreased significantly with the increase of the treating time. The measurement of the malondiadehyde (MDA) value showed that the antioxidation system of the treated algal cells was destroyed, and their membrane lipid was severely peroxidated. The study indicated that the immobilized pectinase could efficiently inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa, and the inhibitory rate reached up to 96%.

  10. Involvement of allelopathy in inhibition of understory growth in red pine forests.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2017-11-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) forests are characterized by sparse understory vegetation although sunlight intensity on the forest floor is sufficient for undergrowth. The possible involvement of pine allelopathy in the establishment of the sparse understory vegetation was investigated. The soil of the red pine forest floor had growth inhibitory activity on six test plant species including Lolium multiflorum, which was observed at the edge of the forest but not in the forest. Two growth inhibitory substances were isolated from the soil and characterized to be 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid. Those compounds are probably formed by degradation process of resin acids. Resin acids are produced by pine and delivered into the soil under the pine trees through balsam and defoliation. Threshold concentrations of 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid for the growth inhibition of L. multiflorum were 30 and 10μM, respectively. The concentrations of 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietate and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in the soil were 312 and 397μM, respectively, which are sufficient concentrations to cause the growth inhibition because of the threshold. These results suggest that those compounds are able to work as allelopathic agents and may prevent from the invasion of herbaceous plants into the forests by inhibiting their growth. Therefore, allelopathy of red pine may be involved in the formation of the sparse understory vegetation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-Time Observation of Atomic Layer Deposition Inhibition: Metal Oxide Growth on Self-Assembled Alkanethiols

    DOE PAGES

    Avila, Jason R.; DeMarco, Erica J.; Emery, Jonathan D.; ...

    2014-07-21

    Through in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) monitoring we resolve the growth of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and subsequent metal oxide deposition with high resolution. Here, we introduce the fitting of mass deposited during each atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycle to an analytical island-growth model that enables quantification of growth inhibition, nucleation density, and the uninhibited ALD growth rate. A long-chain alkanethiol was self-assembled as a monolayer on gold-coated quartz crystals in order to investigate its effectiveness as a barrier to ALD. Compared to solution-loading, vapor-loading is observed to produce a SAM with equal or greater inhibition-ability in minutes vs. days.more » The metal oxide growth temperature and the choice of precursor also significantly affect the nucleation density, which ranges from 0.001 to 1 sites/nm 2. Finally, we observe a minimum 100 cycle inhibition of an oxide ALD process, ZnO, under moderately optimized conditions.« less

  12. Isorhapontigenin induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by targeting EGFR-related pathways in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cuicui; Zhu, Qingyi; Wu, Zhaomeng; Yin, Yingying; Kang, Dan; Lu, Shan; Liu, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Isorhapontigenin (ISO), a naturally phytopolyphenol compound existing in Chinese herb, apples, and various vegetables, has attracted extensive interest in recent years for its diverse pharmacological characteristics. Increasing evidences reveal that ISO can inhibit cancer cell growth by induced apoptosis, however, the molecular mechanisms is not fully understood. In this study, we found for the first time that ISO apparently induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by targeting EGFR and its downstream signal pathways in prostate cancer (PCa) cells both in vitro and in vivo, whereas no obviously effect on normal prostate cells. From the results, we found that ISO competitively targeted EGFR with EGF and inhibited EGFR auto-phosphorylation, and then decreased the levels of p-Erk1/2, p-PI3 K, and p-AKT, and further induced down-regulation of p-FOXO1 and promoted FOXO1 nuclear translocation; and finally resulted in a significantly up-regulation of Bim/p21/27/Bax/cleaved Caspase-3/cleaved PARP-1 and a markedly down-regulation of Sp1/Bcl-2/XIAP/Cyclin D1. Moreover, our experimental data demonstrated that treatment of ISO decreased protein level of AR via both inhibiting the expression of AR gene and promoting the ubiquitination/degradation of AR proteins in proteasome. In vivo, we also found that ISO inhibited the growth of subcutaneous xenotransplanted tumor in nude mice by inducing PCa cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Taken together, all findings here clearly implicated that EGFR-related signal pathways, including EGFR-PI3K-Akt and EGFR-Erk1/2 pathways, were involved in ISO-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in PCa cells, providing a more solid theoretical basis for the application of ISO to treat patients with prostate cancer in clinic. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Hippo-YAP signaling pathway and contact inhibition of growth

    PubMed Central

    Gumbiner, Barry M.; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Hippo-YAP pathway mediates the control of cell proliferation by contact inhibition as well as other attributes of the physical state of cells in tissues. Several mechanisms sense the spatial and physical organization of cells, and function through distinct upstream modules to stimulate Hippo-YAP signaling: adherens junction or cadherin–catenin complexes, epithelial polarity and tight junction complexes, the FAT-Dachsous morphogen pathway, as well as cell shape, actomyosin or mechanotransduction. Soluble extracellular factors also regulate Hippo pathway signaling, often inhibiting its activity. Indeed, the Hippo pathway mediates a reciprocal relationship between contact inhibition and mitogenic signaling. As a result, cells at the edges of a colony, a wound in a tissue or a tumor are more sensitive to ambient levels of growth factors and more likely to proliferate, migrate or differentiate through a YAP and/or TAZ-dependent process. Thus, the Hippo-YAP pathway senses and responds to the physical organization of cells in tissues and coordinates these physical cues with classic growth-factor-mediated signaling pathways. This Commentary is focused on the biological significance of Hippo-YAP signaling and how upstream regulatory modules of the pathway interact to produce biological outcomes. PMID:24532814

  14. Paclitaxel synergizes with exposure time adjusted CD22-targeting immunotoxins against B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Müller, Fabian; Stookey, Stephanie; Cunningham, Tyler; Pastan, Ira

    2017-05-09

    CD22-targeted recombinant immunotoxins (rIT) are active in hairy cell leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but not in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients. The goal was to enhance rIT efficacy in vivo and to define a strong combination treatment. Activity of Moxetumomab pasudotox (Moxe) and LR combined with paclitaxel was tested against MCL cell lines in vitro and as bolus doses or continuous infusion in xenograft models. In the KOPN-8 ALL xenograft, Moxe or paclitaxel alone was active, but all mice died from leukemia; when combined, 60% of the mice achieved a sustained complete remission. Against MCL cells in vitro, LR was more active than Moxe and the cells had to be exposed to rIT for more than 24 hours for them to die. To maintain high blood levels in vivo, LR was administered continuously by 7-day pumps achieving a well-tolerated steady plasma concentration of 45 ng/ml. In JeKo-1 xenografts, continuously administered LR was 14-fold more active than bolus doses and the combination with paclitaxel additionally improved responses by 135-fold. Maintaining high rIT-plasma levels greatly improves responses in the JeKo-1 model and paclitaxel substantially enhances bolus and continuously infused rIT, supporting a clinical evaluation against B-cell malignancies.

  15. [Inhibition of Bacillus coagulans growth in laboratory media and in fruit purees].

    PubMed

    Cerrutti, P; Alzamora, S M; de Huergo, M S

    2000-01-01

    The growth of two strains of B. coagulans was inhibited in laboratory media at pH < or = 4.5, and at water activity (aw) levels of 0.96 for B. coagulans NRS 609 and 0.95 for B. coagulans ATCC 803. The growth of both strains was also inhibited in apple and strawberry purees (pH = 3.5) stored at 37 degrees C for over two months. B. coagulans was able to grow in banana puree (pH approximately equal to 5.0) but acidification of the puree at pH = 3.5 was enough to prevent growth. The addition of up to 3,000 ppm vainillin ("natural" preservative) or 1,000 ppm potassium sorbate (traditional preservative) at pH higher than the inhibitory level previously determined could not prevent growth of B. coagulans in laboratory or in fruits, but 100 ppm lysozyme retarded growth in laboratory media at different pH levels (from 4.5 to 6.7) and in banana puree. As lysozyme showed to be effective at pH < or = 6.7, it might be used to prevent growth of B. coagulans at an eventual increment of pH during storage.

  16. Ethylene Promotes Cadmium-induced Root Growth Inhibition through EIN3 controlled XTH33 and LSU1 expression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangpei; Li, Cuiling; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Qianqian; Gao, Shan; Zhang, Maolin; Tian, Huiyu; Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Xianzheng; Ding, Zhaojun

    2018-06-05

    Cadmium (Cd) stress is one of the most serious heavy metal stresses limiting plant growth and development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Cd-induced root growth inhibition remain unclear. Here, we found that ethylene signaling positively regulates Cd-induced root growth inhibition. Arabidopsis seedlings pretreated with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid exhibited enhanced Cd-induced root growth inhibition; while the addition of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinyl glycine decreased Cd-induced root growth inhibition. Consistently, ethylene-insensitive mutants such as ein4-1, ein3-1 eil1-1 double mutant, and EBF1ox, displayed an increased tolerance to Cd. Furthermore, we also observed that Cd inhibited EIN3 protein degradation, a process which was regulated by ethylene signaling. Genetic and biochemical analyses showed that EIN3 enhanced root growth inhibition under Cd stress through direct binding to the promoters and regulating the expression of XTH33 and LSU1, which encode key regulators of cell wall extension and S metabolic process, respectively. Collectively, our study demonstrates that ethylene plays a positive role in Cd-regulated root growth inhibition through EIN3-mediated transcriptional regulation of XTH33 and LSU1, and provides a molecular framework for the integration of environmental signals and intrinsic regulators in modulating plant root growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth inhibition of squamous cell carcinoma xenografts with the polyamine analogue BE 4444.

    PubMed

    Auchter, R M; Pickart, M A; Nash, G A; Qu, R P; Harari, P M

    1996-09-01

    The capacity of radiation to cure advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is compromised by the proliferation of surviving tumor cells during the course of therapy (overall duration, often 7-9 weeks). Antiproliferative agents that inhibit tumor proliferation, even in the absence of direct cytotoxicity, may be useful adjuncts for concurrent use with radiation. Modulation of endogenous polyamine (PA) metabolism has the potential to inhibit cell growth. The PA analogue 1,19-bis(ethylamino)-5,10,15-triazanonadecane (BE 4444) is a synthetic compound that demonstrates antiproliferative effects in human tumor cells. To evaluate the PA analogue BE 4444 for its inhibitory effect on the growth of human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Xenografts of human squamous cell carcinomas were grown in nude mice; then, BE 4444 was injected intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg) on a twice-daily schedule for 8 days. Tumor growth measurements were performed twice weekly for 8 weeks and compared with those of control mice that were injected with sterile saline solution on the same schedule. The PA levels in the tumor and normal tissue samples were assayed at the completion of treatment. Tumor volume in the BE 4444-treated mice was reduced by 62% compared with tumor volumes in control mice, and the tumor growth rate was reduced by 64%. This growth inhibition was maintained through completion of the experiment. Levels of endogenous PAs were not significantly different from control levels, suggesting that the mechanism of action for BE 4444 is not simply PA biosynthesis inhibition. The PA analogue BE 4444 is an inhibitor of human squamous cell cancer growth. Further studies are in progress to characterize the potential value of PA analogues as adjuncts to radiation therapy for rapidly proliferating squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

  18. Combination neratinib (HKI-272) and paclitaxel therapy in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chow, L W-C; Xu, B; Gupta, S; Freyman, A; Zhao, Y; Abbas, R; Vo Van, M-L; Bondarenko, I

    2013-05-28

    Neratinib is a potent irreversible pan-ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has demonstrated antitumour activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-positive breast cancer and other solid tumours. This was a phase I/II, open-label, two-part study. Part 1 was a dose-escalation study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of neratinib plus paclitaxel in patients with solid tumours. Part 2 evaluated the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of the combination at the MTD in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Eight patients were included in the dose-escalation study; no dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and an MTD of oral neratinib 240 mg once daily plus intravenous paclitaxel 80 mg m(-2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle was determined. A total of 102 patients with HER2-positive breast cancer were enrolled in part 2. The overall median treatment duration was 47.9 weeks (range: 0.1-147.3 weeks). Common treatment-emergent adverse events (all grades/grade ≥3) included diarrhoea (92%/29%; none grade 4), peripheral sensory neuropathy (51%/3%), neutropenia (50%/20%), alopecia (46%/0%), leukopenia (41%/18%), anaemia (37%/8%), and nausea (34%/1%). Three (3%) patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event (mouth ulceration, left ventricular ejection fraction reduction, and acute renal failure). Among the 99 evaluable patients in part 2 of the study, the overall response rate (ORR) was 73% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62.9-81.2%), including 7 (7%) patients who achieved a complete response; an additional 9 (9%) patients achieved stable disease for at least 24 weeks. ORR was 71% among patients with 0/1 prior chemotherapy regimen for metastatic disease and no prior lapatinib, and 77% among those with 2/3 prior chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease with prior lapatinib permitted. Kaplan-Meier median progression-free survival was 57.0 weeks (95% CI: 47.7-81.6 weeks

  19. The small molecule SI113 synergizes with mitotic spindle poisons in arresting the growth of human glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Claudia; Catalogna, Giada; Gallo, Enzo; di Martino, Simona; Mileo, Anna M.; Carosi, Mariantonia; Dattilo, Vincenzo; Schenone, Silvia; Musumeci, Francesca; Lavia, Patrizia; Perrotti, Nicola; Amato, Rosario; Paggi, Marco G.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest brain tumor. State-of-art GBM therapy often fails to ensure control of a disease characterized by high frequency of recurrences and progression. In search for novel therapeutic approaches, we assayed the effect of compounds from a cancer drug library on the ADF GBM cell line, establishing their elevated sensitivity to mitotic spindle poisons. Our previous work showed that the effectiveness of the spindle poison paclitaxel in inhibiting cancer cell growth was dependent on the expression of RANBP1, a regulatory target of the serine/threonine kinase SGK1. Recently, we developed the small molecule SI113 to inhibit SGK1 activity. Therefore, we explored the outcome of the association between SI113 and selected spindle poisons, finding that these drugs generated a synergistic cytotoxic effect in GBM cells, drastically reducing their viability and clonogenic capabilities in vitro, as well as inhibiting tumor growth in vivo. We also defined the molecular bases of such a synergistic effect. Because SI113 displays low systemic toxicity, yet strong activity in potentiating the effect of radiotherapy in GBM cells, we believe that this drug could be a strong candidate for clinical trials, with the aim to add it to the current GBM therapeutic approaches. PMID:29340013

  20. The small molecule SI113 synergizes with mitotic spindle poisons in arresting the growth of human glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Claudia; Catalogna, Giada; Gallo, Enzo; di Martino, Simona; Mileo, Anna M; Carosi, Mariantonia; Dattilo, Vincenzo; Schenone, Silvia; Musumeci, Francesca; Lavia, Patrizia; Perrotti, Nicola; Amato, Rosario; Paggi, Marco G

    2017-12-19

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest brain tumor. State-of-art GBM therapy often fails to ensure control of a disease characterized by high frequency of recurrences and progression. In search for novel therapeutic approaches, we assayed the effect of compounds from a cancer drug library on the ADF GBM cell line, establishing their elevated sensitivity to mitotic spindle poisons. Our previous work showed that the effectiveness of the spindle poison paclitaxel in inhibiting cancer cell growth was dependent on the expression of RANBP1, a regulatory target of the serine/threonine kinase SGK1. Recently, we developed the small molecule SI113 to inhibit SGK1 activity. Therefore, we explored the outcome of the association between SI113 and selected spindle poisons, finding that these drugs generated a synergistic cytotoxic effect in GBM cells, drastically reducing their viability and clonogenic capabilities in vitro , as well as inhibiting tumor growth in vivo . We also defined the molecular bases of such a synergistic effect. Because SI113 displays low systemic toxicity, yet strong activity in potentiating the effect of radiotherapy in GBM cells, we believe that this drug could be a strong candidate for clinical trials, with the aim to add it to the current GBM therapeutic approaches.

  1. Paclitaxel from primary taxanes: a perspective on creative invention in organozirconium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ganem, Bruce; Franke, Roland R

    2007-05-25

    In this Perspective, which describes the achievements recognized by the 2007 ACS Award for Creative Invention, we discuss the discovery of a new synthetic reaction and its translation into a substantially improved method for manufacturing a major pharmaceutical product--the blockbuster anticancer drug, paclitaxel. The role of creativity in the discovery and invention processes is also discussed. As is often the case, chance discovery and serendipitous findings played a role in the evolution of this work. Translation of the basic research into a commercially viable paclitaxel semisynthesis is also described. The final manufacturing process illustrates the enormous impact that the globalization of markets has had on chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing.

  2. BH3 mimetics inhibit growth of chondrosarcoma--a novel targeted-therapy for candidate models.

    PubMed

    Morii, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Kouki; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Akira; Aoyagi, Takayuki; Hornicek, Francis J; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2014-11-01

    Chondrosarcoma is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. BH-3 mimetics ABT-737 and ABT-263 are synthetic small-molecule inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2) and Bcl-xL, which play a critical role in survival of chondrosarcoma cells. Chondrosarcoma cell lines SW-1353 and CS-1 were used as the disease model. We used immunoblotting to assess the expression of target molecules Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, and the apoptotic inducers Bcl2-associated X (Bax) and Bcl2-antagonist/killer (Bak). In vitro growth inhibition by BH-3 mimetics was confirmed by photomicroscopic cell counting and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. Apoptotic induction was confirmed by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). In vivo growth inhibition was assessed in a non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mouse model. Expression of the target and effector molecules was confirmed in chondrosarcoma cell lines. BH3 mimetics significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro. Administration of ABT-263 inhibited chondrosarcoma growth and improved survival in a mouse model. BH3 mimetics represent a novel treatment modality for chondrosarcoma. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoqian; lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost