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Sample records for pad ma dkar

  1. Fresh New Air in Space? `MoMa' on the A.S.I. Launch Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambesi Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Curcio, Francesco; Meli, Antonella; Zambito, Anna Maria

    2006-12-01

    The present project has been developed because of the desire to unify the research lines in the A.S.I. ‘Medicine & Biotechnology’ area into one research line that could satisfy the interests of all of the collaborative groups and at the same time could pursue a relevant social goal. A 6 month feasibility study (SF) called MoMa was carried out in the ASI framework. During the SF the know-how and the tools already available in the national scientific community have been assessed, selected and evaluated even with the important contribution of Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SME) and of Italian industries already involved in Space Research. As result of the SF MoMa, all of the participants decided to combine all the efforts together and define, with all the know-how and the available technologies, one strategic topic, the “Aging” with a special attention to the Quality of Life (QoL). The space environment is a unique laboratory to study the reaction of living organisms (especially humans) to microgravity and cosmic radiation. The study of the effects of these two variables at the molecular and cellular levels will shed light on the response of cells and living organisms to adverse stimulations that are always present even on Earth and will help us able to develop the best strategies to protect the organisms from the progressive structural and functional decline related to Aging. Relevant spin-offs on Earth and also relevant industrial applications are the expected outputs of this project.

  2. Versatile Padding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Dynamic Systems, Inc. started after NASA-Ames scientists began work on a padding concept in 1968. They were looking for a better airplane seat. They found a new foam material that today has all kinds of additional applications including wheelchairs, x-ray table pads, off road vehicle seats, ski boots, and football helmet liners. Temper foam exhibits about 340% less shock from impact. Material is an open-cell polyurethane silicone plastic foam that takes shape of impressed objects but returns to its original shape even after 90% compression.

  3. Electric heating pad burns.

    PubMed

    Bill, T J; Edlich, R F; Himel, H N

    1994-01-01

    Patients with sensory deficits are especially prone to heating pad burns. Two cases are reported of patients with anesthetic skin who received partial and full-thickness burns of their feet from an electric heating pad. These burn injuries could have been prevented if the patients understood the potential hazard of heating pads.

  4. PAD_AUDIT -- PAD Auditing Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, C. A.

    The PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) utility is the part of the VAX/VMS Coloured Book Software (CBS) which allows a user to log onto remote computers from a local VAX. Unfortunately, logging into a computer via either the Packet SwitchStream (PSS) or the International Packet SwitchStream (IPSS) costs real money. Some users either do not appreciate this or do not care and have been known to clock up rather large quarterly bills. This software package allows a system manager to determine who has used PAD to call where and (most importantly) how much it has cost. The system manager can then take appropriate action - either charging the individuals, warning them to use the facility with more care or even denying access to a greedy user to one or more sites.

  5. Pad 39B Deconstruction

    NASA Video Gallery

    A time-lapse video of the deconstruction of Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The fixed service structure and rotating service structure were removed. Both structures were b...

  6. Lily Pad Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The color image on the lower left from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the 'Lily Pad' bounce-mark area at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was acquired on the 3rd sol, or martian day, of Opportunity's mission (Jan.26, 2004). The upper left image is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera, showing regions from which spectra were extracted from the 'Lily Pad' area. As noted by the line graph on the right, the green spectra is from the undisturbed surface and the red spectra is from the airbag bounce mark.

  7. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAD). Both PAD and CAD are caused by atherosclerosis that narrows and blocks arteries in various critical ... can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication . Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which ...

  8. Treating P.A.D.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... Illustration courtesy of NHLBI Treatment for P.A.D. is designed to reduce a patient's symptoms, prevent ...

  9. Scintillating pad detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, B.; Borcherding, F.

    1996-12-31

    We have been investigating the performance of scintillating pad detectors, individual small tiles of scintillator that are read out with wavelength-shifting fibers and visible light photon counters, for application in high luminosity colliding beam experiments such as the D0 Upgrade. Such structures could provide {open_quotes}pixel{close_quotes} type readout over large fiducial volumes for tracking, preshower detection and triggering.

  10. Improved Helmet-Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

  11. Dual-Mode Adhesive Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, Leslie

    1994-01-01

    Tool helps worker grip and move along large, smooth structure with no handgrips or footholds. Adheres to surface but easily released by actuating simple mechanism. Includes handle and segmented contact-adhesive pad. Bulk of pad made of soft plastic foam conforming to surface of structure. Each segment reinforced with rib. In sticking mode, ribs braced by side catches. In peeling mode, side catches retracted, and segmented adhesive pad loses its stiffness. Modified versions useful in inspecting hulls of ships and scaling walls in rescue operations.

  12. Hot melt adhesive attachment pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzill, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Gleason, J. R.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hot melt adhesive attachment pad for releasably securing distinct elements together is described which is particularly useful in the construction industry or a spatial vacuum environment. The attachment pad consists primarily of a cloth selectively impregnated with a charge of hot melt adhesive, a thermo-foil heater, and a thermo-cooler. These components are securely mounted in a mounting assembly. In operation, the operator activates the heating cycle transforming the hot melt adhesive to a substantially liquid state, positions the pad against the attachment surface, and activates the cooling cycle solidifying the adhesive and forming a strong, releasable bond.

  13. Fiber pad for pressure mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, H.; Fitriani, U. R.; Dwijosutomo, A.; Marzuki, A.

    2016-11-01

    Optical fiber sandwiched pad designed as a pressure mapping sensor has been configured and characterized. Optical fiber sensor was aligned to form a web-like configuration (x- y matrix). Several fibers were positioned to form lines parallel to y-axis while others are in parallel to x-axis. When a mass with a particular surface contour was loaded on the fiber pad, we have shown the dependence of the magnitude of light attenuation on the mass surface contour. Combining these light attenuation results we have successfully constructed a three dimensional contours showing the pressure distribution given by the mass to the fiber pad.

  14. Teaching with iPads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Bilingual students in high school with bilingual units in Boguchwała have received iPads for learning English and a few subjects using CLIL (biology, basics of entrepreneurship, geography, IT and mathematics). Lessons with iPads are interesting for students for several reasons. First of all, teenagers like new technologies and using iPads for teaching helps students to learn by fun. Secondly, iPads give new possibilities of looking for knowledge about each theme. Moreover, teaching with iPads develops students' engagement. They have a chance to choose a few among over 65 000 applications for gathering and then presenting information about the lesson topic. They can easily prepare presentations, movies, cartoons, mind maps or whatever they like. Teaching students, thanks to the iPads, makes it their initiative, and the teacher can inspire them to look for the knowledge rather than disciplining pupils. But teaching with iPads is connected with many problems. For instance, there are not any examples on how to teach using these tools. It is very up-to-date technology and teachers firstly must learn the possibilities of iPads and look for new applications. It takes much time, especially at the beginning, and is difficult especially for inexperienced teachers. In addition, it is almost impossible to maintain control of the iPads for all of the students during the lesson. They can use their iPads for something unconnected with the topic of the lesson. Thirdly is lack of time - active methods (with iPads as well) are more time-consuming and it could be that they do not finish the whole program. And of course the last, but not at least, is the problem of money. Some of the applications must be paid for, and it is usually obligatory to possess a credit card. Fortunately, it is not expensive - applications usually cost a few euros and many of them are free and really good.

  15. Video game induced knuckle pad.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Mary E; Sheehan, Daniel J; Davis, Loretta S

    2006-01-01

    Controversy and concern surround the video game playing fascination of children. Scientific reports have explored the negative effects of video games on youth, with a growing number recognizing the actual physical implications of this activity. We offer another reason to discourage children's focus on video games: knuckle pads. A 13-year-old black boy presented with an asymptomatic, slightly hyperpigmented plaque over his right second distal interphalangeal joint. A punch biopsy specimen confirmed knuckle pad as the diagnosis, and a traumatic etiology from video game playing was suspected. Knuckle pads can be painful, cosmetically unappealing, and refractory to treatment. They can now be recognized as yet another potential adverse consequence of chronic video game playing.

  16. Studies of vehicular padding materials.

    PubMed

    Sances, A; Carlin, F H; Herbst, B; Forrest, S; Meyer, S; Khadilkar, A; Friedman, K; Bish, J

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 571.201 discusses occupant protection with interior impacts of vehicles. Rule making by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has identified padding for potential injury reduction in vehicles. In these studies, head injury mitigation with padding on vehicular roll bars and brush bars was evaluated. Studies were conducted with free falling Hybrid 50% male head form drops on the forehead and side of the head and a 5% female head. Marked reductions in angular acceleration, as well as Head Injury Criterions (HIC), were observed when compared to unpadded roll bars and brush bars.

  17. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Peripheral Artery Disease (P.A.D.) What is P.A.D.? Arteries Clogged With Plaque Peripheral arterial disease (P. ... button on your keyboard.) Why Is P.A.D. Dangerous? Click for more information Blocked blood flow ...

  3. Connection pad design for underwater tubular structures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.L.; Feng, Z.; Grantham, J.A. . Dept. of Welding Engineering); Soisson, L. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on research to optimize the connection pad assembly design for different types of loading conditions, which means minimizing the stresses in the wet welds and maximizing the energy absorption of the connection pad. The tubular geometry of the connection pad does not allow stress field analysis by the traditional strength-of-materials method. The authors discuss how, using the finite element method to analyze the stress contributions and the energy absorbed by the pad, the optimum pad dimensions could be determined for different types of loads.

  4. STS-120 on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A photographer used a fisheye lens attached to an electronic still camera to record a series of photos of the Space Shuttle Discovery at the launch pad while the STS-120 crew was at Kennedy Space Center for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test in October 2007. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007. The crew included Scott E. Parazynski, Douglas H. Wheelock, Stephanie D. Wilson, all mission specialists; George D. Zamka, pilot; Pamela A. Melroy, commander; Daniel M. Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer; and Paolo A. Nespoli, mission specialist representing the European Space Agency (ESA). Major objectives included the installation of the P6 solar array of the port truss and delivery and installment of Harmony, the Italian-built U.S. Node 2 on the International Space Station (ISS).

  5. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Tamasy, G. J.; Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Sampson, J. W.; Lane, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  6. [MaRS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  7. Cantilever mounted resilient pad gas bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A gas-lubricated bearing is described, employing at least one pad mounted on a rectangular cantilever beam to produce a lubricating wedge between the face of the pad and a moving surface. The load-carrying and stiffness characteristics of the pad are related to the dimensions and modulus of elasticity of the beam. The bearing is applicable to a wide variety of types of hydrodynamic bearings.

  8. MA-9 ASTRONAUT L. GORDON COOPER LEAVES TRANSFER VAN AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    MA-9 ASTRONAUT L. GORDON COOPER LEAVES TRANSFER VAN AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 14 S-63-6247 P-07136, ARCHIVE-03808 Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., leaves the transfer van at Pad #14 for his ride up the gantry elevator to the 11th deck where he will be inserted into the spacecraft for his 22-orbit mission.

  9. First Graders with iPads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getting, Sara; Swainey, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Giving iPads to first graders is a leap of faith that many teachers are understandably hesitant to take, especially if their students need immediate reading intervention and school leaders want guaranteed results. This article discusses how the authors took on the challenge of improving elementary reading using iPads, found surprising success for…

  10. Using iPads to Your Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrzewski, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, middle school mathematics teacher Jennifer Zakrzewski describes how she successfully incorporated iPads and Apple TV (for projection of iPad screens) into her classroom while having her students solve a problem about mangoes. As Zakrzewski began a unit on multiplying and dividing fractions, she chose to start with the Mangoes…

  11. STS-135 Launch Pad Lightning Strike

    NASA Video Gallery

    A pair of lightning strikes occurred near launch pad 39-A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center at 12:31 p.m. and 12:40 p.m. EDT on July 7. The first struck the water tower 515 feet from the pad and the s...

  12. Learning Chinese Idioms through iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chunsheng; Xie, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research study using iPads during the teaching of Chinese idioms to heritage learners. A class of 12 second-year Chinese learners were engaged in a self-generated learning process focused on learning abstract and concrete idioms using iPads. Students' short-term and long-term learning was measured; feedback from a…

  13. Small-pads resistive micromegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alviggi, M.; Biglietti, M.; Canale, V.; Della Pietra, M.; Di Donato, C.; Franchino, S.; Iengo, P.; Iodice, M.; Petrucci, F.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sidiropoulou, O.

    2017-03-01

    Resistive micromegas is now a mature technology for High Energy Physics experiments. In the ATLAS experiment at CERN 128 multilayers large size (~2 m2) micromegas chambers will be employed in the upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer (2019/2020), and will operate at moderate hit rate up to about 15 kHz/cm2 during the phase of High-Luminosity-LHC . Future upgrades and detectors at future accelerators will require operation at rates up to three orders of magnitude higher. In this paper we present the development of micromegas with a small-pads readout (few mm2 in size) aiming at precision tracking in high rate environment without efficiency loss up to a few MHz/cm2. The detector layout and the construction technique will be reviewed, along with the first results obtained with radioactive sources. Outlooks on future developments will also be illustrated.

  14. Redstone Missile on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the 'reliable workhorse' for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  15. Pipeline padding machine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Utterback, E.C.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes a combination within a pipeline padding supplying system for supplying earth of a fine consistency to cover and pad a pipeline disposed in a trench the combination comprising: a vehicle frame supported for travel longitudinally along a highway, or alternately along a trench; hopper means into which raw earth, containing large chunks and rocks, is supplied at one end of the frame; a longitudinally disposed conveyor, having an end disposed beneath the hopper means to receive earth from the hopper and convey the earth longitudinally toward the opposite end of the frame; vibrating screen means mounted on the frame to receive earth from the opposite end of the conveyor; a cross conveyor mounted by the frame beneath the vibrating screen means for pivotal movement about a vertical axis from a position in which it is longitudinally aligned with the vehicle from and longitudinally disposed conveyor for transport therewith when the vehicle frame is moving from one job location to another to a position crosswise to the frame and longitudinally disposed conveyor. The crosswise conveyor being of a length to have one end disposed beneath the vibrating screen means to receive screened earth therefrom and another discharge end projecting out over the trench to deliver screened earth thereto as the vehicle is moved longitudinally along the trench; and a tailings conveyor associated with the vibrating screen means to receive material screened out by the vibrating screen means, and having a discharge end located at a spaced distance from the discharge end of the cross conveyor to discharge the tailing remotely from the screened earth.

  16. Apollo 17 rollout to launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A ground-level view at Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, showing the Apollo 17 (Spacecraft 114/Lunar Module 12/Saturn 512) space vehicle arriving at the pad. The Saturn V stack and its mobile launch tower were moved from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the pad atop a crawler-transporter. View includes shrubbery on the left, water in center, and palm tree on right (48728); A close-up ground-level view of Apollo 17 spacec vehicle on its way to Pad A, Launch Complex 39 (48729); A ground-level view of the Apollo 17 space vehicle leaving the Vehicle Assembly Building on its way to Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC (48730).

  17. Ma'adim Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Color image of Ma'adim Vallis region of Mars; north toward top. Image shows the 600-km-long channel that drained into impact crater Gusev. Crater Gusev is about 160 km in diameter. This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 13 degrees S. to 29 degrees S. and from longitude 180 degrees to 188 degrees; Mercator projection. Ma'adim Vallis is cut into the degraded highlands of Mars and has morphologic characteristics of terrestrial river beds, including the well-developed dentritic tributaries that constitute an integrated river system. However, the junction angles between tributaries commonly show a wide variation, which gives the channel system a more random directional pattern than typical terrestrial drainage networks. Topographic contours suggest a large drainage basin once existed for this channel. Gradients for the channel are high, about 0.007, over the central 300 km of its length; this is about two times that of the upper 450 km of the Colorado River. In places, some tributaries are discontinuous, perhaps indicating burial by more recent material. After the channel breaches Gusev it appears to end within the crater. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flow percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  18. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.202 Section 495.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.202 Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA... in June 2011 (for plan year 2012), MA organizations seeking reimbursement for qualifying MA EPs...

  19. Launch pad lightning protection effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahmann, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the striking distance theory that lightning leaders will strike the nearest grounded point on their last jump to earth corresponding to the striking distance, the probability of striking a point on a structure in the presence of other points can be estimated. The lightning strokes are divided into deciles having an average peak current and striking distance. The striking distances are used as radii from the points to generate windows of approach through which the leader must pass to reach a designated point. The projections of the windows on a horizontal plane as they are rotated through all possible angles of approach define an area that can be multiplied by the decile stroke density to arrive at the probability of strokes with the window average striking distance. The sum of all decile probabilities gives the cumulative probability for all strokes. The techniques can be applied to NASA-Kennedy launch pad structures to estimate the lightning protection effectiveness for the crane, gaseous oxygen vent arm, and other points. Streamers from sharp points on the structure provide protection for surfaces having large radii of curvature. The effects of nearby structures can also be estimated.

  20. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  1. The Road to Pad Abort 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  2. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  3. [Mechanical buffering characteristics of feline paw pads].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jialing; Yu, Hui

    2012-12-01

    In the long time of natural evolution, the bodies of some animals, such as feline, that live in the wild and complicate surroundings have evolved to possess outstanding buffering characteristics, which make the animals adapt to the environment perfectly. These animals generally have well-developed paw pads under their soles to play an important role in attenuating the intensity of impact when they land on the ground. Investigating the buffering characteristics of these animals' paw pads could help us to design "bionic" buffering and energy-absorption devices. In this paper, based on observations of animal jumping test, a simple mass-spring-buffer model was proposed to explore the buffering characteristics of the animals' paw pads. By analytically solving the differential equations of this model, the parameters concerned with paw pads functions were discussed and some significant results were obtained.

  4. Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and Limb Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting diabetes and PAD. This includes African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans What you can do about ... and nutrition. Go to www.americanheart.org/ The America Diabetes Association website has a lot of diabetes ...

  5. IT Does Not Love iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    On many campuses, iPads have taken over the hearts and minds of everyone. Everyone, that is, except the IT department. These sexy tablets might be the apple of faculty and students' eyes, but for IT directors and their staffs, working with iPads in an enterprise network environment is not the stuff of a love affair. To state the problem…

  6. Enter the iPad (or Not?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Few computing devices have sparked the burning gizmo lust ignited by the iPad. Apple's latest entry into the tablet PC market didn't generate much heat when it was first unveiled in January, but by April 3, the day of the official release, feverish customers were mobbing Apple stores. The company claims to have sold 300,000 iPads by midnight on…

  7. Discovery and utilization of sorghum genes (Ma5/Ma6)

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, John E; Rooney, William L; Klein, Patricia E; Morishige, Daryl; Murphy, Rebecca; Brady, Jeff A

    2012-11-13

    Methods and composition for the production of non-flowering or late flowering sorghum hybrid. For example, in certain aspects methods for use of molecular markers that constitute the Ma5/Ma6 pathway to modulate photoperiod sensitivity are described. The invention allows the production of plants having improved productivity and biomass generation.

  8. Reliability Investigations on SnAg Bumps on Substrate Pads with Different Pad Finish

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.; Ebersberger, B.; Kupfer, C.; Alexa, L.

    2006-02-07

    SnAg solder bump is one bump type which is used to replace eutectic SnPb bumps. In this work tests have been done to characterize the reliability properties of this bump type. Electromigration (EM) tests, which were accelerated by high current and high temperature and high temperature storage (HTS) tests were performed. It was found that the reliability properties are sensitive to the material combinations in the interconnect stack. The interconnect stack includes substrate pad, pad finish, bump, underbump metallization (UBM) and the chip pad. Therefore separate test groups for SnAg bumps on Cu substrate pads with organic solderability preservative (OSP) finish and the identical bumps on pads with Ni/Au finish were used. In this paper the reliability test results and the corresponding failure analysis are presented. Some explanations about the differences in formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are given.

  9. Electrostatic Evaluation of the SRB Velostat(Trademark) Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Charles R.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2007-01-01

    During RSRM Grain inspection, pads constructed of Velostat are grounded and installed in the RSRM bore enabling inspectors to move throughout the bore during the inspection. Velostat pads are installed by grounding the first pad installed and subsequent pads are installed overlapping the previously installed pad maintaining a conductive path to facility ground. Pads are removed upon completion of the inspection in a reverse fashion. As the pads are removed scanning of propellant surfaces is performed per OMRS. During PPICI Audit of B5308.006 (Forward Segment Grain Inspection) in October 07 one audit finding noted that electrostatic scanning of propellant surfaces was being performed during removal of conductive pads following grain inspection. ATK does not perform electrostatic scanning of propellant surfaces during pad removal following final inspection at the plant. The integrated team consisting of NASA SE, USA SE, USA QE, ATK LSS, ATK Systems Safety and ATK DE concurred that electrostatic scanning of propellant surfaces was unnecessary as the conductive pads are grounded. Additional time spent in bore performing scanning presents itself as additional risk. Technicians reported that they have never seen any voltage readings while scanning propellant surfaces during pad removal. USA Systems engineering has written KB 17530 in response to the finding which will delete the requirement (item 2 B47GEN.ll0) to scan propellant surfaces during pad removal. As a result of an E3 panel discussion on December 13, 2007, it was decided that verification of the electrical grounding of the Velostat pads be verified.

  10. Report of a family with idiopathic knuckle pads and review of idiopathic and disease-associated knuckle pads.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Charles H; Cohen, Philip R

    2013-05-15

    Knuckle pads are a rare, frequently overlooked, thickening of the skin usually overlying the extensor surface of the proximal interphalangeal joints. They are well- circumscribed, benign lesions that generally do not require treatment. Idiopathic knuckle pads must be differentiated from similar appearing lesions or trauma-induced pseudo-knuckle pads. Knuckle pads have been observed in association with autosomal dominant conditions such as Bart-Pumphrey syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, Ledderhose disease, and Peyronie's disease. To the best of our knowledge, idiopathic familial knuckle pads have not previously been described in the English language literature. We describe a sister and brother with familial idiopathic knuckle pads with no associated conditions.

  11. Padé approximations and diophantine geometry

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovsky, D. V.; Chudnovsky, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Using methods of Padé approximations we prove a converse to Eisenstein's theorem on the boundedness of denominators of coefficients in the expansion of an algebraic function, for classes of functions, parametrized by meromorphic functions. This result is applied to the Tate conjecture on the effective description of isogenies for elliptic curves. PMID:16593552

  12. Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject. PMID:24963256

  13. Momument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Momument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury. The Arabic number 7 represents the seven original astronauts. The other figure is the astronomical symbol of the Planet Mercury. In background is the Gemini 12 Agena Target Docking Vehicle atop its Atlas launch vehicle at Cape Kennedy, Florida.

  14. Antares Rolls Out to Wallops Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    Orbital Sciences Corporation’s Antares rocket rolls out to the launch pad at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility on the morning of Oct. 1, 2012. Over the next several months, Orbital plans a hot-fir...

  15. Prevent P.A.D.: Know Your Numbers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Prevent P.A.D.: Know Your Numbers Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... Best "Timely detection and treatment of P.A.D. are critical," says Dr. Patrice Desvigne-Nickens of ...

  16. Using iPad2 for a Graduate Practicum Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Lindsey; Bull, Prince Hycy

    2012-01-01

    iPads and iPhones continue to impact academia, but the iPad2 provides features that could enhance teacher education programs. This paper addresses how eight graduate students and a faculty used iPad2 to support a graduate practicum course. Participants were asked to report how they used their iPad2 each week in the form of a written log and…

  17. iPads in Higher Education--Hype and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Lemai; Barton, Siew Mee; Nguyen, Linh Thuy

    2015-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews current research on using iPads in the higher education sector. Since the release of iPads by Apple in 2010, this new technology has been quickly adopted everywhere, especially by the younger generation and professionals. We were motivated to find out how iPads have been adopted for use in the higher education…

  18. 21 CFR 884.5435 - Unscented menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5435 Unscented menstrual pad. (a) Identification. An unscented menstrual pad is a device that is a... discharge. This generic type of device includes sterile unscented menstrual pads used for...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5435 - Unscented menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5435 Unscented menstrual pad. (a) Identification. An unscented menstrual pad is a device that is a... discharge. This generic type of device includes sterile unscented menstrual pads used for...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5435 - Unscented menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5435 Unscented menstrual pad. (a) Identification. An unscented menstrual pad is a device that is a... discharge. This generic type of device includes sterile unscented menstrual pads used for...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5435 - Unscented menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5435 Unscented menstrual pad. (a) Identification. An unscented menstrual pad is a device that is a... discharge. This generic type of device includes sterile unscented menstrual pads used for...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5435 - Unscented menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5435 Unscented menstrual pad. (a) Identification. An unscented menstrual pad is a device that is a... discharge. This generic type of device includes sterile unscented menstrual pads used for...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  4. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  5. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  6. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  7. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  8. Dynamic behavior of air lubricated pivoted-pad journal-bearing, rotor system. 2: Pivot consideration and pad mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1972-01-01

    Rotor bearing dynamic tests were conducted with tilting-pad journal bearings having three different pad masses and two different pivot geometries. The rotor was vertically mounted and supported by two three-pad tilting-pad gas journal bearings and a simple externally pressurized thrust bearing. The bearing pads were 5.1 cm (2.02 in.) in diameter and 2.8 cm (1.5 in.) long. The length to diameter ratio was 0.75. One pad was mounted on a flexible diaphragm. The bearing supply pressure ranged from 0 to 690 kilonewtons per square meter (0 to 100 psig), and speeds ranged to 38,500 rpm. Heavy mass pad tilting-pad assemblies produced three rotor-bearing resonances above the first two rotor critical speeds. Lower supply pressure eliminated the resonances. The resonances were oriented primarily in the direction normal to the diaphragm.

  9. Pad Characterization and Experimental Analysis of Pad Wear Effect on Material Removal Uniformity in Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kihyun; Oh, Jiheon; Jeong, Haedo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of pad wear on the nonuniformity of material removal in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In order to verify the mechanical aspect of the material removal mechanism, pad characterization was conducted. Pad conditioning plays a key role in obtaining stable material removal during polishing. However, the polishing pad is gradually worn as conditioning proceeds during CMP. The pad profile was measured using the contact profile measuring system to analyze pad wear after each polishing run. From experimental results, the within wafer nonuniformity (WIWNU) was unstable at the initial polishing run because of the first wafer effect. In addition, the WIWNU deteriorated as determined from a polishing pad worn by conditioning. Therefore, pad wear has a significant effect on the nonuniformity of material removal in CMP.

  10. Sequential activation of multiple grounding pads reduces skin heating.

    PubMed

    Schutt, D J; Haemmerich, D

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) tumor ablation has become an accepted treatment modality for tumors not amenable to surgery. The need for larger ablation zones has required increase in RF generator power, with current generation devices delivering 200-250 W. Skin burns due to ground pad heating have become a common complication and are now a limiting factor for further increase in ablation zone and generator power. We performed ex vivo experiments with three ground pads (5 x 5 cm) placed on a tissue phantom. We applied 100 W of power for 12 min between the pads, and an RF electrode while we measured leading edge temperature below each pad, and temperature profile on the pads using temperature-sensitive LCD-paper. We compared conventional operation (i.e. simultaneous connection of all three pads) to sequential activation of the pads where each pad is only active for approximately 0.5 s. The timing during sequential activation was adjusted to keep leading edge temperature equal between the pads. Temperature rise below the leading edge for proximal, middle and distal ground pad was 10.7 +/- 1.04, 1.0 +/- 0.15 and 0.3 +/- 0.07 degrees C for conventional operation, and 4.8 +/- 0.16, 4.4 +/- 0.20 and 4.5 +/- 0.35 degrees C for sequentially activated operation. The maximum leading edge temperature rise was more than twice as high for conventional compared to switched operation (p<0.001). Sequential activation of multiple ground pads resulted in reduced maximum leading edge temperature, and allows control of each pad such that leading edge temperature of all pads is the same. This may reduce the incidence of ground pad burns by allowing each pad to reach same temperatures independent of location, and may allow higher power RF generators due to reduced skin heating.

  11. Scaling of X pinches from 1 MA to 6 MA.

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Wenger, David Franklin; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2010-09-01

    This final report for Project 117863 summarizes progress made toward understanding how X-pinch load designs scale to high currents. The X-pinch load geometry was conceived in 1982 as a method to study the formation and properties of bright x-ray spots in z-pinch plasmas. X-pinch plasmas driven by 0.2 MA currents were found to have source sizes of 1 micron, temperatures >1 keV, lifetimes of 10-100 ps, and densities >0.1 times solid density. These conditions are believed to result from the direct magnetic compression of matter. Physical models that capture the behavior of 0.2 MA X pinches predict more extreme parameters at currents >1 MA. This project developed load designs for up to 6 MA on the SATURN facility and attempted to measure the resulting plasma parameters. Source sizes of 5-8 microns were observed in some cases along with evidence for high temperatures (several keV) and short time durations (<500 ps).

  12. Metrology and characterization of application specific chemical mechanical polishing pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zantye, Parshuram B.; Mudhivarthi, S.; Kumar, Ashok; Obeng, Yaw

    2005-09-01

    There is a need for metrology, characterization, and optimization of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad architecture before being put into service. A polishing pad which is made up of polyolefin material instead of conventional polyurethane has been developed. The surface of the pad has been modified to match the hardness of the surface of the material that is being polished. In this research, we coated the pad with tetraethylorthosilicate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for varying durations of time for optimum pad output. The pad was then extensively characterized using the several standard metrology techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nanoindentation, etc. The CMP performance evaluation of all the candidate pads along with in situ measurement of dynamic coefficients of friction, material removal rate, and acoustic emission was done using CETR CP-4™ bench top CMP tester. There was a correlation and interdependence of the pad coating time and surface chemical, micromechanical, and tribological properties. However, their impact on the pad CMP performance was found to be indirect. Based upon these findings, suggestions were given for final pad architecture for commercialization. The demonstrated methodology can also be implemented for parametric optimization of novel polishing pads in the future.

  13. Wear Resistant Rubber Tank Track Pads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    of the control. Because of the oil shortage, the availability of synthetic rubbers (especially those based on styrene , butadiene , and chloroprene...catalyzed copolymers of butadiene / styrene and butadiene /lsoprene (HYTRANS) have exhibited a 50 percent or greater improvement in tread wear during service...copolymers of butadiene /isoprene and butadiene / styrene has pre- cluded the preparation of pilot lots of pads based on these elastomers. Correlation

  14. Heating pad burns in anesthetic skin.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T R; Hammond, D C; Keip, D; Argenta, L C

    1985-07-01

    Patients requiring reconstruction by muscle or musculocutaneous flaps often have an associated area of skin anesthesia. This skin is susceptible to trauma because of its insensibility. This study reports 3 cases in which patients sustained deep partial-thickness burns of anesthetic skin following flap reconstruction. All burns healed by reepithelialization. Following flap reconstruction, patients should be warned regarding the use of heating pads. Burns of this type represent a preventable complication of flap reconstruction.

  15. A miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  16. Interactive 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Yeong-Seon; Lee, Ho-Dong; Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young; Park, Gwi-Tae

    2012-06-01

    There is growing interest of displaying 3D images on a smart pad for entertainments and information services. Designing and realizing various types of 3D displays on the smart pad is not easy for costs and given time. Software simulation can be an alternative method to save and shorten the development. In this paper, we propose a 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad. It simulates light intensity of each view and crosstalk for smart pad display panels. Designers of 3D display for smart pad can interactively simulate many kinds of autostereoscopic displays interactively by changing parameters required for panel design. Crosstalk to reduce leakage of one eye's image into the image of the other eye, and light intensity for computing visual comfort zone are important factors in designing autostereoscopic display for smart pad. Interaction enables intuitive designs. This paper describes an interactive 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad.

  17. Optical interferometry for surface measurements of CMP pads

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, D.; Hetherington, D.; Dugger, M.; Stout, T.

    1996-10-01

    Optical interferometry was used to quantitatively characterize the surface of chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) pads used to polish oxide films. We discuss the optical interferometry technique, including a description of the parameters necessary to compare pad samples. Flat, mesa-like structures formed on the pad during the first 5 min polish when conditioning was not used. The data from the optical interferometer indicated that the surface topography did not change with subsequent polishing, even though the thermal oxide removal rate continued to decrease. We found conditioning roughened the pad surface. Rougher pad surfaces removed more oxide during a single 5 min polish than comparatively smooth pad surfaces. Data indicate that conditioning increases and stabilizes pad surface roughness. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 241-SY modular exhauster pad analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1994-11-16

    The purpose of this document is to show the analytical results which were reached in analyzing the new 241-SY modular exhauster concrete pad and retaining wall. The analysis covers wind loading (80 mph), an equivalent static load due to a seismic event, and from those two results, a determination of the pad thickness and the location and size of reinforcement bar was made. The analysis of the exhauster assembly and sampling cabinet evaluated overturning of the assemblies as a whole. An analysis was then performed for the bolting requirements for these two assemblies. The reason why this was broken up into components was to determine if the individual components could take the load exerted by the workset case loading condition, whether it be wind or seismic. The retaining wall that will be located near the new concrete pad was also analyzed. The retaining wall was evaluated to determine the area of reinforcement required, the location of reinforcement, as well as the mass and configuration of the wall to prevent overturning or sliding. The wall was considered Non-Safety Class 4. Additional piping was required to tie-in the new exhauster to the existing primary ventilation ductwork. The design for the tie-in includes two butterfly valves, a tee fitting, elbows, flanges, straight pipe sections, and two new pipe supports to accommodate the additional weight. The valves will enable the new and existing exhausters to be isolated independently. The ductwork, couplings, and supports were analyzed for structural adequacy given Safety Class 2 loads.

  19. Transplantation Into the Mouse Ovarian Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Harlan, Blaine A.; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic transplantation assays in mice are invaluable for studies of cell regeneration and neoplastic transformation. Common approaches for orthotopic transplantation of ovarian surface and tubal epithelia include intraperitoneal and intrabursal administration of cells. The respective limitations of these methods include poorly defined location of injected cells and limited space volume. Furthermore, they are poorly suited for long-term structural preservation of transplanted organs. To address these challenges, we have developed an alternative approach, which is based on the introduction of cells and tissue fragments into the mouse fat pad. The mouse ovarian fat pad is located in the immediate vicinity of the ovary and uterine tube (aka oviduct, fallopian tube), and provides a familiar microenvironment for cells and tissues of these organs. In our approach fluorescence-labeled mouse and human cells, and fragments of the uterine tube are engrafted by using minimally traumatic dorsal incision surgery. Transplanted cells and their outgrowths are easily located in the ovarian fat pad for over 40 days. Long-term transplantation of the entire uterine tube allows correct preservation of all principle tissue components, and does not result in adverse side effects, such as fibrosis and inflammation. Our approach should be uniquely applicable for answering important biological questions such as differentiation, regenerative and neoplastic potential of specific cell populations. Furthermore, it should be suitable for studies of microenvironmental factors in normal development and cancer. PMID:27684746

  20. Unified coordinate system model for performance calculation of fix-pad journal bearing with different pad preload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Aibin; Yang, Yulei; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2014-05-01

    Traditional model for calculating performance parameters of a fix-pad journal bearing leads to heavy workload, complicated and changeable formulae as it requires deriving various geometric formulae with different bearing types such as circular journal bearing, dislocated bearing and elliptic bearing. Considering different pad preload ratios for non-standard bearing, traditional model not only becomes more complicated but also reduces scalability and promotion of the calculation programs. For the complexly case of traditional model while dealing with various fix-pad journal bearings, unified coordinate system model for performance calculation of fix-pad journal bearing is presented in the paper. A unified coordinate system with the bearing center at the origin is established, and the eccentricity ratio and attitude angle of axis relative to each pad are calculated through the coordinates of journal center and each pad center. Geometric description of fix-pad journal bearing is unified in this model, which can be used for both various standard bearing and non-standard bearing with different pad preload ratios. Validity of this model is verified with an elliptical bearing. Performance of a non-standard four-leaf bearing with different pad preload ratios is calculated based on this model. The calculation result shows that increasing preload ratio of the pad 1 and keeping that of the left three pads constant improves bearing capacity, stiffness and damping coefficients. This research presents a unified coordinate system model unifies performance calculation of fix-pad journal bearings and studied a non-standard four-leaf bearing with different pad preload ratios, the research conclusions provides new methods for performance calculation of fix-pad journal bearings.

  1. Optical and Mechanical Characterization of Chemical Mechanical Planarization Pad Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting Sun,; Yun Zhuang,; Leonard Borucki,; Ara Philipossian,

    2010-04-01

    Both contact and non-contact methods are used to analyze surface properties of three types of chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) pads: plain, XY grooved, and concentrically grooved. Optical interferometry is used to probe the pad surface without contact and to produce a surface height probability density function (PDF). The right hand contacting tail of the PDF is often found to be exponential for CMP pads and a decay length (λ) as a measure of pad surface abruptness can be extracted. An incremental loading device is developed and used to measure the pad surface mechanical response. A pad-wafer contact model based on Greenwood and Williamson theory is used to interpret the nonlinear features of the pad surface compression data, which, furthermore, enables independent calculation of λ from mechanical data. Surface abruptness (λ) extracted from both methods (optical and mechanical) is found to be consistent for all three types of pads. No significant difference is observed in the pad surface abruptness among the three types of pads.

  2. Impact Response of US Army and National Football League Helmet Pad Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-04

    NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year...current and former ACH pad manufacturers) Riddell and Xenith ( NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). 15. SUBJECT...34#$%&’(#)*%++,-.) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad

  3. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability

  4. Russian Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle, which carried the first resident crew to the International Space Station, moves toward the launch pad at the Baikonur complex in Kazakhstan. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960' until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  5. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (rear view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  6. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (front view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  7. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  8. Grippers Based on Opposing Van Der Waals Adhesive Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Kennedy, Brett A. (Inventor); Heverly, Matthew C (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Hawkes, Elliot Wright (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel gripping structures based on van der Waals adhesive forces are disclosed. Pads covered with fibers can be activated in pairs by opposite forces, thereby enabling control of the adhesive force in an ON or OFF state. Pads can be used in groups, each comprising a group of opposite pads. The adhesive structures enable anchoring forces that can resist adverse forces from different directions. The adhesive structures can be used to enable the operation of robots on surfaces of space vehicles.

  9. Minor Variations in Electrode Pad Placement Impact Defibrillation Success.

    PubMed

    Esibov, Alexander; Chapman, Fred W; Melnick, Sharon B; Sullivan, Joseph L; Walcott, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Defibrillation is essential for resuscitating patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), but shocks often fail to defibrillate. We hypothesized that small variations in pad placement affect shock success, and that defibrillation waveform and shock dose could compensate for suboptimal pad placement. In 10 swine experiments, electrode pads were attached at 3 adjacent anterolateral positions, less than 3 centimeters apart. At each position, 24 episodes of VF were induced and shocked, 8 episodes for each of 3 defibrillation therapies. This resulted in 9 tested combinations of pad position and defibrillation therapy, with 80 episodes of VF for each combination. An episode consisted of 15 seconds of untreated VF, followed by a first shock and, if necessary, a repeat shock. Episodes were separated by four minutes of recovery. Both electrode pad position and therapy order were randomized by experiment. Primary outcome was defined as successful VF termination after the first shock; secondary outcome was the cumulative success of the first and second shocks. First shock efficacy varied widely across the 9 tested combinations of pad position and defibrillation therapy, ranging from 11.3% to 86.3%. When grouped by therapy, first shock efficacy varied significantly between the 3 pad positions: 38.3%, 48.3%, 36.7% (p = 0.02, ANOVA), and, when grouped by pad position, it varied significantly between therapies: 15.0%, 32.5%, 75.8% (p < 0.001, ANOVA). Cumulative 2-shock success varied significantly with therapy (p < 0.001, ANOVA) but not with pad position (p = 0.30, ANOVA). The lowest first shock success was at one position in 6 of 10 animals, at another position in 4 of 10 animals, and never at the third position. Small variations in pad placement can significantly affect defibrillation shock efficacy. However, anatomical variation between individuals and the challenging conditions of real-world resuscitations make optimal pad placement impractical. Suboptimal pad placement can

  10. Reconstructing weight-bearing surfaces: digital pad transposition.

    PubMed

    Neat, Benjamin C; Smeak, Daniel D

    2007-01-01

    The paw pads of dogs and cats are specialized skin structures that provide cushioned, durable, weight-bearing surfaces. Otherwise normal limbs may be rendered useless when pad tissue is lost because of trauma or tumor resection. This article reviews previously described reconstructive techniques involving the movement of pad tissue into weight-bearing defects. In addition, a case series of single-stage digital pad transfer to replace all or part of metacarpal or metatarsal defects is reported. This technique was predictably successful with minimal complications in conjunction with complete tumor resection, although results in two cases of severe paw trauma were less favorable.

  11. A Protection And Detection Surface (PADS) for damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Prasad, Chunchu B.; Biggers, Sherrill B.

    1990-01-01

    A protection and detection surface (PADS) concept was studied for application to composite primary aircraft structures. A Kevlar-epoxy woven face sheet with a Rohacell foam core was found to be the most effective PADS configuration among the configurations evaluated. The weight of the PADS configuration was estimated to be approximately 17 pct of the structural weight. The PADS configuration was bonded to graphite-epoxy base laminates, and up to a 70 pct improvement in compression-after-impact failure strains was observed.

  12. Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor Array System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Weather conditions at Kennedy Space Center are extremely dynamic, and they greatly affect the safety of the Space Shuttles sitting on the launch pads. For example, on May 13, 1999, the foam on the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 was significantly damaged by hail at the launch pad, requiring rollback to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The loss of ET foam on STS-114 in 2005 intensified interest in monitoring and measuring damage to ET foam, especially from hail. But hail can be difficult to detect and monitor because it is often localized and obscured by heavy rain. Furthermore, the hot Florida climate usually melts the hail even before the rainfall subsides. In response, the hail monitor array (HMA) system, a joint effort of the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at KSC, was deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow (CoCoRaHS) network, in conjunction with Colorado State University, continue to test duplicate hail monitor systems deployed in the high plains of Colorado.

  13. 42 CFR 495.202 - Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification of qualifying MA organizations, MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.202 Section 495.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Pad Debris Size on Microscratches during CMP Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ji Chul; Kim, Hojoong; Oh, Dong Won; Won, Jai-Hyung; Lee, Chil-Gee; Kim, Taesung

    2013-01-01

    Polishing debris generated by pad surface conditioning has been suspected as a major source of microscratches in the chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) process. In this study, we investigated the pad debris generated by an in situ conditioning process during oxide CMP as one of the major scratch sources. We evaluated the relationship between the size of pad debris and the shape of microscratches on a wafer to find the cause of scratches. Pad debris was gathered in real time during the polishing process. Then, by transmission electron microscopy we observed a mixed layer of pad material and abrasive particles on the surface of the pad debris and the pad surface, which hardened the pad debris and pad surface. The results reveal a size range of pad debris that led to a minimum scratch count. Pad debris size smaller or larger than the minimum scratch region seems to cause higher scratch count due to the hardened pad surface and pad debris.

  15. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3540 OTC denture cushion or pad. (a...-counter. (b) Classification. (1) Class I if the device is made of wax-impregnated cotton cloth that the... denture cushion or pad is made of a material other than wax-impregnated cotton cloth or if the...

  16. DETAIL OF THE SLOPING CONCRETE PAD AT THE SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE SLOPING CONCRETE PAD AT THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE ADDED BLOCK OF CAST CONCRETE AT THE LOW (RIGHT) END OF SLOPED PAD. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, East Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false OTC denture cushion or pad. 872.3540 Section 872.3540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3540 OTC denture cushion or pad....

  18. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC denture cushion or pad. 872.3540 Section 872.3540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3540 OTC denture cushion or pad....

  19. Creating Microcomputer Graphics with the KoalaPad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Dennis W.

    1985-01-01

    The KoalaPad, an advanced graphic tablet introduced in 1983, reduces the cost and the degree of programing background required to create sophisticated images on the microcomputer. The potentials of the KoalaPad for use in an art education program are discussed, and recommendations for creating a microcomputer graphics lab are presented. (RM)

  20. 16 CFR 1632.5 - Mattress pad test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substrate. (b) Flame resistant mattress pads. The following additional requirements shall be applicable to... been found to be equivalent by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. (3) Labeling—(i) Treatment label.... All mattress pads which contain a chemical fire retardant treatment shall be labeled...

  1. 16 CFR 1632.5 - Mattress pad test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... substrate. (b) Flame resistant mattress pads. The following additional requirements shall be applicable to... been found to be equivalent by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. (3) Labeling—(i) Treatment label.... All mattress pads which contain a chemical fire retardant treatment shall be labeled...

  2. 16 CFR 1632.5 - Mattress pad test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... substrate. (b) Flame resistant mattress pads. The following additional requirements shall be applicable to... been found to be equivalent by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. (3) Labeling—(i) Treatment label.... All mattress pads which contain a chemical fire retardant treatment shall be labeled...

  3. 50. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LAUNCH PAD. RAIL AND BUMPER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LAUNCH PAD. RAIL AND BUMPER IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH; FIRE SUPPRESSION NOZZLES ON RIGHT; THRUST SECTION HEATER DUCT ON LEFT. COMMUNICATIONS HOOKUP FOR THE MST LEFT OF DUCT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 49. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD. THRUST SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND DUCTS ON RIGHT; UMBILICAL MAST POWER CONNECTORS ON LEFT; RAIL SYSTEM AND FIRE SUPPRESSION NOZZLES IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. EL device pad-printed on a curved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taik-Min; Hur, Shin; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Hyun-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    This paper is unique in that the electro-luminescence (EL) display device is fabricated on a curved surface using the pad-printing method. The precision of the pad-printing process is explored to verify whether it can be used for micro patterning. The minimum pattern size and pattern distortion, which is caused by use of the pad, were tested and simulated. The minimal pattern was found to be 35 µm wide and 2.4 µm thick. Pattern distortion when pad-printing on a flat surface, caused by the deformation of the silicon pad, was less than 5 µm. Numerical analysis shows how to estimate pattern distortion when pad-printing on a curved surface. The proposed EL display device consists of five layers, namely a bottom electrode, dielectric layer, phosphor, transparent electrode and a bus electrode. The ink of each layer was reformulated with solvents and the pad-printing conditions were controlled. A PEN film was used first in order to realize the pad-printing process condition of each layer. Finally, the EL display device was printed onto a dish with a radius of curvature of 80 mm. The luminance was 180 cd m-2.

  6. 14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN FROM NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: SOUTH TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER, SOUTHWEST PHOTO TOWER, LAUNCHER, UMBILICAL MAST, MST, AND OXIDIZER APRON. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Implementing iPads in the Inclusive Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maich, Kimberly; Hall, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This column provides practical suggestions to help guide teachers in utilizing classroom sets of iPads. Following a brief introduction to tablet technology in inclusive classrooms and the origin of these recommendations from a case study focus group, important elements of setting up classroom iPad use, from finding funding to teaching apps, are…

  8. Teaching with Technology: iPads and Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    iPads are beginning to appear in more and more primary classrooms, yet it is difficult to find teaching ideas that promote deep mathematical understanding. Catherine Attard provides a list of teaching considerations to be used when using iPads and two practical ideas for using them.

  9. Engaging Preservice Teachers in Professional Development about iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Katheryn E.; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    The iEducate mini-conference was a professional development approach used in a college of education that has a one to one iPad initiative. Students were strongly encouraged to attend workshops on effective iPad integration strategies for the classroom during a one-week period. A total of 87 students, faculty, staff, alumni, and community members…

  10. iPads in Inclusive Classrooms: Ecologies of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds on data from a project where iPads were used in a lower secondary school in Denmark to support school development and inclusive learning environments. The paper explores how iPads enter into and work as part of an ecology of learning in five classes in lower secondary school. The paper argues that we should disengage approaches…

  11. iPad Use and Student Engagement in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mango, Oraib

    2015-01-01

    iPads and handheld digital devices have been securing their place in educational institutions surrounded by debates between advocates and skeptics. In light of not enough evidence supporting the use of iPads in education, this study examined the ways that college students in two foreign language classrooms perceived the influence of the use of…

  12. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2016-11-01

    Strong variations between the electrical conductivities of electrolyte and metal layers in a liquid metal battery indicate the possibility of 'metal pad' instabilities. Deformations of the electrolyte-metal interfaces cause strong perturbations of electric currents, which, hypothetically, can generate Lorentz forces enhancing the deformations. We investigate this possibility using two models: a mechanical analogy and a two-dimensional linearized approximation. It is found that the battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the sloshing-wave instability observed in the Hall-Héroult aluminum reduction cells. Another is new and related to the interactions of current perturbations with the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current. Financial support was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant CBET 1435269).

  13. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  14. Open Vehicle Sketch Pad Aircraft Modeling Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Geometric modeling of aircraft during the Conceptual design phase is very different from that needed for the Preliminary or Detailed design phases. The Conceptual design phase is characterized by the rapid, multi-disciplinary analysis of many design variables by a small engineering team. The designer must walk a line between fidelity and productivity, picking tools and methods with the appropriate balance of characteristics to achieve the goals of the study, while staying within the available resources. Identifying geometric details that are important, and those that are not, is critical to making modeling and methodology choices. This is true for both the low-order analysis methods traditionally used in Conceptual design as well as the highest-order analyses available. This paper will highlight some of Conceptual design's characteristics that drive the designer s choices as well as modeling examples for several aircraft configurations using the open source version of the Vehicle Sketch Pad (Open VSP) aircraft Conceptual design geometry modeler.

  15. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80.135 Section 80.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA....

  16. iPads in Breast Imaging – A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, M.; Schlechtweg, P. M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Uder, M.; Schwab, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Modern tablet PCs as the iPad are becoming more and more integrated into medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the display quality of iPads regarding digital mammography. Materials and Methods: Three experienced readers compared the display quality of the iPad 2 and 3 with a dedicated 10 megapixel (MP) mammography liquid crystal display (LCD) screen in consensus using the standardized Contrast Detail Mammography (CDMAM) phantom. Phantom fields without agreement between the readers were classified as “uncertain”, correct 2 : 1 decisions were classified as “uncertain/readable”. In a second step display quality of the three reading devices was judged subjectively in a side by side comparison. Results: The 10 MP screen was superior to both iPads in 4 (phantom-)fields and inferior in 2 fields. Comparing the iPads, version 3 was superior in 4 fields and version 2 was superior in 1 field. However these differences were not significant. Total number of “uncertain” fields did not show significant differences. The number of “uncertain” fields was 15 with the 10 MP screen, 16 with the iPad 2 and 17 with the iPad 3 (p > 0.05), the number of “uncertain/readable” fields was 4, 7 and 8, respectively. Subjective image quality of the iPad 3 and the 10 MP screen was rated superior to the iPad 2. Conclusion: The evaluated iPads, especially in version 3, seem to be adequate to display mammograms in a diagnostic quality and thus could be useful e.g. for patient consultation, clinical demonstration or educational and teaching purposes. However primary mammogram reading should still be performed on dedicated large sized reading screens. PMID:24741126

  17. 42 CFR 495.204 - Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.204 Section 495.204 Public Health CENTERS FOR...-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (a) General rule. A qualifying MA organization receives an incentive payment for its qualifying MA-EPs and its qualifying MA-eligible hospitals. The incentive...

  18. Electrophoresis technology experiment MA-011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. E.; Barlow, G. H.; Bier, M.; Bigazzi, P. E.; Knox, R. J.; Micale, F. J.; Seaman, G. V. F.; Vanderhoff, J. W.; Vanoss, C. J.; Patterson, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Experiment MA-011, electrophoresis technology, was designed to test electrophoresis hardware that would continue the development of technology for electrophoretic separation of materials in the near zero g environment of space. The experimental hardware generally functioned as planned. Frozen live cells were successfully transported into space, electrophoretic processing was performed, and viable cells were returned to earth. A separation of the three types of fixed red blood cells (rabbit, human, and horse) was demonstrated. The human lymphocytes, however, showed no apparent migration. The separation of human kidney cells produced the most exciting data. Analysis shows electrophoretic separation throughout the entire column with at least four bands of viable cells. The isotachophoresis experiment definitely demonstrated the isotachophoretic separation of biological cells in a near zero g environment.

  19. Postembryonic development of rectal pads in bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    The morphology and development of the digestive tract of insects has been extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the development of the rectal pads. These organs are responsible for absorption of water and salts. In insects where they occur, there are usually six ovoid rectal pads located in the medial-anterior portion of the rectum. The rectal pad has three types of cells: principal, basal, and junctional. The arrangement of these three cell types delimits an intrapapillary lumen. The aim of the current study is to describe the development of the rectal pads during postembryonic development of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and Melipona scutellaris. Specimens were analyzed at the following developmental stages: white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae, and adult workers. The development of the rectal pad begins as a thickening of the epithelium in white-eyed pupae at 54 hr. At this stage, there is neither a basal cell layer nor intrapapillary lumen. The basal layers begin to form in the pink-eyed pupa and are completely formed at the end of the development of the brown-eyed pupa. In the brown-eyed pupal stage, the intrapapillary lumen is formed and the junctional cells are positioned and completely differentiated. Necrotic and apoptotic cell death were detected along with cell proliferation in the whole rectum during pupal development, suggesting that the development of the rectal pads involves cell proliferation, death, and differentiation. The rectal pads originate only from the ectoderm.

  20. A newly designed deodorant pad for urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Fukui, J; Sakai, Y; Hosaka, K; Yamashita, T; Ogawa, A; Shirai, H

    1990-08-01

    The authors designed a new pad for urinary incontinence. It is composed of a cloth of acrylonitrile copper sulfide and another cloth of iron-phthalocyanine. In vitro experiments showed that acrylonitrile copper sulfide cloth inhibited the growth of most bacteria causing urinary tract infection, and that iron-phthalocyanine cloth effectively eliminated bad-smelling gases. The use of this pad relieved diaper-dermatitis and diminished offensive smells from feces and urine. This pad was well received by nurses and helpers taking care of incontinent elderly people.

  1. Peptidomimetics as protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Trabocchi, Andrea; Pala, Nicolino; Krimmelbein, Ilga; Menchi, Gloria; Guarna, Antonio; Sechi, Mario; Dreker, Tobias; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    The protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a calcium-dependent enzyme, which catalyses the irreversible conversion of peptidyl-arginines into peptidyl-citrullines and plays an important role in several diseases such as in the rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease and cancer. In this study, we report the inhibition profiles and computational docking toward the PAD4 enzyme of a series of 1,2,3-triazole peptidomimetic-based derivatives incorporating the β-phenylalanine and guanidine scaffolds. Several effective, low micromolar PAD4 inhibitors are reported in this study.

  2. STS-111 Liftoff From Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, the STS-111 mission was launched on June 5, 2002 at 5:22 pm EDT from Kennedy's launch pad. On board were the STS-111 and Expedition Five crew members. Astronauts Kenneth D. Cockrell, commander; Paul S. Lockhart, pilot, and mission specialists Franklin R. Chang-Diaz and Philippe Perrin were the STS-111 crew members. Expedition Five crew members included Cosmonaut Valeri G. Korzun, commander, Astronaut Peggy A. Whitson and Cosmonaut Sergei Y. Treschev, flight engineers. Three space walks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. Landing on June 19, 2002, the 14-day STS-111 mission was the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-counter. (b) Classification. (1) Class I if the device is made of wax-impregnated cotton cloth that the... denture cushion or pad is made of a material other than wax-impregnated cotton cloth or if the...

  4. Former Baldwin Hardware Corp. – Reading, PA PAD00235083

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing its proposed decision that includes groundwater remediation, soil vapor capture and treatment as well as restrictions on land and groundwater uses under RCRA for the Baldwin Hardware Corporation facility in Reading PA, EPA ID PAD00235083

  5. Preventive medicine oversight of splash pads on military installations.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Lisa Raysby; Perry, Matthew; Browne, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, an increasing number of military installations have installed splash pads that provide fun, recreational water entertainment for Soldiers and their families. The addition of splash pads brings added responsibilities for medical treatment facility preventive medicine oversight and installation facilities maintenance to ensure a safe and healthy environment. Currently, there are no consistent standards or detailed guidance for military installations to follow when installing and maintaining splash pads. The central issues associated with splash pads on military installations are water quality and risk for waterborne illnesses, responsibility for safety and health oversight, and federal energy and water sustainability mandates. This article examines the importance of implementing a standard for design and oversight to ensure the health and safety of Soldiers and their families.

  6. Behind the Scenes: Shuttle Crawls to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Behind the Scenes, take a look at what's needed to roll a space shuttle out of the Vehicle Assembly Building and out to the launch pad. Astronaut Mike Massimino talks to som...

  7. Plantar pressures in rheumatoid arthritis using prefabricated metatarsal padding.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lorraine; Binning, Jodi; Potter, Julia

    2004-01-01

    We sought to determine whether one of two prefabricated insole designs could better manage high forefoot plantar pressures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ten subjects with rheumatoid arthritis who experienced pain with shod weightbearing were studied by using a plantar pressure measurement system. Two insole designs and a shoe-only control condition were randomly tested in repeated trials. Dome- and bar-shaped metatarsal pads made of latex foam were incorporated into full-length insoles made of urethane. Significant reductions in mean peak plantar pressures over the central metatarsals were noted when using the insole and dome pad design (12% [33 kPa]) and the insole and bar pad design (21% [58 kPa]) compared with the shoe-only condition. A prefabricated insole design incorporating a bar metatarsal pad is recommended to manage high forefoot plantar pressures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Time-Lapse: Mobile Launcher Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile launcher that will host NASA's Space Launch System and new Orion spacecraft was moved to Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to begin two weeks of structural and sys...

  9. 24. VIEW SHOWING CIRCLE CONCRETE PAD AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW SHOWING CIRCLE CONCRETE PAD AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING SOUTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, view east, southwest and northwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  11. 56. Overall view towards launch pad with building 157, sentry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Overall view towards launch pad with building 157, sentry control box on left, and building 156, Warhead Building on right, looking southwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  12. Correlations for Saturation Efficiency of Evaporative Cooling Pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, J. K.; Hindoliya, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents some experimental investigations to obtain correlations for saturation efficiency of evaporative cooling pads. Two commonly used materials namely aspen and khus fibers along with new materials namely coconut fibers and palash fibers were tested in a laboratory using suitably fabricated test setup. Simple mathematical correlations have been developed for calculating saturation efficiency of evaporating cooling pads which can be used to predict their performance at any desired mass flow rate. Performances of four different pad materials were also compared using developed correlations. An attempt was made to test two new materials (i.e. fibers of palash wood and coconut) to check their suitability as wetted media for evaporative cooling pads. It was found that Palash wood fibers offered highest saturation efficiency compared to that of other existing materials such as aspen and khus fibers at different mass flow rate of air.

  13. Orbital Rolls to Launch Pad at Wallops for Station Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rolled out to launch Pad-0A at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Sunday, January 5, 2014, in advance of a planned Wednesday, Jan. 8th, 1:32 p.m. EST launch. Th...

  14. 8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, drainage pipes for approach, and scupper downspouts. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  15. 2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM TOP OF BERM. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Fueling Station, North of Launch Area Entrance Drive, eastern central portion of base, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  16. Demonstrating Optical Activity Using an iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Pauline M.; Lepore, Dante M.; Morneau, Brandy N.; Barratt, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Optical activity using an iPad as a source of polarized light is demonstrated. A sample crystal or solution can be placed on the iPad running a white screen app. The sample is viewed through a polarized filter that can be rotated. This setup can be used in the laboratory or with a document camera to easily project in a large lecture hall.…

  17. 44. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM SOUTHWEST. DOORS FOR THE UMBILICAL MAST TRENCH RAISED FOR MAINTENANCE POSITION OF 10 DEGREES. LAUNCHER IS RIGHT OF MAST; RAILS PARALLEL TO MAST. CONTROL PANELS LEFT TO RIGHT: ELECTRICAL PANEL, COMMUNICATIONS PANEL, AND MAST CONTROL PANEL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Optimized frac pad and gel improve well productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Fritcher, E.; Byrd, A.; Stegent, N.

    1995-03-20

    To help optimize pad size and gel loading for hydraulic fracturing, R. Lacy Inc. used a net pressure calculation based on observations made during minifracs run before each fracture stage. Optimized pad volume and gel loading yielded greater fracture length and improved productivity of these Cotton Valley gas wells in East Texas. The paper describes the design study, fluid efficiency, net pressure, dynamic fluid loss, designing a frac job, gas production, and lessons learned.

  19. Method for Producing Launch/Landing Pads and Structures Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current plans for deep space exploration include building landing-launch pads capable of withstanding the rocket blast of much larger spacecraft that that of the Apollo days. The proposed concept will develop lightweight launch and landing pad materials from in-situ materials, utilizing regolith to produce controllable porous cast metallic foam brickstiles shapes. These shapes can be utilized to lay a landing launch platform, as a construction material or as more complex parts of mechanical assemblies.

  20. Assessment of Raman Spectroscopy as a Silicone Pad Production Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Saab, A P; Balazs, G B; Maxwell, R S

    2005-05-05

    Silicone pressure pads are currently deployed in the W80. The mechanical properties of these pads are largely based on the degree of crosslinking between the polymer components that comprise the raw gumstock from which they are formed. Therefore, it is desirable for purposes of both production and systematic study of these materials to have a rapid, reliable means of assaying the extent of crosslinking. The present report describes the evaluation of Raman spectroscopy in this capacity.

  1. Riverland ERA maintenance pad site diesel contamination risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Valcich, P.J.

    1993-12-02

    The maintenance pad site consists of a concrete pad and underlying soils, approximately 15 by 46 m in area, and a drainage ditch with dimensions of 2.4 by 91 m. The ditch is located approximately 60 m from the concrete pad and is oriented parallel to the pads long axis. The facility was built in 1943, at which time the concrete pad was the floor of a maintenance shed for railroad activities. In 1955, use of the facility as a maintenance shed was discontinued. Between 1955 and 1957, the facility was used as a radioactivity decontamination area for railroad cars; acetone-soaked rags were used to remove surface contamination from the cars. The concrete pad was washed down with a mixture of water and diesel fuel, which was then flushed via clay pipe to the drainage ditch. In 1963, the maintenance shed was torn down and the concrete pad covered with approximately one-half meter of fill. The concrete pad was re-exposed in 1993. The site was sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) metals, volatile, and semi-volatile compounds, as well as for extractable fuel hydrocarbons. A total of 17 samples were collected from surface concrete, soil beneath surface concrete, and ditch soil. One concrete sample and one ditch soil sample were split. The ditch soil sample was also duplicated. The relative percent difference (RPD) in extractable hydrocarbons of the two split samples, one from concrete and one from ditch soil are, respectively, 52% and 186%. The RPD for the duplicate sample, taken from the same ditch soil sample from which one of the splits was taken, is 39%.

  2. The CIMSS iPad Library and ESIP Teacher Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlman, L.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison launched a new initiative in 2012 to engage teachers and students in data acquisition and regional climate studies. The CIMSS iPad Library, part of a NASA funded Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, loans iPads to science teachers for an entire school year. The first units were distributed at a NOAA funded teacher workshop conducted at the annual Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) summer conference. Educators learned about numerous NOAA and NASA resources at the ESIP Teacher Workshop and also several different climate-related Apps, including SatCam, an application for iOS devices that allows users to collect observations of local cloud and surface conditions coordinated with an overpass of the Terra, Aqua, or Suomi NPP satellite. This presentation will outline connections between the Climate Literacy Ambassadors community and ESIP Teacher Workshops before delving into details about the new iPad Library and SatCam. We will discuss considerations and challenges related to a technology loaning library, software recoding to HTML5, and some advantages and limitations related to iPads. We will also share feedback acquired over the fall from ESIP Educators using the SatCam App with their students with the iPads they borrowed (like books) from the CIMSS iPad Library.

  3. Pad Plane Design and Readout for SAMURAI TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Estee, J.; Gilbert, J.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; McIntosh, A. B.; Yenello, S. J.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI TPC is being built at Michigan State University to be used in the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN in Japan, as part of the Symmetry Energy project, which focuses on obtaining constraints on the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. The presentation will discuss the development of the TPC as well as design for readout plane design for the TPC. These involve enabling the use of existing and future front end electronics (FEE), making the most of limited space, designing a circuit board for the pad plane, and techniques to glue the pad plane. The pad plane has been designed to work with either STAR or AGET electronics. The pad plane is made of a circuit board designed to minimize crosstalk and capacitance. The board must be built in smaller pieces and tiled, using alignment pins and precision gluing. Prototypes for the pad plane to FEE connection, pad plane gluing and STAR card mounting will be presented. Supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0004835.

  4. Aircraft Conceptual Design Using Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Antcliff, Kevin R.; Costa, Guillermo; Deshpande, Nachiket; Moore, Mark D.; Miguel, Edric A. San; Snyder, Alison N.

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is a parametric geometry modeling tool that is intended for use in the conceptual design of aircraft. The intent of this software is to rapidly model aircraft configurations without expending the expertise and time that is typically required for modeling with traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages. VSP accomplishes this by using parametrically defined components, such as a wing that is defined by span, area, sweep, taper ratio, thickness to cord, and so on. During this phase of frequent design builds, changes to the model can be rapidly visualized along with the internal volumetric layout. Using this geometry-based approach, parameters such as wetted areas and cord lengths can be easily extracted for rapid external performance analyses, such as a parasite drag buildup. At the completion of the conceptual design phase, VSP can export its geometry to higher fidelity tools. This geometry tool was developed by NASA and is freely available to U.S. companies and universities. It has become integral to conceptual design in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) here at NASA Langley Research Center and is currently being used at over 100 universities, aerospace companies, and other government agencies. This paper focuses on the use of VSP in recent NASA conceptual design studies to facilitate geometry-centered design methodology. Such a process is shown to promote greater levels of creativity, more rapid assessment of critical design issues, and improved ability to quickly interact with higher order analyses. A number of VSP vehicle model examples are compared to CAD-based conceptual design, from a designer perspective; comparisons are also made of the time and expertise required to build the geometry representations as well.

  5. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... be the same. (d) Linings and pads. The thickness of the brake linings or pads shall meet...

  6. Analysis of an all-metallic resilient-pad gas-lubricated thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    A resilient-pad gas thrust bearing that does not contain any elastomers in the bearing assembly is described and analyzed. The bearing consists of sector-shaped pads mounted asymmetrically on resilient foil beams. The effects of bearing design parameters on performance are shown. Performance of a resilient-pad bearing is compared with that of a pivoted-pad bearing.

  7. 40 CFR 264.571 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment of the drip pad, reviewed and... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.571 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a) For each...

  8. 40 CFR 265.441 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment of the drip pad, reviewed and certified by a... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 265.441 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a)...

  9. Software Aspects of PuMa-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, R.; Stappers, B.; Stappers, B.

    2006-08-01

    The Pulsar Machine II (PuMa-II) is a state of the art pulsar machine-installed at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), in December 2005. PuMa-II is a flexible instrument and is designed around an ensemble of 44 high-performance computers running the Linux operating system. Much of the flexibility of PuMa-II comes from the software that is being developed for this instrument. The radio signals reaching the telescope undergo several stages of electronic and software processing before a scientifically useful data product is generated. The electronic processing of signals includes the usual RF to IF conversion, analogue to digital conversion and telescope dependent electronic digital delay compensation that happen in the signal chain of WSRT. Within PuMa-II, this data is acquired, stored and suitably processed. In this poster we present various aspects of PuMa-II software and illustrate its pulsar signal processing capabilities.

  10. 33 CFR 80.125 - Marblehead Neck, MA to Nahant, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marblehead Neck, MA to Nahant, MA. 80.125 Section 80.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.125 Marblehead Neck, MA to...

  11. 33 CFR 80.120 - Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA. 80.120 Section 80.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.120 Cape Ann, MA...

  12. Inhibition of PAD4 activity is sufficient to disrupt mouse and human NET formation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Huw D; Liddle, John; Coote, Jim E; Atkinson, Stephen J; Barker, Michael D; Bax, Benjamin D; Bicker, Kevin L; Bingham, Ryan P; Campbell, Matthew; Chen, Yu Hua; Chung, Chun-Wa; Craggs, Peter D; Davis, Rob P; Eberhard, Dirk; Joberty, Gerard; Lind, Kenneth E; Locke, Kelly; Maller, Claire; Martinod, Kimberly; Patten, Chris; Polyakova, Oxana; Rise, Cecil E; Rüdiger, Martin; Sheppard, Robert J; Slade, Daniel J; Thomas, Pamela; Thorpe, Jim; Yao, Gang; Drewes, Gerard; Wagner, Denisa D; Thompson, Paul R; Prinjha, Rab K; Wilson, David M

    2015-03-01

    PAD4 has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, cardiovascular and oncological diseases through clinical genetics and gene disruption in mice. New selective PAD4 inhibitors binding a calcium-deficient form of the PAD4 enzyme have validated the critical enzymatic role of human and mouse PAD4 in both histone citrullination and neutrophil extracellular trap formation for, to our knowledge, the first time. The therapeutic potential of PAD4 inhibitors can now be explored.

  13. Mechanisms of Local Planarization Improvement Using Solo Pad in Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Akira; Yokoyama, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Takashi; Kurokawa, Syuhei

    2013-12-01

    The mechanism of local planarization improvement using a solo pad in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was investigated, and the pad surface temperature was found to be the key factor. The use of a solo pad results in better planarity than that of a stacked pad under the same process conditions. When Cu CMP evaluation was conducted at various platen temperatures, a good correlation of local planarity to pad surface temperature was confirmed regardless of the pad type. Planarity improved when the pad surface temperature was lowered, and the solo pad had a lower temperature than the stacked pad at the same platen temperature. It is considered that the solo pad has a higher heat conductance than the stacked pad, so that heat generated during polishing is transferred to the platen more easily through the solo pad than through the stacked pad. The reason for the better planarity with the lower pad surface temperature was explained by the change in pad elasticity by the temperature.

  14. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and PAD risk factors among different ethnic groups in the US population.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Judith

    2012-06-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 data set was utilized to examine and compare trends and differences in PAD-related risk factor variables among 5 different ethnic/racial groups. The sample included individuals 40 years and older with PAD and of the ethnic/racial groups: Mexican American, Other Hispanic, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Other/Multiracial. Two demographic variables (age and gender) and 4 PAD-risk factors (hypertension [HTN], systolic blood pressure [SBP], and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]), dyslipidemia, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL], diabetes, and cigarette smoking) were examined for each group. The study design conducted was descriptive using the NHANES 2003-2004 secondary data set. Raw data were weighted. Descriptive statistics were measured, Chi-squares were compared, and Phi-coefficients were measured for association using SAS version 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0. The group with the highest prevalence of PAD are females 40-50 years of age, and the ethnic group with PAD who have the highest risk for PAD-related risk factors are Non-Hispanic Black. Through Chi-square significant differences (P=0.00001-0.03874) between specific ethnic groups for all four PAD-related risk factors (i.e., HTN, dyslipidemia, diabetes and cigarette smoking). All of the associations between the prevalence of HTN, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or cigarette smoking and ethnicity were statistically significant (P=<0.0001). Overall differences exist among the different ethnic groups.

  15. Insect tricks: two-phasic foot pad secretion prevents slipping

    PubMed Central

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Clemente, Christofer J.; Federle, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Many insects cling to vertical and inverted surfaces with pads that adhere by nanometre-thin films of liquid secretion. This fluid is an emulsion, consisting of watery droplets in an oily continuous phase. The detailed function of its two-phasic nature has remained unclear. Here we show that the pad emulsion provides a mechanism that prevents insects from slipping on smooth substrates. We discovered that it is possible to manipulate the adhesive secretion in vivo using smooth polyimide substrates that selectively absorb its watery component. While thick layers of polyimide spin-coated onto glass removed all visible hydrophilic droplets, thin coatings left the emulsion in its typical form. Force measurements of stick insect pads sliding on these substrates demonstrated that the reduction of the watery phase resulted in a significant decrease in friction forces. Artificial control pads made of polydimethylsiloxane showed no difference when tested on the same substrates, confirming that the effect is caused by the insects’ fluid-based adhesive system. Our findings suggest that insect adhesive pads use emulsions with non-Newtonian properties, which may have been optimized by natural selection. Emulsions as adhesive secretions combine the benefits of ‘wet’ adhesion and resistance against shear forces. PMID:19755498

  16. Visible light active photocatalyst from recycled disposable heating pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Chien; Wang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Che-Chin; Wang, Chih-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-Fe2O3 (α-Fe2O3) is cheap and abundant and has potential to be a highly efficient photocatalyst for water splitting. According to the report, there are a huge amount of disposable heating pads being created every year, and the pads are used one time then thrown away. We found that the main product of used heating pads is α-Fe2O3. Here, we collect and purify the α-Fe2O3 powder in the used heating pads using low power consumption processes. It is shown that the recycled heating pads can be used as a cost-effective photocatalyst for H2 energy and for decomposition of organic pollutants as well. Additionally, the plasmonic enhanced photocatalysis reaction of α-Fe2O3 is also investigated. It is found that H2 evolution rate can be enhanced 15% using α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with a thin Au layer. The degradation of methylene blue can also enhance 12% compared to photocatalyst α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated without Au layer.

  17. PuMa, a digital Pulsar Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voûte, J. L. L.; Kouwenhoven, M. L. A.; van Haren, P. C.; Langerak, J. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Driesens, D.; Ramachandran, R.; Beijaard, Th. D.

    2002-04-01

    We have designed and constructed PuMa, a pulsar machine that has both a baseband recording and a digital filterbank mode. Its design is based on the use of digital signal processors (DSPs). Their operation is controlled by software, which makes PuMa reconfigurable, flexible and easy to operate. The maximum number of channels in the digital filterbank mode is 32 768 over a bandwidth of 80 MHz. This makes PuMa suitable for pulsar observations at low sky frequencies. The maximum bandwidth in baseband recording mode is two times 10 MHz. The machine was installed at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in The Netherlands in 1998. We discuss in some detail PuMa's technical properties and capabilities. Recent observations, a sample of which are presented here, demonstrate its capabilities and that it is performing up to its specifications.

  18. S&MA Requirements Tool (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulpa, Vyga

    2004-01-01

    In FY03 QS10 began building an S&MA web based data management tool,"Safety & Mission Assurance Requirements Tool" (SMART) that identifies S&MA requirements, tailors requirements to IAW project/program categories, tracks implementation, and provides a template for developing requirements and tracking waivers. This report provides a SMART process flow, typical application, typical data requirement deliverables, progress in 03, and FY04 activities.

  19. Pad polishing for rapid production of large flats

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, R.R.; Schmell, R.A.

    1997-11-01

    Pad polishing is an efficient technique for polishing-out a ground surface and reaching a figure better than one wave, ready for completion with less than an hour on a planetary polisher. For the 350 mm square piece of BK-7, removal was one micrometer every 10 minutes. Polishing-out from a 5 micrometer grind took less than 3 hours, to a surface smoothness of one nm rms. Other tests verified that the pad leaves no unusual subsurface damage. Following completion on a pitch planetary polisher, surface finish is the same as obtained for conventional processing. Unlike pitch, the pad retains its surface figure, producing a uniform result when used on a production basis. Coupled with the speed of production and low capital cost of overarm machines, it provides a cost-effective approach.

  20. On pads and filters: Processing strong-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Processing of strong-motion data in many cases can be as straightforward as filtering the acceleration time series and integrating to obtain velocity and displacement. To avoid the introduction of spurious low-frequency noise in quantities derived from the filtered accelerations, however, care must be taken to append zero pads of adequate length to the beginning and end of the segment of recorded data. These padded sections of the filtered acceleration need to be retained when deriving velocities, displacements, Fourier spectra, and response spectra. In addition, these padded and filtered sections should also be included in the time series used in the dynamic analysis of structures and soils to ensure compatibility with the filtered accelerations.

  1. Gecko inspired carbon nanotube based thermal gap pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Thermal management has become a critical factor in designing the next generation of microprocessors. The bottleneck in design of material for efficient heat transfer from electronic units to heat sinks is to enhance heat flow across interface between two dissimilar, rough surfaces. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been shown to be promising candidates for thermal transport. However, the heat transport across the interface continues to be a challenging hurdle. In the current work we designed free standing thermal pads based on gecko-inspired carbon nanotube adhesives. The pads were made of metallic carbon nanotubes and the structure was designed such that it would allow large area of intimate contact. We showed that these adhesive pads can be used as electrical and thermal interconnects.

  2. STS-100 crew members practice emergency escape from the pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - As part of emergency escape training at Launch Pad 39A, the STS-100 crew climb into slidewire baskets that, during a real emergency, would propel them off the Fixed Service Structure to a landing area away from the pad. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  3. STS-100 crew members practice emergency escape from the pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - During emergency escape training at Launch Pad 39A, STS-100 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby (left) and Commander Kent V. Rominger are in their slidewire basket that, during a real emergency, would propel them off the Fixed Service Structure to a landing area away from the pad. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  4. Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  5. Skin fungal biocontamination and the skin hydrogel pad test.

    PubMed

    Paquet, P; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Quatresooz, P

    2008-04-01

    Previous observations have revealed that environmental nondermatophyte molds (NDM) can grow inside specific hydrogel pads (LaserAid). Some of these NDM might be responsible for superficial and invasive mycoses as well as for allergic respiratory and cutaneous disorders. The load of NDM propagules in the environment is considered to be an important risk factor for all these diseases. It is postulated that the quantification of the responsible fungi deposited at the skin surface may be an indicator of a recent exposure to environmental fungi. The aim of the present study was to assess using the LaserAid hydrogel pads, the density of living NDM adhering to the skin surface of healthy subjects. Sterile hydrogel pads were applied in a repeat procedure onto the normal-looking skin of the palms and face of 35 healthcare workers who were active in low exposure areas. Similar samplings were performed after washing the skin with a regular skin cleanser, or after applying an alcohol solution or a povidone iodine solution. As controls, 20 sterile pads were exposed for a few minutes to ambient air of the laboratory without any contact with the skin. Each of these samples was stored for 2 weeks at room temperature in a clean protected environment. After that period, visual inspection of the pads was followed by microscopic examination of PAS-stained 6 microm-thick sections. In addition, mycological cultures were performed from pieces of the pads deposited onto Sabouraud agar plates. While 19/20 air-exposed samples were not contaminated by environmental air-borne fungi, 61/70 of the initial skin samplings and 6/70 of the repeat skin samplings showed foci of fungal colonization confirmed by microscopic examination. No specific differences were disclosed between the face and palm samplings. Cultures revealed the presence of NDM in the majority (64/67) of the colonized pads, and a few Candida albicans contaminations (3/67) were also disclosed. The cleansing with a non

  6. PAD-US: National Inventory of Protected Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa

    2013-11-12

    The Gap Analysis Program produces data and tools that help meet critical national challenges such as biodiversity conservation, renewable energy development, climate change adaptation, and infrastructure investment. The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the official inventory of protected open space in the United States. With over 715 million acres in thousands of holdings, the spatial data in PAD-US include public lands held in trust by national, State, and some local governments, and by some nonprofit conservation organizations.

  7. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  8. Evaluation of In-Plane Microdeformation Distribution Characteristics of Polishing Pad Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneda, Michio; Omote, Tatsunori; Shibuya, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Yoshio; Ichikawa, Daizo; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-01

    In the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of a Si wafer, the physical properties of the polishing pad affect the processing characteristics. There have been several studies on the evaluation of pad surface asperity. In this study, we investigate the fundamental characteristics of polishing pads by the digital image correlation (DIC) method from two viewpoints. It was found that the pad surface deforms owing to shrinkage. Moreover, there is a strong relationship between the in-plane microdeformation characteristics and the amount of material removed from the pad in the conditioning process. Since the DIC method can measure changes in pad surface conditions, it can be used to evaluate future CMP monitoring systems.

  9. Cellular Activity of New Small Molecule Protein Arginine Deiminase 3 (PAD3) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Haya; Khan, Hasan A; Tjin, Caroline C; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-09-08

    The protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational deimination of arginine side chains. Multiple PAD isozymes have been characterized, and abnormal PAD activity has been associated with several human disease states. PAD3 has been characterized as a modulator of cell growth via apoptosis inducing factor and has been implicated in the neurodegenerative response to spinal cord injury. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of conformationally constrained versions of the potent and selective PAD3 inhibitor 2. The cell activity of representative inhibitors in this series was also demonstrated for the first time by rescue of thapsigargin-induced cell death in PAD3-expressing HEK293T cells.

  10. Antiasthmatic Effects of Herbal Complex MA and Its Fermented Product MA128

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Bok-Kyu; Yang, Min Cheol; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if oral administration of the novel herbal medicine, MA, and its Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented product, MA128, have therapeutic properties for the treatment of asthma. Asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by systemic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) followed by intratracheal, intraperitoneal, and aerosol allergen challenges. MA and MA128 were orally administered 6 times a week for 4 weeks. At 1 day after the last ovalbumin exposure, airway hyperresponsiveness was assessed and samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung cells, and serum were collected for further analysis. We investigated the effect of MA and MA128 on airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, various immune cell phenotypes, Th2 cytokine production, OVA-specific IgE production, and Th1/Th2 cytokine production in this mouse model of asthma. In BALB/c mice, we found that MA and MA128 treatment suppressed eosinophil infiltration into airways and blood, allergic airway inflammation and AHR by suppressing the production of IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, Eotaxin, and OVA-specific IgE, by upregulating the production of OVA-specific Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ), and by downregulating OVA-specific Th2 cytokine (IL-4) in the culture supernatant of spleen cells. The effectiveness of MA was increased by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:22203879

  11. Environmental effects and characterization of the Egyptian radioactive well logging calibration pad facility.

    PubMed

    Al Alfy, Ibrahim Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    A set of ten radioactive well-logging calibration pads were constructed in one of the premises of the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA), Egypt, at 6th October city. These pads were built for calibrating geophysical well-logging instruments. This calibration facility was conducted through technical assistance and practical support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and (ARCN). There are five uranium pads with three different uranium concentrations and borehole diameters. The other five calibration pads include one from each of the following: blank, potassium, thorium, multi layers and mixed. More than 22 t of various selected Egyptian raw materials were gathered for pad construction from different locations in Egypt. Pad's site and the surrounding area were spectrometrically surveyed before excavation for the construction process of pad-basin floor. They yielded negligible radiation values which are very near to the detected general background. After pad's construction, spectrometric measurements were carried out again in the same locations when the exposed bore holes of the pads were closed. No radioactivity leakage was noticed from the pads. Meanwhile, dose rate values were found to range from 0.12 to 1.26 mS/y. They were measured during the opening of bore holes of the pads. These values depend mainly upon the type and concentration of the pads as well as their borehole diameters. The results of radiospectrometric survey illustrate that the specification of top layers of the pads were constructed according to international standards.

  12. General view from the Launch Pad at Kennedy Space Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view from the Launch Pad at Kennedy Space Center looking at the Rotating Service Structure, the Fixed Service Structure and the Mobile Launch Platform with the Shuttle Stack Assembly atop and being prepared for launch. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Mobile Perspectives: On iPads--Why Mobile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawelek, Mary Ann; Spataro, Mary; Komarny, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Along with their students, faculty have become co-learners and pioneers in the classroom. With no models to work from, they have had to explore, practice, and discover the iPad's potential for expanding learning. Given the recent and rapidly growing access to a dazzling array of intellectual technologies, faculty and staff at Seton Hill, a liberal…

  15. 13. WALKWAY FROM LAUNCHING PAD TO CABLE TUNNEL STAIRWELL, ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WALKWAY FROM LAUNCHING PAD TO CABLE TUNNEL STAIRWELL, ALSO SHOWING A PROTECTIVE BERM AT TOP LEFT, AND FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0545 AT TOP RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Evidence for dopaminergic vasodilator innervation of the canine paw pad.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C.; Lang, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    1 In chloralose-anaesthetized dogs pretreated with guanethidine and pancuronium, electrical stimulation (0.2 to 5 Hz) of the peripheral end of the cut tibial nerve caused a frequency-dependent increase in femoral blood flow which was restricted to the paw pads. 2 This neurogenic vasodilatation was not attenuated by atropine, mepyramine plus burimamide, indomethacin or propranolol. It was, however, attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by intra-arterial administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist, ergometrine (0.05 to 0.5 mg). 3 The effect of ergometrine could not be explained by non-specific effects on axonal conduction or transmission or by vasospasm of the blood vessels of the paw-pads. 4 In dogs with intact tibial nerves, a pharmacologically similar dilator response localized to the paw-pads could be elicited by electrical stimulation of loci in the ipsilateral diencephalon and midbrain. This response was not due to inhibition of adrenergic vasomotor tone and was abolished by systemic ganglion blockade or by tibial nerve section as well as by femoral arterial administration of ergometrine. 5 It is suggested that the vasculature of the canine paw pads is innervated by a population of autonomic axons which utilize dopamine or a related substance as a transmitter substance and activation of which causes vasodilation. PMID:40651

  17. Cost Beneftt Analysts of LH2 PadB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mott, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    This analysis is used to evaluate, from a cost and benefit perspective, potential outcomes when replacing the pressurization switches and the pressurization system to meet the needs of the LH2 storage system at Pad B. This also includes alternatives, tangible and intangible benefits, and the results of the analysis.

  18. Ereaders, the iPad--Is That All There Is?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David

    2010-01-01

    The device industry is blowing a great opportunity to revolutionize reading. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January, a dozen or more ebook readers and tablets were trotted out as the wave of the future. Since then, Apple has revealed the iPad, Sony has started shipping a touchscreen version of its eBook, and Spring Design has started shipping…

  19. iPad Acceptance by English Learners in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barry A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…

  20. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  2. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  3. Response of tender cactus pads to Salmonella strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tender cactus pads (cladodes) or nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L) are an important vegetable in Mexico. They are often pre-trimmed, cut and packaged, and while usually consumed cooked, they may also be eaten raw in salads. Salmonella is an enteropathogenic bacterium that can adapt to adverse envir...

  4. Pad A Treatability Study long-range project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Pad A Treatability Study Project is to identify and demonstrate through lab- and pilot-scale testing, technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salt waste. This document presents proposed objectives and schedules, scope of work and breakdown structure, cost elements, deployment, benefits, and change controls for the project.

  5. Spatial Fourier Transform Analysis of Polishing Pad Surface Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajornrungruang, Panart; Kimura, Keiichi; Okuzono, Takahisa; Suzuki, Keisuke; Kushida, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    The spatial Fourier transform analysis is proposed to quantitatively evaluate the irregular topography of the conditioned chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad surface. We discuss the power spectrum in the spatial wavelengths of the surface topographies corresponding to polishing time. We conclude that the spatial wavelength of less than 5 µm in the topography yielded high material removal rates.

  6. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  8. Searchlights Illuminate Apollo 8 on Pad 39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Searchlights penetrate the darkness surrounding Apollo 8 on Pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center. This mission was the first manned flight using the Saturn V. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  9. Teaching, Learning, and Living with iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Tablet computers, engaging and dynamic teaching and learning tools, are increasingly prevalent in K-12 schools and university settings. To help music educators make informed technology choices for their classrooms, this article contains preservice teachers' reflections on how they used iPads to enhance their musicianship, teacher preparation,…

  10. iPads for School Counselors: Productivity and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Teddi J.; Caldwell, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews 20 uploadable iPads applications (apps) that provide school counselors diverse options to use in any phase of the comprehensive school counseling program. A brief explanation of each app is presented, and the cost and web address for acquisition are provided in the appendix. This information can be a helpful guide to the busy…

  11. Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

  12. International Perspectives on Literacy Learning with iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane; Rowsell, Jennifer; Simpson, Alyson; Scott, Ruth McQuirter; Walsh, Maureen; Ciampa, Katia; Saudelli, Mary Gene

    2015-01-01

    This article profiles the use of the iPad in classroom literacy activities in three instructional environments: Toronto, Canada; San Diego, United States; and Sydney, Australia. The two-year, qualitative study included observational fieldwork filming students' interactions with tablets in the midst of literacy events. Students in each context used…

  13. Gender differences in perception of PAD: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oka, Roberta K; Szuba, Andrzej; Giacomini, John C; Cooke, John P

    2003-05-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) report profound limitations in all domains of quality of life that are worse than those for patients with chronic pulmonary disease and moderate to severe heart failure. While claudication has detrimental effects on quality of life, little is understood about the factors that influence quality of life and whether these determinants are similar for men and women with PAD and claudication. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of claudication on quality of life in 71 men and 26 women (mean age 72 and 73 years respectively) with PAD. Disease severity as assessed by ankle brachial index (ABI) and community-based walking was similar for men and women, although men reported greater comorbid conditions than women. Despite the similarity in disease severity, women reported decreased physical functioning (p = 0.01), more bodily pain (p = 0.04) and greater mood disturbance (p = 0.012) than men. Claudication and PAD had a greater impact on women than on men and may result from the higher prevalence of mood disturbance and bodily pain reported by women.

  14. 6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC denture cushion or pad. 872.3540 Section 872.3540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... patient applies to the base or inner surface of a denture before inserting the denture into the mouth....

  16. Reassembling fragmented BMP files based on padding bytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianyan; Han, Qi; Niu, Xiamu

    2016-05-01

    Reassembling fragmented image files plays a crucial role in seizing digital evidence from scattered digital image files. The existing algorithms are mainly graph based, which cast the reassembly problem as a K-vertex disjoint path problem in a directed complete graph, which is an NP-complete problem. Based on the padding bytes in BMP files, we present a method to exclude most impossible paths, which can improve the accuracy and decrease the time complexity of the existing graph-based methods. According to the alignment rule of BMP format, padding bytes must be appended to the end of each row to bring up the length of the row to a multiple of 4 bytes. Hence the fragment, being a vertex of the path which correctly reassembles a file, has a property; its byte values at padding positions must be the padding values. Only the fragments with such property can be candidate fragments for the vertex. On the test dataset which is constructed based on 330 image files, taking eight classical methods as examples, we show that the proposed method produces an accuracy improvement ranging from 32% to 55%, and reduces the run time to a scope from 1/6 to 1/237.

  17. Re-Imagine Your Library with iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Chicago Public Schools librarians have discovered that iPads engage students in developing their reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills while expressing their creativity. Their librarians embarked on a year-long experiment with the mobile devices that inspired them to completely reinvent the way they teach. This article presents tips…

  18. PADS: a probabilistic activity detection framework for video data.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Massimiliano; Chellappa, Rama; Cuntoor, Naresh; Moscato, Vincenzo; Picariello, Antonio; Subrahmanian, V S; Udrea, Octavian

    2010-12-01

    There is now a growing need to identify various kinds of activities that occur in videos. In this paper, we first present a logical language called Probabilistic Activity Description Language (PADL) in which users can specify activities of interest. We then develop a probabilistic framework which assigns to any subvideo of a given video sequence a probability that the subvideo contains the given activity, and we finally develop two fast algorithms to detect activities within this framework. OffPad finds all minimal segments of a video that contain a given activity with a probability exceeding a given threshold. In contrast, the OnPad algorithm examines a video during playout (rather than afterwards as OffPad does) and computes the probability that a given activity is occurring (even if the activity is only partially complete). Our prototype Probabilistic Activity Detection System (PADS) implements the framework and the two algorithms, building on top of existing image processing algorithms. We have conducted detailed experiments and compared our approach to four different approaches presented in the literature. We show that-for complex activity definitions-our approach outperforms all the other approaches.

  19. Teacher's Use of iPads in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Daniel; Wang, Tianchong

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices (e.g. iPads or galaxy tab) are increasingly being used in educational contexts. There has been growing investment in higher education institutions in Hong Kong by the HKSAR Education Bureau in relation to educational uses of mobile technology. However, current research into educational applications of this technology is limited.…

  20. The Importance of Managing iPads in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Today, corporate users are not the only ones rapidly embracing mobile tablets for daily use--this transition has spilled over into the education sector. Schools have begun incorporating mobile devices such as iPads and other tablets into their curriculum. While this trend brings new and exciting educational opportunities, administrators and…

  1. Using the iPad in a Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

    2012-01-01

    The latest advances in technology are inevitably making their way into schools and gymnasiums across the country. This article provides a descriptive account of how one physical education teacher incorporated the use of an iPad in a middle-school volleyball sport education season. The salient structural elements of sport education, such as…

  2. CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Silicon nanoparticle-functionalized fiberglass pads for sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Mantey, Kevin; Nayfeh, Munir H.; Al-Hreish, Bahjat; Boparai, Jack; Kumar, Ashok; Stephenson, Larry D.; Nelson, Andrew J.; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2011-03-15

    We used wet treatment to immobilize luminescent silicon nanoparticles on industrial glass fibers to impart optical and chemical functions to the fiber. Carpets or pads consisting of thousands of fibers are processed in parallel, enhancing the sensitivity of detection and the sampled volume. Treated pads exhibit strong luminescence, characteristic of the luminescence of the particles; showing no shift, broadening, or reduction of quantum efficiency. We demonstrate that drawing material by the pad due to physical adsorption can be reversed. We also demonstrate that allylamine can be covalently attached by photoinduced irradiation reactions, which results in imprinting the amine emission spectrum, providing spectral recognition. The imprint accompanied with a blue-shifting of the luminescence spectrum of the probe, allowing examination of the effect of termination on the nanoparticle structure. The shift is found to be consistent with an increase in the bandgap of the Si nanoparticle and is consistent with Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. In addition to sampling, the nano probe pad has the potential to enable a variety of biomedical applications through subsequent attachment.

  4. The effect and clinical application of homemade tracheotomy incision nursing pads.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yachun; Xu, Li; Du, Kun; Zhang, Jiajun

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect and clinical application of the homemade tracheotomy incision nursing pads. 83 patients suffering tracheotomy were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated with the homemade tracheotomy incision nursing pads, and the control group was treated with the traditional tracheotomy nursing pads. Subsequently, the number of nursing pads used in 2 weeks, tracheotomy incision bacterial colonies and the comfort of patient between the two groups of pads was compared. The number of nursing pads used by the experimental group was smaller than the control group, and the tracheotomy incision bacterial colonies in the experimental group were fewer than the control group (P < 0.01). However, the differences observed for the skin irritation and gas permeability between the two groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Thus, the results show that the effect of homemade tracheotomy incision nursing pads is greater compared to the traditional nursing pads.

  5. Treating P.A.D. | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Peripheral Artery Disease Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents As ... develop a supervised weight loss plan. P.A.D. Glossary Ankle-brachial index (ABI) A simple test ...

  6. MaRIE Undulator & XFEL Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-03-23

    The 22 slides in this presentation treat the subject under the following headings: MaRIE XFEL Performance Parameters, Input Electron Beam Parameters, Undulator Design, Genesis Simulations, Risks, and Summary It is concluded that time-dependent Genesis simulations show the MaRIE XFEL can deliver the number of photons within the required bandwidth, provided a number of assumptions are met; the highest risks are associated with the electron beam driving the XFEL undulator; and risks associated with the undulator and/or distributed seeding technique may be evaluated or retired by performing early validation experiments.

  7. Functionally different pads on the same foot allow control of attachment: stick insects have load-sensitive "heel" pads for friction and shear-sensitive "toe" pads for adhesion.

    PubMed

    Labonte, David; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Stick insects (Carausius morosus) have two distinct types of attachment pad per leg, tarsal "heel" pads (euplantulae) and a pre-tarsal "toe" pad (arolium). Here we show that these two pad types are specialised for fundamentally different functions. When standing upright, stick insects rested on their proximal euplantulae, while arolia were the only pads in surface contact when hanging upside down. Single-pad force measurements showed that the adhesion of euplantulae was extremely small, but friction forces strongly increased with normal load and coefficients of friction were [Formula: see text] 1. The pre-tarsal arolium, in contrast, generated adhesion that strongly increased with pulling forces, allowing adhesion to be activated and deactivated by shear forces, which can be produced actively, or passively as a result of the insects' sprawled posture. The shear-sensitivity of the arolium was present even when corrected for contact area, and was independent of normal preloads covering nearly an order of magnitude. Attachment of both heel and toe pads is thus activated partly by the forces that arise passively in the situations in which they are used by the insects, ensuring safe attachment. Our results suggest that stick insect euplantulae are specialised "friction pads" that produce traction when pressed against the substrate, while arolia are "true" adhesive pads that stick to the substrate when activated by pulling forces.

  8. Student and Faculty Perceptions of iPad Integration in a Prelicensure Program.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Cynthia D; Schubert, Carolyn F

    This article provides an overview of strategies for integration of iPads into a prelicensure nursing program. The study evaluated the actual use of iPads in the classroom, skills and simulation laboratories, and clinical settings and examined the satisfaction of students and faculty with the iPad platform. The study findings provide guidance for a phased-in iPad implementation for prelicensure nursing programs.

  9. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of apparel which are wool products, the fiber content of any linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings...

  10. 77 FR 50508 - Brain-Pad, Inc; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Brain-Pad, Inc; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Brain-Pad, File No. 122 3073'' on your comment, and file your... must receive it on or before September 17, 2012. Write ``Brain-Pad, File No. 122 3073'' on your...

  11. Use of Doceri Software for iPad in Online Delivery of Chemistry Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Doceri software for iPad is useful for both synchronous online and asynchronous online delivery of chemistry course content. Using the Doceri wireless connection between the iPad and a personal computer that is running Adobe Connect, online synchronous instruction can be accomplished in which drawings can be completed by hand on the iPad. For…

  12. 21 CFR 884.5425 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5425 Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. (a) Identification. A scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad is a device that is a pad made of cellulosic or synthetic material...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5425 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5425 Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. (a) Identification. A scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad is a device that is a pad made of cellulosic or synthetic material...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5425 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5425 Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. (a) Identification. A scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad is a device that is a pad made of cellulosic or synthetic material...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5425 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5425 Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. (a) Identification. A scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad is a device that is a pad made of cellulosic or synthetic material...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5425 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5425 Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. (a) Identification. A scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad is a device that is a pad made of cellulosic or synthetic material...

  17. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of apparel which are wool products, the fiber content of any linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings...

  18. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of apparel which are wool products, the fiber content of any linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings...

  19. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of apparel which are wool products, the fiber content of any linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings...

  20. iPad Use in Seventh Grade Math: Parent and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to compare student and parental perceptions of mobile technology use, specifically iPads, in seventh grade math classrooms and at home. How students and parents perceive the use of iPads within the seventh grade math classroom and how students and parents perceive the influence of iPad use at home…

  1. School Administrators' Use of iPads: Impact of Training and Attitudes toward School Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Bulent; Almus, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    As Apple iPads are increasingly being adopted in schools for educational purposes, school administrators are seen as the key facilitators in the implementation of this new technology. This survey-based quantitative study investigated the impact of receiving iPad training on school administrators' attitudes towards iPad use in their professional…

  2. 77 FR 40527 - New Express Mail Price Category-Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... 111 New Express Mail Price Category--Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ), to expand Express Mail product options to include a new Padded Flat... a new price category under Express Mail, Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope, established by...

  3. Ma'adim Vallis From the Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a still from an animation showing the geography of Ma'adim Vallis, a valley or channel that enters Gusev Crater. The view of the crater is from the northwest, which is not the direction from which Spirit approached the crater as it landed.

  4. Vaccines against stimulants: cocaine and MA.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Thomas; Domingo, Coreen; Orson, Frank; Kinsey, Berma

    2014-02-01

    While the worldwide prevalence of cocaine use remains significant, medications, or small molecule approaches, to treat drug addictions have met with limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, on the other hand, have demonstrated great potential for treating drug abuse using a distinctly different mechanism of eliciting an antibody response that blocks the pharmacological effects of drugs. We provide a review of vaccine-based approaches to treating stimulant addictions; specifically and cocaine addictions. This selective review article focuses on the one cocaine vaccine that has been into clinical trials and presents new data related to pre-clinical development of a methamphetamine (MA) vaccine. We also review the mechanism of action for vaccine induced antibodies to abused drugs, which involves kinetic slowing of brain entry as well as simple blocking properties. We present pre-clinical innovations for MA vaccines including hapten design, linkage to carrier proteins and new adjuvants beyond alum. We provide some new information on hapten structures and linkers and variations in protein carriers. We consider a carrier, outer membrance polysaccharide coat protein (OMPC), that provides some self-adjuvant through lipopolysaccharide components and provide new results with a monophosopholipid adjuvant for the more standard carrier proteins with cocaine and MA. The review then covers the clinical trials with the cocaine vaccine TA-CD. The clinical prospects for advances in this field over the next few years include a multi-site cocaine vaccine clinical trial to be reported in 2013 and phase 1 clinical trials of a MA vaccine in 2014.

  5. Fabrication technology for ODS Alloy MA957

    SciTech Connect

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; MM Paxton; WF Brown

    2000-03-16

    A successful fabrication schedule has been developed at Carpenter Technology Corporation for the production of MA957 fuel and blanket cladding. Difficulties with gun drilling, plug drawing and recrystallization were overcome to produce a pilot lot of tubing. This report documents the fabrication efforts of two qualified vendors and the support studies performed at WHC to develop the fabrication-schedule.

  6. 76 FR 40766 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00035

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 06/29/2011. Incident: Johnsonia Apartment Building Fire Incident Period:...

  7. 76 FR 30748 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 05/19/2011. Incident: Apartment Building Fire. Incident Period: 04/30/2011. Effective...

  8. 77 FR 12350 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00047

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00047 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 02/21/2012. Incident: Brookline Apartment Building Fire. Incident Period:...

  9. 75 FR 79064 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 12/07/2010. Incident: Apartment complex fire. Incident Period: 11/21/2010. Effective...

  10. 75 FR 3764 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 01/15/2010. Incident: Mystic Side Estates Apartment Building Fire. Incident Period:...

  11. 77 FR 33263 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 05/29/2012. Incident: Lake Williams Condominium Complex Fire. Incident Period:...

  12. 77 FR 76584 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-31302] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13420 and 13421] Massachusetts Disaster MA-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated...

  13. 78 FR 25336 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00054

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: 01/21/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business...

  14. Multi-MA reflex triode research.

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, Stephen Brian; Commisso, Robert J.; Weber, Bruce V.; Riordan, John C.; Allen, Raymond J.; Goyer, John R.; Murphy, Donald P.; Mikkelson, Kenneth A.; Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef

    2010-08-01

    The Reflex Triode can efficiently produce and transmit medium energy (10-100 keV) x-rays. Perfect reflexing through thin converter can increase transmission of 10-100 keV x-rays. Gamble II experiment at 1 MV, 1 MA, 60 ns - maximum dose with 25 micron tantalum. Electron orbits depend on the foil thickness. Electron orbits from LSP used to calculate path length inside tantalum. A simple formula predicts the optimum foil thickness for reflexing converters. The I(V) characteristics of the diode can be understood using simple models. Critical current dominates high voltage triodes, bipolar current is more important at low voltage. Higher current (2.5 MA), lower voltage (250 kV) triodes are being tested on Saturn at Sandia. Small, precise, anode-cathode gaps enable low impedance operation. Sample Saturn results at 2.5 MA, 250 kV. Saturn dose rate could be about two times greater. Cylindrical triode may improve x-ray transmission. Cylindrical triode design will be tested at 1/2 scale on Gamble II. For higher current on Saturn, could use two cylindrical triodes in parallel. 3 triodes in parallel require positive polarity operation. 'Triodes in series' would improve matching low impedance triodes to generator. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Physics of reflex triodes from Gamble II experiments (1 MA, 1 MV) - (a) Converter thickness 1/20 of CSDA range optimizes x-ray dose; (b) Simple model based on electron orbits predicts optimum thickness from LSP/ITS calculations and experiment; (c) I(V) analysis: beam dynamics different between 1 MV and 250 kV; (2) Multi-MA triode experiments on Saturn (2.5 MA, 250 kV) - (a) Polarity inversion in vacuum, (b) No-convolute configuration, accurate gap settings, (c) About half of current produces useful x-rays, (d) Cylindrical triode one option to increase x-ray transmission; and (3) Potential to increase Saturn current toward 10 MA, maintaining voltage and outer diameter - (a) 2 (or 3) cylindrical triodes in parallel, (b) Triodes

  15. Diamond Conditioner Microwear Effect on Pad Surface Height Distribution in Tungsten Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yohei; Kawakubo, Masanori; Kadomura, Kazunori

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the surface topographies of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad samples for varying levels of diamond microwear of a conditioner have been measured using a confocal microscope and an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. The experimental results showed that the increase in the pad debris on the pad surface reduced the pad height ratio of the asperity called the “top surface area (TSA) ratio”. In addition, the overall removal rate in tungsten CMP was more dependent on the TSA ratio after polishing than on that after conditioning because the pad surface condition became worse with deformed asperities and micropores due to the insufficient conditioning.

  16. Effect of Groove Pattern of Chemical Mechanical Polishing Pad on Slurry Flow Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Doi, Toshiro K.; Uneda, Michio; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu; Seshimo, Kiyoshi; Aida, Hideo

    2012-05-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), the slurry flow behavior on the polishing pad is very important both for improving polishing effectiveness and for reducing the slurry consumption. In this study, we aim to evaluate two types of CMP pad that have unique special groove patterns, slurry outflow and inflow pads, for controlling the slurry flow behavior. We describe the effect of the groove patterns on the slurry flow behavior observed using images recorded using a high-speed digital camera. The results of the study indicate several advantages of the proposed pads over the conventional pads from the viewpoint of slurry flow behavior.

  17. STS-81 Rollout to Pad 39B (turtle in foreground)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Will the Space Shuttle Atlantis or the turtle reach Launch Pad 39B first? Carried atop the Mobile Launch Platform on the 6- million-pound Crawler Transporter, Shuttle Atlantis departs the Vehicle Assembly Building en route to Pad B at a maximum speed of 1 mile per hour. No one clocked the turtle, which seems to be heading in the same direction. Atlantis is tentatively scheduled to lift off on a nine-day mission on Jan. 12. STS-81 will be the fifth Shuttle-Mir docking. The six-member crew at liftoff will include Mission Specialist J.M. Linenger, who will transfer to the Russian Mir Space Station for an extended stay, replacing astronaut John E. Blaha, who will return to Earth on Atlantis.

  18. Launch pad abort of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Rivers, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Ragsdale, W. A.; Geyer, David W.

    1994-11-01

    The capability of the HL-20 lifting-body spacecraft to perform an abort maneuver from the launch pad to a horizontal landing was studied. This study involved both piloted and batch simulation models of the vehicle. A point-mass model of the vehicle was used for trajectory optimization studies. The piloted simulation was performed in a fixed-base simulator. A candidate maneuver was developed and refined for the worst-case launch-pad-to-landing-site geometry using an iterative procedure of off-line maneuver analysis followed by piloted evaluations and heuristic improvements to the candidate maneuver. The resulting maneuver demonstrates the launch site abort capability of the HL-20 and dictates requirements for nominal abort motor performance. The sensitivity of the maneuver to variations in several design parameters was documented.

  19. One-Time Pad as a nonlinear dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin

    2012-11-01

    The One-Time Pad (OTP) is the only known unbreakable cipher, proved mathematically by Shannon in 1949. In spite of several practical drawbacks of using the OTP, it continues to be used in quantum cryptography, DNA cryptography and even in classical cryptography when the highest form of security is desired (other popular algorithms like RSA, ECC, AES are not even proven to be computationally secure). In this work, we prove that the OTP encryption and decryption is equivalent to finding the initial condition on a pair of binary maps (Bernoulli shift). The binary map belongs to a family of 1D nonlinear chaotic and ergodic dynamical systems known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). Having established these interesting connections, we construct other perfect secrecy systems on the GLS that are equivalent to the One-Time Pad, generalizing for larger alphabets. We further show that OTP encryption is related to Randomized Arithmetic Coding - a scheme for joint compression and encryption.

  20. Space Shuttle Discovery rolls out to the launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery, atop the mobile launcher platform and crawler-transporter, begins the climb up the ramp to Launch Pad 39B. Traveling at 1 mph, the crawler-transporter takes about five hours to cover the 4.2 miles from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. Special levelers on the crawler- transporter keep the Space Shuttle vertical within plus or minus 10 minutes of arc about the dimensions of a basketball. Liftoff of Discovery on mission STS-96 is targeted for May 20 at 9:32 a.m. EDT. STS-96 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, carrying such payloads as a Russian crane, the Strela; a U.S.-built crane; the Spacehab Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), a logistics items carrier; and STARSHINE, a student-led experiment.

  1. Extreme Meteorological Parameters During Space Shuttle Pad Exposure Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Overbey, B. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    During the 113 missions of the Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle fleet has been exposed to the elements on the launch pad for a total of 4195 days. This paper provides a summary of the historical record of the meteorological extremes encountered by the Space Shuttle fleet during the pad exposure period. Parameters included are temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, sea level pressure and precipitation. All the data presented are archived by the Marshall Space Flight Center Environments Group, and were obtained from a combination of surface observations and meteorological towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Data are provided from the first launch of the STS in 1981 through the launch of STS-107 in 2003.

  2. Applying generalized Padé approximants in analytic QCD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Gorazd; Kögerler, Reinhart

    2011-09-01

    A method of resummation of truncated perturbation series, related to diagonal Padé approximants but giving results independent of the renormalization scale, was developed more than ten years ago by us with a view of applying it in perturbative QCD. We now apply this method in analytic QCD models, i.e., models where the running coupling has no unphysical singularities, and we show that the method has attractive features, such as a rapid convergence. The method can be regarded as a generalization of the scale-setting methods of Stevenson, Grunberg, and Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie. The method involves the fixing of various scales and weight coefficients via an auxiliary construction of diagonal Padé approximant. In low-energy QCD observables, some of these scales become sometimes low at high order, which prevents the method from being effective in perturbative QCD, where the coupling has unphysical singularities at low spacelike momenta. There are no such problems in analytic QCD.

  3. Pad A Main Flame Deflector Sensor Data and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlier, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    Space shuttle launch pads use flame deflectors beneath the vehicle to channel hot gases away from the vehicle. Pad 39 A at the Kennedy Space Center uses a steel structure coated with refractory concrete. The solid rocket booster plume is comprised of gas and molten alumina oxide particles that erodes the refractory concrete. During the beginning of the shuttle program the loads for this system were never validated with a high level of confidence. This paper presents a representation of the instrumentation data collected and follow on materials science evaluation of the materials exposed to the SRB plume. Data collected during STS-133 and STS-134 will be presented that support the evaluation of the components exposed to the SRB plume.

  4. Carbon-Nanotube-Carpet Heat-Transfer Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Cruden, Brett A.; Cassel, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic thermal-contact pads that include carpet-like arrays of carbon nanotubes have been invented for dissipating heat generated in integrated circuits and similarly sized single electronic components. The need for these or other innovative thermal-contact pads arises because the requisite high thermal conductances cannot be realized by scaling conventional macroscopic thermal-contact pads down to microscopic sizes. Overcoming limitations of conventional thermal-contact materials and components, the carbon-nanotube thermal-contact pads offer the high thermal conductivities needed to accommodate the high local thermal power densities of modern electronic circuits, without need for large clamping pressures, extreme smoothness of surfaces in contact, or gap-filling materials (e.g., thermally conductive greases) to ensure adequate thermal contact. Moreover, unlike some conventional thermal-contact components, these pads are reusable. The figure depicts a typical pad according to the invention, in contact with a rough surface on an electronic component that is to be cooled. Through reversible bending and buckling of carbon nanotubes at asperities on the rough surface, the pad yields sufficiently, under relatively low contact pressure, that thermal contact is distributed to many locations on the surface to be cooled, including valleys where contact would not ordinarily occur in conventional clamping of rigid surfaces. Hence, the effective thermal-contact area is greater than that achievable through scaling down of a macroscopic thermal-contact pad. The extremely high longitudinal thermal conductivities of the carbon nanotubes are utilized to conduct heat away from potential hot spots on the surface to be cooled. The fibers protrude from a layer of a filler material (Cu, Ag, Au, or metal-particle- filled gels), which provides both mechanical support to maintain the carbon nanotubes in alignment and thermal conductivity to enhance the diffusion of concentrated heat

  5. 42 CFR 495.204 - Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments to qualifying MA organizations for MA-EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.204 Section 495.204 Public Health CENTERS...

  6. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  7. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-06

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

  8. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  9. Saturn IB SA-210 on the Launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    SA-210 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) awaits the launch scheduled on July 15, 1975 on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, the ASTP mission with astronauts Thomas Stafford, Vance Brand, and Donald 'Deke' Slayton. The Saturn IB, developed under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), launched five manned Earth-orbital missions between 1968 and 1975: Apollo 7, Skylab 2, Skylab 3, Skylab 4, and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project .

  10. Teaching and Learning with iPads, Ready or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Orrin T.; Olcese, Nicole R.

    2011-01-01

    Within weeks of becoming available, the iPad reportedly sold over 3 million units, a brisker pace than other tablets in the personal computer realm. Much of the early success might be attributed to the almost 250,000 applications that could run on the device and a similar interface to the popular iPod Touch and iPhone. This article considers…

  11. Laparoscopic removal of a large laparotomy pad forgotten in situ.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Schauer, C; Pfeifer, J; Dagcioglu, A

    1995-02-01

    Objects forgotten during surgery are still an important complication with ethical and forensic implications. This case report describes a splenectomized patient with type II Hodgkin's disease. A large laparotomy pad (68 x 48 cm) forgotten in situ during a staging operation 6 months previously was removed laparoscopically. In asplenic patients with a permanent immune deficiency it is especially advantageous to perform surgery via the "closed" route whenever possible.

  12. Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter Testing at the Southwest Plume Test Pad

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    2001-01-29

    Multiple-well aquifer tests were recently conducted at the Southwest Plume Test Pad near the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) in accordance with the BGC Field Investigation Plan (WSRC, 1999). The pumping tests were performed in the Upper Three Runs and Gordon aquifers in February and March of 1999. The tests provide reliable estimates of horizontal conductivity averaged over aquifer thickness, and a relatively large horizontal zone of influence.

  13. ClimatePad: Enabling public exploration of climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. E.; Chapman, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    Informal learners interested in climate issues can find a wealth of information in the print and online media related to climate and climate change. Throughout these resources, the equal use of generic terms like 'global warming' and 'climate change' suggest a level of nuance in the science that is not easy to convey in this conventional media. Perhaps more than any other discipline, climate literacy has the most potential to be enhanced via the process of cognitive construction and reconstruction, rather than simple transmission of knowledge. Constructionism suggests that meaningful learning happens most effectively if the learner is actively engaged in constructing a product in the real world rather than absorbing information passively. Recent technological innovations have introduced mobile computing devices with sufficient power to do serious data analysis. The potential of these devices to augment climate literacy by turning citizens into scientists has yet to be exploited. We introduce ClimatePad, an iPad application that permits students and public to actively browse climate datasets, construct trends, plot time series, create composite differences and view animations of real-world climate data. Interactions with the ClimatePad permits varying the starting and ending dates of trends and differences. Climate analysis maps and animations can be customized with different color palettes, enticing the user to delve into and absorb the subtleties of the regional and temporal variations of the recent climate record. Finally, user-generated climate visualizations created with ClimatePad can be emailed to friends and shared via Facebook, entraining even more active learners.

  14. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  15. A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingji, Gao; Kai, Wang; Haijuan, Liu

    A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism can make the robot's emotion change be more easily accepted by people and is good for human-robot interaction.

  16. Dating of seals produced with stamp-pad ink using gas chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Li, Biao

    2014-09-01

    Seals are often placed on important documents, and determining the date when a seal was affixed can be important to assess the authenticity of a document. In this study, thirty-seven different brands of stamp-pad inks and three different types of paper were used to make diachronic samples of the seals. The volatile components of stamp-pad ink were determined, and the stamp-pad ink was classified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Calibration curves were created to show the relationship between the content of volatile stamp-pad ink components and the age of stamp-pad ink entries stored under natural aging, UV-induced aging, and heating aging conditions. The experimental results showed that GC was useful in the analysis of stamp-pad ink and applicable for determining the relative age of stamp-pad ink entries in some cases where the seal was placed on the document within 3 months.

  17. Tribology and Removal Rate Characteristics of Chemical Mechanical Planarization Pads Containing Water Soluble Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charns, L.; Philipossian, A.

    2006-07-01

    Novel non-porous pads incorporating different amounts of embedded water soluble particles (WSP) have been characterized and compared to a conventional porous pad for interlayer dielectric (ILD) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) applications. Removal rate results indicated that polishing with WSP pads was Prestonian in nature (similar to conventional porous pads). A decrease in removal rate at high combinations of pressure and velocity was observed during in-situ conditioning with WSP pads. This anomalous behavior was most likely due to the alternatively feeding and starving the wafer of slurry during in-situ conditioning since doubling the flow rate resolved the problem. The anomalous behavior, however, was not observed when conditioning was performed ex-situ. Frictional analysis indicated that polishing with WSP pads proceeded via boundary lubrication like the other porous pads with concentrically grooved surface geometries.

  18. Constitutive formulation and analysis of heel pad tissues mechanics.

    PubMed

    Natali, A N; Fontanella, C G; Carniel, E L

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model developed to describe the biomechanical response of heel pad tissues. The model takes into account the typical features of the mechanical response such as large displacement, strain phenomena, and non-linear elasticity together with time-dependent effects. The constitutive model was formulated, starting from the analysis of the complex structural and micro-structural configuration of the tissues, to evaluate the relationship between tissue histology and mechanical properties. To define the constitutive model, experimental data from mechanical tests were analyzed. To obtain information about the mechanical response of the tissue so that the constitutive parameters could be established, data from both in vitro and in vivo tests were investigated. Specifically, the first evaluation of the constitutive parameters was performed by a coupled deterministic and stochastic optimization method, accounting for data from in vitro tests. The comparison of constitutive model results and experimental data confirmed the model's capability to describe the compression behaviour of the heel pad tissues, regarding both constant strain rate and stress relaxation tests. Based on the data from additional experimental tests, some of the constitutive parameters were modified in order to interpret the in vivo mechanical response of the heel pad tissues. This approach made it possible to interpret the actual mechanical function of the tissues.

  19. iPad colour vision apps for dyschromatopsia screening.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Thomas Gordon; Lehn, Alexander; Blum, Stefan; Airey, Caroline; Brown, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) is a common and important cause of vision loss or vision disturbances in the community, particularly amongst the young, and it is often associated with a persistent dyschromatopsia. Traditionally screening for dyschromatopsia has been carried out using pseudo-isochromatic Ishihara plates. These colour plates were originally developed for testing of colour blindness, and indeed have only more recently been applied to ON. As the Ishihara plate books used for testing are expensive, unwieldy, and are not commonly available in many clinics or wards, many neurologists and ophthalmologists have taken to using untested and unstudied downloadable software packages on portable electronic devices for testing. This study compared the efficacy of printed and iPad (Apple, Cupertino, CA, USA) versions of the Ishihara plates in screening for dyschromatopsia in patients who were suspected of having ON. The main finding was that dyschromatopsia testing using a commercially available application on an iPad was comparable to using the current pragmatic clinical benchmark, the pseudo-isochromatic plates of Ishihara. These findings provide support for the increasingly common practice of screening for dyschromatopsia using the iPad.

  20. Incontinence Pad Usage in Medical Welfare Facilities in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyub; Kang, Ji Soon; Kim, Jeong-Wha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of urinary incontinence and the usage of incontinence pads by elderly residents in Korean medical welfare facilities were investigated. Methods From a total of 1,832 facilities, 33 medical welfare facilities in the capital area were randomly selected; all nursing homes were excluded. All data were collected by questionnaires to investigate the residents' age and sex, the presence or absence of urinary incontinence, incontinence pad usage per month, and management methods for urinary incontinence. Surveys were also conducted from January 2010 to August 2010. Results A total number of residents in medical welfare facilities were 2,783, and all of them were selected for this study. Approximately, 65.3% of residents (1,816 individuals) had incontinence. The mean usage was 75 incontinence pads per month. Only 15.6% of residents received proper management for urinary incontinence, while the remaining 84.4% of residents did not have any experience in evaluating or managing their urinary symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of urinary incontinence in medical welfare facilities in Korea was about 65.3%. However, the management of urinary incontinence was insufficient. Urologists should make further efforts for the proper management of urinary incontinence in elders in these facilities. PMID:24466466

  1. iPad: Semantic annotation and markup of radiological images.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Daniel L; Rodriguez, Cesar; Shah, Priyanka; Beaulieu, Chris

    2008-11-06

    Radiological images contain a wealth of information,such as anatomy and pathology, which is often not explicit and computationally accessible. Information schemes are being developed to describe the semantic content of images, but such schemes can be unwieldy to operationalize because there are few tools to enable users to capture structured information easily as part of the routine research workflow. We have created iPad, an open source tool enabling researchers and clinicians to create semantic annotations on radiological images. iPad hides the complexity of the underlying image annotation information model from users, permitting them to describe images and image regions using a graphical interface that maps their descriptions to structured ontologies semi-automatically. Image annotations are saved in a variety of formats,enabling interoperability among medical records systems, image archives in hospitals, and the Semantic Web. Tools such as iPad can help reduce the burden of collecting structured information from images, and it could ultimately enable researchers and physicians to exploit images on a very large scale and glean the biological and physiological significance of image content.

  2. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  3. Chemical mechanical planarization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 with a soft pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aodong, He; Bo, Liu; Zhitang, Song; Yegang, Lü; Juntao, Li; Weili, Liu; Songlin, Feng; Guanping, Wu

    2013-07-01

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (a-GST) is investigated using two typical soft pads (politex REG and AT) in acidic slurry. After CMP, it is found that the removal rate (RR) of a-GST increases with an increase of runs number for both pads. However, it achieves the higher RR and better surface quality of a-GST for an AT pad. The in-situ sheet resistance (Rs) measure shows the higher Rs of a-GST polishing can be gained after CMP using both pads and the high Rs is beneficial to lower the reset current for the PCM cells. In order to find the root cause of the different RR of a-GST polishing with different pads, the surface morphology and characteristics of both new and used pads are analyzed, it shows that the AT pad has smaller porosity size and more pore counts than that of the REG pad, and thus the AT pad can transport more fresh slurry to the reaction interface between the pad and a-GST, which results in the high RR of a-GST due to enhanced chemical reaction.

  4. A Scott bench with ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad improves body posture during preacher arm curl exercise.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano

    2016-05-01

    We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p < 0.001) reduced shoulder protraction (from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]) and thoracic kyphosis (from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]), enabling postural and functional improvements within the entire spine, shoulder girdle and rib cage. The ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.

  5. Earth-Moon Impacts at 300 Ma and 500 Ma Ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Delano, J. W.; Swindle, T. D.; Barra, F.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Spudis, P. D.

    2005-01-01

    Impact events have played an important role in the evolution of planets and small bodies in the Solar System. Meteorites, lunar melt rocks, and lunar impact glasses provide important information about the geology of the parent body and the age of the impacting episodes. Over 2400 impact glasses from 4 Apollo regolith samples have been geochemically analyzed and a subset has been dated by the (40)Ar/(39)Ar method. New results, consistent with 2 break-ups in the Asteroid Belt, are presented here. Our previous study reported that (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages from 9 impact glasses showed that the Moon experienced significant impacts at approx. 800 Ma and at approx. 3800 Ma ago, somewhere in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing site. Additionally, reported on Apollo 12 samples with ages around 800 Ma, together implying global bombardment events. New data on 7 glasses from regolith sample 66041,127 show that the Moon also experienced impact events at approx. 300 Ma and > 500 Ma ago, which may coincide with the break-ups in the Asteroid Belt of the L- and H-chrondrite parent bodies. Since meteoritic evidence for these breakups has been found on Earth, it follows that evidence should be found in lunar samples as well. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  6. 1900-Ma ocean crust in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The oldest known occurrence in North America of an ophiolite, considered to be a piece of ancient ocean crust, has been reported in the Cape Smith Belt in northern Quebec, Canada.The recognition last summer of a key structural component of the characteristic ophiolite suite has buttressed confidence in the theory that the 1900-Ma fragments of an ocean basin were accreted to an early Proterozoic Canadian continent. The tectonic mixing of oceanic and continental crust is strong evidence for the operation of plate tectonics early in Earth's history.

  7. Analysis of Compression Pad Cavities for the Orion Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Richard A.; Lessard, Victor R.; Jentink, Thomas N.; Zoby, Ernest V.

    2009-01-01

    Current results of a program for analysis of the compression pad cavities on the Orion heatshield are reviewed. The program was supported by experimental tests, engineering modeling, and applied computations with an emphasis on the latter presented in this paper. The computational tools and approach are described along with calculated results for wind tunnel and flight conditions. Correlations of the computed results are shown which can produce a credible prediction of heating augmentation due to cavity disturbances. The models developed for use in preliminary design of the Orion heatshield are presented.

  8. STS-107 Columbia rollout to Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Columbia, framed by trees near the Banana River, rolls towards Launch Pad 39A, sitting atop the Mobile Launcher Platform, which in turn is carried by the crawler-transporter underneath. The STS-107 research mission comprises experiments ranging from material sciences to life sciences (many rats), plus the Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research (FREESTAR) that incorporates eight high priority secondary attached shuttle experiments. Mission STS-107 is scheduled to launch Jan. 16, 2003.

  9. Padé approximants of the Mittag-Leffler functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoitov, A. P.; Starovoitova, N. A.

    2007-08-01

    It is shown that for m\\le n the Padé approximants \\{\\pi_{n,m}(\\,\\cdot\\,;F_{\\gamma})\\}, which locally deliver the best rational approximations to the Mittag-Leffler functions F_\\gamma, approximate the F_\\gamma as n\\to\\infty uniformly on the compact set D=\\{z:\\vert z\\vert\\le1\\} at a rate asymptotically equal to the best possible one. In particular, analogues of the well-known results of Braess and Trefethen relating to the approximation of \\exp{z} are proved for the Mittag-Leffler functions. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  10. Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time pad

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2004-05-01

    Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without first producing a shared secret key. It may be used in some urgent circumstances. Here we propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol using single photons. The protocol uses batches of single photons prepared randomly in one of four different states. These single photons serve as a one-time pad which is used directly to encode the secret messages in one communication process. We also show that it is unconditionally secure. The protocol is feasible with present-day technique.

  11. Heating-pad burn as a complication of abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ozgenel Ege, G Y; Ozcan, M

    2003-01-01

    As the sensory nerves supplying the abdominal wall are divided during abdominoplasty, sensory changes occur in the abdominal skin after surgery, which are troublesome for some patients. These sensory changes can lead to burn injury in uninformed patients. We report the case of a patient who sustained a second-degree burn to the anterior abdominal skin following the application of a heating pad after an abdominoplasty. This burn healed with conservative treatment. Burn injuries due to sensory loss in the abdominal skin following abdominoplasty must be kept in mind, and patients must be informed about this complication.

  12. Space Shuttle Endeavour reaches Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    After repair of a cracked cleat on the crawler-transporter, Space Shuttle Endeavour finally rests on Launch Pad 39B. To the left is the Rotating Service Structure. Endeavour is scheduled to be launched Nov. 30 at 10:01 p.m. EST on mission STS-97, the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections.

  13. Bioluminescent bioreporter pad biosensor for monitoring water toxicity.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Tim; Eltzov, Evgeni; Marks, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Toxicants in water sources are of concern. We developed a tool that is affordable and easy-to-use for monitoring toxicity in water. It is a biosensor composed of disposable bioreporter pads (calcium alginate matrix with immobilized bacteria) and a non-disposable CMOS photodetector. Various parameters to enhance the sensor's signal have been tested, including the effect of alginate and bacterium concentrations. The effect of various toxicants, as well as, environmental samples were tested by evaluating their effect on bacterial luminescence. This is the first step in the creation of a sensitive and simple operative tool that may be used in different environments.

  14. New fertilizer-producing system installed at Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A recently installed fertilizer-producing system sits near Launch Pad 39A. Using a 'scrubber,' the system captures nitrogen tetroxide vapor that develops as a by-product when it is transferred from ground storage tanks into the Shuttle storage tanks. Nitrogen tetroxide is used as the oxidizer for the hypergolic propellant in the Shuttle's on-orbit reaction control system. The scrubber then uses hydrogen peroxide to produce nitric acid, which, after adding potassium hydroxide, converts to potassium nitrate, a commercial fertilizer. Plans call for the resulting fertilizer to be used on the orange groves that KSC leases to outside companies.

  15. Hermite-Padé approximation of exponential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, A. V.; Starovoitov, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is concerned with diagonal Hermite-Padé polynomials of the first kind for the system of exponentials \\{eλ_jz\\}j=0^k with arbitrary distinct complex parameters \\{λ_k\\}j=0^k. An asymptotic formula for the remainder term is established and the location of the zeros is described. For real parameters the asymptotics are found and the extremal properties are described. The theorems obtained supplement the well-known results due to Borwein, Wielonsky, Saff, Varga and Stahl. Bibliography: 43 titles.

  16. Identifying target properties for the design of meta-material tank track pads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    properties of tank track pads while eliminating or reducing the hysteresis losses of elastomer. To determine the requirements for linear elastic meta...properties of tank track pads while eliminating or reducing the hysteresis losses of elastomer. To determine the requirements for linear elastic meta...focus of this paper is on a methodology to determine the meta-material requirements for a track pad with low hysteresis loss and high durability

  17. Bilateral phalangeal fillet technique for metacarpal pad reconstruction in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Tania; James, Fleur; Beierer, Lucas; Hosgood, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Loss of the metacarpal or metatarsal pad requires reconstruction with other pad tissue to allow functional weight-bearing on the limb. This report describes the use of a bilateral phalangeal fillet technique to reconstruct a weight-bearing surface in a dog following complete excision of its right metacarpal pad for malignant melanoma. This resulted in a functional weight-bearing limb. PMID:25320383

  18. Operating characteristics of a cantilever-mounted resilient-pad gas-lubricated thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1979-01-01

    A resilient-pad gas thrust bearing consisting of pads mounted on cantilever beams was tested to determine its operating characteristic. The bearing was run at a thrust load of 74 newtons to a speed of 17000 rpm. The pad film thickness and bearing friction torque were measured and compared with theory. The measured film thickness was less than that predicted by theory. The bearing friction torque was greater than that predicted by theory.

  19. Accessibility: The Top 10 iPad Apps for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Randall

    2013-01-01

    The iPad takeover of public education is not just confined to the mainstream classroom: Special needs educators, too, are finding that iPads can be a vital tool to support independence. What sets the iPad apart from other devices is the simple and visually robust user interface that can be used by almost everyone. It is also a highly customizable…

  20. "I Have an iPad. Now What?" Using Mobile Devices in University Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Maura B.; Eliason, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    In response to an iPad initiative at a mid-sized New England university, all faculty, junior and senior undergraduates, and graduate students were required to have iPads by the first day of class in the fall semester of 2013. Goals of the initiative focused on preparing future teachers to use the iPad as a teaching and learning tool so they could…

  1. Roadmap to MaRIE March 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Cris William

    2015-03-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s proposed MaRIE facility is slated to introduce the world’s highest energy hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). As the light source for the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes experimental facility (MaRIE), the 42-keV XFEL, with bursts of x-ray pulses at gigahertz repetition for studying fast dynamical processes, will help accelerate discovery and design of the advanced materials needed to meet 21st-century national security and energy security challenges. Yet the science of free-electron lasers has a long and distinguished history at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), where for nearly four decades Los Alamos scientists have been performing research, design, development, and collaboration work in FEL science. The work at Los Alamos has evolved from low-gain amplifier and oscillator FEL development to highbrightness photoinjector development, and later, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) and high-gain amplifier FEL development.

  2. Evolution of multi-well pad development and influence of well pads on environmental violations and wastewater volumes in the Marcellus shale (USA).

    PubMed

    Manda, Alex K; Heath, Jamie L; Klein, Wendy A; Griffin, Michael T; Montz, Burrell E

    2014-09-01

    A majority of well pads for unconventional gas wells that are drilled into the Marcellus shale (northeastern USA) consist of multiple wells (in some cases as many as 12 wells per pad), yet the influence of the evolution of well pad development on the extent of environmental violations and wastewater production is unknown. Although the development of multi-well pads (MWP) at the expense of single well pads (SWP) has been mostly driven by economic factors, the concentrated nature of drilling activities from hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling operations on MWP suggests that MWP may create less surface disturbance, produce more volumes of wastewater, and generate more environmental violations than SWP. To explore these hypotheses, we use geospatial techniques and statistical analyses (i.e., regression and Mann-Whitney tests) to assess development of unconventional shale gas wells, and quantify environmental violations and wastewater volumes on SWP and MWP in Pennsylvania. The analyses include assessments of the influence of different types of well pads on potential, minor and major environmental events. Results reveal that (a) in recent years, a majority of pads on which new wells for unconventional gas were drilled are MWP, (b) on average, MWP have about five wells located on each pad and thus, had the transition to MWP not occurred, between two and four times as much land surface disturbance would have occurred per year if drilling was relegated to SWP, (c) there were more environmental violations on MWP than SWP, but when the number of wells were taken into account, fewer environmental violations per well were observed on MWP than on SWP, (d) there were more wastewater and recycled wastewater volumes per pad and per well produced on MWP than on SWP, and (e) the proportion of wastewater that was recycled was higher on MWP than SWP. This study sheds light on how the evolution from SWP to MWP has influenced environmental violations and wastewater production

  3. Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, at KSC launch complex (LC) pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is rolled out to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex (LC) pad 39B in the early morning. Aerial view shows OV-104 at LC pad 39B with rotating servicing structure (RSS) retracted. OV-104 will remain at pad 39B for seven weeks where it will support checkout of new weather protection structures, a variety of special measurements, launch team proficiency exercises, and emergency egress simulations. The 4.2 mile journey from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the launch pad is the first since the Space Shuttle Challenger, OV-099, accident. View provided by KSC with alternate number 108-KSC-86PC-297.

  4. Impact of Pad Conditioning on Thickness Profile Control in Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincal, S.; Basim, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been proven to be the best method to achieve within-wafer and within-die uniformity for multilevel metallization. Decreasing device dimensions and increasing wafer sizes continuously demand better planarization, which necessitates better understanding of all the variables of the CMP process. A recently highlighted critical factor, pad conditioning, affects the pad surface profile and consequently the wafer profile; in addition, it reduces defects by refreshing the pad surface during polishing. This work demonstrates the changes in the postpolish wafer profile as a function of pad wear. It also introduces a wafer material removal rate profile model based on the locally relevant Preston equation by estimating the pad thickness profile as a function of polishing time. The result is a dynamic predictor of how the wafer removal rate profile shifts as the pad ages. The model helps fine-tune the pad conditioner operating characteristics without the requirement for costly and lengthy experiments. The accuracy of the model is demonstrated by experiments as well as data from a real production line. Both experimental data and simulations indicate that the smaller conditioning disk size and extended conditioning sweep range help improve the post-CMP wafer planarization. However, the defectivity tends to increase when the conditioning disk sweeps out of the pad radius; hence, the pad conditioning needs to be designed by considering the specific requirements of the CMP process conducted. The presented model predicts the process outcomes without requiring detailed experimentation.

  5. Analysis of the gas-lubricated flat-sector-pad thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat sector-shaped pad geometry for a gas-lubricated thrust bearing is analyzed considering both the pitch and roll of the pad. It is shown that maximum load capacity is achieved when the pad is tilted so as to create uniform minimum film thickness along the pad trailing edge. Performance characteristics for various geometries and operating conditions of gas thrust bearings are presented in the form of design curves, and a comparison is made with the rectangular slider approximation. It is found that this approximation is unsafe for practical design, since it always overestimates load capacity.

  6. Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-ying; Lü, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

    2014-07-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.

  7. Contact mechanics of the human finger pad under compressive loads.

    PubMed

    Dzidek, Brygida M; Adams, Michael J; Andrews, James W; Zhang, Zhibing; Johnson, Simon A

    2017-02-01

    The coefficient of friction of most solid objects is independent of the applied normal force because of surface roughness. This behaviour is observed for a finger pad except at long contact times (greater than 10 s) against smooth impermeable surfaces such as glass when the coefficient increases with decreasing normal force by about a factor of five for the load range investigated here. This is clearly an advantage for some precision manipulation and grip tasks. Such normal force dependence is characteristic of smooth curved elastic bodies. It has been argued that the occlusion of moisture in the form of sweat plasticises the surface topographical features and their increased compliance allows flattening under an applied normal force, so that the surfaces of the fingerprint ridges are effectively smooth. While the normal force dependence of the friction is consistent with the theory of elastic frictional contacts, the gross deformation behaviour is not and, for commonly reported values of the Young's modulus of stratum corneum, the deformation of the ridges should be negligible compared with the gross deformation of the finger pad even when fully occluded. This paper describes the development of a contact mechanics model that resolves these inconsistencies and is validated against experimental data.

  8. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  9. STS-101 Atlantis on the pad after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    After rollback of the Rotating Service Structure, Space Shuttle Atlantis is poised and ready on Launch Pad 39A for a fourth launch attempt on mission STS-101. At the top of the photo can be seen the Gaseous Oxygen Vent Hood, often called the 'beanie cap.' The hood helps vent gaseous oxygen vapors away from the Space Shuttle. The hood will be raised and retracted two and a half minutes before launch. Abutting the side of Atlantis is the orbiter access arm with the environmental chamber known as the White Room at the end. The White Room provides access to the crew compartment. In the background of the photo is the Atlantic Ocean. This will be the third assembly flight to the International Space Station. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis for the 10-day mission is scheduled for about 6:12 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A. Landing is targeted for May 29 at 2:19 a.m. EDT. This is the 98th Shuttle flight and the 21st flight for Shuttle Atlantis.

  10. Material properties of the heel fat pad across strain rates.

    PubMed

    Grigoriadis, Grigoris; Newell, Nicolas; Carpanen, Diagarajen; Christou, Alexandros; Bull, Anthony M J; Masouros, Spyros D

    2017-01-01

    The complex structural and material behaviour of the human heel fat pad determines the transmission of plantar loading to the lower limb across a wide range of loading scenarios; from locomotion to injurious incidents. The aim of this study was to quantify the hyper-viscoelastic material properties of the human heel fat pad across strains and strain rates. An inverse finite element (FE) optimisation algorithm was developed and used, in conjunction with quasi-static and dynamic tests performed to five cadaveric heel specimens, to derive specimen-specific and mean hyper-viscoelastic material models able to predict accurately the response of the tissue at compressive loading of strain rates up to 150s(-1). The mean behaviour was expressed by the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) material formulation, combining the Yeoh material model (C10=0.1MPa, C30=7MPa, K=2GPa) and Prony׳s terms (A1=0.06, A2=0.77, A3=0.02 for τ1=1ms, τ2=10ms, τ3=10s). These new data help to understand better the functional anatomy and pathophysiology of the foot and ankle, develop biomimetic materials for tissue reconstruction, design of shoe, insole, and foot and ankle orthoses, and improve the predictive ability of computational models of the foot and ankle used to simulate daily activities or predict injuries at high rate injurious incidents such as road traffic accidents and underbody blast.

  11. STS-103 Discovery crawls to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    With the American flag flapping in the morning breeze, Space Shuttle Discovery across the turn basin makes its 4.2-mile (6.8 kilometer) crawl to Launch Pad 39B (background, left) atop the mobile launcher platform and crawler transporter. Once at the pad, the orbiter, external tank and solid rocket boosters will undergo final preparations for the STS-103 launch targeted for Dec. 6, 1999, at 2:37 a.m. EST. The mission is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, both with the European Space Agency.

  12. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Liftoff of Space Shuttle Discovery leaves Launch Pad 39B (seen at right) and Earth behind, lighted by the brilliant exhaust of the solid rocket boosters and external tank. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  13. Identification and characterization of novel NuMA isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin; Xu, Zhe; He, Dacheng; Lu, Guanting

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • Seven NuMA isoforms generated by alternative splicing were categorized into 3 groups: long, middle and short. • Both exons 15 and 16 in long NuMA were “hotspot” for alternative splicing. • Lower expression of short NuMA was observed in cancer cells compared with nonneoplastic controls. • Distinct localization pattern of short isoforms indicated different function from that of long and middle NuMA. - Abstract: The large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) has been investigated for over 30 years with functions related to the formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles during mitosis. However, the existence and functions of NuMA isoforms generated by alternative splicing remains unclear. In the present work, we show that at least seven NuMA isoforms (categorized into long, middle and short groups) generated by alternative splicing from a common NuMA mRNA precursor were discovered in HeLa cells and these isoforms differ mainly at the carboxyl terminus and the coiled-coil domains. Two “hotspot” exons with molecular mass of 3366-nt and 42-nt tend to be spliced during alternative splicing in long and middle groups. Furthermore, full-length coding sequences of long and middle NuMA obtained by using fusion PCR were constructed into GFP-tagged vector to illustrate their cellular localization. Long NuMA mainly localized in the nucleus with absence from nucleoli during interphase and translocated to the spindle poles in mitosis. Middle NuMA displayed the similar cell cycle-dependent distribution pattern as long NuMA. However, expression of NuMA short isoforms revealed a distinct subcellular localization. Short NuMA were present in the cytosol during the whole cycle, without colocalization with mitotic apparatus. These results have allowed us tentatively to explore a new research direction for NuMA’s various functions.

  14. The 300 mA SRF ERL

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2013-11-07

    Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) are important for a variety of applications, from high-power Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) to polarized-electron polarized-proton colliders. The ERL current is arguably the most important characteristic of ERLs for such applications. With that in mind, the Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory embarked on the development of a 300 mA ERL to serve as an R and D test-bed for high-current ERL technologies. These include high-current, extremely well damped superconducting accelerating cavities, high-current superconducting laser-photocathode electron guns and high quantum-efficiency photocathodes. In this presentation I will cover these ERL related developments.

  15. Perceptions and Use of iPad Technology by Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members

    PubMed Central

    Zgarrick, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To explore the potential of tablet technology to address the specific workload challenges of pharmacy practice faculty members and to evaluate tablet usage after a department-wide iPad initiative. Methods. After conducting a needs assessment to determine pharmacy faculty attitudes towards tablet technology and to identify potential usage scenarios, all faculty members in a department of pharmacy practice received an iPad. After iPad distribution, training sessions and virtual tutorials were provided. An anonymous survey was administered to evaluate the pilot. Results. The needs assessment survey revealed positive attitudes towards iPad technology, identified use scenarios, and led to a department-wide iPad pilot program. Most faculty members used iPads for connectivity with students (86%), paper/project annotation (68%), assessment (57%), and demonstration of tools used in practice (36%). For teaching, 61% of faculty members used iPads in seminars/laboratories, 57% used iPads in the experiential setting, and 43% used iPads in the classroom. Use of iPads for patient-care activities varied and depended on site support for mobile technology. The 23 faculty members with external practice sites used iPads to a greater extent and had more positive attitudes towards this technology compared with campus-based faculty members. Conclusion. Integration of tablet technology into the pharmacy education setting resulted in faculty-reported increased productivity and decreased paper waste. It also allowed faculty members to experiment with new teaching strategies in the classroom and experiential setting. Administrators at institutions exploring the use of tablet technology should allocate resources based on faculty needs and usage patterns. PMID:24761013

  16. Using iPads as a Data Collection Tool in Extension Programming Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowntree, J. E.; Witman, R. R.; Lindquist, G. L.; Raven, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Program evaluation is an important part of Extension, especially with the increased emphasis on metrics and accountability. Agents are often the point persons for evaluation data collection, and Web-based surveys are a commonly used tool. The iPad tablet with Internet access has the potential to be an effective survey tool. iPads were field tested…

  17. The algebra of linear functionals on polynomials, with applications to Padé approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezinski, C.; Maroni, P.

    1996-12-01

    Some results about the algebra of linear functionals on the vector space of complex polynomials are given. These results have applications to Padé-type and Padé approximation. In particular an expression for the relative error is obtained.

  18. The Tablet Inscribed: Inclusive Writing Instruction with the iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the author's initial skepticism, a classroom set of iPads has reinforced a student-directed approach to writing instruction, while also supporting an inclusive classroom. Using the iPads, students guide their writing process with access to the learning management system, electronic information resources, and an online text editor. Students…

  19. A&M. Jet engine test pad and control building (TAN609). Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Jet engine test pad and control building (TAN-609). Camera facing westerly. Engine pad at left, control section (pumice block) on right. Date: September 19, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-2766 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Evaluating iPad Technology for Enhancing Communication Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Tara K.; Hart Barnett, Juliet E.; More, Cori M.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology has introduced a new communication opportunity for students with autism spectrum disorder. Tablets, like the iPad, allow users to customize applications for their needs. Users also have found iPads to be less stigmatizing because so many people own them and use them for various purposes. In the fast-paced world of technology,…

  1. Story-Making on the iPad When Children Have Complex Needs: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Messer, David; Critten, Val; Harwood, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The two case studies reported in this clinical exchange describe the way in which iPads can foster children's motivation to engage in communication and literacy-related activities such as story-sharing and story-creation. A detailed description of a particular iPad app (Our Story) is provided, along with observations of the implementation of this…

  2. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  3. Octopus-Inspired Smart Adhesive Pads for Transfer Printing of Semiconducting Nanomembranes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hochan; Um, Doo-Seung; Lee, Youngsu; Lim, Seongdong; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2016-09-01

    By mimicking muscle actuation to control cavity-pressure-induced adhesion of octopus suckers, smart adhesive pads are developed in which the thermoresponsive actuation of a hydrogel layer on elastomeric microcavity pads enables excellent switchable adhesion in response to a thermal stimulus (maximum adhesive strength: 94 kPa, adhesion switching ratio: ≈293 for temperature change between 22 and 61 °C).

  4. Analysis of burns caused by long-term exposure to a heating pad.

    PubMed

    Diller, K R

    1991-01-01

    The potential for creating a second-degree burn by extended exposure to an electric heating pad was evaluated in a simple model. Extrapolation of empirical results from experiments in thermal burns and in hyperthermia indicated that a heating pad at the low power setting can produce a burn within a threshold time of approximately 12 to 20 hours.

  5. Children's Use of iPads in Outdoor Environmental Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacoroski, Joy; Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Kerlin, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to understand how use of digital technology, specifically iPads, impacts the learning experiences of children during outdoor environmental education programs. iPads were integrated into water quality education programs for fifth grade students from an urban area. Qualitative observations were analyzed to document…

  6. Student Perceptions of iPads as Mobile Learning Devices for Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Katharine E.; Mauchline, Alice L.; Powell, Victoria; France, Derek; Park, Julian R.; Whalley, W. Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from six field courses about student's perceptions of iPads as mobile learning devices for fieldwork. Data were collected through surveys and focus groups. The key findings suggest that the multi-tool nature of the iPads and their portability were the main strengths. Students had some concerns over the safety of the…

  7. Quantitative analysis of physical and chemical changes in CMP polyurethane pad surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.; Fookes, B.; Obeng, Y.; Machinski, S.; Richardson, K.A

    2002-08-15

    Polishing pads play a key role in chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), which has been recognized as a critical step to improve the topography of wafers for semiconductor fabrication. In service, chemical and mechanical changes in a polishing pad are expected to have a significant impact on the pad's CMP performance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes in the pore geometry on the CMP pad surface after use. The average height of the roughness between the pores of the polishing pad was measured using white light interferometry (WLI). Attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR/FTIR) method was found to provide a novel opportunity for the nondestructive surface analysis of pad materials. Results of an ATR/IR microscopy study that evaluated the extent of chemical degradation of pad materials both before and after polishing cycle are presented. The infrared results identified that the changes in chemical state of used pad materials, specifically for C = O and C--O--C infrared stretching bands, were a surface phenomenon.

  8. Experimental evaluation of foil-supported resilient-pad gas-lubricated thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1977-01-01

    A new type of resilient-pad gas thrust bearing was tested to determine the feasibility of the design. The bearing consists of carbon graphite pads mounted asymmetrically on foil beams. Two bearing configurations were tested at thrust loads from 27 to 80 newtons at speeds to 9000 rpm. The outside diameter of the bearing was 8.9 centimeters.

  9. iPad Deployment in a Diverse Urban High School: A Formative Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane

    2015-01-01

    We explore the use of iPads in a diverse urban high school and the ways in which teachers and students were supported to integrate these tools into their instruction. We provided 4 English teachers with 20 iPads with little or no professional development about how to integrate them into their instruction. Using a formative experiment design, we…

  10. The iPad as an Instructional Tool: An Examination of Teacher Implementation Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Brandie Kay

    2012-01-01

    At present, handheld devices and tablet computers are infiltrating public schools across the nation, the most popular model being the Apple iPad. Schools and teachers are attempting to integrate the devices and are using a variety of methods and models for implementation. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of the iPad as…

  11. Padé approximants for inverse trigonometric functions and their applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanhe; Bercu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    The Padé approximation is a useful method for creating new inequalities and improving certain inequalities. In this paper we use the Padé approximant to give the refinements of some remarkable inequalities involving inverse trigonometric functions, it is shown that the new inequalities presented in this paper are more refined than that obtained in earlier papers.

  12. Lessons from Using iPads to Understand Young Children's Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Lorna; Grogan, Deirdre; Duncan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the use of iPads as part of a child-centred data collection approach to understand young children's creativity. Evidence is presented from a small study of three- to five-year-old children's creative play. Analysis of the children's engagement with iPad video diaries and free-to-use tablet applications was logged across two…

  13. Digital Course Materials: A Case Study of the Apple iPad in the Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Andrea H.; Bush, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    The newness of the iPad device creates a phenomenon unique and unstudied in the academic environment. By merging the innovations of electronic text, e-reader, and multi-modal functionality, the iPad tablet device can act as an e-reader providing digital course materials as well as a range of other supplementary academic applications. This…

  14. A Phenomenographic Investigation on the Use of iPads among Undergraduate Art and Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souleles, Nicos; Savva, Stefania; Watters, Hilary; Annesley, Angela; Bull, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly widespread use of iPads in higher education (HE) brings to the forefront questions about the contribution of these computer tablets towards teaching and learning. However, there is a noticeable gap of research on the instructional potential of iPads in HE. This paper describes the first stage of a research project on the use of…

  15. The Neglected "R": Improving Writing Instruction through iPad Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessions, Laird; Kang, Mi Ok; Womack, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated the effects of integrating iPad applications into writing instruction for fifth grade students. By comparing the writing of students taught with paper and pencil methods with that of students utilizing the iPad writing applications, two research questions guided the study: (1) Are there differences in student…

  16. Exploring the Use of the iPad for Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Amy; Beschorner, Beth; Schmidt-Crawford, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to explore how a fourth grade teacher could integrate iPads into her literacy instruction to simultaneously teach print-based and digital literacy goals. The teacher used iPads for a three-week period during her literacy instruction and selected apps that provided unique approaches to helping the students meet…

  17. iPad Use for Accelerating Reading Gains in Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retter, Shannan; Anderson, Christine; Kieran, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This action research project explored the use of the iPad 2 in a special education classroom with high school students who were considered struggling readers to determine if an academic gain in reading comprehension, reading fluency, and vocabulary implementing the intervention of an iPad and four specific applications (apps). The high school…

  18. Touch, Type, and Transform: iPads in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.; Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2012-01-01

    The release of Apple's iPad was met with great enthusiasm by educators and schools. Yet, if this new technology is retrofitted to traditional teaching activities its full potential will go unrealized. The presence of iPads alone will not generate transformative educational experiences in the social studies; however, the appropriation of the device…

  19. Integrating iPad Technology into the Classroom: A Study Investigating the Experiences Educators Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Kristin Jacobson

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological case study was designed to investigate the experiences educators encounter when implementing iPad technology into middle school math classrooms at a middle school in Northeast Texas. The growing popularity of the iPad mobile device has made the technology an attractive tool that can be implemented into K-12 classrooms,…

  20. Taxonomy of Students' Use of the iPad in Education: A Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyal, Liat

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to present the variety of possible uses for iPads, in the learning process. The objective is to evaluate a unique implementation model that was tried out at a teacher training college in Israel. The methodology is based on a qualitative research paradigm. The findings show that students' use the iPads in various contexts: (a)…

  1. How and Why Academics Do and Do Not Use iPads for Academic Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyegbayo, Olaojo

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated how academics, at a mid-sized UK university, used their iPads for teaching. The data were gathered using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Eighty-four academics completed a survey while 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Eleven interviewees reported that they used their iPads for teaching purposes and the…

  2. MSA-PAD: DNA multiple sequence alignment framework based on PFAM accessed domain information.

    PubMed

    Balech, Bachir; Vicario, Saverio; Donvito, Giacinto; Monaco, Alfonso; Notarangelo, Pasquale; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the MSA-PAD application, a DNA multiple sequence alignment framework that uses PFAM protein domain information to align DNA sequences encoding either single or multiple protein domains. MSA-PAD has two alignment options: gene and genome mode.

  3. 40 CFR 270.26 - Special part B information requirements for drip pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including the as-built drawings and specifications. This submission must address the following items as... collection system; (6) Control of run-on to the drip pad; (7) Control of run-off from the drip pad; (8) The interval at which drippage and other materials will be removed from the associated collection system and...

  4. Sharing Personalised Stories on iPads: A Close Look at One Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Messer, David; Sheehy, Kieron; Flewitt, Rosie

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how specific iPad applications affect parent-child story-sharing interactions. This study utilises a case-study approach to provide an insight into the patterns of interaction, which emerge when a mother and her 33-month-old daughter share a self-created, audio-visual "iPad story". Multimodal analysis allowed us to…

  5. GDA (Geologic Data Assistant), an ArcPad extension for geologic mapping: code, prerequisites, and instructions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    GDA (Geologic Data Assistant) is an extension to ArcPad, a mobile mapping software program by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) designed to run on personal digital assistant (PDA) computers. GDA and ArcPad allow a PDA to replace the paper notebook and field map traditionally used for geologic mapping. GDA allows easy collection of field data.

  6. iPad[TM]: Enhancing Learning & Communication for Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Brian; Besko-Maughan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The iPad[TM] is a revolutionary technology for use in our 21st century classrooms. It is profoundly changing both the manner in which teachers present instructional content, as well as the way students process and learn new information. The multi-sensory design of the iPad[TM] makes it an ideal tool for teaching students with special needs. This…

  7. Professional and Parental Attitudes toward iPad Application Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan L. E.; Austin, David W.; Craike, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes of parents and professionals who work with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) toward the utilization of iPads and use of iPad applications by children with ASD. A survey of parents (n = 90) and professionals (n = 31) assessed information and communication technology (ICT) anxiety and self-efficacy,…

  8. Engaging Organic Chemistry Students Using ChemDraw for iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsch, Layne A.; Lewis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drawing structures, mechanisms, and syntheses is a vital part of success in organic chemistry courses. ChemDraw for iPad has been used to increase classroom experiences in the preparation of high quality chemical drawings. The embedded Flick-to-Share allows for simple, real-time exchange of ChemDraw documents. ChemDraw for iPad also allows…

  9. The Development of Advanced Learner Oral Proficiency Using iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lys, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    In this study, I investigate the use and integration of iPads in an advanced German conversation class. In particular, I am interested in analyzing how students learn with this new technology and how it affects the development of their oral proficiency level. Overall, my results suggest that iPads are well suited to practice listening and speaking…

  10. STS-30 Atlantis, OV-104, on the mobile launcher platform heads to KSC LC pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-30 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, riding atop the mobile launcher platform and the crawler transporter approaches Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) pad 39B. This backlit view highlights OV-104's profile, the external tank (ET), and one of the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) as it moves up LC pad 39B incline.

  11. Shock absorbency of factors in the shoe/heel interaction--with special focus on role of the heel pad.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, U; Bojsen-Møller, F

    1989-06-01

    The heel pad acts as a shock absorber in walking and in heel-strike running. In some patients, a reduction of its shock-absorbing capacity has been connected to the development of overuse injuries. In this article, the shock absorption of the heel pad as well as external shock absorbers are studied. Individual variation and the effect of trauma and confinement on the heel pad were specifically investigated. Drop tests, imitating heel impacts, were performed on a force plate. The test specimens were cadaver heel pads (n = 10); the shoe sole component consisted of ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) foam and Sorbothane inserts. The shock absorption was significantly greater in the heel pad than in the external shock absorbers. The mean heel pad shock absorption was 1.1 times for EVA foam and 2.1 times for Sorbothane. The shock absorption varied by as much as 100% between heel pads. Trauma caused a decrease in the heel pad shock absorbency (24%), whereas heel pad confinement increased the shock absorbency (49% in traumatized heel pads and 29.5% in nontraumatized heel pads). These findings provide a biomechanical rationale for the clinical observations of a correlation between heel pad shock absorbency loss and heel strike-dependent overuse injuries. To increase shock absorbency, confinement of the heel pad should be attempted in vivo.

  12. Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls back to Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As the early morning light casts a glow over the landscape, Space Shuttle Atlantis moves slowly along the crawlerway for the 3.4- mile trek to Launch Pad 39A (upper left). The Shuttle has been in the VAB undergoing tests on the solid rocket booster cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA's SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis, causing return of the Shuttle to the VAB a week ago. Launch of Atlantis on STS-98 has been rescheduled to Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  13. STS-98 Atlantis rolls out to Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Under cloudy skies, Space Shuttle Atlantis inches its way to Launch Pad 39A from the Vehicle Assembly Building (right). The journey is a distance of just over 3 miles. The water in the foreground is part of Banana Creek. Atlantis will fly on mission STS-98, the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station. The orbiter will carry in its payload bay the U.S. Laboratory, named Destiny, that will have five system racks already installed inside the module. After delivery of electronics in the lab, electrically powered attitude control for Control Moment Gyroscopes will be activated. Atlantis is scheduled for launch no earlier than Jan. 19, 2001, with a crew of five.

  14. Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls back to Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Photographed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, Space Shuttle Atlantis creeps along the crawlerway for the 3.4-mile trek to Launch Pad 39A (upper left). In the background is the Atlantic Ocean; on either side is water from the Banana Creek (left) and Banana River (right). The Shuttle has been in the VAB undergoing tests on the solid rocket booster cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA's SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis, causing return of the Shuttle to the VAB a week ago. Launch of Atlantis on STS-98 has been rescheduled to Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  15. Advanced Strain-Isolation-Pad Material with Bonded Fibrous Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibold, R. W.; Saito, C. A.; Buller, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing air lay and liquid lay felt deposition techniques to fabricate strain isolation pad (SIP) materials for the Space Shuttle Orbiter was demonstrated. These materials were developed as candidate replacements for the present needled felt SIP used between the ceramic tiles and the aluminum skin on the undersurface of the Orbiter. The SIP materials that were developed consisted of high temperature aramid fibers deposited by controlled fluid (air or liquid) carriers to form low density unbonded felts. The deposited felts were then bonded at the fiber intersections with a small amount of high temperature polyimide resin. This type of bonded felt construction can potentially eliminate two of the problems associated with the present SIP, viz., transmittal of localized stresses into the tiles and load history dependent mechanical response. However, further work is needed to achieve adequate through thickness tensile strength in the bonded felts.

  16. Exactly maximally convergent multipoint Padé approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacheva, Ralitza K.

    2016-12-01

    Given a regular compact set E in the complex plane C, a unit measure µ supported by ∂E, a triangular point set β := {βn,kk=1nn=1∞, β ⊂ ∂E and a function f, holomorphic on E, let πn,m β ,f be the associated multipoint β- Padé approximant of order (n, m). We show that if the sequence πn,m β ,f , n ∈ Λ, m- fixed, converges exact maximally to f relatively to the measure µ, then the points βn,k are uniformly distributed on ∂E with respect to µ as n ∈ Λ. Furthermore, a result about the zeros behavior of the exact maximally convergent sequence Λ is provided, under the condition that Λ is "dense enough."

  17. The management of solitary tumours of Hoffa's fat pad.

    PubMed

    Dean, B J F; Reed, D W; Matthews, J J; Pandit, H; McNally, E; Athanasou, N A; Gibbons, C L M H

    2011-03-01

    Hoffa's fat pad (HFP) of the knee is affected by a variety of tumours and tumour-like conditions. HFP can be affected by diffuse or solitary, focal disease. This paper reports a consecutive series of 19 cases of solitary symptomatic HFP tumours. The commonest presenting symptom was anterior knee pain. All patients underwent open excision after diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histology revealed varied diagnoses with the commonest being pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and ganglia. American Knee Society scores improved from 76 pre-operatively to 96 post-operatively with an improvement in functional scores from 92 to 100. In conclusion the majority of solitary HFP tumours are benign and may be either cystic or solid. MRI and plain radiographs are the imaging of choice. The definitive treatments of both cystic and solid tumours should be selective arthrotomy and excision biopsy. All patients in this series reported substantial improvement in symptoms following surgery.

  18. Hybrid Wing Body Planform Design with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.; Olson, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to provide an update on NASA s current tools for design and analysis of hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with an emphasis on Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). NASA started HWB analysis using the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS). That capability is enhanced using Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter(Registered TradeMark). Model Center enables multifidelity analysis tools to be linked as an integrated structure. Two major components are linked to FLOPS as an example; a planform discretization tool and VSP. The planform discretization tool ensures the planform is smooth and continuous. VSP is used to display the output geometry. This example shows that a smooth & continuous HWB planform can be displayed as a three-dimensional model and rapidly sized and analyzed.

  19. Physical key-protected one-time pad

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Vellekoop, Ivo M.; Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-01-01

    We describe an encrypted communication principle that forms a secure link between two parties without electronically saving either of their keys. Instead, random cryptographic bits are kept safe within the unique mesoscopic randomness of two volumetric scattering materials. We demonstrate how a shared set of patterned optical probes can generate 10 gigabits of statistically verified randomness between a pair of unique 2 mm3 scattering objects. This shared randomness is used to facilitate information-theoretically secure communication following a modified one-time pad protocol. Benefits of volumetric physical storage over electronic memory include the inability to probe, duplicate or selectively reset any bits without fundamentally altering the entire key space. Our ability to securely couple the randomness contained within two unique physical objects can extend to strengthen hardware required by a variety of cryptographic protocols, which is currently a critically weak link in the security pipeline of our increasingly mobile communication culture. PMID:24345925

  20. STS-97 Space Shuttle Endeavour on Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour finally rests on Launch Pad 39B after its rollout was delayed several hours to fix a broken cleat on the crawler-transporter. At the far left is the Rotating Service Structure. From the Fixed Service Structure, the Orbiter Access Arm is already extended to the orbiter. Endeavour is scheduled to be launched Nov. 30 at 10:01 p.m. EST on mission STS-97, the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections.

  1. Space Shuttle Endeavour reaches Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour finally rests on Launch Pad 39B after its rollout was stalled several hours to fix a broken cleat on the crawler-transporter. To the left is the Rotating Service Structure. The Orbiter Access Arm is already extended from the Fixed Service Structure to the orbiter. Endeavour is scheduled to be launched Nov. 30 at 10:01 p.m. EST on mission STS-97, the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections.

  2. Space Shuttle Endeavour reaches Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour finally rests on Launch Pad 39B after its rollout was stalled several hours to fix a broken cleat on the crawler-transporter. At the far left is the Rotating Service Structure. From the Fixed Service Structure, the Orbiter Access Arm is already extended to the orbiter. Endeavour is scheduled to be launched Nov. 30 at 10:01 p.m. EST on mission STS-97, the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections.

  3. The STS-98 crew practices emergency egress from the pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- During emergency egress training at the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure, Pilot Mark Polansky settles in the slidewire basket while Commander Ken Cockrell reaches for the release handle. The basket slides along a 1200-foot wire to the landing zone below and nearby bunker. The crew has been taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the simulated countdown and emergency egress training at the pad. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station, carrying as payload the U.S. Lab Destiny, a key element in the construction of the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Jan. 19 at 2:11 a.m. EST.

  4. The STS-98 crew practices emergency egress from the pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- During emergency egress training at the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure, Mission Specialist Marsha Ivins take her place in the slidewire basket while Mission Specialist Robert Curbeam reaches for the release handle. The basket slides along a 1200-foot wire to the landing zone below and nearby bunker. The crew has been taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the simulated countdown and emergency egress training at the pad. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station, carrying as payload the U.S. Lab Destiny, a key element in the construction of the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Jan. 19 at 2:11 a.m. EST.

  5. The STS-98 crew practices emergency egress from the pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Fully dressed in their launch and entry suits, STS-98 Mission Specialists Thomas Jones (left), Marsha Ivins and Robert Curbeam practice a speedy exit from the Fixed Service Structure during emergency egress training. They are heading for the slidewire baskets that slide along a 1200-foot wire to the landing zone below and nearby bunker. The crew has been taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the simulated countdown and emergency egress training at the pad. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station, carrying as payload the U.S. Lab Destiny, a key element in the construction of the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Jan. 19 at 2:11 a.m. EST.

  6. Investigation on hardness and impact resistance of automotive brake pad composed with rice husk dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Shahril Anuar; Isa, Khairul Hafizee; Kassim, Masitah Abu; Mohamed, Zulkifli; Othman, Eliasidi Abu

    2012-06-01

    In this study, hardness and impact resistance properties of automotive brake pad composed with rice husk dust (RHD) were documented. RHD was mixed with other metallic and synthetic ingredients of automotive brake pad. To obtain RHD, rice husk was ground and dried to 1 - 3% moisture content. The RHD was screened to obtain different dust sizes (80 and 100-mesh) before it was mixed with other materials at different percentages of composition (10 and 30%). The mixture was then pressed to produce brake pad. Rockwell hardness testing machine was used in hardness determination, while Izod impact testing machine was used in impact resistance determination. Hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 10% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was significantly higher than 100-mesh. Hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition and 100-mesh size of RHD was slightly higher than 80 mesh. However, based on analysis, the difference was not significant. According to the result, hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition of RHD was higher than 10%. RHD has filled up the space and enhanced the micro structural behaviour of automotive brake pad. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 10% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was insignificantly higher than 100-mesh. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was significantly higher than 100 mesh. Large RHD size has increased the capability to resist high-rated impact loading. The impact energy was distributed over wider area for larger particle size. This factor has increased the impact resistance of automotive brake pad from large dust size. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 80-mesh size and 30% composition of RHD was higher than 10%. In contrast, impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 100-mesh size and 10% composition of RHD was higher than 30%. However, the difference was not

  7. STS-103 crew pose in front of Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TDCT) activities at Launch Pad 39B, the STS-103 crew pose in front of the flame trench, which is situated underneath the Mobile Launcher Platform holding Space Shuttle Discovery. Standing left to right are Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Pilot Scott J. Kelly, Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialists Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, also with ESA, and Steven L. Smith. One of the solid rocket boosters and the external tank that are attached to Discovery can be seen in the photo. The flame trench is made of concrete and refractory brick, and contains an orbiter flame deflector on one side and solid rocket booster flame deflector on the other. The deflectors protect the flame trench floor and pad surface from the intense heat of launch. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  8. Frictional Characterization of Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Pad Surface and Diamond Conditioner Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yohei; Kawakubo, Masanori; Hirai, Osamu; Konishi, Nobuhiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated a contact metrology instrument used in chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) systems for high-volume manufacture and examined in situ coefficient of friction (COF) monitoring to identify the tribology of CMP, and subsequently to determine the useful lifespan of consumables. The results showed that the direct measurement of the wear of the pad allowed for an accurate determination of both pad thickness and the ideal time to replace the pad and conditioner disk based on pad wear rate. We also presented a clear correlation between the working grid area of the conditioner disk and the tribological behavior of the pad break-in procedure, leading to the result showing that the variation in tungsten film removal rate decreased as the working grid density of the conditioner disk increased. This study has proven the effectiveness of measuring friction force for better CMP control.

  9. A polishing process for nonlinear optical crystal flats based on an annular polyurethane pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Defeng; Xie, Ruiqing; Hou, Jing; Chen, Xianhua; Zhong, Bo

    2012-09-01

    A process based on chemical mechanical polishing has been proposed to polishing ultra-precision nonlinear optical crystal flats with high surface quality. An annular polyurethane pad was employed in the process. An excellent flatness of the annular polishing pad can be obtained using a special conditioner. The newly developed septum and holder system in the process has significantly reduced the rigid punch effect and workpiece/pad deflection brought by the spindle and carrier system in the common chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. In addition, the pre-strain of the pad by the septum can effectively eliminate the elastic response of the pad on the exterior of the workpiece and hence greatly reduce the stress concentration on the edge. The ACMP process is especially suitable for the final polishing of fragile crystals that have anisotropic properties and demand strict requirements on surface figure and defects.

  10. Incontinence pads: recommending the best product-based wetback performance and price.

    PubMed

    Erekson, Elisabeth A; Meyer, Sara A; Melick, Clifford; McLennan, Mary T

    2008-10-01

    Incontinence pads are available in the USA without a prescription and are commonly the first treatment option a patient with incontinence uses. The goal of this study was to examine the difference in the performance and cost of commercially available incontinence pads with the intention of providing recommendations to women. Ten different urinary incontinence products were selected. A modified wetback test was used to test product performance. For the small volume leaks, the Walgreen's Extra pad generally performed worse on the wetback test than the three other pads tested (p = 0.001-0.012), but four tests were not statistically significant. At larger leak volumes, the Walgreen's underwear generally performed worse than other products (p < or = 0.001-0.046), with some exceptions. Brand name products generally performed better than generic products, but cost more. Undergarments and underwear do the worst job of keeping moisture inside the pad.

  11. A padding method to reduce edge effects for enhanced damage identification using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Lorenzo; Basu, Biswajit; Spagnoli, Andrea; Broderick, Brian M.

    2015-02-01

    Vibration response based structural damage identification by spatial wavelet analysis is widely considered a powerful tool in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). This work deals with the issue of border distortions in wavelet transform that can mask tiny damages close to the boundary of a structure. Since traditional padding methods (e.g., zero-padding, symmetric padding, linear padding) are often not satisfactory, a simple and computationally inexpensive signal extension method, based on fitting polynomial functions and continuity conditions at the extrema, is proposed. The method is applied to analyze noisy mode shapes and static deflection of cracked cantilever and simply supported beams. The effectiveness and the versatility of the method in localizing tiny damages close to clamped, free or hinged beam boundaries is demonstrated. Furthermore, an extensive comparison with the linear padding method and Messina's isomorphism methods is carried out.

  12. Ma-huang strikes again: ephedrine nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Powell, T; Hsu, F F; Turk, J; Hruska, K

    1998-07-01

    Ephedrine and its metabolites are naturally occurring alkaloids that can be derived from evergreens worldwide and have been used as medicinals for hundreds of years. Because they have "real" pharmacological alpha and beta catecholamine effects and are "natural" products, the alternative medicine industry has popularized them for multiple uses, including asthma, weight loss, energy and sexual enhancement, and euphoria. Several recent reviews have documented the dangerous nature of using these "drugs" unsupervised, including multiple deaths, and the FDA is currently reviewing ephedrine's use in the alternative medicine industry. We report a new toxicity, ephedrine nephrolithiasis, in a patient using an energy supplement, Ma-Huang extract, which contains ephedrine. Although previously not reported, the Louis C. Herring and Company kidney stone database show that this is an endemic complication of ephedrine with hundreds of previous episodes. Using gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry, we were able to positively identify the chemical structure of our patient's stone, as well as other similar stones from Louis Herring, as containing ephedrine, norephedrine, and pseudoephedrine.

  13. Changing the S and MA [Safety and Mission Assurance] Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: 1) Optimize S&MA organization to best facilitate Shuttle transition in 2010, successfully support Ares developmental responsibilities, and minimize the impacts of the gap between last Shuttle flight and start of Ares V Project. 2) Improve leveraging of critical skills and experience between Shuttle and Ares. 3) Split technical and supervisory functions to facilitate technical penetration. 4) Create Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer (CSO) stand-alone position for successfully implementation of S&MA Technical Authority. 5) Minimize disruption to customers. 6) Provide early involvement of S&MA leadership team and frequent/open communications with S&MA team members and steak-holders.

  14. 42 CFR 422.520 - Prompt payment by MA organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.520 Prompt payment by MA organization. (a) Contract between CMS...

  15. 42 CFR 422.520 - Prompt payment by MA organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.520 Prompt payment by MA organization. (a) Contract between CMS...

  16. Does It Matter Whether One Takes a Test on an iPad or a Desktop Computer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate possible iPad related mode effect, we tested 403 8th graders in Indiana, Maryland, and New Jersey under three mode conditions through random assignment: a desktop computer, an iPad alone, and an iPad with an external keyboard. All students had used an iPad or computer for six months or longer. The 2-hour test included reading, math,…

  17. PAD patterns of physiologically identified afferent fibres from the medial gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P; Solodkin, M

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made in the barbiturate-anesthetized cat from single afferent fibres left in continuity with the medial gastrocnemius muscle to document the transmembrane potential changes produced in functionally identified fibres by stimulation of sensory nerves and of the contralateral red nucleus (RN). Fifty five fibres from muscle spindles had conduction velocities above 70 m/s and were considered as from group Ia. Stimulation of group I afferent fibres of the posterior biceps and semitendinosus nerve (PBSt) produced primary afferent depolarization (PAD) in 30 (54%) Ia fibres. Stimulation of the sural (SU) nerve produced no transmembrane potential changes in 39 (71%) group Ia fibres and dorsal root reflex-like activity (DRRs) in 16 (29%) fibres. In 17 out of 28 group Ia fibres (60.7%) SU conditioning inhibited the PAD generated by stimulation of the PBSt nerve. Facilitation of the PBSt-induced PAD by SU conditioning was not seen. Repetitive stimulation of the RN had mixed effects: it produced PAD in 1 out of 8 fibres and inhibited the PAD induced by PBSt stimulation in 2 other fibres. Nine fibres connected to muscle spindles had conduction velocities below 70 m/s and were considered to be group II afferents. No PAD was produced in these fibres by SU stimulation but DRRs were generated in 5 of them. In 23 out of 31 fibres identified as from tendon organs group I PBSt volleys produced PAD. However, stimulation of the SU nerve produced PAD only in 3 out of 34 fibres, no transmembrane potential changes in 30 fibres and DRRs in 1 fibre. The effects of SU conditioning on the PAD produced by PBSt stimulation were tested in 19 Ib fibres and were inhibitory in 12 of them. In 9 of these fibres SU alone produced no transmembrane potential changes. Repetitive stimulation of the RN produced PAD in 3 out of 9 Ib fibres. SU conditioning inhibited the RN-induced PAD. The present findings support the existence of an alternative inhibitory pathway from cutaneous

  18. Mesh skin graft and digital pad transfer to reconstruct the weight-bearing surface in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Sheila C.; Mortari, Ana C.; Morishin Filho, Milton M.

    2007-01-01

    A 2-month-old dog was presented with injuries involving both hind paws. Only the 5th digit and its digital pad were present on the right paw. Following a full-thickness skin graft, the 5th digital pad was transferred distal to the metatarsal bones. The transferred pad permitted weight-bearing on the limb. PMID:18189047

  19. iTE: Student Teachers Using iPad on a Second Level Initial Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Mahon, Brendan; Grádaigh, Seán Ó.; Ghuidhir, Sinéad Ní

    2016-01-01

    Research on the use of iPad in initial teacher education is limited. This paper outlines a study to examine how the professional learning and pedagogical knowledge development of student teachers could be supported following 1:1 iPad deployment on a second-level initial teacher education programme in Ireland. Findings show that iPad can be…

  20. Digital Scribes: A Qualitative Study of Graduate Students Who Brought iPads into Their Academic Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyahya, Suzan; Gall, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to examine how graduate students at one institution used personal iPads to support their educational needs. This study specifically addressed the questions: What do graduate students describe as the important educational benefits of their iPads? In what ways are graduate students using iPads to study…

  1. Efficacy of an improved absorbent pad on incontinence-associated dermatitis in older women: cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most older adults with urinary incontinence use absorbent pads. Because of exposure to moisture and chemical irritating substances in urine, the perineal skin region is always at risk for development of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an improved absorbent pad against IAD. Methods A cluster randomized controlled design was used to compare the efficacy of two absorbent pads. Female inpatients aged ≥65 years who had IAD and used an absorbent pad or diaper all day were enrolled. Healing rate of IAD and variables of skin barrier function such as skin pH and skin moisture were compared between the usual absorbent pad group (n = 30) and the test absorbent pad group (n = 30). Results Thirteen patients (43.3%) from the test absorbent pad group and 4 patients (13.3%) from the usual absorbent pad group recovered completely from IAD. Moreover, the test absorbent pad group healed significantly faster than the usual absorbent pad group (p = 0.009). On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the two groups in skin barrier function. Conclusion The test absorbent pad for older adults with urinary incontinence might be more efficacious against IAD than usual absorbent pad. Trial registration UMIN-CTR: UMIN000006188 PMID:22642800

  2. Calmodulin disrupts the structure of the HIV-1 MA protein†

    PubMed Central

    Chow, John Y. H.; Jeffries, Cy M.; Kwan, Ann H.; Guss, J. Mitchell; Trewhella, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The MA protein from HIV-1 is a small, multifunctional protein responsible for regulating various stages of the viral replication cycle. To achieve its diverse tasks MA interacts with host cell proteins and it has been reported that one of these is the ubiquitous calcium -sensing calmodulin (CaM) which is up-regulated upon HIV-1 infection. The nature of the CaM-MA interaction has been the subject of structural studies using peptides based on the MA sequence that have led to conflicting conclusions. The results presented here show that CaM binds intact MA with 1:1 stoichiometry in a Ca2+-dependent manner and that the complex adopts a highly extended conformation in solution as revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering. Alterations in tryptophan fluorescence suggest that the two tryptophans at the N-terminus of MA mediate the CaM interaction. Major chemical shift changes occur in the NMR spectrum of MA upon complex formation, while chemical shift changes in the CaM spectrum are quite modest and are assigned to residues within the target-protein binding hydrophobic clefts of CaM. The NMR data indicate that CaM binds MA via its N-and C-terminal lobes and induces a dramatic conformational change involving a significant loss of secondary and tertiary structure within MA. Circular dichroism experiments suggest that MA looses ~20% of its α-helical content upon CaM binding. Thus CaM binding is expected to impact upon the accessibility of interaction sites within MA that are involved in its various functions. PMID:20488189

  3. Banana Transcription Factor MaERF11 Recruits Histone Deacetylase MaHDA1 and Represses the Expression of MaACO1 and Expansins during Fruit Ripening1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yan-Chao; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Fu, Chang-Chun; Wang, Jun-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene controls diverse developmental and physiological processes such as fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Our previous study identified that ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR11 (MaERF11), a transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway, negatively regulates the ripening of banana, but the mechanism for the MaERF11-mediated transcriptional regulation remains largely unknown. Here we showed that MaERF11 has intrinsic transcriptional repression activity in planta. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that MaERF11 binds to promoters of three ripening-related Expansin genes, MaEXP2, MaEXP7 and MaEXP8, as well as an ethylene biosynthetic gene MaACO1, via the GCC-box motif. Furthermore, expression patterns of MaACO1, MaEXP2, MaEXP7, and MaEXP8 genes are correlated with the changes of histone H3 and H4 acetylation level during fruit ripening. Moreover, we found that MaERF11 physically interacts with a histone deacetylase, MaHDA1, which has histone deacetylase activity, and the interaction significantly strengthens the MaERF11-mediated transcriptional repression of MaACO1 and Expansins. Taken together, these findings suggest that MaERF11 may recruit MaHDA1 to its target genes and repress their expression via histone deacetylation. PMID:27208241

  4. 42 CFR 422.103 - Benefits under an MA MSA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits under an MA MSA plan. 422.103 Section 422... Benefits under an MA MSA plan. (a) General rule. An MA organization offering an MA MSA plan must make...) Countable expenses. An MA organization offering an MA MSA plan must count toward the annual deductible...

  5. MaROS: Information Management Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wright, Jesse J.; Hy, Franklin H.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Wallick, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    This software is provided by the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) task to a variety of Mars projects for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The Information Management Service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such, greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These relay sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This software component is an application process running as a Java virtual machine. The component provides all service interfaces via a Representational State Transfer (REST) protocol over https to external clients. There are two general interaction modes with the service: upload and download of data. For data upload, the service must execute logic specific to the upload data type and trigger any applicable calculations including pass delivery latencies and overflight conflicts. For data download, the software must retrieve and correlate requested information and deliver to the requesting client. The provision of this service enables several key advancements over legacy processes and systems. For one, this service represents the first time that end-to-end relay information is correlated into a single shared repository. The software also provides the first multimission latency calculator; previous latency calculations had been performed on a mission-by-mission basis.

  6. PAD4 functions upstream from salicylic acid to control defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, N; Tootle, T L; Tsui, F; Klessig, D F; Glazebrook, J

    1998-01-01

    The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene was previously shown to be required for synthesis of camalexin in response to infection by the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 but not in response to challenge by the non-host fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum. In this study, we show that pad4 mutants exhibit defects in defense responses, including camalexin synthesis and pathogenesis-related PR-1 gene expression, when infected by P. s. maculicola ES4 326. No such defects were observed in response to infection by an isogenic avirulent strain carrying the avirulence gene avrRpt2. In P. s. maculicola ES4 326-infected pad4 plants, synthesis of salicylic acid (SA) was found to be reduced and delayed when compared with SA synthesis in wild-type plants. Moreover, treatment of pad4 plants with SA partially reversed the camalexin deficiency and PR-1 gene expression phenotypes of P. s. maculicola ES4 326-infected pad4 plants. These findings support the hypothesis that PAD4 acts upstream from SA accumulation in regulating defense response expression in plants infected with P. s. maculicola ES4 326. A working model of the role of PAD4 in governing expression of defense responses is presented. PMID:9634589

  7. Methodology for mapping football head impact exposure to helmet pads for repeated loading testing.

    PubMed

    MacAlister, Anna; Young, Tyler; Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    Football helmets have a lifespan of 10 years; however, no work has investigated how helmet padding properties change over time with use. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to control repeated pad loading and quantify changes in energy management. Head impact exposure data for 7-8 year old football players were used to find an average impact magnitude. NOCSAE-style drop tests were performed using an instrumented headform fitted with the same style helmet (Helmet A) used to collect population data to determine the compression depth and rate of the helmet padding during an average impact. Drops from the same height were then conducted for two other helmet types (Helmet B and Helmet C). For the average impact of ~15 g, the compression depth and rate of the pads from Helmet A were found to be 9.8 mm and 0.72 m/s respectively. The compression depths and rates for Helmets B and C were found to be 6.1 mm and 0.71 m/s and 10.7 mm and 0.69 m/s respectively. These parameters were utilized by a material testing system program to impact helmet padding. Repeated helmet pad loading can be tested using a material testing system for populations with known head impact exposure. The energy absorbing characteristics of the padding can be used to develop new safety regulations regarding the lifetime of helmets, affording better protection to athletes.

  8. PAD4-deficiency does not affect bacteremia in polymicrobial sepsis and ameliorates endotoxemic shock.

    PubMed

    Martinod, Kimberly; Fuchs, Tobias A; Zitomersky, Naamah L; Wong, Siu Ling; Demers, Melanie; Gallant, Maureen; Wang, Yanming; Wagner, Denisa D

    2015-03-19

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), consisting of nuclear DNA with histones and microbicidal proteins, are expelled from activated neutrophils during sepsis. NETs were shown to trap microbes, but they also fuel cardiovascular, thrombotic, and autoimmune disease. The role of NETs in sepsis, particularly the balance between their antimicrobial and cytotoxic actions, remains unclear. Neutrophils from peptidylarginine deiminase 4-(PAD4(-/-)) deficient mice, which lack the enzyme allowing for chromatin decondensation and NET formation, were evaluated. We found that neutrophil functions involved in bacterial killing, other than NETosis, remained intact. Therefore, we hypothesized that prevention of NET formation might not have devastating consequences in sepsis. To test this, we subjected the PAD4(-/-) mice to mild and severe polymicrobial sepsis produced by cecal ligation and puncture. Surprisingly, under septic conditions, PAD4(-/-) mice did not fare worse than wild-type mice and had comparable survival. In the presence of antibiotics, PAD4-deficiency resulted in slightly accelerated mortality but bacteremia was unaffected. PAD4(-/-) mice were partially protected from lipopolysaccharide-induced shock, suggesting that PAD4/NETs may contribute to the toxic inflammatory and procoagulant host response to endotoxin. We propose that preventing NET formation by PAD4 inhibition in inflammatory or thrombotic diseases is not likely to increase host vulnerability to bacterial infections.

  9. Simulating pad-electrodes with high-definition arrays in transcranial electric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempe, René; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Research studies on transcranial electric stimulation, including direct current, often use a computational model to provide guidance on the placing of sponge-electrode pads. However, the expertise and computational resources needed for finite element modeling (FEM) make modeling impractical in a clinical setting. Our objective is to make the exploration of different electrode configurations accessible to practitioners. We provide an efficient tool to estimate current distributions for arbitrary pad configurations while obviating the need for complex simulation software. Approach. To efficiently estimate current distributions for arbitrary pad configurations we propose to simulate pads with an array of high-definition (HD) electrodes and use an efficient linear superposition to then quickly evaluate different electrode configurations. Main results. Numerical results on ten different pad configurations on a normal individual show that electric field intensity simulated with the sampled array deviates from the solutions with pads by only 5% and the locations of peak magnitude fields have a 94% overlap when using a dense array of 336 electrodes. Significance. Computationally intensive FEM modeling of the HD array needs to be performed only once, perhaps on a set of standard heads that can be made available to multiple users. The present results confirm that by using these models one can now quickly and accurately explore and select pad-electrode montages to match a particular clinical need.

  10. Frictional and heat resistance characteristics of coconut husk particle filled automotive brake pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, Shahril Anuar; Chik, Mohd Syahrizul; Kassim, Masitah Abu; Som Said, Che Mohamad; Misnon, Mohd Iqbal; Mohamed, Zulkifli; Othman, Eliasidi Abu

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the friction and heat resistance characteristics of automotive brake pad composed with different sizes and percentages of coconut husk particle. The materials used were phenolic resin (phenol formaldehyde) as binder, copper, graphite and brass as friction producer/modifiers, magnesium oxide as abrasive material, steel and barium sulfate as reinforcement while coconut husk particle as filler. To obtain particle, the coconut husk was ground and dried to 3% moisture content. Then the coconut husk particle was screened using 80 mesh (to obtain coarse dust) and 100 mesh (to obtain fine dust). Different percentages of particle, such as 10 and 30% were used in the mixture of brake pad materials. Then the mixture was hot-pressed to produce brake pad. Chase machine was used to determine the friction coefficient in friction resistance testing, while thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) machine was used to determine the heat decomposition values in heat resistance testing. Results showed that brake pad with 100 mesh and 10% composition of coconut husk particle showed the highest friction coefficient. For heat resistance, brake pad with 100 mesh and 30% composition of coconut husk dust showed the highest decomposition temperature, due to the high percentage of coconut husk particle in the composition, thus increased the thermal stability. As a comparison, brake pad composed with coconut husk particle showed better heat resistance results than commercial brake pad.

  11. PAD4-deficiency does not affect bacteremia in polymicrobial sepsis and ameliorates endotoxemic shock

    PubMed Central

    Martinod, Kimberly; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Zitomersky, Naamah L.; Wong, Siu Ling; Demers, Melanie; Gallant, Maureen; Wang, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), consisting of nuclear DNA with histones and microbicidal proteins, are expelled from activated neutrophils during sepsis. NETs were shown to trap microbes, but they also fuel cardiovascular, thrombotic, and autoimmune disease. The role of NETs in sepsis, particularly the balance between their antimicrobial and cytotoxic actions, remains unclear. Neutrophils from peptidylarginine deiminase 4-(PAD4−/−) deficient mice, which lack the enzyme allowing for chromatin decondensation and NET formation, were evaluated. We found that neutrophil functions involved in bacterial killing, other than NETosis, remained intact. Therefore, we hypothesized that prevention of NET formation might not have devastating consequences in sepsis. To test this, we subjected the PAD4−/− mice to mild and severe polymicrobial sepsis produced by cecal ligation and puncture. Surprisingly, under septic conditions, PAD4−/− mice did not fare worse than wild-type mice and had comparable survival. In the presence of antibiotics, PAD4-deficiency resulted in slightly accelerated mortality but bacteremia was unaffected. PAD4−/− mice were partially protected from lipopolysaccharide-induced shock, suggesting that PAD4/NETs may contribute to the toxic inflammatory and procoagulant host response to endotoxin. We propose that preventing NET formation by PAD4 inhibition in inflammatory or thrombotic diseases is not likely to increase host vulnerability to bacterial infections. PMID:25624317

  12. Effect of shear forces and ageing on the compliance of adhesive pads in adult cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanmin; Robinson, Adam; Viney, Christine; Federle, Walter

    2015-09-01

    The flexibility of insect adhesive pads is crucial for their ability to attach on rough surfaces. Here, we used transparent substrates with micropillars to test in adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) whether and how the stiffness of smooth adhesive pads changes when shear forces are applied, and whether the insect's age has any influence. We found that during pulls towards the body, the pad's ability to conform to the surface microstructures was improved in comparison to a contact without shear, suggesting that shear forces make the pad more compliant. The mechanism underlying this shear-dependent increase in compliance is still unclear. The effect was not explained by viscoelastic creep, changes in normal pressure, or shear-induced pad rolling, which brings new areas of cuticle into surface contact. Adhesive pads were significantly stiffer in older cockroaches. Stiffness increased most rapidly in cockroaches aged between 2.5 and 4 months. This increase is probably based on wear and repair of the delicate adhesive cuticle. Recent wear (visualised by Methylene Blue staining) was not age dependent, whereas permanent damage (visible as brown scars) accumulated with age, reducing the pads' flexibility.

  13. FE design of vibration protective pads for portable cryogenically cooled infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, Michel; Veprik, Alexander; Babitsky, Vladimir

    2008-04-01

    Design of novel, portable and aurally undetectable cryogenically cooled infrared imagers often relies on compliant vibration protective pads for mounting the integrated dewar-detector-cooler assembly upon the imager's enclosure. Extensive analytical study and experimental effort have shown that for the best acoustic performance the visco-elastic properties of such pads need to be matched with the dynamic properties of the typically undamped enclosure, subjected to the tight limitations imposed on the low frequency cooler-induced line of sight jitter resulting from the oscillations of the gasodynamic torque and compliance of the above pads. Unfortunately, the regular approach to a design of the optimal vibration protective pad does not seem to exist. As a result, the development of the suitable vibration protective pad is widely regarded as a purely empirical process and requires a great deal of experimental trial-and-error effort. The authors are attempting to apply the regular finite element modeling approaches to an optimal design of such vibration protective pads. In doing so, they are making use of the full finite elements models of infrared imager enclosure with vibration mounted integrated dewar-detector-cooler assembly. The optimal geometry and dynamic properties of a compliant layer of vibration protective pad are evaluated using the optimisation procedure with purpose of attenuation the volume velocity of the active radiating surface. The theoretical findings are in fair agreement with the outcomes of the full-scale experimentation.

  14. Stretchable touch-sensing skin over padding for co-robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Yu, Miao; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    For robots that work collaboratively with people, often referred to as ‘co-robots’, it would be beneficial for them to be soft or padded and to have a touch-sensing ‘skin’ to enable tactile environmental awareness. However, a sensing skin over a padding material that undergoes large deformations requires ‘stretchable’ materials, which may possess time-dependent or viscoelastic mechanical responses. In this work the roles that a padding layer plays when placed under a stretchable sensing layer was investigated. A strain-sensing skin was formed by coating a thin film of compliant piezoresistive sensing paint, consisting of exfoliated graphite in latex, onto a rubber membrane, and the response of the skin was characterized. The change in resistance was linear with tensile strain. The role of the padding material was then investigated under indentation by examining three foams and two elastomers. As expected, the padding enhanced energy dissipation as shown by hysteresis in the sensor response, which is linked to its protective function; the hysteresis was comparable for the five padding materials. The padding also provided an unexpected advantage: it magnified the change in resistance compared to that obtained under free displacement in air. While hysteresis in viscoelastic materials can largely be handled with an appropriate model, inconsistency cannot be, and the two elastomers were found to have unacceptably high variability because of micro-cracks and other defects in these materials. On the other hand, foams that had few defects and regular cell sizes gave good consistency across trials and different sensor positions over the padding. Combined with their lighter weight and availability in a wide range of stiffness, we conclude that foams make a better choice for padding of co-robots.

  15. Pad-mode-induced instantaneous mode instability for simple models of brake systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-10-01

    Automotive disc brake squeal is fugitive, transient and remains difficult to predict. In particular, instantaneous mode squeal observed experimentally does not seem to be associated with mode coupling and its mechanism is not clear. The effects of contact pressures, friction coefficients as well as material properties (pressure and temperature dependency and anisotropy) for brake squeal propensity have not been systematically explored. By analysing a finite element model of an isotropic pad sliding on a plate similar to that of a previously reported experimental study, pad modes have been identified and found to be stable using conventional complex eigenvalue analysis. However, by subjecting the model to contact pressure harmonic excitation for a range of pressures and friction coefficients, a forced response analysis reveals that the dissipated energy for pad modes is negative and becomes more negative with increasing contact pressures and friction coefficients, indicating the potential for instabilities. The frequency of the pad mode in the sliding direction is within the range of squeal frequencies observed experimentally. Nonlinear time series analysis of the vibration velocity also confirms the evolution of instabilities induced by pad modes as the friction coefficient increases. By extending this analysis to a more realistic but simple brake model in the form of a pad-on-disc system, in-plane pad-modes, which a complex eigenvalue analysis predicts to be stable, have also been identified by negative dissipated energy for both isotropic and anisotropic pad material properties. The influence of contact pressures on potential instabilities has been found to be more dominant than changes in material properties owing to changes in pressure or temperature. Results here suggest that instantaneous mode squeal is likely caused by in-plane pad-mode instabilities.

  16. Reusable optical bioassay platform with permeability-controlled hydrogel pads for selective saccharide detection.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kwan Yee; Mak, Wing Cheung; Trau, Dieter

    2008-01-28

    A reusable optical bioassay platform using permeability-controlled hydrogel pads for selective saccharide detection has been developed. An optical glucose detection assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between dye-labeled dextran and Concanavalin A (ConA) was incorporated into hydrogel pads by entrapment. The hydrogel pads are constructed from hemispherical hydrogel attached onto hydrophobic surfaces of a microtiter plate. The resulted hemispherical hydrogel pads entrapping the sensing biological materials were further surface coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers through a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly process to create a permeability-controlled membrane with nanometer thickness. The selective permeable LbL film deposited on the hydrogel surface allows small molecular weight analytes to diffuse into the hydrogel pads while the large molecular weight sensing biological molecules are immobilized. An encapsulation efficiency of 75% for the ConA/Dextran complex within the coated hydrogel pads was achieved and no significant leakage of the complex was observed. Glucose calibration curve with linear range from 0 to 10mM glucose was obtained. Selective permeability of the hydrogel pads has been demonstrated by measurement of saccharides with various molecular weights. The LbL hydrogel pads could selectively detect monosaccharides (glucose, MW=180) and disaccharides (sucrose, MW=342) while polysaccharides (dextran, MW approximately 70kDa) cannot diffuse through the LbL layer and are excluded. LbL hydrogel pads allow regeneration of the FRET system with good signal reproducibility of more than 90% to construct a reusable and reagentless optical bioassay platform.

  17. Functional Role of Dimerization of Human Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4 (PAD4)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Chiang, Yu-Hsiu; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2011-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes Ca2+-dependent protein citrullination, which results in the conversion of arginine to citrulline. This paper demonstrates the functional role of dimerization in the regulation of PAD4 activity. To address this question, we created a series of dimer interface mutants of PAD4. The residues Arg8, Tyr237, Asp273, Glu281, Tyr435, Arg544 and Asp547, which are located at the dimer interface, were mutated to disturb the dimer organization of PAD4. Sedimentation velocity experiments were performed to investigate the changes in the quaternary structures and the dissociation constants (Kd) between wild-type and mutant PAD4 monomers and dimers. The kinetic data indicated that disrupting the dimer interface of the enzyme decreases its enzymatic activity and calcium-binding cooperativity. The Kd values of some PAD4 mutants were much higher than that of the wild-type (WT) protein (0.45 µM) and were concomitant with lower kcat values than that of WT (13.4 s−1). The Kd values of the monomeric PAD4 mutants ranged from 16.8 to 45.6 µM, and the kcat values of the monomeric mutants ranged from 3.3 to 7.3 s−1. The kcat values of these interface mutants decreased as the Kd values increased, which suggests that the dissociation of dimers to monomers considerably influences the activity of the enzyme. Although dissociation of the enzyme reduces the activity of the enzyme, monomeric PAD4 is still active but does not display cooperative calcium binding. The ionic interaction between Arg8 and Asp547 and the Tyr435-mediated hydrophobic interaction are determinants of PAD4 dimer formation. PMID:21731701

  18. Performance evaluation of three different types of local evaporative cooling pads in greenhouses in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Egbal Mohammed; Abaas, Osama; Ahmed, Mohammed; Ismail, Mohd Rodzi

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in Date Palm Technology Company Limited, Shambat, Khartoum State. To evaluate performance of three types of evaporative cooling pads for greenhouses (celdek pads, straw pads and sliced wood pads), as compared to the conditions outside the greenhouses (control), for pads. Performance evaluation includes environmental parameters (temperature and relative humidity at 8 am, 1 pm and 6 pm) and crop parameters (length and stem diameter, leaves number and width, fruit length and diameter, fruit weight and dry matter and yield). The results obtained for the temperature at 8 am showed that there was no significant difference (0.05) inside the greenhouses, while a high significant difference between the conditions inside and outside of the greenhouses was found. Significant differences were found at 1 pm and 6 pm between all treatments as compared to the conditions outside the greenhouses, and the results obtained for relative humidity showed high significant differences at 8 am and 1 pm inside the greenhouses and between inside and outside the greenhouse, respectively, while there was no significant difference at 6 pm inside the greenhouses and between inside and outside the greenhouses. On the other hand, the results obtained for crop parameters showed that there were significant differences between all parameters inside the greenhouses and outside the greenhouses; however, the greenhouses with sliced wood pads gave the highest yield and the greenhouses with straw pads gave the least and conditions outside gave the lowest. This study indicated that the sliced wood pads are better than the other evaporative cooling pads.

  19. Performance evaluation of three different types of local evaporative cooling pads in greenhouses in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Egbal Mohammed; Abaas, Osama; Ahmed, Mohammed; Ismail, Mohd Rodzi

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in Date Palm Technology Company Limited, Shambat, Khartoum State. To evaluate performance of three types of evaporative cooling pads for greenhouses (celdek pads, straw pads and sliced wood pads), as compared to the conditions outside the greenhouses (control), for pads. Performance evaluation includes environmental parameters (temperature and relative humidity at 8 am, 1 pm and 6 pm) and crop parameters (length and stem diameter, leaves number and width, fruit length and diameter, fruit weight and dry matter and yield). The results obtained for the temperature at 8 am showed that there was no significant difference (0.05) inside the greenhouses, while a high significant difference between the conditions inside and outside of the greenhouses was found. Significant differences were found at 1 pm and 6 pm between all treatments as compared to the conditions outside the greenhouses, and the results obtained for relative humidity showed high significant differences at 8 am and 1 pm inside the greenhouses and between inside and outside the greenhouse, respectively, while there was no significant difference at 6 pm inside the greenhouses and between inside and outside the greenhouses. On the other hand, the results obtained for crop parameters showed that there were significant differences between all parameters inside the greenhouses and outside the greenhouses; however, the greenhouses with sliced wood pads gave the highest yield and the greenhouses with straw pads gave the least and conditions outside gave the lowest. This study indicated that the sliced wood pads are better than the other evaporative cooling pads. PMID:23961103

  20. Extreme positive allometry of animal adhesive pads and the size limits of adhesion-based climbing

    PubMed Central

    Labonte, David; Clemente, Christofer J.; Dittrich, Alex; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Crosby, Alfred J.; Irschick, Duncan J.; Federle, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Organismal functions are size-dependent whenever body surfaces supply body volumes. Larger organisms can develop strongly folded internal surfaces for enhanced diffusion, but in many cases areas cannot be folded so that their enlargement is constrained by anatomy, presenting a problem for larger animals. Here, we study the allometry of adhesive pad area in 225 climbing animal species, covering more than seven orders of magnitude in weight. Across all taxa, adhesive pad area showed extreme positive allometry and scaled with weight, implying a 200-fold increase of relative pad area from mites to geckos. However, allometric scaling coefficients for pad area systematically decreased with taxonomic level and were close to isometry when evolutionary history was accounted for, indicating that the substantial anatomical changes required to achieve this increase in relative pad area are limited by phylogenetic constraints. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we found that the departure from isometry is almost exclusively caused by large differences in size-corrected pad area between arthropods and vertebrates. To mitigate the expected decrease of weight-specific adhesion within closely related taxa where pad area scaled close to isometry, data for several taxa suggest that the pads’ adhesive strength increased for larger animals. The combination of adjustments in relative pad area for distantly related taxa and changes in adhesive strength for closely related groups helps explain how climbing with adhesive pads has evolved in animals varying over seven orders of magnitude in body weight. Our results illustrate the size limits of adhesion-based climbing, with profound implications for large-scale bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:26787862

  1. Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse

    2012-07-30

    As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged

  2. Alterations in mystacial pad innervation in the aged rat.

    PubMed

    Fundin, B T; Bergman, E; Ulfhake, B

    1997-11-01

    It is well established that sensory perception becomes impaired with advancing age and that, in parallel, dystrophy and degeneration of axons occur in sensory pathways. In this study, the impact of aging was examined in the mystacial pad, which receives a large variety of sensory nerve endings organized in a highly predictable pattern. Mystacial pad specimens from aged (30 months old) and young adult (2-3 months old) female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed, in parallel, for immunohistochemical analyses with antibodies against human neuronal cytoplasmic protein (protein gene product 9.5), transmitter enzymes, and several neuropeptides. Several changes in cutaneous innervation including both degenerative and regenerative processes were evident in the aged rat: (1) the Merkel endings and lanceolate endings that emanate from large-caliber afferents in the whisker follicles were reduced and showed signs of degeneration. Furthermore, a reduction of piloneural complexes at the intervibrissal hairs were evident, but only in aged rats that showed more severe behavioral sensorimotor disturbances. In contrast, Ruffini endings as well as mechanoreceptors emanating from medium-caliber axons, i.e., transverse lanceolate and reticular endings, appeared normal. (2) A reduction was evident among two sets of unmyelinated epidermal endings; however, the epidermal innervation affiliated with the intervibrissal hairs appeared normal in the aged rat. (3) A loss of sympathetic neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) or tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (IR) and somatosensory Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-IR perivascular axons was paralleled by an increase in presumed parasympathetic NPY/CGRP-IR axons. (4) Two "novel" networks of fine-caliber axons were observed in the outer and inner root sheaths of the whisker follicles in the aged rat. (5) NPY was present in a population of small-caliber, somatosensory CGRP-IR axons in the aged rat. This may represent a de novo synthesis, since

  3. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544... Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the American...

  4. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for MA organization marketing. 422.2268... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Advantage Marketing Requirements § 422.2268 Standards for MA organization marketing. In conducting marketing activities,...

  5. MA-9 PILOT L. GORDON COOPER INSIDE HIS MERCURY SPACECRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    MA-9 PILOT L. GORDON COOPER INSIDE HIS MERCURY SPACECRAFT S-63-6129 P-07144, ARCHIVE-03810 MA-9 pilot, L. Gordon Cooper, inside his Mercury spacecraft runs through one of the numerous pre-flight checks surrounded by dials, switches, indicators and buttons representing the complciated engineering technology of the space age.

  6. 42 CFR 422.74 - Disenrollment by the MA organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, including mental illness and developmental disabilities. In addition, the MA organization must... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disenrollment by the MA organization. 422.74 Section 422.74 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  7. 42 CFR 422.306 - Annual MA capitation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use of electronic health records. (c) Phase-out of the indirect costs of medical education from MA... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual MA capitation rates. 422.306 Section 422.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. 46 CFR 308.550 - Certificate, Form MA-320.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.550 Certificate, Form MA-320. Wherever any provision of this... MA-320-C for a corporation, which forms may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  9. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing report, Form MA-313. 308.533 Section 308.533 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313....

  10. Aerial view of the newest bus stop to view Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This aerial view looking northeast shows a new stop (bottom) on the KSC bus tour that allow visitors to view Pad LC-39B (top). The tour stop is next to the crawlerway that is used to transport the Space Shuttle vehicles to the pad. The length of the crawlerway from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Pad B is 6,828 meters (22,440 ft); its width overall is 40 meters (130 ft); each lane is 12 meters (40ft) with a 15-meter (50ft) median.

  11. A hinged-pad test structure for sliding friction measurement in micromachining

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, M.P. de; Redmond, J.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the design, modeling, fabrication and initial testing of a new test structure for friction measurement in MEMS. The device consists of a cantilevered forked beam and a friction pad attached via a hinge. Compared to previous test structures, the proposed structure can measure friction over much larger pressure ranges, yet occupies one hundred times less area. The placement of the hinge is crucial to obtaining a well-known and constant pressure distribution in the device. Static deflections on the device were measured and modeled numerically, Preliminary results indicate that friction pad slip is sensitive to friction pad normal force.

  12. Mechanics of the pad-abrasive-wafer contact in chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Dincer

    2009-12-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a rigid wafer is forced on a rough, elastomeric polishing pad, while a slurry containing abrasive particles flows through the interface. The applied pressure on the wafer is carried partially by the 2-body pad-wafer contact (direct contact) and partially by the 3-body contact of pad, wafer and abrasive particles ( particle contact). The fraction of the applied pressure carried by particle contacts is an important factor affecting the material removal rate (MRR) as the majority of the material is removed by the abrasive particles trapped between the pad asperities and the wafer. In this thesis, the contact of a rough, deformable pad and a smooth, rigid wafer in the presence of rigid abrasive particles at the contact interface is investigated by using contact mechanics and finite element (FE) modeling. The interactions between the pad, the wafer and the abrasive particles are modeled at different scales of contact, starting from particle level interactions, and gradually expanding the contact scale to the multi-asperity contact of pad and wafer. The effect of surface forces consisting of van der Waals and electrical double layer forces acting between the wafer and the abrasive particles are also investigated in this work. The wear rate due to each abrasive particle is calculated based on the wafer-abrasive particle contact force, and by considering adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms. A passivated layer on the wafer surface with a hardness and thickness determined by the chemical effects is modeled, in order to characterize the effect of chemical reactions between slurry and wafer on the MRR. The model provides accurate predictions for the MRR as a function of pad related parameters; pad elastic modulus, pad porosity and pad topography, particle related parameters; particle size and concentration, and slurry related parameters; slurry pH, thickness and hardness of the passivated surface layer of wafer. A good qualitative

  13. Performance Evaluation Method of Chemical Mechanical Polishing Pad Conditioner Using Digital Image Correlation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneda, Michio; Omote, Tatsunori; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Ichikawa, Koichiro; Doi, Toshiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu

    2012-05-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), conditioning is generally used for the regeneration of the pad surface texture. Currently, the performance evaluation of conditioners depends on the user's experience so that it is important to develop a novel quantitative evaluation method for conditioner performance. In this paper, we propose a novel evaluation method for conditioner performance using digital image correlation (DIC) processing. The proposed method can measure the in-plane micro-deformation distribution of the pad surface texture by conditioning. It is found that a pad surface deforms over 40 µm with conditioning and that the in-plane deformation value increases with a decrease in the mesh size of conditioner grains.

  14. Aerial view of the newest bus stop to view Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tour buses unload passengers at a new stop on the KSC tour that allows visitors to view Pad LC-39B. The tour road runs parallel to the crawlerway (just out of sight) that is used to transport the Space Shuttle vehicles to the pad. The length of the crawlerway from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Pad B is 6,828 meters (22,440 ft); its width overall is 40 meters (130 ft); each lane is 12 meters (40ft) with a 15-meter (50ft) median. This view looks south.

  15. Experimental study of tilting-pad journal bearings - Comparison with theoretical thermoelastohydrodynamic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Michel; Bligoud, Jean-Claude; Frene, Jean

    1992-07-01

    Operating characteristics of four-shoe tilting-pad journal bearings of 100 mm diameter and 70 mm length are determined on an experimental device. The load, between pad configuration, varies from 0 to 10,000 N and the rotational speed is up to 4000 rpm. Forty thermocouples are used in order to measure bearing element temperatures (babbitt, shaft, housing and oil baths). The influence of operating conditions and preload ratio on bearing performances are studied. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results is presented. The theoretical model is also performed on a large tilting-pad journal bearing which was investigated experimentally by other authors.

  16. Mobile Tech and the Librarian: The iTest iPad Project.

    PubMed

    Hamasu, Claire; Bramble, John

    A 2012 project provided forty-eight health sciences librarians from primarily hospital and academic health sciences libraries with an Apple iPad2 along with training and support on its use. Project objectives were to determine how participants would adopt the iPad into their daily operations and what form of leadership role they would play while participating in the project. By project's end eighty-nine percent indicated they would continue using the iPad primarily as a productivity tool and to provide point of need services. Project data indicated that librarians assumed a leadership role promoting the use of mobile technology and the applications available.

  17. Mobile Tech and the Librarian: The iTest iPad Project

    PubMed Central

    Hamasu, Claire; Bramble, John

    2015-01-01

    A 2012 project provided forty-eight health sciences librarians from primarily hospital and academic health sciences libraries with an Apple iPad2 along with training and support on its use. Project objectives were to determine how participants would adopt the iPad into their daily operations and what form of leadership role they would play while participating in the project. By project's end eighty-nine percent indicated they would continue using the iPad primarily as a productivity tool and to provide point of need services. Project data indicated that librarians assumed a leadership role promoting the use of mobile technology and the applications available. PMID:26997921

  18. ATLANTIS ROLLS OUT TO PAD 39A FOLLOWING HURRICANE FRAN THREAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis completes the trip to Launch Pad 39A from the Vehicle Assembly Building for the third time in the STS- 79 mission flow. The Shuttle was rolled back from the pad in July due to the threat from Hurricane Bertha, then rolled back again earlier this week because of Hurricane Fran. The targeted launch date for Atlantis on Mission STS-79 -- the fourth docking between the U.S. Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir -- is now Sept. 16 at 4:54 a.m. EDT. The three rollout dates for Atlantis to Pad 39A are: July 1, Aug. 20 and Sept. 5.

  19. On uniform approximation of elliptic functions by Padé approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforov, Denis V.

    2009-06-01

    Diagonal Padé approximants of elliptic functions are studied. It is known that the absence of uniform convergence of such approximants is related to them having spurious poles that do not correspond to any singularities of the function being approximated. A sequence of piecewise rational functions is proposed, which is constructed from two neighbouring Padé approximants and approximates an elliptic function locally uniformly in the Stahl domain. The proof of the convergence of this sequence is based on deriving strong asymptotic formulae for the remainder function and Padé polynomials and on the analysis of the behaviour of a spurious pole. Bibliography: 23 titles.

  20. Assessment of an iPad Loan Program in an Academic Medical Library: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Suzanne; Sewell, Robin; Halling, T Derek; McKay, Becky; Pepper, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    An academic medical library expanded its iPad loan service to multiple campus libraries and conducted an assessment of the service. iPads loaded with medical and educational apps were loaned for two-week checkouts from five library campus locations. Device circulation statistics were tracked and users were invited to complete an online survey about their experience. Data were gathered and analyzed for 11 months. The assessment informed the library on how best to adapt the service, including what resources to add to the iPads, and the decision to move devices to campuses with more frequent usage.

  1. STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lifts off from and clears launch tower at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B. The fixed service structure (FSS), retracted rotating service structure (RSS), and the launch pad are obscured by the exhaust smoke generated by the solid rocket boosters (SRBs) and the space shuttle main engines (SSMEs). OV-103 riding atop the external tank (ET) is framed by palm trees in the foreground as it rises above LC Pad 39B into clear skies.

  2. STS-112 crew group photo at launch pad during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, the STS-112 crew poses for a group photo near the launch pad where Space Shuttle Atlantis waits for launch. Standing left to right are Mission Specialist Piers Sellers, Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Mission Specialist David Wolf, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin, who is with the Russian Space Agency. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. Mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  3. Clinical trials: testing of adult chemical heating pad.

    PubMed

    Herman, J; Davis, C; Mackey, M; Fuller, S; Tavakoli, A

    1996-01-01

    Chemical packs are recent innovations in the delivery of dry heat. Because these delivery systems do not have any mechanism for verifying temperature during application, research to determine their safety seems warranted. The purpose of this study was to measure the skin temperature of adults during a 30-minute application of the MediHeat adult heating pad (MH-AHP). Seventy-seven subjects received a 30-minute application of the MH-AHP to their backs while lying in both supine and prone positions. The mean skin temperature in both positions was 101 degrees F. There were significant differences, however, in minimum and maximum skin temperature between positions. Subjects in the prone position had significantly higher maximum skin temperature and significantly lower minimum skin temperature than subjects in the supine position. It is possible that the prone position allows for more air flow over the MH-AHP and that more heat was generated causing the higher maximum temperature. This explanation does not account for the lower minimum temperature. There were no significant differences in perception of heat between the positions at either 5 minutes or 30 minutes. Findings suggest that caution is necessary when applying heating devices that depend on air circulation for heat generation.

  4. ATLAS LAUNCHED FROM PAD 12 CARRYING PROJECT FIRE SPACECRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The Atlas D lifted off Pad 12 at 4:55 p.m. EST carrying the second 200 pound Project FIRE spacecraft on a 5,000 mile ballistic trajectory to expand scientific knowledge of reentry heating. A velocity package using the solid propellant Antares II rocket motor will add the speed needed to drive the re-entry payload back into the atmosphere at 25,000 mph. The payload will reach an apogee of approximately 500 statute miles about 2,440 down range before starting re-entry into the atmosphere. At the speed Project FIRE will attain, the temperature of the gasses in the shock wave area just ahead of the blunt reentry body will approach 20,000 degrees Fahrengeit. As a result from data received from this flight, scientists will be able to predict more accurately, for engineering purposes, the heating associated with entry into the Earth's atmosphere at speeds up to and beyond that of the Apollo command module on its return from lunar flights.

  5. Fast Padé Transform Accelerated CSI for Hyperpolarized MRS

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Esben Szocska Søvsø; Kim, Sun; Miller, Jack J.; Geferath, Marcus; Morrell, Glen; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    The fast Padé transform (FPT) is a method of spectral analysis that can be used to reconstruct nuclear magnetic resonance spectra from truncated free induction decay signals with superior robustness and spectral resolution compared with conventional Fourier analysis. The aim of this study is to show the utility of FPT in reducing of the scan time required for hyperpolarized 13C chemical shift imaging (CSI) without sacrificing the ability to resolve a full spectrum. Simulations, phantom, and in vivo hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate CSI data were processed with FPT and compared with conventional analysis methods. FPT shows improved stability and spectral resolution on truncated data compared with the fast Fourier transform and shows results that are comparable to those of the model-based fitting methods, enabling a reduction in the needed acquisition time in 13C CSI experiments. Using FPT can reduce the readout length in the spectral dimension by 2–6 times in 13C CSI compared with conventional Fourier analysis without sacrificing the spectral resolution. This increased speed is crucial for 13C CSI because T1 relaxation considerably limits the available scan time. In addition, FPT can also yield direct quantification of metabolite concentration without the additional peak analysis required in conventional Fourier analysis. PMID:28018967

  6. STS-79 LIFTS OFF FROM PAD 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the night from Launch Pad 39A. Liftoff on the 79th Shuttle mission occurred on time at 4:54:49 a.m. EDT, Sept. 16. The 10-day spaceflight will be highlighted by the fourth docking between the U.S. Space Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir and the first in a series of crew exchanges aboard the station. Leading the STS-79 crew is Commander William F. Readdy. The pilot is Terrence W. Wilcutt, and the four mission specialists making the trip to Mir are Jay Apt, Thomas D. Akers, Carl E. Walz and John E. Blaha. Blaha will exchange places on Mir with U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, who will return to Earth with the STS-79 flight crew after a record- setting stay on the Russian station. STS-79 is the second Shuttle-Mir mission to carry a SPACEHAB module on board and the first to carry a double module. The STS- 79 mission is part of the NASA/Mir program which is now into the Phase 1B portion, consisting of nine Shuttle-Mir docking flights and seven long- duration flights of U.S. astronauts aboard the station between early 1996 and late 1998.

  7. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  8. Analysis of Pad Surface Roughness on Copper Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Yoshiyuki; Hirao, Takashi; Kinoshita, Masaharu

    2008-04-01

    For Cu high removal rate (RR) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the effect of pad surface roughness on Cu RR was investigated. Because surface roughness measured by the stylus profiler and the laser microscope (optical) profiler includes various topographies, it is difficult to conclude which effective roughness parameter affects Cu RR. Accordingly, the measured surface roughness was classified into two types of roughness scales. One is the topography by pores, and the other one is the micro roughness caused by conditioner. These were divided by a wavelength of surface profile. In this result, a stylus profile could not precisely trace two types of roughness scales. On the other hand, an optical magnification of 400 could trace the change in topography by micropores. And an optical magnification of 1000 could trace the change in micro roughness caused by conditioning. In the evaluation of Cu RR and the classified roughness, micro roughness measured by the optical magnification of 1000 was strongly correlated with Cu RR. It is concluded that Cu RR is affected by micro roughness caused by conditioner, and also its roughness is necessary to be measured by an optical profiler at high magnification.

  9. The iPad and EFL Digital Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    In future, the uses of English by non-native speakers will predominantly be online, using English language digital resources, and in computer-mediated communication with other non-native speakers of English. Thus for Korea to be competitive in the global economy, its EFL should develop L2 Digital Literacy in English. With its fast Internet connections, Korea is the most wired nation on Earth; but ICT facilities in educational institutions need reorganization. Opportunities for computer-mediated second language learning need to be increased, providing multimedia-capable, mobile web solutions that put the Internet into the hands of all students and teachers. Wi-Fi networked campuses allow any campus space to act as a wireless classroom. Every classroom should have a teacher's computer console. All students should be provided with adequate computing facilities, that are available anywhere, anytime. Ubiquitous computing has now become feasible by providing every student on enrollment with a tablet: a Wi-Fi+3G enabled Apple iPad.

  10. STS-91 Launch of Discovery from Launch Pad 39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Startled by the thunderous roar of the Space Shuttle Discovery's engines as it lifts off, several birds hurriedly leave the Launch Pad 39A area for a more peaceful site. Liftoff time for STS-91, the 91st Shuttle launch and last Shuttle-Mir mission, was 6:06:24 p.m. EDT June 2. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt; Pilot Dominic L. Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin. The nearly 10-day mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as an STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  11. STS-91 Launch of Discovery from Launch Pad 39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Startled by the thunderous roar of the Space Shuttle Discovery'''s engines as it lifts off, a bird hurriedly leaves the Launch Pad 39A area for a more peaceful site. Liftoff time for the 91st Shuttle launch and last Shuttle-Mir mission was 6:06:24 p.m. EDT June 2. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt; Pilot Dominic L. Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin. The nearly 10-day mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as a STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  12. Padé resummation of many-body perturbation theories.

    PubMed

    Pavlyukh, Y

    2017-03-29

    In a typical scenario the diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory generates asymptotic series. Despite non-convergence, the asymptotic expansions are useful when truncated to a finite number of terms. This is the reason for the popularity of leading-order methods such as the GW approximation in condensed matter, molecular and atomic physics. Appropriate truncation order required for the accurate description of strongly correlated materials is, however, not known a priori. Here an efficient method based on the Padé approximation is introduced for the regularization of perturbative series allowing to perform higher-order self-consistent calculations and to make quantitative predictions on the convergence of many-body perturbation theories. The theory is extended towards excited states where the Wick theorem is not directly applicable. Focusing on the plasmon-assisted photoemission from graphene, we treat diagrammatically electrons coupled to the excited state plasmons and predict new spectral features that can be observed in the time-resolved measurements.

  13. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Like a roman candle, Space Shuttle Discovery roars into the clear night sky trailing brilliant exhaust from the solid rocket boosters (center) and blue mach diamonds from the main engine nozzles. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  14. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As if spawned by the clouds of smoke and steam below, the Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the night sky on mission STS-103. The brilliant light creates a reflection of the launch in the water nearby. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  15. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Viewed from the roof of the Vehicle Assembly Building more than 3 miles away, the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 emblazes the night sky. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is targeted to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  16. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery hurtles through clouds of smoke and steam in its successful launch on mission STS-103. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is targeted to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  17. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Turning night into day for a few moments while belching clouds of smoke and steam, Space Shuttle Discovery hurtles into the black sky on mission STS-103. The successful liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is targeted to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  18. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Turning night into day, the brilliance of Space Shuttle Discovery's launch is reflected in the waters nearby. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  19. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Brilliant light from the successful liftoff of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 illuminates the night sky and the nearby waters. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  20. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The successful liftoff of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 illuminates the night sky. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  1. STS-103 Discovery launch from Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Brilliant light from the successful liftoff of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 illuminates the night sky and reflects in the nearby water. Liftoff occurred at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. On board are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Nicollier and Clervoy are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a Hubble Servicing Mission, with three planned space walks designed to install new equipment and replace old. The primary objective is to replace the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. Extravehicular activities include installing a new computer, changing out one of the Fine Guidance Sensors, replacing a tape recorder with a new solid state recorder, and installing a voltage/temperature improvement kit, and begin repairing the insulation on the telescope's outer surface. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST. This is the 27th flight of Discovery and the 96th mission in the Space Shuttle Program. It is the third launch at Kennedy Space Center in 1999.

  2. 17 CFR 240.15Ba1-5 - Amendments to Form MA and Form MA-I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amendments to Form MA and Form MA-I. 240.15Ba1-5 Section 240.15Ba1-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and...

  3. Towards reducing impact-induced brain injury: lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads.

    PubMed

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterise the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the head injury criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry and material stiffness. We find that (1) the football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily relevant impact scenarios; (2) optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy and (3) thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Although we considered only the isolated response of pad materials, not entire helmet systems, our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be reduced.

  4. Study of the factors that promoted the implementation of Electronic Medical Record on iPads at Two Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Akhil Sanjay; Adam, Terrence J.; Gensinger, Raymond; Westra, Bonnie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors which promoted the demand for iPads by physicians in two Emergency departments (ED) prior to a system wide implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR). A grounded theory design was employed and 14 semi-structured interviews conducted with ED physicians. Analysis of the interview transcripts was completed using Atlas.ti qualitative software, which revealed that physicians’ perceptions of iPad use in the ED stemmed from their personal use of iPads along with three perceived ease of use factors. Physicians perceived that improved patient physician interaction, improved workflow and structural iPad benefits promoted their demand. Physicians perceived the structural benefits of iPads would improve patient physician interaction and improve workflow in the ED. As interest in handheld devices such as iPads increases, these findings could direct and encourage other iPad implementations at other hospital EDs’. PMID:23304348

  5. ATLANTIS ROLLS OUT TO PAD 39A FOLLOWING HURRICANE FRAN THREAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A view from the flame trench looking up shows the Space Shuttle Atlantis, mounted on the Mobile Launcher Platform and Crawler- Transporter, as it arrives atop the hardstand at Launch Pad 39A. After the Shuttle and launch stand are in position, the crawler will be pulled back. This is the third time Atlantis has completed the journey to Launch Pad 39A in the STS-79 mission flow. The Shuttle was rolled back from the pad in July due to the threat from Hurricane Bertha, then rolled back again earlier this week because of Hurricane Fran. The targeted launch date for Atlantis on Mission STS-79 -- the fourth docking between the U.S. Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir -- is now Sept. 16 at 4:54 a.m. EDT. The three rollout dates for Atlantis to Pad 39A are: July 1, Aug. 20 and Sept. 5.

  6. Effective Padding of Multi-Dimensional Arrays to Avoid Cache Conflict Misses

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Changwan; Bao, Wenlei; Cohen, Albert; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Pouchet, Louis-noel; Rastello, Fabrice; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2016-06-02

    Caches are used to significantly improve performance. Even with high degrees of set-associativity, the number of accessed data elements mapping to the same set in a cache can easily exceed the degree of associativity, causing conflict misses and lowered performance, even if the working set is much smaller than cache capacity. Array padding (increasing the size of array dimensions) is a well known optimization technique that can reduce conflict misses. In this paper, we develop the first algorithms for optimal padding of arrays for a set associative cache for arbitrary tile sizes, In addition, we develop the first solution to padding for nested tiles and multi-level caches. The techniques are in implemented in PAdvisor tool. Experimental results with multiple benchmarks demonstrate significant performance improvement from use of PAdvisor for padding.

  7. Composition of the secretion from the eccrine sweat glands of the cat's foot pad.

    PubMed

    Foster, K G

    1966-05-01

    1. The sweat composition from the cat's foot pad was examined at various rates of secretion. Sodium pentobarbitone or chloralose anaesthesia were used.2. Cat's pad sweat contains lactate, glucose is almost absent, and the sodium and chloride concentrations increased with increasing sweat rate. In these respects the secretion resembles human eccrine sweat.3. The sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations are much higher than in human sweat; also the potassium level decreased with increasing rate. Consequently, whereas human sweat is hypotonic with respect to the plasma, cat's pad sweat is slightly hypertonic with respect to the plasma even at low rates of secretion. In contrast to human sweat glands, which produce a slightly acidic secretion containing ammonia, cat's pad sweat glands produce an alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. Also in contrast to human sweat, lactate levels decreased with increasing sweat rate.

  8. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient's face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was unsatisfying because

  9. Rotordynamic characteristics of flexure-pivot tilting-pad journal bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, R.W.; Paquette, D.J. )

    1993-07-01

    Many of today's modern turbomachines, especially those running at high speeds and high power ratings, require the superior stability characteristics of tilting-pad journal bearings to prevent rotor-dynamic instabilities. Until now, the design complexity of tilting-pad bearings has precluded their use in many small, high-volume applications where cost and size are important. This paper introduces a new one-piece journal bearing design, the flexure-pivot bearing, that offers many of the beneficial rotor-dynamic advantages of tilting-pad bearings, without the complexities of a multi-piece design. Performance data for a flexure-pivot bearing is shown for an application requiring a highly stable design, illustrating the effectiveness of the flexure-pivot bearing in offering rotordynamic stability approaching that of a tilting-pad bearing. 10 refs.

  10. Arterial blood supply of the infrapatellar fat pad. Anatomy and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D; Deiler, S; Rudert, M

    1995-01-01

    The arterial blood supply to the infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa's fat pad) was investigated in 12 knee joints of human cadavers. The infrapatellar fat pad is supplied by an anastomotic network which displays some striking topographic features. Its vascular blood supply protects it against necrosis, when either reconstructive operations are carried out or extensive surgical exposures of the knee are done. The blood supply to the center of the fat pad is limited. This is of practical importance for the choice of arthroscopic portals. In addition, arthroscopically verified sources of bleeding are described in 57 patients with hemarthrosis without clinically detectable instability. Rupture of the infrapatellar synovial fold can be a cause of posttraumatic hemarthrosis in rare cases. Arteries irregularly found within the fold contribute to the blood supply of the anterior aspect of the synovial membrane covering the cruciate ligaments.

  11. A&M. TAN609. Jet engine test pad and control building. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-609. Jet engine test pad and control building. Camera facing southeast. Date: July 19, 1954. INEEL negative no. 11344 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Development of a hadron blind detector using a finely segmented pad readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Koki; Aoki, Kazuya; Aramaki, Yoki; En`yo, Hideto; Kawama, Daisuke; Komatsu, Yusuke; Masumoto, Shinichi; Nakai, Wataru; Obara, Yuki; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Sekimoto, Michiko; Shibukawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomonori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yokkaichi, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    We constructed a hadron blind detector (HBD) using a finely segmented pad readout. The finely segmented pad readout enabled us to adopt an advanced particle identification method which applies a threshold to the number of pad hits in addition to the total amount of collected charge. The responses of the detector to electrons and pions were evaluated using a negatively charged secondary beam at 1.0 GeV/c containing 20% electrons at the J-PARC K1.1BR beam line. We observed 7.3 photoelectrons per incident electron. Using the advanced particle identification method, an electron detection efficiency of 83% was achieved with a pion rejection factor of 120. The method improved the pion rejection by approximately a factor of five, compared to the one which just applies a threshold to the amount of collected charge. The newly introduced finely segmented pad readout was found to be effective in rejecting pions.

  13. Analysis of Formation of Pad Stains in Copper Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyosang; Borucki, Leonard; Zhuang, Yun; Joh, Sooyun; O'Moore, Fergal; Philipossian, Ara

    2009-12-01

    A stain model was developed to simulate stain formation on the pad surface in copper chemical and mechanical planarization (CMP). The model consisted of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the heat equation with advection, material removal rate model, a model for generation, transport and deposition of the polishing by-product that produces the stain. Slurry velocity simulations showed shear flow on the land areas and wafer-driven circulation in the grooves. The simulated temperature on the pad and the wafer surface increased gradually in the radial direction; furthermore, temperature simulations showed a 12 °C rise in the reaction temperature on the copper wafer surface. The simulated pad stains deposited on the copper land areas were darker in the direction of wafer rotation, suggesting that the generated staining agents were advected downstream by the slurry flow and deposited on the pad surface in the direction of the wafer rotation. Simulated stain images were in qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  14. Kinematical Modeling of Pad Profile Variation during Conditioning in Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangjik; Jeong, Sukhoon; Park, Kihyun; Kim, Hyoungjae; Jeong, Haedo

    2009-12-01

    Conditioning is the process of removing the glazing area from a polishing pad surface and restoring the quality of the surface to maintain a stable polishing performance. However, the conditioning process can induce a non-uniform profile variation of the pad, which can result in nonuniform material removal rates across the wafer. In this paper, a kinematical model based on Preston's equation is proposed to examine the pad profile variation (PPV) induced by swing arm conditioning with a diamond disk. The proposed model was simulated with various swing arm velocity profiles (SAVPs), and the results were compared with experimental results. The results showed the relationship between kinematical parameters and the PPV. The PPV was proportional to sliding distance based on the kinematical model, and then the sliding distance distribution across the pad was dependent on the SAVP. This study has proven the effectiveness of the kinematical model on the PPV during conditioning in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP).

  15. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region.

  16. Changes in PAD patterns of group I muscle afferents after a peripheral nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Enríquez, M; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    1996-01-01

    In the anesthetized cat we have analyzed the changes in primary afferent depolarization (PAD) evoked in single muscle spindle and tendon organ afferents at different times after their axons were crushed in the periphery and allowed to regenerate. Medial gastrocnemius (MG) afferents were depolarized by stimulation of group I fibers in the posterior biceps and semitendinosus nerve (PBSt), as soon as 2 weeks after crushing their axons in the periphery, in some cases before they could be activated by physiological stimulation of muscle receptors. Two to twelve weeks after crushing the MG nerve, stimulation of the PBSt produced PAD in all MG fibers reconnected with presumed muscle spindles and tendon organs. The mean amplitude of the PAD elicited in afferent fibers reconnected with muscle spindles was increased relative to values obtained from Ia fibers in intact (control) preparations, but remained essentially the same in fibers reconnected with tendon organs. Quite unexpectedly, we found that, between 2 and 12 weeks after crushing the MG nerve, stimulation of the bulbar reticular formation (RF) produced PAD in most afferent fibers reconnected with muscle spindle afferents. The mean amplitude of the PAD elicited in these fibers was significantly increased relative to the PAD elicited in muscle spindle afferents from intact preparations (from 0.08 +/- 0.4 to 0.47 +/- 0.34 mV). A substantial recovery was observed between 6 months and 2.5 years after the peripheral nerve injury. Stimulation of the sural (SU) nerve produced practically no PAD in muscle spindles from intact preparations, and this remained so in those afferents reconnected with muscle spindles impaled 2-12 weeks after the nerve crush. The mean amplitude of the PAD produced in afferent fibers reconnected with tendon organs by stimulation of the PBSt nerve and of the bulbar RF remained essentially the same as the PAD elicited in intact afferents. However, SU nerve stimulation produced a larger PAD in afferents

  17. Tate Access Floors (Formerly USG Interiors), Red Lion, PA PAD0008005087

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is announcing its environmental remediation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA), as complete Tate Access Floors Incorporated (Formerly: USG Interiors) in Red Lion PA , (EPA ID: ID PAD0008005087)

  18. What Most Women Don't Know About P.A.D.

    MedlinePlus

    ... untreated, P.A.D. can lead to disability, amputation (losing a foot or leg), and poor quality ... markedly increases your risk for heart attack, stroke, amputation, and death. In the long term, people with ...

  19. iPads: Intuitive Technology for 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale for using iPad technology with young students. Various inexpensive apps are described that parents and educators will find useful. (Contains 9 figures.)

  20. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) design and analysis. Two-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) focused chiefly on the two-axis gimballed star tracker and electronics design improved from that of Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS), and application of the improved tracker for PADS at geosynchronous altitude. System design, system analysis, software design, and hardware design activities are reported. The system design encompasses the PADS configuration, system performance characteristics, component design summaries, and interface considerations. The PADS design and performance analysis includes error analysis, performance analysis via attitude determination simulation, and star tracker servo design analysis. The design of the star tracker and electronics are discussed. Sensor electronics schematics are included. A detailed characterization of the application software algorithms and computer requirements is provided.

  1. Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger sits on the mobile launch pad for STS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger sits on the mobile launch platform at Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center awaiting preparations for the launch of STS-6. A payload canister is in the nearby rotating service structure (RSS).

  2. Digital representation of oil and natural gas well pad scars in southwest Wyoming: 2012 update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garman, Steven L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The recent proliferation of oil and natural gas energy development in the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming has accentuated the need to understand wildlife responses to this development. The location and extent of surface disturbance that is created by oil and natural gas well pad scars are key pieces of information used to assess the effects of energy infrastructure on wildlife populations and habitat. A digital database of oil and natural gas pad scars had previously been generated from 1-meter (m) National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery (NAIP) acquired in 2009 for a 7.7-million hectare (ha) (19,026,700 acres) region of southwest Wyoming. Scars included the pad area where wellheads, pumps, and storage facilities reside and the surrounding area that was scraped and denuded of vegetation during the establishment of the pad. Scars containing tanks, compressors, the storage of oil and gas related equipment, and produced-water ponds were also collected on occasion. This report updates the digital database for the five counties of southwest Wyoming (Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta) within the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area and for a limited portion of Fremont, Natrona, and Albany Counties using 2012 1-m NAIP imagery and 2012 oil and natural gas well permit information. This report adds pad scars created since 2009, and updates attributes of all pad scars using the 2012 well permit information. These attributes include the origination year of the pad scar, the number of active and inactive wells on or near each pad scar in 2012, and the overall status of the pad scar (active or inactive). The new 2012 database contains 17,404 pad scars of which 15,532 are attributed as oil and natural gas well pads. Digital data are stored as shapefiles projected to the Universal Transverse Mercator (zones 12 and 13) coordinate system. These data are available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://dx.doi.org/10

  3. The Effectiveness of the Aquaflex Gel Pad in the Transmission of Acoustic Energy

    PubMed Central

    Klucinec, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Aquaflex Gel Pad in the transmission of acoustic energy. Design and Setting: This was a comparative study that utilized descriptive statistics for result interpretation. The independent variables included ultrasound intensity, interposed materials, and trials. The dependent variable was peak-to-peak voltage output recorded via an oscilloscope. The study was conducted in a ventilated research laboratory. Measurements: Three trials were conducted with six combinations of material interposed between a conducting (1 MHz) and a receiving sound head. The interposed materials were as follows: 1) ultrasound gel, 2) gel plus a gel pad, 3) gel plus a gel pad and pig tissue sample (0.90 cm of subcutaneous fat), 4) gel plus a gel pad and a pig tissue sample (1.8 cm of subcutaneous fat), 5) gel plus thin pig tissue sample, and 6) gel plus thick pig tissue sample. Each interposed material combination was tested at the intensities (W/cm2) as follows: 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 2.50. Results: The gel pad proved to be an efficient couplant in the delivery of high-frequency acoustic energy. Using ultrasound gel as the base line (100% transmissivity) it was concluded that the gel pad transmitted more acoustic energy at every intensity except at 0.1 W/cm2. The gel pad used with the two thicknesses of subcutaneous fat gave comparable results. Gel used with the two thicknesses of subcutaneous fat yielded results that warrant further investigation. Conclusions: I believe gel pads are a practical choice for clinical applications of ultrasound over uneven surfaces. The reusable gel pads offer the clinician a convenient and reliable method for delivering ultrasound energy to the patient. I believe it is preferable to use the gel pad with ultrasound gel directly applied to the patient and at the sound head-gel pad interface as opposed to using the traditional water bath immersion method. ImagesFig 1. PMID

  4. Paleomagnetism of ~635 Ma "Elatina Rhythmites," Reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raub, T. D.; Raub, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    Extraordinary laminated sand-siltstone of South Australia's synglacial/deglacial Elatina Formation-equivalent at Pichi Richi Pass is an iconic outcrop for paleomagnetists, paleoclimatologists, and astrophysicists. Cyclic- bedded stacks of coarse/fine-grained doublets have been interpreted as rhythmites of semi-diurnal tidal origin in a deep-water delta front environment. Cycle analysis has yielded estimates of Earth's paleorotation and revolution periods and lunar distance. The reported 10 m (interpreted 60 year) record disagrees somewhat with coeval and younger biological "sediment-clocks," and Williams (2000) argues that the sedimentological context and extraordinary preservation of Elatina rhythmites makes that record preferable. A paleomagnetic "synsedimentary fold" test on <8 cm amplitude antiforms from the Pichi Richi Pass rhythmites confirmed low-latitude Neoproterozoic glaciation (Sumner et al., 1987) and inspired the formal "Snowball Earth" hypothesis (Kirschvink, 1989). Repeated study of the Elatina rhythmites (Schmidt and Williams, 1995 and citations therein) has documented NRM essentially equal to ChRM carried by detrital hematite, "locked-in" synchronously with "deformation" of "antiforms" (i.e., within hours to days of deposition). "Synfolding" remanence has been ascribed to superposition of slump-shear and DRM. Anomalously shallow inclination of rhythmites (Sohl et al., 1999) could represent inadequate averaging of ca. 635 Ma geomagnetic secular variation. New measurement of ten stratigraphic sections through rhythmite-bearing facies outside of Pichi Richi Pass supports a distributary environment since rhythmites are expressed in multiple lithologies closely beneath ultimate deglacial, Nuccaleena cap dolostone. At Pichi Richi Pass, a full section of rhythmites approx. 18 meters thick is now documented, supporting a novel magnetostratigraphic collection of 130 samples. It is necessary to re-examine the DRM interpretation of Elatina rhythmite

  5. Inflammatory and Metabolic Alterations of Kager's Fat Pad in Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fredberg, Ulrich; Kjær, Søren G.; Quistorff, Bjørn; Langberg, Henning; Hansen, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Achilles tendinopathy is a painful inflammatory condition characterized by swelling, stiffness and reduced function of the Achilles tendon. Kager’s fat pad is an adipose tissue located in the area anterior to the Achilles tendon. Observations reveal a close physical interplay between Kager’s fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager’s fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint. Aim The aim of this study was to characterize whether Achilles tendinopathy was accompanied by changes in expression of inflammatory markers and metabolic enzymes in Kager’s fat pad. Methods A biopsy was taken from Kager’s fat pad from 31 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and from 13 healthy individuals. Gene expression was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Focus was on genes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Results Expression of the majority of analyzed inflammatory marker genes was increased in patients with Achilles tendinopathy compared to that in healthy controls. Expression patterns of the patient group were consistent with reduced lipolysis and increased fatty acid β-oxidation. In the fat pad, the pain-signaling neuropeptide substance P was found to be present in one third of the subjects in the Achilles tendinopathy group but in none of the healthy controls. Conclusion Gene expression changes in Achilles tendinopathy patient samples were consistent with Kager’s fat pad being more inflamed than in the healthy control group. Additionally, the results indicate an altered lipid metabolism in Kager’s fat pad of Achilles tendinopathy patients. PMID:25996876

  6. STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lifts off from KSC LC pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lifts off from mobile launch platform at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) pad 39B. Exhaust plumes billow from the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) and covers launch pad as OV-103 atop of the orange external tank (ET) clears the launch tower and heads for Earth orbit. STS-26 marks OV-103's first flight since September 1985 and NASA's first manned mission since the 51L Challenger accident, 01-28-86.

  7. Random Transect with Adaptive Clustering Sampling Design - ArcPad Applet Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    sampling design geodatabase ................................. 6 3.1.2 Create features in geodatabase ...developed for ArcPad®, a mobile geographical information software (GIS) for field applications developed by ESRI ® of Redlands, CA. ArcPad is designed to...occurrence maps (Rew et al. 2005) to guide future surveying and management efforts. The RTAC combines features of the two NIS sampling designs described

  8. Estimating the material properties of heel pad sub-layers using inverse Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahanchian, Nafiseh; Nester, Christopher J; Howard, David; Ren, Lei; Parker, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Detailed information about the biomechanical behaviour of plantar heel pad tissue contributes to our understanding of load transfer when the foot impacts the ground. The objective of this work was to obtain the hyperelastic and viscoelastic material properties of heel pad sub-layers (skin, micro-chamber and macro-chamber layers) in-vivo. An anatomically detailed 3D Finite Element model of the human heel was used to derive the sub-layer material properties. A combined ultrasound imaging and motorised platform system was used to compress heel pad and to create input data for the Finite Element model. The force-strain responses of the heel pad and its sub-layers under slow compression (5mm/s) and rapid loading-hold-unloading cycles (225mm/s), were measured and hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of the three heel pad sub-layers were estimated by the model. The loaded (under ∼315N) thickness of the heel pad was measured from MR images and used for hyperelastic model validation. The capability of the model to predict peak plantar pressure was used for further validation. Experimental responses of the heel pad under different dynamic loading scenarios (loading-hold-unloading cycles at 141mm/s and sinusoidal loading with maximum velocity of 300mm/s) were used to validate the viscoelastic model. Good agreement was achieved between the predicted and experimental results for both hyperelastic (<6.4% unloaded thickness, 4.4% maximum peak plantar pressure) and viscoelastic (Root Mean Square errors for loading and unloading periods <14.7%, 5.8% maximum force) simulations. This paper provides the first definition of material properties for heel pad sub-layers by using in-vivo experimental force-strain data and an anatomically detailed 3D Finite Element model of the heel.

  9. Using an eTextbook and iPad: Results of a Pilot Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Roberta H.

    2013-01-01

    An eTextbook and iPad were used in a pilot program, and the impact on the course was assessed to guide the development of a college policy. Students in the course completed three questionnaires to provide feedback about their perceptions of the eTextbook and iPad. During the pilot program, students' perceptions of the usefulness, ease of use, and…

  10. Effect of Helmet Pads on the Load Transfer to Head under Blast Loadings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    boundary conditions are applied to the head . For longer response duration, appropriate boundary conditions need to be applied to represent the neck ...ARL-RP-0525 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effect of Helmet Pads on the Load Transfer to Head under Blast Loadings...ARL-RP-0525 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effect of Helmet Pads on the Load Transfer to Head under Blast

  11. New Directions for Early Literacy in a Digital Age: The iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewitt, Rosie; Messer, David; Kucirkova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how iPads offer innovative opportunities for early literacy learning but also present challenges for teachers and children. We lent iPads to a Children's Centre nursery (3- to 4-year-olds), a primary school reception class (4- to 5-year-olds) and a Special School (7- to 13-year-olds), discussed their potential uses with…

  12. Design of low-cross-talk readout pads for time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, K.; Isobe, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Taketani, A.

    2012-06-01

    We are developing a readout pad for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the Superconducting Analyzer for the Multi-Particle Radio-Isotope beam (SAMURAI) spectrometer at RIKEN. The functionality of the TPC should have a wide dynamic range readout of 3200:1 for identifying injected particles. Therefore the transmission line in the TPC should have low crosstalk and high signal integrity. We describe development of the TPC pad using an electromagnetic and circuit simulator in this article.

  13. Structure Topology Optimization of Brake Pad in Large- megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Considering Thermal- structural Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. F.; Yin, J.; Liu, Y.; Sha, Z. H.; Ma, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    There always exists severe non-uniform wear of brake pad in large-megawatt wind turbine brake during the braking process, which has the brake pad worn out in advance and even threats the safety production of wind turbine. The root cause of this phenomenon is the non-uniform deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect between brake pad and disc while braking under the conditions of both high speed and heavy load. For this problem, mathematical model of thermal-structural coupling analysis is built. Based on the topology optimization method of Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization, SIMP, structure topology optimization of brake pad is developed considering the deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect. The objective function is the minimum flexibility, and the structure topology optimization model of brake pad is established after indirect thermal- structural coupling analysis. Compared with the optimization result considering non-thermal- structural coupling, the conspicuous influence of thermal effect on brake pad wear and deformation is proven as well as the rationality of taking thermal-structural coupling effect as optimization condition. Reconstructed model is built according to the result, meanwhile analysis for verification is carried out with the same working condition. This study provides theoretical foundation for the design of high-speed and heavy-load brake pad. The new structure may provide design reference for improving the stress condition between brake pad and disc, enhancing the use ratio of friction material and increasing the working performance of large-megawatt wind turbine brake.

  14. Digital representation of oil and natural gas well pad scars in southwest Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garman, Steven L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    The recent proliferation of oil and natural gas energy development in southwest Wyoming has stimulated the need to understand wildlife responses to this development. Central to many wildlife assessments is the use of geospatial methods that rely on digital representation of energy infrastructure. Surface disturbance of the well pad scars associated with oil and natural gas extraction has been an important but unavailable infrastructure layer. To provide a digital baseline of this surface disturbance, we extracted visible oil and gas well pad scars from 1-meter National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery (NAIP) acquired in 2009 for a 7.7 million-hectare region of southwest Wyoming. Scars include the pad area where wellheads, pumps, and storage facilities reside, and the surrounding area that was scraped and denuded of vegetation during the establishment of the pad. Scars containing tanks, compressors, and the storage of oil and gas related equipment, and produced-water ponds were also collected on occasion. Our extraction method was a two-step process starting with automated extraction followed by manual inspection and clean up. We used available well-point information to guide manual clean up and to derive estimates of year of origin and duration of activity on a pad scar. We also derived estimates of the proportion of non-vegetated area on a scar using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index derived using 1-meter NAIP imagery. We extracted 16,973 pad scars of which 15,318 were oil and gas well pads. Digital representation of pad scars along with time-stamps of activity and estimates of non-vegetated area provides important baseline (circa 2009) data for assessments of wildlife responses, land-use trends, and disturbance-mediated pattern assessments.

  15. Mechanisms of self-cleaning in fluid-based smooth adhesive pads of insects.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter

    2012-12-01

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives such as tapes become easily contaminated by dust particles. By contrast, animal adhesive pads are able to self-clean and can be reused millions of times over a lifetime with little reduction in adhesion. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this ability are still unclear. Here we test in adhesive pads of stick insects (Carausius morosus) (1) whether self-cleaning is enhanced by the liquid pad secretion, and (2) whether alternating push-pull movements aid the removal of particles. We measured attachment forces of insect pads on glass after contamination with 10 µm polystyrene beads. While the amount of fluid present on the pad showed no effect on the pads' susceptibility to contamination, the recovery of adhesive forces after contamination was faster when higher fluid levels were present. However, this effect does not appear to be based on a faster rate of self-cleaning since the number of spheres deposited with each step did not increase with fluid level. Instead, the fluid may aid the recovery of adhesive forces by filling in the gaps between contaminating particles, similar to the fluid's function on rough surfaces. Further, we found no evidence that an alternation of pushing and pulling movements, as found in natural steps, leads to a more efficient recovery of adhesion than repeated pulling slides.

  16. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  17. Direct writing on paper of foldable capacitive touch pads with silver nanowire inks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruo-Zhou; Hu, Anming; Zhang, Tong; Oakes, Ken D

    2014-12-10

    Paper-based capacitive touch pads can be fabricated utilizing high-concentration silver nanowire inks needle-printed directly onto paper substrates through a 2D programmable platform. Post deposition, silver nanowire tracks can be photonically sintered using a camera flash to reduce sheet resistance similar to thermal sintering approaches. Touch pad sensors on a variety of paper substrates can be achieved with optimized silver nanowire tracks. Rolling and folding trials, which yielded only modest changes in capacitance and no loss of function, coupled with touch pad functionality on curved surfaces, suggest sufficient flexibility and durability for paper substrate touch pads to be used in diverse applications. A simplified model to predict touch pad capacitance variation ranges with differing touch conditions was developed, with good agreement against experimental results. Such paper-based touch pads have the advantage of simple structure, easy fabrication, and fast sintering, which holds promise for numerous commercial applications including low-cost portable devices where ultrathin and lightweight features, coupled with reliable bending stability are desirable.

  18. Validation of the Australian Propensity for Angry Driving Scale (Aus-PADS).

    PubMed

    Leal, Nerida L; Pachana, Nancy A

    2009-09-01

    The present study used a university sample to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of the Australian Propensity for Angry Driving Scale (Aus-PADS). The scale has stability over time, and convergent validity was established, as Aus-PADS scores correlated significantly with established anger and impulsivity measures. Discriminant validity was also established, as Aus-PADS scores did not correlate with Venturesomeness scores. The Aus-PADS has demonstrated criterion validity, as scores were correlated with behavioural measures, such as yelling at other drivers, gesturing at other drivers, and feeling angry but not doing anything. Aus-PADS scores reliably predicted the frequency of these behaviours over and above other study variables. No significant relationship between aggressive driving and crash involvement was observed. It was concluded that the Aus-PADS is a reliable and valid tool appropriate for use in Australian research, and that the potential relationship between aggressive driving and crash involvement warrants further investigation with a more representative (and diverse) driver sample.

  19. Effect of Cu pad morphology on direct-Cu pillar formation in CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunmi; Kim, Areum; Cui, Eunwha; Lee, Ukjae; Son, Hyung Bin; Hahn, Sang June; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-09-01

    We report the feasibility of forming Ni bumps directly on Cu pads in CMOS image sensor (CIS) logic elements formed by Cu wires with diameters of less than 65 nm. The direct Ni bump process proposed in this study simplifies the fabrication process and reduces costs by eliminating the need for Al pad process. In addition, this process can secure the margin of the final layer, enabling the realization of thin camera modules. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pad annealing on the direct formation of Ni bumps over Cu pads. The results suggest that the morphology of the Cu pad varies depending on the annealing sequence, and post-passivation annealing resulted in fewer defects than pad etch annealing. The shear stress of the Ni bumps was 57.77 mgf/m2, which is six times greater than the corresponding reference value. Furthermore, we evaluated the reliability of a chip with an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) and a non-conducting paste (NCP) by using high-temperature storage (HTS), thermal cycling (TC), and wet high-temperature storage (WHTS) reliability tests. The evaluation results suggest the absence of abnormalities in all samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. A combination drift chamber/pad chamber for very high readout rates

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, L.; Cataldi, G.; Elia, V.; Mazur, P.; Murphy, C.T.; Smith, R.P.; Yang, W.; Alexopoulos, T.; Durandet, C.; Erwin, A.; Jennings, J.; Antoniazzi, L.; Introzzi, G.; Lanza, A.; Liguori, G.; Torre, P. |; Arenton, M.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Dukes, E.; Golovatyuk, V.; Hanlet, P.; McManus, A.; Nelson, K.; Recagni, M.; Segal, J.; Sun, J.; Ballagh, C.; Bingham, H.; Kaeding, T.; Lys, J.; Misawa, S.; Blankman, A.; Borodin, S.; Kononenko, W.; Newcomer, M.; Selove, W.; Trojak, T.; VanBerg, R.; Zhang, S.N.; Block, M.; Corti, G.; LeCompte, T.; Rosen, J.; Yao, T.; Boden, A.; Cline, D.; Ramachandran, S.; Rhoades, J.; Tokar, S.; Budagov, J.; Tsyganov, E.; Cao, Z.L.; He, M.; Wang, C.; Wei, C.; Zhang, N.; Chen, T.Y.; Yao, N.; Clark, K.; Jenkins, M.; Cooper, M.; Creti, P.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Panareo, M. |; Fortney, L.; Kowald, W.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Turnbull, L.; Wagoner, D.; Lau, K.; Mo, G.; Trischuk, J.

    1991-11-01

    Six medium-sized ({approx}1 {times} 2 m{sup 2}) drift chambers with pad and stripe readout have been constructed for and are presently operating in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiment E-771. Each chamber module actually represents a pair of identical planes: two sets of anode wires, two sets of stripes, and two sets of pads. The wire planes are read out separately and represent X measurements in the coordinate system of the experiment. The twin stripe and pad planes are internally paired within the chamber modules; stripe signals represent Y measurements and pad signals combination X and Y measurements. Signals which develop on the stripes and pads are mirror (but inverted) images of what is seen on the wires. In addition to being used in the off-line pattern recognition, pad signals are also used as inputs to an on-line high transverse momentum (pt) trigger processor. While the techniques involved in the design and construction of the chambers are not novel, they may be of interest to experiments contemplating very large area, high rate chambers for future spectrometers.

  1. Sequential activation of ground pads reduces skin heating during radiofrequency tumor ablation: in vivo porcine results.

    PubMed

    Schutt, David J; Swindle, M Michael; Helke, Kristi L; Bastarrika, Gorka; Schwarz, Florian; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    Skin burns below ground pads during monopolar RF ablation are increasingly prevalent, thereby hindering the development of higher power RF generators capable of creating larger tumor ablation zones in combination with multiple or new applicators. Our goal was to evaluate reduction in skin temperatures via additional ground pads in an in vivo porcine model. Three ground pads placed on the animal's abdomen were activated either simultaneously or sequentially, where activation timing was adjusted to equilibrate skin temperature below each pad. Thirteen RF ablations (n = 4 simultaneous at 300 W, n = 5 sequential at 300 W, and n = 4 sequential at 375 W) were performed for 12 min via two internally cooled cluster electrodes placed in the gluteus maximus of domestic swine. Temperature rise at each pad and burn degree as determined via histology were compared. Ablation zone size was determined via T2-weighted MRI. Maximum temperature rise was significantly higher with simultaneous activation than with either of the sequential activation group (21.4 degrees C versus 8.1 degrees C or 9.6 degrees C, p < 0.01). Ablation zone diameters during simultaneous (300 W) and sequential activations (300 and 375 W) were and 6.9 +/- 0.3, 5.6 +/- 0.3, and 7.5 +/- 0.6 cm, respectively. Sequential activation of multiple ground pads results in significantly lower skin temperatures and less severe burns, as measured by histological examination.

  2. First observation on the feasibility of scratch formation by pad-particle mixture in CMP process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, In-Ha; Kim, Hong Jin; Yeo, Chang Dong

    2012-08-01

    Micro-scratch formation on a post-chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wafer surface is one of the critical problems that should be solved for miniaturization and reliability of a semiconductor device. In this study, the mechanism of micro-scratch formation during CMP was investigated through experiments and simulations. When a used pad was utilized in the experiments, it was found that micro-scratches could be generated by the polishing process that was done with DI water and additive only without abrasive particles. In order to analyze these micro-scratches under a used pad process, the change in surface properties of the polishing pad before and after the CMP was investigated using various surface sensitive techniques. In addition, 2-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) of CMP process was performed to verify the experimental results. Especially, the FE model with a particle put inside a pad pore was considered to examine how it plays a role in micro-scratch generation. In summary, the scientific results from experiments and simulations in this study first revealed that the pad-particle mixture could be formed on the pad surface during CMP process, which would be one of the major factors leading to micro-scratch generation.

  3. PAD4 regulates proliferation of multipotent haematopoietic cells by controlling c-myc expression

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Arai, Satoko; Suzuki, Akari; Nariai, Yuko; Urano, Takeshi; Nakayama, Manabu; Ohara, Osamu; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) functions as a transcriptional coregulator by catalyzing the conversion of histone H3 arginine residues to citrulline residues. Although the high level of PAD4 expression in bone marrow cells suggests its involvement in haematopoiesis, its precise contribution remains unclear. Here we show that PAD4, which is highly expressed in lineage− Sca-1+ c-Kit+ (LSK) cells of mouse bone marrow compared with other progenitor cells, controls c-myc expression by catalyzing the citrullination of histone H3 on its promoter. Furthermore, PAD4 is associated with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and histone deacetylase 1 at the upstream region of the c-myc gene. Supporting these findings, LSK cells, especially multipotent progenitors, in PAD4-deficient mice show increased proliferation in a cell-autonomous fashion compared with those in wild-type mice. Together, our results strongly suggest that PAD4 regulates the proliferation of multipotent progenitors in the bone marrow by controlling c-myc expression. PMID:23673621

  4. Removal of mouse ovary fat pad affects sex hormones, folliculogenesis and fertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Hui; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Teng; Guo, Lei; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Hou, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Shen, Wei; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    As a fat storage organ, adipose tissue is distributed widely all over the body and is important for energy supply, body temperature maintenance, organ protection, immune regulation and so on. In humans, both underweight and overweight women find it hard to become pregnant, which suggests that appropriate fat storage can guarantee the female reproductive capacity. In fact, a large mass of adipose tissue distributes around the reproductive system both in the male and female. However, the functions of ovary fat pad (the nearest adipose tissue to ovary) are not known. In our study, we found that the ovary fat pad-removed female mice showed decreased fertility and less ovulated mature eggs. We further identified that only a small proportion of follicles developed to antral follicle, and many follicles were blocked at the secondary follicle stage. The overall secretion levels of estrogen and FSH were lower in the whole estrus cycle (especially at proestrus); however, the LH level was higher in ovary fat pad-removed mice than that in control groups. Moreover, the estrus cycle of ovary fat pad-removed mice showed significant disorder. Besides, the expression of FSH receptor decreased, but the LH receptor increased in ovary fat pad-removed mice. These results suggest that ovary fat pad is important for mouse reproduction.

  5. Experimental studies on the human gait using a tethered pelvic assist device (T-PAD).

    PubMed

    Vashista, Vineet; Mustafa, S K; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a novel tethered pelvic assist device (T-PAD). This is a purely passive device, consisting of a set of elastic tethers with one end attached to a hip brace worn by a subject walking on a treadmill, and the other end attached to a fixed frame surrounding the subject. T-PAD offers the flexibility of varying the assistance required on the pelvis by changing the configuration of the tether attachment locations, number of tethers and tether elasticity. Experimental studies were conducted using a full and a partial pelvic constraint configuration of T-PAD, with varying tether elasticity. The studies were aimed at observing the effect of T-PAD on the human gait. Results show that T-PAD reduced the range-of-motion for the pelvic angles with increase of tether elasticity. However, it had mixed effects on the range-of-motion of the hip angles, but negligible effect on the knee and ankle joint angles. Overall, T-PAD shows potential as a low-cost pelvic support device with pelvic motion control capabilities, and can work in tandem with existing gait trainers.

  6. Neuronal pathways from foot pad afferents to hindlimb motoneurons in the low spinalized cats.

    PubMed

    Wada, N; Kanda, Y; Takayama, R

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were performed on 16 adult spinalized (L2) cats. Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) produced by electrical stimulation of afferent nerves innervating foot pads were recorded from hindlimb motoneurons innervating the following hindlimb muscles: the posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt), anterior biceps and semimembranosus (ABSm), lateral gastrocnemius and soleus (LGS), medial gastrocnemius (MG), plantaris (P1), tibialis anterior (TA), popliteus (Pop), flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus (FDHL) and peroneus longus (Per.l). The rate of occurrence of different types of PSPs (EPSPs, IPSPs and mixed PSPs), the size of the PSPs and their central latencies were analyzed for each group of motoneurons to identify the neural pathways from the afferents innervating foot pads to hindlimb motoneurons. The rates of occurrence of different types of PSPs did not depend on the foot pad stimulated in PBSt, ABSm and LGS motoneurons, but for other groups of motoneurons their rates of occurrence depended on the foot pad stimulated. It was often noted that the size of PSPs in the same motoneurons differed according to the foot pad stimulated. Measurements of the central latencies of the PSPs indicated that the shortest neural pathways for EPSPs and IPSPs were disynaptic (central latencies < 1.8 ms). The functional role of neuronal pathways from afferent nerves innervating foot pads to hindlimb motoneurons could be to maintain stability of the foot during different postural and motor activities.

  7. Evaluation of vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most important stifle injuries and a common cause of lameness in dogs. Our objective was to measure the vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) using a pressure sensitive walkway. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to collect vertical force data from the pads of 10 Pitbulls affected with unilateral CCLR. Ten healthy Pitbulls were included in the study as controls. Velocity varied between 1.3 and 1.6 m/s and acceleration was kept below ± 0.1 m/s2. Differences between groups and between pads in the same limb within groups were investigated using ANOVA and the Tukey test. The paired Student t-test was employed to assess gait symmetry (p < 0.05). Results Peak vertical forces (PVF) were lower in the affected limb, particularly in the metatarsal pad. Increased PVF values in the forelimb and the contralateral hind limb pads of affected dogs suggest a compensatory effect. Conclusions A consistent pattern of vertical force distribution was observed in the pads of dogs with CCLR. These data are important for increased understanding of vertical force distribution in the limb of dogs with CCLR disease. Kinetic analysis using pressure sensitive walkways can be useful in follow-up assessment of surgically treated dogs regardless of the surgical technique employed. PMID:24581287

  8. Power enhancement of piezoelectric transformers by adding thermal pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y. H.; Liu, Y. P.; Vasic, D.; Costa, F.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that power density of piezoelectric transformers is limited by mechanical stress. The power density of piezoelectric transformers calculated by the stress boundary can reach 330 W/cm3. However, no piezoelectric transformer has ever reached such a high power density in practice. The power density of the piezoelectric transformer is limited to 33 W/cm3 typically. This fact implies that there is another physical limitation in piezoelectric transformer. In fact, it is also known that piezoelectric material is constrained by vibration velocity. Once the vibration velocity is too large, the piezoelectric transformer generates heat until it cracks. To explain the instability of piezoelectric transformer, we will first model the relationship between vibration velocity and resulting heat by a physical feedback loop. It will be shown that the vibration velocity as well as the heat generation determines the loop gain. A large vibration velocity and heat may cause the feedback loop to enter into an unstable state. Therefore, to enhance the power capacity of piezoelectric transformer, the heat needs to be dissipated. In this paper, we used commercial thermal pads on the surface of the piezoelectric transformer to dissipate the heat. The mechanical current of piezoelectric transformers can move from 0.382A/2W to 0.972A/9W at a temperature of 55°C experimentally. It implies that the power capacity possibly increases 3 times in the piezoelectric material. Moreover, piezoelectric transformers that are well suited in applications of high voltage/low current becomes also well suited for low voltage/high current power supplies that are widely spread. This technique not only increases the power capacity of the piezoelectric transformer but also allows it to be used in enlarged practical applications. In this paper, the theoretical modeling will be detailed and verified by experiments.

  9. 16 CFR 1632.31 - Mattresses/mattress pads-labeling, recordkeeping, guaranties and “one of a kind” exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section. (b) Labeling. (1) All mattress pads which contain a chemical fire retardant shall be labeled with...) If a mattress pad contains a chemical fire retardant, it shall be prominently, conspicuously, and... of any flame retardant treatments employed relative to mattress pads or mattress pad components....

  10. 16 CFR 1632.31 - Mattresses/mattress pads-labeling, recordkeeping, guaranties and “one of a kind” exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section. (b) Labeling. (1) All mattress pads which contain a chemical fire retardant shall be labeled with...) If a mattress pad contains a chemical fire retardant, it shall be prominently, conspicuously, and... of any flame retardant treatments employed relative to mattress pads or mattress pad components....

  11. Sediment Flux from Stratigraphy: Insights from <1 Ma to >300 Ma Sedimentary Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romans, B.; Mason, C. C.; Eriksson, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tectonic or climate signals that originate in net-erosional catchments are transmitted down-system as sediment. The accumulation of that sediment in net-depositional regions and preservation as stratigraphy can be accessed and used to reconstruct signal generation and propagation. Studies of modern to <20 ka sedimentary systems suggest that signal propagation (or lack thereof) is, in part, controlled by the size, relief, and other morphologic characteristics of sediment-production segments. Thus, it's critical to measure, estimate, or infer aspects of the feeder catchment when reconstructing system behavior from sedimentary deposits. Here, we present results from two studies aimed at determining paleo-sediment flux from stratigraphic archives. The first study uses outcropping middle Pleistocene (~0.6 Ma) alluvial-fan deposits in the Panamint Mountains, California, to investigate the relationship of sediment supply to stratigraphic architecture in a small catchment-fan system. The youth of this system allows us to estimate fan volumes from facies architecture and depositional system dimensions based on catchment-area to fan-area relationships of nearby modern systems. These data, combined with preliminary cosmogenic radionuclide-derived paleo-denudation rates, provide an opportunity to examine the nature of erosional signal propagation. The second study examines much older, Upper Mississippian (~325 Ma), fluvial and deltaic strata. Absolute chronologic tools to calculate centennial-millennial rates in deep-time sedimentary archives do not yet exist. Here, we use the extraordinary tidal rhythmite deposits of the Pride Shale in the Appalachian Basin as a high-resolution chronometer to constrain the duration of basin filling. We then use the scale of fluvial channel bodies in the underlying and overlying units combined with climate-specific empirical relationships derived from modern systems to estimate the size of the paleo-catchment. The resultant estimates of

  12. Kinetics of Cyclic Oxidation and Cracking and Finite Element Analysis of MA956 and Sapphire/MA956 Composite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    Sapphire fiber-reinforced MA956 composites hold promise for significant weight savings and increased high-temperature structural capability, as compared to unreinforced MA956. As part of an overall assessment of the high-temperature characteristics of this material system, cyclic oxidation behavior was studied at 1093 C and 1204 C. Initially, both sets of coupons exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics. Later, monolithic MA956 exhibited spallation and a linear weight loss, whereas the composite showed a linear weight gain without spallation. Weight loss of the monolithic MA956 resulted from the linking of a multiplicity of randomly oriented and closely spaced surface cracks that facilitated ready spallation. By contrast, cracking of the composite's oxide layer was nonintersecting and aligned nominally parallel with the orientation of the subsurface reinforcing fibers. Oxidative lifetime of monolithic MA956 was projected from the observed oxidation kinetics. Linear elastic, finite element continuum, and micromechanics analyses were performed on coupons of the monolithic and composite materials. Results of the analyses qualitatively agreed well with the observed oxide cracking and spallation behavior of both the MA956 and the Sapphire/MA956 composite coupons.

  13. RadNet Air Data From Worcester, MA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Worcester, MA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  14. RadNet Air Data From Boston, MA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Boston, MA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. HoCaMA: Home Care Hybrid Multiagent Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile, Juan A.; Bajo, Javier; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Juan M.

    Home Care is one of the main objectives of Ambient Intelligence. Nowadays, the disabled and elderly population, which represents a significant part of our society, requires novel solutions for providing home care in an effective way. In this chapter, we present HoCaMA, a hybrid multiagent architecture that facilitates remote monitoring and care services for disabled patients at their homes. HoCaMA combines multiagent systems and Web services to facilitate the communication and integration with multiple health care systems. In addition, HoCaMA focuses on the design of reactive agents capable of interacting with different sensors present in the environment, and incorporates a system of alerts through SMS and MMS mobile technologies. Finally, it uses Radio Frequency IDentification and JavaCard technologies to provide advanced location and identification systems, as well as automatic access control facilities. HoCaMA has been implemented in a real environment and the results obtained are presented within this chapter.

  16. Sequential activation of a segmented ground pad reduces skin heating during radiofrequency tumor ablation: optimization via computational models.

    PubMed

    Schutt, David J; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become an accepted treatment modality for unresectable tumors. The need for larger ablation zones has resulted in increased RF generator power. Skin burns due to ground pad heating are increasingly limiting further increases in generator power, and thus, ablation zone size. We investigated a method for reducing ground pad heating in which a commercial ground pad is segmented into multiple ground electrodes, with sequential activation of ground electrode subsets. We created finite-element method computer models of a commercial ground pad (14 x 23 cm) and compared normal operation of a standard pad to sequential activation of a segmented pad (two to five separate ground electrode segments). A constant current of 1 A was applied for 12 min in all simulations. Time periods during sequential activation simulations were adjusted to keep the leading edge temperatures at each ground electrode equal. The maximum temperature using standard activation of the commercial pad was 41.7 degrees C. For sequential activation of a segmented pad, the maximum temperature ranged from 39.3 degrees C (five segments) to 40.9 degrees C (two segments). Sequential activation of a segmented ground pad resulted in lower tissue temperatures. This method may reduce the incidence of ground pad burns and enable the use of higher power generators during RF tumor ablation.

  17. Sequential Activation of a Segmented Ground Pad Reduces Skin Heating During Radiofrequency Tumor Ablation: Optimization via Computational Models

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, David J.; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become an accepted treatment modality for unresectable tumors. The need for larger ablation zones has resulted in increased RF generator power. Skin burns due to ground pad heating are increasingly limiting further increases in generator power, and thus, ablation zone size. We investigated a method for reducing ground pad heating in which a commercial ground pad is segmented into multiple ground electrodes, with sequential activation of ground electrode subsets. We created finite-element method computer models of a commercial ground pad (14 × 23 cm) and compared normal operation of a standard pad to sequential activation of a segmented pad (two to five separate ground electrode segments). A constant current of 1 A was applied for 12 min in all simulations. Time periods during sequential activation simulations were adjusted to keep the leading edge temperatures at each ground electrode equal. The maximum temperature using standard activation of the commercial pad was 41.7 °C. For sequential activation of a segmented pad, the maximum temperature ranged from 39.3 °C (five segments) to 40.9 °C (two segments). Sequential activation of a segmented ground pad resulted in lower tissue temperatures. This method may reduce the incidence of ground pad burns and enable the use of higher power generators during RF tumor ablation. PMID:18595807

  18. The banana fruit Dof transcription factor MaDof23 acts as a repressor and interacts with MaERF9 in regulating ripening-related genes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bi-hong; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fan, Zhong-qi; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-04-01

    The DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, are involved in a variety of plant biological processes. However, little information is available on their involvement in fruit ripening. We have characterized 25 MaDof genes from banana fruit (Musa acuminata), designated as MaDof1-MaDof25 Gene expression analysis in fruit subjected to different ripening conditions revealed that MaDofs were differentially expressed during different stages of ripening. MaDof10, 23, 24, and 25 were ethylene-inducible and nuclear-localized, and their transcript levels increased during fruit ripening. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses demonstrated a physical interaction between MaDof23 and MaERF9, a potential regulator of fruit ripening reported in a previous study. We determined that MaDof23 is a transcriptional repressor, whereas MaERF9 is a transcriptional activator. We suggest that they might act antagonistically in regulating 10 ripening-related genes, including MaEXP1/2/3/5, MaXET7, MaPG1, MaPME3, MaPL2, MaCAT, and MaPDC, which are associated with cell wall degradation and aroma formation. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulation network controlling banana fruit ripening.

  19. The banana fruit Dof transcription factor MaDof23 acts as a repressor and interacts with MaERF9 in regulating ripening-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bi-hong; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fan, Zhong-qi; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-01-01

    The DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, a family of plant-specific transcription factors, are involved in a variety of plant biological processes. However, little information is available on their involvement in fruit ripening. We have characterized 25 MaDof genes from banana fruit (Musa acuminata), designated as MaDof1–MaDof25. Gene expression analysis in fruit subjected to different ripening conditions revealed that MaDofs were differentially expressed during different stages of ripening. MaDof10, 23, 24, and 25 were ethylene-inducible and nuclear-localized, and their transcript levels increased during fruit ripening. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses demonstrated a physical interaction between MaDof23 and MaERF9, a potential regulator of fruit ripening reported in a previous study. We determined that MaDof23 is a transcriptional repressor, whereas MaERF9 is a transcriptional activator. We suggest that they might act antagonistically in regulating 10 ripening-related genes, including MaEXP1/2/3/5, MaXET7, MaPG1, MaPME3, MaPL2, MaCAT, and MaPDC, which are associated with cell wall degradation and aroma formation. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulation network controlling banana fruit ripening. PMID:26889012

  20. High-Permittivity Thin Dielectric Padding Improves Fresh Blood Imaging of Femoral Arteries at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, Marc D; Kim, Daniel; Morrell, Glen; Heilbrun, Marta E; Storey, Pippa; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Lee, Vivian S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fresh blood imaging (FBI) is a useful non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) method for assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), particularly in patients with poor renal function. Compared with 1.5T, 3T enables higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and/or spatio-temporal resolution in FBI, as demonstrated successfully for the calf station. However, FBI of the thigh station at 3T has been reported to suffer from signal void in the common femoral artery of one thigh only due to the radial symmetry in transmit radio-frequency field (B1+) variation. We sought to increase the femoral arterial signal attenuated by B1+ variation in FBI at 3T using high permittivity dielectric padding. Materials and Methods We performed FBI of the thigh station in 13 human subjects at 3T to compare the following 3 settings: no padding, commercially available thick (~ 5 cm) dielectric padding, and high-permittivity thin (~2 cm) dielectric padding. B1+ mapping was also performed in the common femoral arteries to characterize the radial symmetry in B1+ variation and quantify the improvement in B1+ excitation. We characterized the impact of radial symmetry in B1+ variation on the FBI signal and FBI MRA of the right common femoral artery using quantitative (i.e., contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) and qualitative (i.e., conspicuity) analyses. Results The radial symmetry in B1+ variation attenuates signal in the right common femoral artery, which can be partially improved with commercial padding and improved further with high permittivity padding. Averaging the results over 13 subjects, the B1+, CNR and conspicuity scores in the right common femoral artery were significantly better with high-permittivity padding than with commercial padding and baseline (p<0.001). Conclusions Our study shows that high-permittivity dielectric padding can be used to increase the femoral arterial signal attenuated by B1+ variation in FBI at 3T. PMID:25329606

  1. Nanoabrasives retention and removal mechanisms in polyurethane pads for copper CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul-Hasan, Iftikhar

    The continued reduction in integrated circuit (IC) feature size requires similar reductions in surface defectivity. A key source of surface defects in IC fabrication processes stems from nanoabrasives used in chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) processing. During CMP processing, polished surfaces are more vulnerable to defects including scratching, nanoabrasive particle adhesion and nanoabrasive agglomerate adhesion. The removal of these nano-sized particles is a priority for the IC fabrication industry and is reflected in the 2008 ITRS defect budget. However, there is insufficient technical understanding regarding the retention of residual nanoabrasives on the surfaces of the CMP pad following a CMP process and how they can be removed. Particularly, there are no systematic quantitative studies regarding nanoabrasive transport - specifically, nanoabrasive retention, agglomeration and removal mechanisms at pad surfaces (including micro-pores and asperities) that have been exposed (or not exposed) to polishing. In this dissertation research regarding the residual nanoabrasive transport in IC1000/SubaIV polyurethane pads following a Cu CMP process is presented. Removal mechanisms of residual nanoabrasive resident at CMP pad pores and asperities via a diamond pad conditioning disk is investigated for a range of conditioning parameters, nanoabrasive particles, and slurry formulations. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of nanoabrasive retention was carried out via conventional and environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ESEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and SEM-based energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). To quantitatively describe the spectroscopic nanoabrasive retention data a semi-empirical model was developed. Quantitative spectroscopic and microscopic analyses on IC1000 CMP pads revealed considerable CMP slurry nanoabrasive retention at pad asperities and open pores that contacted the wafer during Cu CMP. Some of this residual

  2. 42 CFR 422.455 - Special rules for MA Regional Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., especially those residing in rural areas. (4) Market survey and analysis. Before establishing MA regions, CMS....455 Special rules for MA Regional Plans. (a) Coverage of entire MA region. The service area for an MA regional plan will consist of an entire MA region established under paragraph (b) of this section, and...

  3. 42 CFR 422.62 - Election of coverage under an MA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 422.62 Election of coverage under an MA plan. (a) General: Coverage election periods—(1) Initial... enrolled in an MA-PD plan may elect another MA-PD plan or original Medicare and coverage under a PDP. Such... individual may not elect an MA-PD plan or coverage under a PDP. (ii) Newly eligible MA individual....

  4. 42 CFR 422.50 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Eligibility to elect an MA plan. For this subpart, all references to an MA plan include MA-PD and both MA... individual is eligible to elect an MA plan if he or she— (1) Is entitled to Medicare under Part A...

  5. MaRIE theory, modeling and computation roadmap executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lookman, Turab

    2010-01-01

    The confluence of MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extreme) and extreme (exascale) computing timelines offers a unique opportunity in co-designing the elements of materials discovery, with theory and high performance computing, itself co-designed by constrained optimization of hardware and software, and experiments. MaRIE's theory, modeling, and computation (TMC) roadmap efforts have paralleled 'MaRIE First Experiments' science activities in the areas of materials dynamics, irradiated materials and complex functional materials in extreme conditions. The documents that follow this executive summary describe in detail for each of these areas the current state of the art, the gaps that exist and the road map to MaRIE and beyond. Here we integrate the various elements to articulate an overarching theme related to the role and consequences of heterogeneities which manifest as competing states in a complex energy landscape. MaRIE experiments will locate, measure and follow the dynamical evolution of these heterogeneities. Our TMC vision spans the various pillar science and highlights the key theoretical and experimental challenges. We also present a theory, modeling and computation roadmap of the path to and beyond MaRIE in each of the science areas.

  6. Increase in physical activities in kindergarten children with cerebral palsy by employing MaKey-MaKey-based task systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we employed Flash- and Scratch-based multimedia by using a MaKey-MaKey-based task system to increase the motivation level of children with cerebral palsy to perform physical activities. MaKey MaKey is a circuit board that converts physical touch to a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer as a keyboard message. In this study, we used conductive materials to control this interaction. This study followed single-case design using ABAB models in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated the intervention. The experiment period comprised 1 month and a half. The experimental results demonstrated that in the case of two kindergarten children with cerebral palsy, their scores were considerably increased during the intervention phrases. The developmental applications of the results are also discussed.

  7. Analysis of the March 30, 2011 Hail Event at Shuttle Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Doesken, Nolan J.; Kasparis, Takis C.; Sharp, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Hail Monitor System, a joint effort of the NASA KSC Physics Lab and the KSC Engineering Services Contract (ESC) Applied Technology Lab, was first deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) in conjunction with Colorado State University have been instrumental in validation testing using duplicate hail monitor systems at sites in the hail prone high plains of Colorado. The KSC Hail Monitor System (HMS), consisting of three stations positioned approximately 500 ft from the launch pad and forming an approximate equilateral triangle, as shown in Figure 1, was first deployed to Pad 39B for support of STS-115. Two months later, the HMS was deployed to Pad 39A for support of STS-116. During support of STS-117 in late February 2007, an unusually intense (for Florida standards) hail event occurred in the immediate vicinity of the exposed space shuttle and launch pad. Hail data of this event was collected by the HMS and analyzed. Support of STS-118 revealed another important application of the hail monitor system. Ground Instrumentation personnel check the hail monitors daily when a vehicle is on the launch pad, with special attention after any storm suspected of containing hail. If no hail is recorded by the HMS, the vehicle and pad inspection team has no need to conduct a thorough inspection of the vehicle immediately following a storm. On the afternoon of July 13, 2007, hail on the ground was reported by observers at the Vertical Assembly Building (VAB) and Launch Control Center (LCC), about three miles west of Pad 39A, as well as at several other locations at KSC. The HMS showed no impact detections, indicating that the shuttle had not been damaged by any of the numerous hail events which occurred on that day.

  8. Human Tissue-Temperature Rise During Ultrasound Treatments With the Aquaflex Gel Pad.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Sunnee; Draper, David O.; Knight, Kenneth L.; Brent Feland, J; Eggett, Dennis

    2004-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure tissue-temperature rise in the lateral aspect of the ankle during 10-minute ultrasound treatments with ultrasound gel (gel), a gel pad with a thin layer of ultrasound gel on the top (gel/pad), and a gel pad with a thin layer of ultrasound gel on the top and the bottom coated with ultrasound gel (gel/pad/gel). DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a 1 x 3 repeated-measures, crossover design. The dependent variables were tissue-temperature change and time to peak temperature. The independent variable was the type of ultrasound coupling medium. Treatment orders were randomly assigned, and all possible orders were assigned 3 times. A thermocouple was inserted through a 32-mm catheter at a depth of 1 cm into the target-tissue space, the posterior lateral aspect of the left ankle, halfway between the lateral malleolus and the Achilles tendon. Each treatment consisted of ultrasound delivered topically at 1 W/cm(2), 3 MHz, in the continuous mode for 10 minutes. SUBJECTS: Eighteen healthy, college-aged student volunteers (13 women, 5 men), with no history of ankle injury in the previous 6 months. MEASUREMENTS: Intratissue temperature, measured every 30 seconds for 10 minutes. RESULTS: Intratissue temperature increases during the 10-minute treatments were significantly greater for the ultrasound gel (7.72 degrees C +/- 0.52 degrees C) and the gel/pad/gel (6.68 degrees C +/- 0.52 degrees C) than for the gel/pad (4.98 degrees C +/- 0.52 degrees C). CONCLUSIONS: When ultrasound is applied over bony prominences, a gel pad should be covered with ultrasound gel on both sides to ensure optimal heating.

  9. Receptive Field Properties of the Macaque Second Somatosensory Cortex: Representation of Orientation on Different Finger Pads

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Lane, John W.; Thakur, Pramodsingh H.; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    Orientation tuning has been studied extensively in the visual system, but little is known about it in the somatosensory system. Here we investigate tuning in the second somatosensory (SII) region using a motorized stimulator that presented a small oriented bar to the 12 finger pads of digits 2–5 (D2–D5) of the macaque monkey. A subset (23%; n = 218) of the 928 SII region neurons [the same 928 neurons studied by Fitzgerald et al. (2004, 2006)] exhibited tuning, and most of these were tuned on one or two finger pads. All eight 22.5° separated orientations were represented as the preferred orientation of multiple neurons, although not necessarily in equal numbers. A measure of bandwidth indicated that tuning in the SII region is sharp and is similar to the tuning observed in visual cortical areas. In addition, two-dimensional Gaussians that were fit to the tuning curves had very high r2 values, indicating that most tuning curves are both unimodal and symmetrical with respect to their preferred orientation. Most tuned neurons had additional untuned pads, although the responsiveness of these pads tended to be less than the responsiveness of tuned pads. Neurons with multiple tuned pads tended to have similar preferred orientations on their tuned pads, which can be interpreted as evidence for integration of information across fingers or as a form of positional invariance. Finally, comparison of the tuning properties showed that there are small but significant differences between the posterior, central, and anterior fields of the SII region. PMID:16775135

  10. The Effect of Rotor Disc Material on Tribo Behavior of Automotive Brake Pad Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, K. W.; El-Tayeb, N. S. M.

    This work aims to investigate the effect of two different counterdisc materials, i.e. gray cast iron (GCI) and ductile gray cast iron (DGCI) on tribo behavior of non-commercial frictional materials (NF1, NF2, NF4, and NF5) and two other chosen commercial brake pads (CMA and CMB) under dry sliding contact conditions. The four non-commercial frictional materials were fabricated with various percentages of phenolic binder resin (15 and 20 vol.%) and reinforced with steel fibers (15 and 20 vol.%) using hot press molding methods. Tribo tests were carried out using a small-scale tribo-tester of pad-on-disc type. Friction coefficient and wear of non-commercial and commercial brake pads were measured against each counterdisc (GCI and DGCI) and compared. Then, the friction and wear characteristic are discussed by comparing the experimental results obtained for each kind of cast iron. The results showed that maximum friction coefficient (0.4-0.5) of brake pad was attained at 2.22 MPa applied pressure and 2.1 m/s sliding speed when the frictional brake pad materials were tested against DGCI disc rotor. Meanwhile, similar wear rates for all frictional brake pad materials were sustained at higher applied pressure and sliding speed when tested against either type of rotor discs (GCI and DGCI). The results on the other hand, indicated that non-commercial materials NF1 and NF4, gave better wear resistance compared to other frictional pad materials. NF2 exhibited the lowest wear resistance when tested against GCI and DGCI rotor disc at all applied pressure and sliding speeds. The latter result is referred to the low percentage binder resin in the friction material NF2.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight

  12. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Designed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. NASA is working to deliver this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact that has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, the path it is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after 2021. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen that combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new developments that will evolve the launch vehicle's capabilities. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved 130 t Block 2 vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware, to life

  13. X-33 by Lockheed Martin on Launch Pad - Computer Graphic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This is an artist's conception of the X-33 technology demonstrator on its launch pad, ready for lift-off into orbit. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33, which was a technology demonstrator vehicle for a possible Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that would improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increase reliability and lowered costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven

  14. 75 FR 38128 - Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known..., 2010, applicable to workers of Sansata Technologies MA, Incorporated, Power Controls Division, formerly... under the control of the Cambridge, Maryland location of Sensata Technologies MA, Incorporated,...

  15. 42 CFR 422.322 - Source of payment and effect of MA plan election on payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... payments. (1) Payments under this subpart for original fee-for-service benefits to MA organizations or MA... the Act. (2) Payments to MA-PD organizations for statutory drug benefits provided under this title...

  16. 42 CFR 422.322 - Source of payment and effect of MA plan election on payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payments. (1) Payments under this subpart for original fee-for-service benefits to MA organizations or MA... the Act. (2) Payments to MA-PD organizations for statutory drug benefits provided under this title...

  17. iPads at Field Camp: A First Test of the Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, S. D.; Stewart, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    An iPad 2 was given to approximately half of the University of Illinois students attending the Wasatch-Uinta Field Camp (WUFC) in summer 2011. The iPads were provisioned with orientation measuring, mapping and location software. The software would automatically transfer an orientation measurement to the current location on the Google Maps application, and was able to output a full list of orientation data. Students also had normal access to more traditional mapping tools such as Brunton compasses and GPS units and were required to map with these tools along with other students of WUFC not provided iPads. Compared to traditional tools, iPads have drawbacks such as increased weight, break-ability, need for power source and wireless connectivity; in sum, they need a substantial infrastructure that reduces range, availability, and probably most importantly, convenience. Some of these drawbacks inhibited adoption by our students, the primary reasons being the added weight and the inability to map directly to a GIS application with detailed topographic maps equivalent to the physical topographic map sheets used at WUFC. In their favor, the iPads combine a host of tools into one, including software that can measure orientation in a fashion more intuitively than a Brunton. They also allow storage, editing and analysis of data, notes (spoken and/or written) and potentially unlimited access to a variety of maps. Via a post-field camp survey of the University of Illinois students at WUFC, we have identified some of the important issues that need to be addressed before portable tablets like the iPad become the tool of choice for general field work. Some problems are intrinsic to almost any advanced technology, some are artifacts of the current generations of hardware and software available for these devices. Technical drawbacks aside, the adoption of iPads was further inhibited primarily by inexperience with their use as a mapping tool and secondarily by their redundancy with

  18. Sex Differences in the Incidence of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Grace J.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Anderson, Amanda H.; Xie, Dawei; Wang, Xue; Nessel, Lisa C.; Mohler, Emile R.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Chen, Jing; Wright, Jackson; Taliercio, Jonathan J.; Ojo, Akinlolu; C.Ricardo, Ana; Lustigova, Eva; Fairman, Ronald M.; Feldman, Harold I.; Ky, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Background To define how the incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) differs according to sex and age. Methods and Results The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) is a multi-center, prospective cohort study of CKD participants. Fine and Gray methods were used to determine the cumulative incidence of PAD, defined by an ankle brachial index (ABI) < 0.90 or a confirmed PAD event, with death as a competing event. Adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios from the Fine and Gray model determined the risk of PAD according to sex. A priori, we hypothesized that the relationship between sex and cumulative incidence of PAD differed according to age. The mean age of the 3,174 participants in this study was 56.6 years and consisted of 55% males. Over a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 17.8% developed PAD, 13.0% were lost to followup and 11.1% died. Females had a 1.53-fold greater adjusted PAD risk compared to men (95% CI 1.27-1.84, p<0.001). These sex-related differences in PAD risk also differed by age (p=0.013). Women, compared to men, were at a markedly increased risk for PAD at younger ages; however, at ages greater than 70 years, the risk was similar across both sexes. Older men had a substantially greater PAD risk compared to younger men. In women, PAD risk did not vary with age. Conclusions Females with CKD have a higher PAD risk compared to males at younger ages. There is an important need to improve our understanding of the biological and clinical basis for these differences. PMID:26908866

  19. Do the Effects of Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in PAD Patients Differ from Other Atherosclerotic Disease?

    PubMed

    Poredos, Pavel; Jezovnik, Mateja Kaja

    2015-06-25

    Atherosclerosis is considered a generalized disease. Similar or identical etiopathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors are involved in various atherosclerotic diseases, and the positive effects of preventive measures on atherogenesis in different parts of the arterial system were shown. However, until know, great emphasis has been placed on the aggressive pharmacological management of coronary artery disease (CHD), while less attention has been devoted to the management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), despite its significant morbidity and mortality. Data on the efficacy of preventive measures in PAD patients have mostly been gained from subgroup analyses from studies devoted primarily to the management of coronary patients. These data have shown that treatment of risk factors for atherosclerosis with drugs can reduce cardiovascular events also in patients with PAD. The effects of some preventive procedures in PAD patients differ from coronary patients. Aspirin as a basic antiplatelet drug has been shown to be less effective in PAD patients than in coronary patients. The latest Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration (ATC) meta-analysis demonstrates no benefit of aspirin in reducing cardiovascular events in PAD. Statins reduce cardiovascular events in all three of the most frequently presented cardiovascular diseases, including PAD to a comparable extent. Recent studies indicate that in PAD patients, in addition to a reduction in cardiovascular events, statins may have some hemodynamic effects. They prolong walking distance and improve quality of life. Similarly, angiotensin enzyme inhibitors are also effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events in coronary, cerebrovascular, as well as PAD patients and show positive effects on the walking capacity of patients with intermittent claudication. In PAD patients, the treatment of hypertension and diabetes also effectively prevents cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As PAD patients are at a highest risk

  20. A mathematical method for quantifying in vivo mechanical behaviour of heel pad under dynamic load.

    PubMed

    Naemi, Roozbeh; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis E; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical behaviour of the heel pad, as a shock attenuating interface during a foot strike, determines the loading on the musculoskeletal system during walking. The mathematical models that describe the force deformation relationship of the heel pad structure can determine the mechanical behaviour of heel pad under load. Hence, the purpose of this study was to propose a method of quantifying the heel pad stress-strain relationship using force-deformation data from an indentation test. The energy input and energy returned densities were calculated by numerically integrating the area below the stress-strain curve during loading and unloading, respectively. Elastic energy and energy absorbed densities were calculated as the sum of and the difference between energy input and energy returned densities, respectively. By fitting the energy function, derived from a nonlinear viscoelastic model, to the energy density-strain data, the elastic and viscous model parameters were quantified. The viscous and elastic exponent model parameters were significantly correlated with maximum strain, indicating the need to perform indentation tests at realistic maximum strains relevant to walking. The proposed method showed to be able to differentiate between the elastic and viscous components of the heel pad response to loading and to allow quantifying the corresponding stress-strain model parameters.